# daly/axiom

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 FAQ 0: How do I use Axiom? FAQ 1: X11 libraries not found FAQ 2: axiom.sty is not found FAQ 3: make hangs FAQ 4: noweb needs to be rebuilt FAQ 5: lisp needs to be rebuilt FAQ 6: The interpreter is badly broken FAQ 7: The wrong version of GCL was used FAQ 8: Parallel make (i.e. make -j) fails FAQ 9: GCL does not build on my system: libbfd.a and bfd.a are missing FAQ 10: The axiom.input file is ignored FAQ 11: How do I add a new pamphlet file FAQ 12: The axiom command fails. FAQ 13: How can I create and access Lisp functions from Axiom? FAQ 14: It still doesn't work FAQ 15: How can I see what the interpreter is trying to do? FAQ 16: How can I record console output? FAQ 17: Graphics don't work or sman fails to start ? FAQ 18: How can the user use the batch mode? FAQ 19: How can I get equations written on one line? FAQ 20: Axiom hangs when graphics should be displayed. FAQ 21: How should I get my AXIOM shell variable and why? FAQ 22: How do I check out the latest sources? FAQ 23: How do I patch a file? FAQ 24: What is the purpose of the domain HACKPI? FAQ 25: Can I create or edit hypertex pages? FAQ 26: How can I compile spad files on windows? FAQ 27: Why can't I input text into the hypertex browser boxes? FAQ 28: Graphics does not work inside TeXmacs? FAQ 29: Where can I get help online? FAQ 30: How can I file a bug report? FAQ 31: How can I find out if this is a known bug FAQ 32: How can I input an equation as a string? FAQ 33: How can I run hypertex standalone? FAQ 34: How can I find out about a domain? FAQ 35: Why do .axiom.input defined functions fail in axiom? FAQ 36: Axiom won't build on FC3 FAQ 37: Axiom won't build on FC4 or FC5 FAQ 38: How can I debug algebra code? FAQ 39: How can I access lisp code from the Axiom command line? FAQ 40: Text entry fails in the hypertex browser window FAQ 41: How can I work in lisp from Axiom? FAQ 42: How can I output equations as lisp s-expressions? FAQ 43: Is Axiom's License compatible with the GPL? FAQ 44: I don't have the math fonts FAQ 45: Axiom copyright information FAQ 46: Axiom trademark information FAQ 47: Axiom won't build on Fedora 9 (SELinux) FAQ 48: Getting Axiom sources from git FAQ 49: How do I get the lastest GCL? FAQ 50: Cannot find libXpm.a FAQ 51: How can I do unicode in xterm? FAQ 52: Who was User? FAQ 53: Axiom won't build on Fedora =================================================================== FAQ 0: How do I use Axiom? =================================================================== Look at the online book. It is automatically built during the 'make'. However, you can also do make book Either way, it will show up in (yourpath)/axiom/mnt/linux/doc/book.dvi =================================================================== FAQ 1: X11 libraries not found =================================================================== You need to have Xlib.h to build the graphics. If you are building on a RedHat 8 system you need to install the following RPM: rpm -i XFree86-devel-4.2.0-72.i386.rpm On Debian GNU/Linux, the package 'xlibs-dev' is needed. On Fedora 9: yum install xorg-x11-proto-devel rpm -i --nodeps libXt-devel-1.0.4-5.fc9.i386.rpm (for Intrinsics.h) =================================================================== FAQ 2: axiom.sty is not found =================================================================== The build of noweb creates 3 files in the mnt/linux/bin directory: notangle, noweave, and tex/axiom.sty. The build of the src/scripts directory copies the document command to the mnt/linux/bin directory. These four files are necessary to rebuild a Makefile. These can be recreated in a clean system by typing: make start =================================================================== FAQ 3: make hangs =================================================================== A pamphlet file was modified and has a syntax error. The document command has its output redirected to a file called obj/linux/tmp/trace. Latex has found the syntax error and put up a prompt which stops the make. Look in this file for the error. You can also see the error by rerunning make thus: make NOISE= which will override the redirection and allow the latex output to go to the console. If the make hangs during the test cases check to see if it occurs while trying to run graphics. If Axiom does not have permission from the X server to open a window then it will hang. Try 'xhost +' =================================================================== FAQ 4: noweb needs to be rebuilt =================================================================== The first time noweb is built a dummy file called noweb is written into the top level directory. If this file is removed noweb will be rebuilt. The following sequence should work: rm noweb make noweb =================================================================== FAQ 5: lisp needs to be rebuilt =================================================================== The first time lisp is built a dummy file called gcldir is written into the top level directory. If this file is removed lisp will be rebuilt. The following sequence should work: rm lsp/gcldir make =================================================================== FAQ 6: The interpreter is badly broken =================================================================== If you look in src/interp/Makefile.pamphlet you'll see a stanza that is marked debugsys. You can add ${DEBUGSYS} to the "all" stanza, make the system and run debugsys. This is a copy of the interpsys image except that all of the files are interpreted. Note that you will have to edit src/interp/debugsys.lisp.pamphlet. Read the comments there. At this point you are able to do deep system internal debugging (which pretty much assumes you know how to navigate the underground caves in the dark without fear of dragons. If you can play the game at this level send axiom-developer@nongnu.org a note and we'll inscribe your name on a log and throw it on the fire.) The basic steps, which assumes that your axiom sources live under tmp/axiom 0) cd /tmp/axiom 1) modify the line in src/interp/Makefile.pamphlet that reads: all:${SAVESYS} ${DOCFILES} #${DEBUGSYS} to read: all: ${SAVESYS}${DOCFILES} ${DEBUGSYS} 2) set up the standard AXIOM shell variable export AXIOM=/tmp/axiom/src/interp 3) set up the standard PATH variable export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH 4) build the system, including debugsys.lisp make 5) tell debugsys where to find the databases export DAASE=$AXIOM 6) tell debugsys which platform you are on export SYS=linux 7) start a clean lisp image obj/linux/bin/lisp 8) load the debugsys code which loads the axiom system interpreted (load "/tmp/axiom/int/interp/debugsys.lisp") 9) switch to the package the interpreter uses (in-package "BOOT") 10) start the system (restart) and you now have a running Axiom that uses interpreted rather than compiled code. This makes finding errors easier. =================================================================== FAQ 7: The wrong version of GCL was used =================================================================== If you are building a version of Axiom on GCL there are several tested versions. The first is GCL-2.4.1 which is an version 1 Common Lisp. GCL-2.5 is a version 2 Common Lisp. There is a shell variable called GCLVERSION that must be changed to choose the version. Be sure it is set to either gcl-2.4.1, gcl-2.5 gcl-2.5.2, or gcl-2.6.1 as these are the only known-good versions of GCL for Axiom. =================================================================== FAQ 8: Parallel make (i.e. make -j) fails =================================================================== This is a complex issue. In theory, in order to build the algebra files we have a whole graph of constraints between the algebra files. In order to bootstrap the algebra the whole graph of algebra files need to be built in a particular order to ensure that the required files exist. This would