FAult Injection Leveraged
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README.md

FAIL* - FAult Injection Leveraged

FAIL* is a fault-injection (FI) framework that provides support for detailed fault-injection campaigns. It provides carefully-chosen abstractions simplifying both the implementation of different simulator/hardware target backends and the reuse of experiment code, while retaining the ability for deep target-state access for specialized FI experiments.

The FI experiments are expressed with C++ and programmed against the FAIL* API which provides full access to the internal state of the system-under-test. Currently, several hardware/simulator based backends are available:

  • Bochs: Bochs is an x86 simulator. FAIL* can run and inject bare-metal system images. This backend is the most mature and well tested one for undertaking large fault-injection campaigns with several millions of injected faults.

  • Gem5: Gem5 is a simulator for the ARM platform, which is supported by FAIL. For Gem5, FAIL supports the simulation of the Panda Board, which contains an ARM A9 core.

  • OpenOCD: The OpenOCD project provides a unified debugging interface for real embedded ARM platforms. FAIL uses this interface to inject faults onto a real hardware platform. Several techniques, like SmartHopping, were developed to make campaigns with real hardware faster and more feasible.

  • Support for other platforms were developed, but are not as mature as the other backends: The Trace32 simulator backend for TriCore; An x86 backend using QEMU.

During the FI experiment, FAIL provides an interface for triggering actions on certain instructions, instruction ranges, memory reads/writes, interrupts, IO operations and timer events. As well the state of the registers as the main memory of the system-under-test can be manipulated.

Building FAIL*

Since FAIL* is a complex research project with many dependencies, which are listed in doc/how-to-build.txt, we provide several Docker.io images that contain all requirements to build and run a FI campaign with FAIL. After installing and starting docker on your system, you have to type in the root directory of the git archive:

cd scripts/docker; make

As a result, you get three docker images:

  • fail-base: The docker image contains all requirements to build FAIL*. This docker image is built on top of ubuntu 14.10 and provides access via SSH (User: fail; Password: fail).

  • fail-generic-tracing: Upon the fail-base image, this images provides the tooling to generate golden-run traces of the system-under-test. These traces contain all instruction pointer and memory events of the golden run. The FAIL toolchain can record, show, and import those traces to an MySQL database.

  • fail-demo: This image contains as well an generic FAIL experiment, a simple system-under-test, and scripts to run an first FI campaign within less than 20 minutes. This image has to be connected to a MySQL docker image.

Using FAIL*

After building the docker images, you can run the FAIL demonstration image by typing:

cd scripts/docker
docker pull mysql
make run-fail-db
make run-fail-demo
make ssh-fail-demo

The last command starts a SSH connection to the demonstration system. Username, as well as password is 'fail'. In the default configuration, no SSH port is exposed to your normal network interface. After the connection, you should start in the ~/fail-targets directory, which contains a clone of https://github.com/danceos/fail-targets.

The demo system-under test is built and traced with:

make
make trace-main

The golden run is traced with:

make import-main

The fault injection itself is separated into a server process and many injection workers. Both can be started at once with:

make server-main &
make client-main

The results can be displayed on the console or with an browser-based viewer. By default, port 5000 is exposed to the machine running the docker instance.

make result-main
make resultbrowser

Mailing list

The FAIL* developers, and some of its previous and current users, can be contacted on the fail@lists.cs.tu-dortmund.de mailing list (subscribe!).

Publications about FAIL*

Please cite the EDCC paper if you want to refer to FAIL*:

  • H. Schirmeier, M. Hoffmann, C. Dietrich, M. Lenz, D. Lohmann, and O. Spinczyk. FAIL*: An open and versatile fault-injection framework for the assessment of software-implemented hardware fault tolerance. In Proceedings of the 11th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC '15), pages 245–255. IEEE Computer Society Press, Sept. 2015. PDF

  • H. Schirmeier. Efficient Fault-Injection-based Assessment of Software-Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance. Dissertation, Technische Universität Dortmund, July 2016.

  • H. Schirmeier, M. Hoffmann, R. Kapitza, D. Lohmann, and O. Spinczyk. FAIL*: Towards a versatile fault-injection experiment framework. In G. Mühl, J. Richling, and A. Herkersdorf, editors, 25th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS '12), Workshop Proceedings, volume 200 of Lecture Notes in Informatics, pages 201–210. German Society of Informatics, Mar. 2012. PDF

Selected publications using FAIL*

  • C. Borchert, H. Schirmeier, and O. Spinczyk. Generic soft-error detection and correction for concurrent data structures. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, PP(99). IEEE Computer Society Press. In preprint.

  • H. Schirmeier. Efficient Fault-Injection-based Assessment of Software-Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance. Dissertation, Technische Universität Dortmund, July 2016.

  • M. Hoffmann. Konstruktive Zuverlässigkeit – Eine Methodik für zuverlässige Systemsoftware auf unzuverlässiger Hardware. Dissertation, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Apr. 2016.