argue for including the constraint as part of the makefile stanzas. However, once the algebra is bootstrapped these constraints are checked at compile and runtime so it is possible to recompile an algebra file without compiling the files it depends upon. If we decided to include the constraints on each stanza then we gain the benefit that "make -j" works. However, if we later change a single algebra file it may trigger a rebuild of the entire algebra library unnecessarily. Since bootstrap happens only once but algebra compiles happen often it was decided to elide the constraints. This will cause "make -j" to fail on initial build but vastly improve later builds. =================================================================== FAQ 9: GCL does not build on my system: libbfd.a and bfd.a are missing =================================================================== We are using the option \texttt{--enable-statsysbfd} when building GCL (see lsp/Makefile) so libbfd.a and bfd.h files are necessary on your system. On Debian GNU/Linux, the needed package is 'binutils-dev'. =================================================================== FAQ 10: The axiom.input file is ignored =================================================================== The standard startup file, "axiom.input", has been renamed to ".axiom.input" to follow convention. This is an incompatible change. On unix-style systems a filename that begins with a period is not normally printed in a directory listing. This keeps the user's home directory from being cluttered up by initialization files. =================================================================== FAQ 11: How do I add a new pamphlet file =================================================================== Pamphlet files are the only file format used by Axiom at the source level. There are several steps to adding a new file to ensure that Axiom will build it properly. First, you have to decide where it should reside. Almost all files reside under the src subdirectory. Never put anything into lsp, int, obj, or mnt as these will be destroyed by "make clean". Assume you add a file that extends the interpreter and will go into the src/interp] subdirectory. You must modify the src/interp/Makefile.pamphlet to correctly build the file. You must also modify src/doc/axiom.bib.pamphlet to include the file. Axiom uses bibtex to cross-reference the various pamphlet files. The normal method of citing a file involves just using the name, for example \cite{asq.c} will build a citation to the ./src/etc/asq.c.pamphlet file. You must include the following two lines in your pamphlet file: \bibliographystyle{plain} \bibliography{axiom} =================================================================== FAQ 12: The axiom command fails. =================================================================== This is likely one of two problems. Axiom uses clef as its command line editor. This has functionality similar to GNU Readline but was written independently. The axiom command uses: clef -e $AXIOM/bin/AXIOMsys Clef attempts to create new terminals and this might fail. The first thing to check is the permission bits on /dev/pty. Next it is possible to run the axiom image, called AXIOMsys, directly. Just type AXIOMsys. It won't have command recall or command line editing but everything else is there. =================================================================== FAQ 13: How can I create and access Lisp functions from Axiom? =================================================================== SExpression is the domain that handles raw lisp objects. It is possible to create SExpression elements directly contruction: m:=[1::SEX, 2::SEX] [1,2] Type: List SExpression n:=m::SEX (1 2) Type: SExpression car(n) 1 Type: SExpression You can access lisp functions directly with: GENSYM()$Lisp Lisp is the domain, known to the interpreter and compiler, that contains lisp functions and symbols. Notice that Axiom is case-sensitive and that generally lisp symbols are upper case. You can also create and call lisp functions. For instance: )lisp (defun foo () (print "it works")) Value = FOO FOO()$Lisp "it works" it works Type: SExpression While accessing and writing functions in Lisp is possible it is generally not recommended as Axiom contains a programming language that should be able to achieve almost everything you need. =================================================================== FAQ 14: It still doesn't work =================================================================== Send email to: axiom-developer@nongnu.org =================================================================== FAQ 15: How can I see what the interpreter is trying to do? =================================================================== )set message bottomup on will tell you the signatures that the interpreter is trying to use. Another method is to do )lisp (setq |$monitorNewWorld| t) and you can view database calls with )lisp (setq *miss* t) =================================================================== FAQ 16: How can I record console output? =================================================================== )spool filename starts sending output to the file called filename )spool )off stops sending output to the file =================================================================== FAQ 17: Graphics don't work or sman fails to start ? =================================================================== First try running sman as : sman -debug -noclef -nonag -noht Try this as root also. If graphics still don't work or sman fails to start then look at the error messages . Does it show something like : ptyopen: Failed to grant access to slave device: No such file or directory ptyopen: Failed to get name of slave device: No such file or directory ptyopen: Failed to open slave: Bad address If so you may need to do a few things 1) Make sure that devpts support is enabled in you kernel ( CONFIG_DEVPTS_FS=y ) 2) Make sure the directory /dev/pts exists 3) Mount devpts as in : "mount -t devpts devpts /dev/pts" You may also want to add the following line to your /etc/fstab file devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=602 0 0 This will ensure that next time you reboot devpts is automatically mounted. On debian systems, it is common to run the stable distribution, and then reserve a specific area of disk for the unstable distribution, which one can use as if it were the entire installed OS via 'dchroot unstable'. To make this work, certain directories have to be accessible to both systems, and bind mounting is the usual solution. Thus in this situation you need to do mount -o bind /dev/pts /unstable_chroot/dev/pts =================================================================== FAQ 18: How can the user use the batch mode? =================================================================== 1) create an input file: echo '2+2' >tst.input echo '3+3' >>tst.input 2) make sure the AXIOM variable is set export AXIOM=/path/axiom/mnt/linux export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH 3) pipe a )read command to AXIOMsys and capture the output echo ')read tst.input' | AXIOMsys >tst.output =================================================================== FAQ 19: How can I get equations written on one line? =================================================================== > Dear Axiom supporters, > 2. I would also like to have the output of kind > > " - (s-1) * (s+1) * (p^4 +(2*e^3 + (24*s^2 - 4)*e)*p^3 * ...) * ... > " > > For example, my DoCon program can read this format ... > > 2.1 It prints these polynomials like for (Z[e])[p]: > " (e^2 + 2e)*p " > How to print it like for Z[p,e]: > " 2*p*e + e^2 " You may wish to use the InputForm domain, where you can find some bizarre functions. In your case, "unparse" may help you, as follows. (1) -> p:=(a+b+y)^2*y+1-(x+y+z)^4 (1) 4 3 2 2 2 - z + (- 4y - 4x)z + (- 6y - 12x y - 6x )z + 3 2 2 3 4 3 2 2 (- 4y - 12x y - 12x y - 4x )z - y + (- 4x + 1)y + (- 6x + 2b + 2a)y + 3 2 2 4 (- 4x + b + 2a b + a )y - x + 1 Type: Polynomial Integer (2) -> pi:=p::InputForm (2) (+ (+ (+ (+ (* - 1 (** z 4)) (* (+ (* - 4 y) (* - 4 x)) (** z 3))) (* (+ (+ (* - 6 (** y 2)) (* (* - 12 x) y)) (* - 6 (** x 2))) (** z 2))) (* (+ (+ (+ (* - 4 (** y 3)) (* (* - 12 x) (** y 2))) (* (* - 12 (** x 2)) y)) (* - 4 (** x 3))) z) ) (+ (+ (+ (+ (* - 1 (** y 4)) (* (+ (* - 4 x) 1) (** y 3))) (* (+ (* - 6 (** x 2)) (+ (* 2 b) (* 2 a))) (** y 2))) (* (+ (* - 4 (** x 3)) (+ (+ (** b 2) (* (* 2 a) b)) (** a 2))) y)) (+ (* - 1 (** x 4)) 1)) ) Type: InputForm (3) -> unparse(pi) (3) "(-z**4)+((-4*y)+(-4*x))*z**3+((-6*y*y)+(-12*x*y)+(-6*x*x))*z*z+((-4*y**3)+(- 12*x*y*y)+(-12*x*x*y)+(-4*x**3))*z+(-y**4)+((-4*x)+1)*y**3+((-6*x*x)+2*b+2*a) *y*y+((-4*x**3)+b*b+2*a*b+a*a)*y+(-x**4)+1" Type: String Aternatively you can get the LaTex output string: (4) -> )lisp (|parseAndInterpret| "integrate(sin(x),x)::TexFormat::OutputForm") (4) ["$$","-{\cos ","\left(","{x} ","\right)}","$$"] Type: OutputForm Value = ((|OutputForm|) WRAPPED BRACKET (AGGLST "\"$$\"" "\"-{\\cos \"" "\"\\left(\"" "\"{x} \"" "\"\\right)}\"" "\"$$\"")) or the text form: (5) -> )lisp (|parseAndInterpret| "integrate(sin(x),x)::OutputForm") (5) - cos(x) Type: OutputForm Value = ((|OutputForm|) WRAPPED "-" (|cos| |x|)) or the actual string output: Axiom's algebra gets output to a stream called |$algebraOutputStream| Thus you can get the output you want by: )set message autoload off )lisp (progn ; we need a new output stream that is backed by a string (setq tmpout (make-string-output-stream)) ; we hold on to the regular algebra output stream (setq save |$algebraOutputStream|) ; we capture the algebra output into the string stream (setq |$algebraOutputStream| tmpout) ; we generate output from string input (|parseAndInterpret| "(x+1)^9") ; we save the output into the result variable (setq result (get-output-stream-string |$algebraOutputStream|)) ; we restore the regular algebra output stream (setq |$algebraOutputStream| save) ; and we return the string as our value result) )lisp result result contains the output from axiom that you want. Alternatively you can see the internal representation using |pf2Sex| (parsed function to s-expression) by doing: if you start axiom and type )trace (|pf2Sex|) and then type some expression 1 you'll see the input and output of this function. This function (parsed function to s-expression) is internal to the axiom interpreter. it takes the parsed input line and converts it to a lisp s-expression. so the above '1' input yields 1> (|pf2Sex| ((|Integer| (|posn (0 "1" 1 1 "strings") . 0)) . "1")) 1< (|pf2Sex| 1) the "1>" line tells you the function input. the "1<" line tells you the function output. notice that even a simple input line generates type information. this function is not part of the exposed user interface because there is nothing at the user level that needs this information. =================================================================== FAQ 20: Axiom hangs when graphics should be displayed. =================================================================== Be sure that your X server will allow you to display windows. try: 'xhost +' =================================================================== FAQ 21: How should I get my AXIOM shell variable and why? =================================================================== The AXIOM variable is used at 2 different times, during make and during execution. First, lets look at the make case: The build process needs to know 2 things. It needs to know where the axiom sources are. It needs to know what kind of system to build. Both of these pieces of information are in the AXIOM shell variable. Suppose you download axiom into /tmp/axiom and you want to build a linux system. The AXIOM shell variable would be set to: export AXIOM=/tmp/axiom/mnt/linux ^^^^^^^^^^ where ^^^^^ what when the make starts it looks for where it will find the sources and gets /tmp/axiom. It next looks for what kind of system to build and gets linux. In the top level makefile we see: SPD=$(shell pwd) which means that SPD will be the current working directory. It got set to: SPD=/tmp/axiom which is correct. Next in the Makefile we see: SYS=$(notdir$(AXIOM)) which got set to: SYS=linux so we can see from this information that the AXIOM shell variable was set to: AXIOM=/tmp/axiom/mnt/linux Second, the AXIOM variable is used at runtime to tell axiom where it lives. When you build an axiom system everything that is important and worth keeping lives under the mnt subdirectory. So to "install" an Axiom system into /usr/local/axiom, for example, you need only copy the mnt subdirectory thus: mkdir /usr/local/axiom cd /tmp/axiom cp -pr mnt /usr/local/axiom Now that we've done that we can remove the whole axiom directory from /tmp because it is no longer needed. However, in order to run Axiom we need 2 pieces of information. First, we have to tell Axiom where it now lives and second, we have to put the commands on our path so they can be found. So, since we installed axiom into /usr/local/axiom we need: export AXIOM=/usr/local/axiom/mnt/linux export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH The AXIOM shell variable tells axiom where to find itself. The PATH shell variable tells linux where to find executables. =================================================================== FAQ 22: How do I check out the latest sources? =================================================================== git clone git://github.com/daly/axiom.git =================================================================== FAQ 23: How do I patch a file? =================================================================== This is an example of changing floats.spad.pamphlet and incorporating a test case in the src/input directory: 1) Applied the negative float rounding/truncation patch from Savannah to the floats.spad.pamphlet file. 2) Created a simple input file called negfloats.input.pamphlet in the src/input directory that executes some Axiom commands illustrating the bugs 3) Modified the file src/input/Makefile.pamphlet to include the following new subsection and stanzas \subsection{negfloats} \begin{chunk}{negfloats} ${OUT}/negfloats.input:${MID}/negfloats.input @ echo 426 making ${OUT}/negfloats.input from${MID}/negfloats.input @ cp ${MID}/negfloats.input${OUT}/ngefloats.input ${MID}/negfloats.input:${IN}/negfloats.input.pamphlet @ echo 427 making ${MID}/negfloats.input from${IN}/negfloats.input.pamphlet @(cd ${MID} ; \${BOOKS}/tangle ${IN}/negfloats.input.pamphlet >negfloats.input ) 4) Made a new entry for negfloats in FILES=${OUT}/algaggr.input ${OUT}/algbrbf.input${OUT}/algfacob.input \ ... ${OUT}/ndftip.input${OUT}/newlodo.input \ ${OUT}/negfloats.input \ ... 5) Added a reference to chunk negfloats in the default chunk * \begin{chunk}{*} ... \getchunk{NDFtip} \getchunk{negfloats} ... 6) Did axiom 'make' to compile the revised floats domain and (hopefully) run the negfloats.input test file. (set AXIOM and PATH manually ...) make =================================================================== FAQ 24: What is the purpose of the domain HACKPI? =================================================================== HACKPI is a hack provided for the benefit of the axiom interpreter. As a mathematical type, it is the simple transcendental extension Q(\pi) of the rational numbers. This type allows interactive users to use the name '%pi' without a type both where a numerical value is expected [ as in draw(sin x,x=-%pi..