  • C. Borchert and O. Spinczyk. Hardening an L4 microkernel against soft errors by aspect-oriented programming and whole-program analysis. In Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Programming Languages and Operating Systems (PLOS '15), pages 1–7, New York, NY, USA, Oct. 2015. ACM Press.

  • T. Stumpf. How to Protect the Protector? In Proceedings of the 45th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '15), Student Forum. IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2015.

  • C. Dietrich, M. Hoffmann, and D. Lohmann. Cross-kernel control-flow-graph analysis for event-driven real-time systems. In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES '15), New York, NY, USA, June 2015. ACM Press.

  • H. Schirmeier, C. Borchert, and O. Spinczyk. Avoiding pitfalls in fault-injection based comparison of program susceptibility to soft errors. In Proceedings of the 45th IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '15). IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2015.

  • M. Hoffmann, F. Lukas, C. Dietrich, and D. Lohmann. dOSEK: The design and implementation of a dependability-oriented static embedded kernel. In Proceedings of the 21st IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications (RTAS '15), Los Alamitos, CA, USA, Apr. 2015. IEEE Computer Society Press.

  • Christian Dietrich and Daniel Lohmann. The dataref versuchung. ACM Operating Systems Review, pages 1–10, 2015.

  • M. Hoffmann, P. Ulbrich, C. Dietrich, H. Schirmeier, D. Lohmann, and W. Schröder-Preikschat. Experiences with software-based soft-error mitigation using AN codes. Software Quality Journal, pages 1–27, 2015.

  • I. Stilkerich, P. Taffner, C. Erhardt, C. Dietrich, C. Wawersich, and M. Stilkerich. Team Up: Cooperative Memory Management in Embedded Systems. In Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Compilers, Architectures and Synthesis for Embedded Systems (CASES '14). ACM, October 2014.

  • H. Schirmeier, C. Borchert, and O. Spinczyk. Rapid fault-space exploration by evolutionary pruning. In Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP '14), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 17–32. Springer-Verlag, Sept. 2014.

  • Björn Döbel. Operating System Support for Redundant Multithreading. Dissertation, Technische Universität Dresden, August 2014.

  • Peter Ulbrich. Ganzheitliche Fehlertoleranz in eingebetteten Softwaresystemen. Dissertation, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, August 2014.

  • M. Hoffmann, C. Borchert, C. Dietrich, H. Schirmeier, R. Kapitza, O. Spinczyk, and D. Lohmann. Effectiveness of fault detection mechanisms in static and dynamic operating system designs. In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Symposium on Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC '14), pages 230–237. IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2014.

  • H. Schirmeier, L. Rademacher, and O. Spinczyk. Smart-hopping: Highly efficient ISA-level fault injection on real hardware. In Proceedings of the 19th IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS '14), pages 69–74. IEEE Computer Society Press, May 2014.

  • M. Hoffmann, P. Ulbrich, C. Dietrich, H. Schirmeier, D. Lohmann, and W. Schröder-Preikschat. A practitioner's guide to software-based soft-error mitigation using AN-codes. In Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE '14), pages 33–40, Miami, Florida, USA, Jan. 2014. IEEE Computer Society Press.

  • C. Borchert, H. Schirmeier, and O. Spinczyk. Return-address protection in C/C++ code by dependability aspects. In Proceedings of the 2nd GI Workshop on Software-Based Methods for Robust Embedded Systems (SOBRES '13), Lecture Notes in Informatics. German Society of Informatics, Sept. 2013.

  • M. Hoffmann, C. Dietrich, and D. Lohmann. Failure by design: Influence of the RTOS interface on memory fault resilience. In Proceedings of the 2nd GI Workshop on Software-Based Methods for Robust Embedded Systems (SOBRES '13), Lecture Notes in Informatics. German Society of Informatics, Sept. 2013.

  • I. Stilkerich, M. Strotz, C. Erhardt, M. Hoffmann, D. Lohmann, F. Scheler, and W. Schröder-Preikschat. A JVM for Soft-Error-Prone Embedded Systems. In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES '13), pages 21–32, June 2013.

  • C. Borchert, H. Schirmeier, and O. Spinczyk. Generative software-based memory error detection and correction for operating system data structures. In Proceedings of the 43rd IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '13). IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2013.

  • H. Schirmeier, I. Korb, O. Spinczyk, and M. Engel. Efficient online memory error assessment and circumvention for Linux with RAMpage. International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems, 4(3):227–247, 2013. Special Issue on PRDC 2011 Dependable Architecture and Analysis.

  • B. Döbel, H. Schirmeier, and M. Engel. Investigating the limitations of PVF for realistic program vulnerability assessment. In Proceedings of the 5rd HiPEAC Workshop on Design for Reliability (DFR '13), Berlin, Germany, Jan. 2013.

  • C. Borchert, H. Schirmeier, and O. Spinczyk. Protecting the dynamic dispatch in C++ by dependability aspects. In Proceedings of the 1st GI Workshop on Software-Based Methods for Robust Embedded Systems (SOBRES '12), Lecture Notes in Informatics, pages 521–535. German Society of Informatics, Sept. 2012.