%pi) ] or when the exact symbolic value is meant. The interpreter defaults a typeless %pi to HACKPI and then uses the various conversions to cast it further as required by the context. One could argue that it is unfair to single %pi out from other constants, but it occurs frequently enough in school examples (specially for graphs) so it was worth a special hack. In a non-interactive environment (library), HACKPI would not exist. =================================================================== FAQ 25: Can I create or edit hypertex pages? =================================================================== The hypertex is intended to be edited by users. We are looking to build special purpose pages around courses such as linear algebra. Assume HERE=$AXIOM/doc/hypertex/pages The text can be found in $HERE/foo.ht or$HERE/foo.pht The macros are tex-like and live in $HERE/util.ht To change a page you need to: cd$HERE edit the page rm *~ (to delete backup copies) htadd * hypertex the htadd command takes arguments: htadd [-s|-l|-f db-directory] [-d|-n] filenames but, i'm sorry to say, these have not been fully documented. The htadd function will maintain the file called $HERE/ht.db which is a database of absolute byte indexes into files. Forgetting to run htadd will still work, sort-of, until you hit a bad byte index and then it will fail. Hypertex can also be directed elsewhere by using the HTPATH shell variable. =================================================================== FAQ 26: How can I compile spad files on windows? =================================================================== Something that probably should have been obvious caught me by surprize today. I have been working Axiom developer system configurations for so long now that I had forgotten to make a distinction between the types of users and the software that they need to install. This is especially obvious on Windows because, unlike linux, Windows is very often configured without any development tools whatever. Only end-users application programs might installed and even then these can often be restricted to support an even more limited set of functions for certain users. That is really what this message is about. But first let me tell you the story... *[This is Microsoft's World and while working intensively with open source and linux we might sometimes forget what it is like for the other 90% of the world ... :]* Users, Programmers and Developers Anyway, this afternoon I installed Axiom for Windows http://page.axiom-developer.org/axiom-windows-0.1.3.exe on an entirely new machine with *no* other software installed except the basic operating system (Windows 2000). Now that we know about the problem of paths with spaces, I also opted to override the default and install Axiom into the directory:: c:\axiom instead of:: c:\Program Files\axiom which is the default. Then I proceeded to test Axiom in the usual way by running a few selected input files. Everything seemed fine. Finally since we have been talking about compiling spad files today, I also tried to compile a src/algebra file. I was very surprized when Axiom when all the way through the spad compile and then told me (well GCL told me, really) that it could not find gcc'! Then after I thought about it for a while I realized that GCL really does depend on gcc and that gcc is *not* included in the version of GCL that is installed with the Axiom build. Well, of course not, right? For over more than a month now, a total of nearly 1,000 users have downloaded the pre-release versions of axiom-windows and it did not occur to me that they would not be able to compile a spad file! sheesh. That seemed so odd to me since I have been doing exactly that several times a day over that same time, experimenting and testing new versions. But then, I *do* have the full developer environment installed. So, who are all these people who are apparently quite satisfied playing with and using this version of Axiom that only includes about 1/2 of what Axiom can do? Well, *Axiom Users* I guess. But certainly not Axiom Programmers in the natural sense of the word because they (probably) don't even have the pieces installed that they would need to compile a program. An Axiom end User then is someone who is satisfied with just the contents of the mnt directory. They can do all the calculations that Axiom is pre-programmed to do and they can even define long calculations including function definitions and the kind of program control that can be written in input files, but then can *not* compile new library files. What besides the contents of the mnt directory is required before one can compile library files? Well, just the C compiler, of course. On windows the minimum additional software that has to be installed is called MinGW ( http://www.mingw.org/ ) and consists of the "mingw-runtime, w32api, binutils and gcc tarball packages" from ( http://www.mingw.org/download.shtml ): http://prdownloads.sf.net/mingw/mingw-runtime-3.5.tar.gz?download http://prdownloads.sf.net/mingw/w32api-3.2.tar.gz?download http://prdownloads.sf.net/mingw/binutils-2.15.91-20040904-1.tar.gz?download http://prdownloads.sf.net/mingw/gcc-core-3.4.2-20040916-1.tar.gz?download You need to download each of these files and unzip them (using a Windows shareware (evaluation version) program like WinZip http://www.winzip.com/ http://www.7-zip.org/ or other free equivalent will do) directly into the:: mnt/windows directory, the root of your Axiom installation. This is the most convenient place because the Axiom installation has already added this location to the path that allows your system to find and execute this programs. FINALLY, there is one more thing that you need add. One of the unix compatibility programs called rm.exe is missing from:: mnt/windows/bin Click on http://page.axiom-developer.org/rm.exe and choose "Save As". Locate the mnt\windows\bin' directory and click Save. Now at last you have a Windows Axiom Programmer's system configuration. You will be able to create, modify and compile spad files to create your own customized mathematical library. When you create .spad files, be sure to save them in path that does not include spaces. This means that you can not use My Documents' which is (more or less) the Windows default location. If you like, you can create a directory called local' within your Axiom base installation directory. For example:: c:\test\local Save your files there. In Axiom you should change the default directory to local' so that you can easily compile files like this:: )cd ../.. )cd local )co yourfile.spad and:: )library yourfile.spad to load a file compiled during a previous session. **Enjoy!** In the next pre-release of Axiom for Windows I think it would be a good idea if we provided at least the above end User's and the larger Programmer's configurations in two complete downloads and self-install files. I have checked the licenses for MinGW and I am quite sure that including the run-time and minimal compiler programs in the Axiom install is allowed by the developers. It is however very clearly a GPL license. In fact, you should expect that over the next few months many aspects of the Axiom installation will become easier and more complete. Stay tuned to the MathAction website: http://page.axiom-developer.org or this email list for more up to date information! --------- Lastly, I will define Axiom Developers as those masochists who are willing to spend their time configuring and testing new complete releases of Axiom for others. The development environment of this on Windows is everything the Programmers have plus the MSYS developer's tools. See ( http://www.mingw.org/msys.shtml ) for the following files: http://prdownloads.sf.net/mingw/MSYS-1.0.8.exe?download http://prdownloads.sf.net/mingw/msysDTK-1.0.1.exe?download Download these self-install files and then run them to create a programming environment under windows that is in many ways like linux (however, more minimal :). When you install these programs, make sure to specify that you also have MingGW installed. And one last thing. Before you can run:: .\configure make You should also have the tla arch program installed so that you can download the Axiom source files and you will be able to upload your patches and new features. To get tla click http://download.sipsolutions.de/tla-setup.exe Download and run this program to install tla. Once this is installed, you will be able to run tla from inside MSYS or from tla's own special command line shell. The rest of the instructions for developers is as http://arch.axiom-developer.org Axiom Programmers should (optional for Axiom Users and mandatory for Axiom Developers) also install support for LaTeX. Of course it is essential that developers, programmers and even Axiom users devote as much effort as possible to preparing accurate and easy to read documentation, otherwise a great deal of effort and intellectual investment in can be quickly lost. Axiom Users can also optionally use TeXmacs http://www.texmacs.org to interact with Axiom and to prepare high quality mathematical documents. The standard form for all Axiom programs and documentation is the noweb extension of LaTeX (called "pamphlet files" in Axiom terminology). Pamphlet files contain both documentation and the program code itself. This format is used for all internal Axiom coding and the entire Algebra library. It is expected that new Algebra that is intended by it's author to be shared with other Axiom users will also be prepared in pamphlet format. Unfortunately pamphlet format is not (yet) fully supported by TeXmacs. There are several Windows compatible versions of LaTeX to choose from. The one that I have used very successfully is MikTeX ( http://www.miktex.org/ ). To install MikTeX click http://www.miktex.org/setup.html and follow the instructions. If your computer is connected to the Internet then the "small" version (small-miktex-2.4.1705.exe) will be sufficient for use with Axiom. For Windows users who have no previous experience with LaTeX (and even if you do) I would also recommend that you install a good LaTeX-aware text editor. See http://www.miktex.org/links.html One of the easiest to use and completely open source is TeXnicCenter http://www.toolscenter.org/front_content.php?idcat=26 Click 'download' and select "TeXnicCenter Setup, Version 1 beta ...". This is a self-installing file. If you install TeXnicCenter after MikTeX, it will be automatically configured to support MikTeX. TeXnicCenter is very easy to use for LaTeX beginners and it is will supported by it's developers and the users group. It is also quite easily configured to support LaTeX extensions such as noweb. =================================================================== FAQ 27: Why can't I input text into the hypertex browser boxes? =================================================================== Check your num-lock key. If num-lock is on then you can't input text into your browser text boxes. Check that "Num Lock" is disabled. It appears that the Num Lock key prevents the text window from accepting text. This is a known problem with no current fix. =================================================================== FAQ 28: Graphics does not work inside TeXmacs? =================================================================== > No, I am not able to get graphics to appear in an X-window > from inside TeXmacs. That's what I *want* to be able to do. > > I have TeXmacs 1.0.4.4 (latest being 1.0.4.5). I know the > plugin calls AXIOMsys, and I tried to make it call "axiom" > or "sman" with no immediate success. Ok great. You are obviously on the right track. If you compiled TeXmacs from source then to make tm_axiom call "axiom", the simplest thing to do is to modify the souce file tm_axiom.c by replacing "AXIOMsys" with "axiom" and then recompile it. It is a simple C program with no dependencies and can be compiled separately. Move the tm_axiom.exe file to the appropriate place in the TeXmacs installation directory. If you didn't compile TeXmacs from source you can get just the tm_axiom.c file from the CVS, modify it and compile as above. The Axiom graphics process has the ability to create a postscript format output file containing the graphic. This can be initiated from the user interface of the graphics window or also from an Axiom command. Check "Chapter 7 Graphics" of the Axiom book, specifically section "7.1.8 Operations for Two-Dimensional Graphics", write' operation. It works something like this: viewPort := draw(sin x, x=-%pi..%pi) write(viewPort, "output.ps","postscript") These commands can be included directly in the TeXmacs document. =================================================================== FAQ 29: Where can I get help online? =================================================================== Axiom Mailinglists and IRC Channel Several ways to contact the community are available. There is an irc channel where developers can find other developers. It is:: server: irc.freenode.net channel:#axiom-developer The mailinglists are: "axiom-math":http://lists.nongnu.org/mailman/listinfo/axiom-math ("archive":http://lists.nongnu.org/archive/html/axiom-math) Discussion of math theory and philosophy related to Axiom "axiom-mail":http://lists.nongnu.org/mailman/listinfo/axiom-mail ("archive":http://lists.nongnu.org/archive/html/axiom-mail) General discussion on Axiom "axiom-developer":http://lists.nongnu.org/mailman/listinfo/axiom-developer ("archive":http://lists.nongnu.org/archive/html/axiom-developer) When you have issues to compile Axiom or with Axiom internals "axiom-legal":http://lists.nongnu.org/mailman/listinfo/axiom-legal ("archive":http://lists.nongnu.org/archive/html/axiom-legal) All legal issues, like license issues =================================================================== FAQ 30: How can I file a bug report? =================================================================== Send email with details of the bug report to bugs@axiom-developer.org The email should contain enough information so we can help you figure out what the problem could be. Since you are the only one who knows what the problem is it is necessary to give us enough information to work out the details. At the top of your Axiom session when you start Axiom there are two lines printed, the Version line and the Timestamp line. They look Version: Axiom 3.0 Beta (February 2005) Timestamp: Thursday January 20, 2005 at 19:34:25 These two lines enable us to determine what version of the source code you are using. Without this information we can't tell if the bug has already been fixed or is new. We also need to know what kind of system you are using. This includes the kind of software and the kind of hardware. So we need to know if it is something like RedHat Linux Version 9 on Intel PC Solaris 8 on Sun Ultrasparc Now that we know what version of code you are running and what kind of system you are running on we need to know what the exact problem is. It is best if you can send a copy of the failing output. If not, please send the EXACT error message so we can search the code for the error. =================================================================== FAQ 31: How can I find out if this is a known bug =================================================================== http://page.axiom-developer.org/zope/mathaction/FrontPage/IssueTracker contains a page with all of the known bug reports. You can search thru all of the bug reports to see if your error has happened before and, if so, if it was fixed. Please try to do this before filing a bug report. It will save us all a lot of time. =================================================================== FAQ 32: How can I input an equation as a string? =================================================================== There is an embedded command server within AXIOMsys. Look at: http://daly.axiom-developer.org/TimothyDaly_files/lisptalk/pages/lisp35.html In particular, see the function parseAndInterpret stringBuf (which is boot language code. So in lisp I have to tack on the | | onto the function name and then I can call it like this: (1) -> )lisp (|parseAndInterpret| "integrate(sin x,x)") (1) - cos(x) Type: Union(Expression Integer,...) Value = ((|Union| (|Expression| (|Integer|)) (|List| (|Expression| (|Integer|))) ) WRAPPED 0 (1 # (1 0 . -1)) 0 . 1) (2) -> and sure enough! Axiom parses and interprets the string. The result appears as stdout and the value returned seems to contain the type information. The "WRAPPED" information is the lisp data structure. > The string output function mentioned in FAQ 19 is a linear > form of the output. However Axiom's native output machinery > is called CHARYBDIS which was a research project from the > 60s with the goal of printing mathematics on typewriters. > Axiom still uses that code. =================================================================== FAQ 33: How do I run hypertex standalone? =================================================================== export AXIOM=/whatever/mnt/linux export HTPATH=$AXIOM/doc/hypertex/pages export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH hypertex =================================================================== FAQ 34: How can I find out about a domain? =================================================================== There is a standalone command called asq which will give information from Axiom's databases: asq asq Integer asq -sh Integer =================================================================== FAQ 35: Why do .axiom.input defined functions fail in axiom? =================================================================== You write this in your .axiom.input file: mrd(x:Integer,v:Integer):Integer == x+y You can't see this function even though it appears to be defined. That's because Axiom is working in a new frame. When you start AXIOMsys you are running the interpreter talking directly to the terminal. So the .input file is actually talking to a frame at the top level. Your function is defined. The .axiom.input file is read in a "frame" called "initial". AXIOMsys only uses the "initial" frame (although you can define and use new ones). A frame contains its own variables and function definitions. The "axiom" command does several things that AXIOMsys does not. In particular the axiom shell script starts up the 'sman' process which starts AXIOMsys (which reads the .axiom.input file) and then sman creates a new frame (usually a random lisp gensym name). In this new frame (created after .axiom.input is read) your mrandom function is not defined. To see this do: AXIOMsys mrandom(3,3,3) -- compiles and runs the function )quit Now do: axiom mrandom(3,3,3) -- undefined function )frame next mrandom(3,3,3) -- compiles and runs the function )frame names -- shows you all of the defined frames )quit So with the axiom shell script the process is: axiom start sman (done by axiom shell script) sman starts AXIOMsys (done by sman) create frame "initial" (done by AXIOMsys) read .axiom.input (define your function here) create frame "G00234" (done by sman) put up a command prompt (in frame G00234, no functions defined) )frame next (done by you) .... and now you're back in frame initial .... and your function is there So your function was read and it is defined. However the function got defined in the "initial" frame (because you defined it in the .axiom.input file) and is not known in the frame created by sman. The ")frame next" command will move you around the ring of frames. (See the hardcopy book on page 579). =================================================================== FAQ 36: Axiom won't build on FC3 =================================================================== You need to turn off dynamic library load point randomization. As root do: echo 0 >/proc/sys/kernel/exec-shield =================================================================== FAQ 37: Axiom won't build on FC4 or FC5 =================================================================== You need to turn off dynamic library load point randomization. As root do: echo 0 >/proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space or do setarch i386 -R make axiom If the above fails then it is possible that you may have to take more drastic measures. This will disable the SELinux: /usr/sbin/setenforce 0 although it may be possible to tweak the policy directly. Change /etc/selinux/strict/src/policy/domains/user.te:bool allow_execmem false; to /etc/selinux/strict/src/policy/domains/user.te:bool allow_execmem true; then do: cd /etc/selinux/strict/src/policy make load =================================================================== FAQ 38: How can I debug algebra code? =================================================================== Axiom contains some powerful commands to help with testing and debugging library modules written in Spad and also the Axiom system itself. The most important of these commands is ')trace'. This command is used to trace the execution of functions that make up the Axiom system, functions defined by users, and functions from the system library. Almost all options are available for each type of function but exceptions will be noted below. To list all functions, constructors, domains and packages that are traced, simply issue:: )trace To untrace everything that is traced, issue:: )trace )off When a function is traced, the default system action is to display the arguments to the function and the return value when the function is exited. Other information can be displayed or collected when a function is traced and this is controlled by the various options. If a domain or package is traced, the default action is to trace all functions exported. Individual interpreter, lisp or boot functions can be traced by listing their names after ')trace'. Any options that are present must follow the functions to be traced. For example:: )trace f traces the function f. To untrace f, issue:: )trace f )off Note that if a function name contains a special character, it will be necessary to escape the character with an underscore:: )trace _/D_,1 To trace all domains or packages that are or will be created from a particular constructor, give the constructor name or abbreviation after ')trace':: )trace MATRIX )trace List Integer The first command traces all domains currently instantiated with Matrix. If additional domains are instantiated with this constructor (for example, if you have used 'Matrix(Integer)' and 'Matrix(Float)'), they will be automatically traced. The second command traces 'List(Integer)'. The following are the general options for the ')trace' command. ')break after' -- causes a Common Lisp break loop to be entered after exiting the traced function. ')break before' -- causes a Common Lisp break loop to be entered before entering the traced function. ')break' -- is the same as )break before. ')count' -- causes the system to keep a count of the number of times the traced function is entered. The total can be displayed with:: )trace )stats and cleared with:: )trace )stats reset ')count n' -- causes information about the traced function to be displayed for the first n executions. After the n-th execution, the function is untraced. ')depth n' -- causes trace information to be shown for only n levels of recursion of the traced function. The command:: )trace fib )depth 10 will cause the display of only 10 levels of trace information for the recursive execution of a user function fib. ')math' causes -- the function arguments and return value to be displayed in the Axiom monospace two-dimensional math format. ')nonquietly' -- causes the display of additional messages when a function is traced. ')nt' -- This suppresses all normal trace information. This option is useful if the ')count' or ')timer' options are used and you are interested in the statistics but not the function calling information. ')off' -- causes untracing of all or specific functions. Without an argument, all functions, constructors, domains and packages are untraced. Otherwise, the given functions and other objects are untraced. To immediately retrace the untraced functions, issue:: )trace )restore ')only listOfDataToDisplay' -- causes only specific trace information to be shown. ')restore' -- causes the last untraced functions to be retraced. If additional options are present, they are added to those previously in effect. ')stats' -- causes the display of statistics collected by the use of the ')count' and ')timer' options. ')stats reset' -- resets to 0 the statistics collected by the use of the ')count' and ')timer' options. ')timer' -- causes the system to keep a count of execution times for the traced function. The total can be displayed with ')trace )stats' and cleared with ')trace )stats reset'. ')varbreak var1 ... varN' -- causes a Common Lisp break loop to be entered after the assignment to any of the listed variables in the traced function. ')vars' -- causes the display of the value of any variable after it is assigned in the traced function. Note that library code must have been compiled using the ')vartrace' option in order to support this option. ')vars var1 ... varN' -- causes the display of the value of any of the specified variables after they are assigned in the traced function. Note that library code must have been compiled using the ')vartrace' option in order to support this option. ')within executingFunction' -- causes the display of trace information only if the traced function is called when the given executingFunction is running. The following are the options for tracing constructors, domains and packages. ')local op1 ... opN' -- causes local functions of the constructor to be traced. Note that to untrace an individual local function, you must use the fully qualified internal name, using the escape character before the semicolon. For example:: )trace FRAC )local )trace FRAC_;cancelGcd )off ')ops op1 ... opN' -- By default, all operations from a domain or package are traced when the domain or package is traced. This option allows you to specify that only particular operations should be traced. The command:: )trace Integer )ops min max _+ _- traces four operations from the domain Integer. Since + and - are special characters, it is necessary to escape them with an underscore. Also See: ')boot', ')lisp' , and ')ltrace'. Please refer to the Axiom Book section "Axiom System Commands" for more detailed information. =================================================================== FAQ 39: How can I access lisp code from the Axiom command line? =================================================================== To run a lisp command from the command line use )lisp: --> )lisp (+ 2 3) If you want to run a lot of lisp commands from the command line do: --> )lisp (setq $dalymode t) --> (+ 2 3) --> (defun foo (x y) (+ x y)) --> (foo 2 3) --> 2 + 3$dalymode says: If the first character is a '(' then it is lisp else it is axiom to disable it do: --> (setq $dalymode nil) I wrote this change to the interpreter because I tend to use lisp a lot during maintenance. It breaks some syntax but you can work around that. If you really want to "drop" into lisp do: --> )fin BOOT> (+ 2 3) and now you are talking only to lisp at a lisp command prompt in the BOOT package. To restart Axiom type: BOOT>(restart) =================================================================== FAQ 41: How can I work in lisp from Axiom? =================================================================== > I want to work in the boot package. Is it possible from the interpreter > to open a gcl prompt with all the Axiom packages loaded and, it's _very > important_, all the internal variables set? If I work with depsys some > variables are not set so its behavior is different. Just an example > (MERGE-PATHNAMES "TEST") in depsys returns #p"/usr/local/axiom/mnt/TEST" > but in the interpreter it returns "#p"TEST" or #p"/home/greg/Axiom/TEST" > if I modified the AXIOM default directory with ')cd /home/greg/Axiom'. > Of course I know that it's possible to use ')lisp lisp-code' but this is > not practical. There are at least several ways. The one I usually use is to type: -> )lisp (setq |$DALYMODE| t) This is a special mode of the interpreter. ANY expression that starts with an open paren is interpreted as a lisp expression. Thus, after you do this you can type lisp expressions at the prompt: -> (+ 2 3) Value = 5 Another method is to type: -> )lisp (break) which will put you into a lisp break loop (a recursive version of the top level loop). To return back to axiom type BOOT>> :q at the lisp prompt. A third method is to type: -> )lisp (throw |$intTopLevel| nil) which will put you back into the lisp top level. To return to axiom type: BOOT> (restart) A fourth method is to type: -> )fin which will put you back into the lisp top level. To return to axiom type: BOOT> (restart) =================================================================== FAQ 42: How can I output equations as lisp s-expressions? =================================================================== (1) -> p:=(1+x)^5 5 4 3 2 (1) x + 5x + 10x + 10x + 5x + 1 Type: Polynomial Integer (2) -> VALUES(p)$Lisp (2) (1 x (5 0 . 1) (4 0 . 5) (3 0 . 10) (2 0 . 10) (1 0 . 5) (0 0 . 1)) Type: SExpression =================================================================== FAQ 43: Is Axiom's License compatible with the GPL? =================================================================== Axiom is licensed under the Modified BSD license. According to both historical discussions with Richard Stallman and this website: http://www.fsf.or/licensing/licenses/index_html#GPLCompatibleLicenses which we quote here: "Modified BSD license (Note: on the preceding link, the modified BSD license is listed in the "General" section.) This is the original BSD license, modified by removal of the advertising clause. It is a simple, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL. If you want a simple, permissive non-copyleft free software license, the modified BSD license is a reasonable choice. However, it is risky to recommend use of the BSD license'', because confusion could easily occur and lead to use of the flawed original BSD license. To avoid this risk, you can suggest the X11 license instead. The X11 license and the revised BSD license are more or less equivalent. This license is sometimes referred to as the University of Illinois/NCSA Open Source License." Please note that all legal discussions should occur ONLY on the axiom-legal@nongnu.org mailing list and not copied to the other developer mailing lists. =================================================================== FAQ 44: I don't have the math fonts =================================================================== View the file zips/mathops.html to see if you have all the symbols. See http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U2200.pdf There is a file zips/axiomfonts.tgz which contains some of the fonts (mostly the Stix fonts which recently became available). Other missing fonts can be found at: http://www.stixfonts.org http://www.alanwood.net/unicode http://support.wolfram.com/mathematica/systems/windows/general/latestfonts.html =================================================================== FAQ 45: Axiom Copyright information =================================================================== Axiom is intended for not-for-profit, personal, educational use. Any other use is permitted but not endorsed. A fundamental project goal is to document the system for future educational, research, and scientific use. Axiom may contain some copyrighted material whose use has not been authorized by the copyright owners. We believe that this not-for- profit, educational, and research use constitutes a fair use of the copyrighted material (as provided for in section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Law). Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords, or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include: 1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; 2. the nature of the copyrighted work; 3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and 4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all of the above factors. =================================================================== FAQ 46: Axiom Trademark information =================================================================== The name "Axiom" and the Axiom-included iconic images are common law trademarks of this project. The term of service applies to the code distributed and compiled versions of code distributed from the Axiom websites at axiom-developer.org savannah.nongnu.org/projects/axiom sourceforge.net/projects/axiom github.com/daly/axiom =================================================================== FAQ 47: Axiom won't build on Fedora 9 (SELinux) =================================================================== You need to turn off dynamic library load point randomization. As root do: echo 0 >/proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space or do setarch i386 -R make Also, Fedora now appears to install SELinux without giving the user an option at system install time. The symptom seems to be: ...[snip]... invoking make in ~/axiom/src/boot Permission Denied ...[snip]... Problem: SELinux is preventing lisp from changing the access protection of memory on the heap Explanation: The lisp application attempted to change the access protection of memory on the heap (e.g. allocated using malloc). This is a potential security problem. Applications should not be doing this. Applications are sometimes coded incorrectly and request this permission. The SELinux Memory Protections Tests web page explains how to remove this requirement. If lisp does not work and you need it to work, you can configure SELinux temporarily to allow this access until the application is fixed. If you want lisp to continue, you must turn on the allow_execheap boolean. setsebool -P allow_execheap=1 Rant: Not "applications should not be doing this...applications are sometimes coded incorrectly"... but "security software should not be doing this...security software is sometimes coded incorrectly". Claiming valid code is incorrect is a bug in SELinux. Programs change protection to allow efficiencies like copy-on-write, garbage collection optimizations, dynamically compiled functions executed out of the heap, dynamic stack boundary checking, etc.. This is common computer science knowledge. The hubris of the "explanation" is beyond remark. Another alternative is to use the commands: /sbin/sysctl -w kernel.randomize_va_space=0 /sbin/sysctl -w kernel.exec-shield=0 A third alternative is to edit /etc/sysctl.conf and add the lines: kernel.randomize_va_space=0 kernel.exec-shield=0 If the above fails then it is possible that you may have to take more drastic measures. This will disable the SELinux: /usr/sbin/setenforce 0 although it may be possible to tweak the policy directly. Change /etc/selinux/strict/src/policy/domains/user.te:bool allow_execmem false; to /etc/selinux/strict/src/policy/domains/user.te:bool allow_execmem true; then do: cd /etc/selinux/strict/src/policy make load =================================================================== FAQ 48: Getting Axiom sources from git =================================================================== There are 2 git repositories for Axiom source code. The first repository is at github.com. This repository is the latest released version of Axiom (Gold). To get the source type: git-clone git://github.com/daly/axiom.git The second repository is at axiom-developer.org. This repository is the latest development version of Axiom (Silver). To get the source type: git-clone ssh://git@axiom-developer.org/home/git/silver (pswd:linus) Once you have the source code visit http://axiom.axiom-developer.org/axiom-website/download.html for further information. =================================================================== FAQ 49: How do I get the lastest GCL? =================================================================== You can use the latest version of GCL although it will require a few steps. Axiom builds GCL by untaring the GCL source tree from a file in the axiom/zips subdirectory. Then it applies some local patches to the source tree. Finally, it builds GCL. Under the control of axiom/lsp/Makefile(.pamphlet) the steps are: * axiom/zips/GCLVERSION.tgz -> axiom/lsp/GCLVERSION * apply patches * cd axiom/lsp/GCLVERSION * ./configure GCLOPTS * make The file and patches chosen are prefixed by the GCLVERSION variable string. For example, if GCLVERSION=gcl-2.6.7 we would see axiom/zips/gcl-2.6.7.tgz axiom/zips/gcl-2.6.7-somefilepath1.patch axiom/zips/gcl-2.6.7-somefilepath2.patch ... Thus we can introduce new versions of GCL by fetching the new code, giving it a name (in this case gcl-2.6.8pre3), and setting the GCLVERSION to that name. Note that you may have to modify the patches. The patches are applied using the axiom/lsp/Makefile.pamphlet file so if you add or delete patches you have to set up corresponding chunks. There are very few patches as almost every change has been accepted upstream. Most patches have been stable for the lifetime of Axiom. Unless you're chasing a bug it is unlikely you will ever have to do this. 1) First we fetch the latest code: cvs -z3 -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.savannah.gnu.org:/sources/gcl co -r Version_2_6_8pre -d gcl-2.6.8pre gcl 2) Next we rename it to be the same as the GCLVERSION variable: mv gcl-2.6.8pre gcl-2.6.8pre3 3) Next we tar-gzip the directory tar -zcf gcl-2.6.8pre3.tgz gcl-2.6.8pre3 4) Put the latest tgz file into the proper location in Axiom: cp gcl-2.6.8pre3.tgz axiom/zips 5) Modify axiom/Makefile GCLVERSION variable to read: GCLVERSION=gcl-2.6.8pre3 5) Modify axiom/Makefile.pamphlet GCLVERSION variable to read: GCLVERSION=gcl-2.6.8pre3 6) Copy any needed patches from the previous version (likely all) and rename them using the new GCLVERSION prefix 7) In the axiom top level directory type: make =================================================================== FAQ 50: Cannot find libXpm.a =================================================================== The static library is missing from some distributions. The source code to build this library is available at: http://axiom-developer.org/axiom-website/Xpm.tgz =================================================================== FAQ 51: How can I do unicode in xterm? =================================================================== Axiom intends to support unicode I/O at some point in the future. You can do unicode I/O with xterm. The 'locale' command should show LANG=en_US.UTF-8 LC_CTYPE="en_US.UTF-8" LC_NUMERIC="en_US.UTF-8" LC_TIME="en_US.UTF-8" LC_COLLATE="en_US.UTF-8" LC_MONETARY="en_US.UTF-8" LC_MESSAGES="en_US.UTF-8" LC_PAPER="en_US.UTF-8" LC_NAME="en_US.UTF-8" LC_ADDRESS="en_US.UTF-8" LC_TELEPHONE="en_US.UTF-8" LC_MEASUREMENT="en_US.UTF-8" LC_IDENTIFICATION="en_US.UTF-8" LC_ALL= Other results might work but are not tested. xterm -fn '-*-fixed-medium-*-*-*-15-*-*-*-*-*-iso10646-1' You can find iso10646-1 fonts using the xfontsel tool. You can test the fonts using the file zips/utf-8-demo.txt If it works you should see very large braces around the sqrt expression. There are fonts in the zips directory. See FAQ 44 In emacs you can type "Ctrl-x 8 ' e" to get an accented e. You can see all of the bindings with "Ctrl-x 8 Ctrl-h" You can insert a right-arrow with "Alt-x ucs-insert" 2192 "Alt-x describe-char-after" will describe the character under the point. "Ctrl-h-v buffer-file-coding-system" will describe the decoding "Alt-x describe-coding-system" will give information about the buffer coding =================================================================== FAQ 52: Who was User? =================================================================== User was a powerful advisor to the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt. Queen Hatshepsut ruled Egypt between 1479 B.C. and 1458 B.C. They have recently uncovered a large red granite false door from User's tomb. This door is believed to have been the threshold to the afterlife. Due to this barrier it is know to be difficult to communicate with User. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20100329/wl_africa_afp/egyptarchaeology =================================================================== FAQ 53: Axiom won't build on Fedora =================================================================== Fedora prevents lisp from using the execheap access on a process. As root, type: setsebool -P allow_execheap 1