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More information about BIRDS is available at


  • To install the birds command line tool, download a birds binary file at or build a birds binary file from the source code.

  • To build the birds command line tool, the following softwares must be installed:

    • GNU Make >= 4.1
    • ocaml >= 4.07.0: see OCaml's installation guidance
    • Ocaml packages:
      • num (>= 1.0): opam install num
      • postgresql-ocaml (>=4.0.1): opam install postgresql
  • Compiling:

    • Clean:
      make clean
    • Build:
      make all
    • Release:
      make release
    • Install:
      make install

See the usage of the birds command by typing:

birds --help

Integrated systems

BIRDS is integrated with other systems to enable some features (verification, counterexample generation, ...) of the birds command. These systems can be installed as follows:

  • PostgreSQL database >= 9.6:

  • Z3 >= 4.8.7: The binary files can be downloaded at To install the z3 command, create a symbolic link in /usr/bin to the z3 binary file:

    ln -s <path-to-the-z3-binary-file> /usr/bin/z3
  • Lean >= 3.4.2: The binary files can be downloaded at To install Lean commands, create symbolic links in /usr/bin as follows:

    ln -s <path-to-the-lean-binary-file> /usr/bin/lean 
    ln -s <path-to-the-leanpkg-binary-file> /usr/bin/leanpkg 
    ln -s <path-to-the-leanchecker-binary-file> /usr/bin/leanchecker 

    The Lean package of BIRDS must be configured and compiled as follows:

    • Configuration: add a new file /Users/<user_name>/.lean/leanpkg.path on MacOS or /root/.lean/leanpkg.path on Linux with the following content(replace <path_to_BIRDS> with the absolute path to the BIRDS source code folder):
        path <path_to_BIRDS>/verification/_target/deps/mathlib/src
        path <path_to_BIRDS>/verification/src
        path <path_to_BIRDS>/verification/_target/deps/super/src
    • Installing coreutils:
      • For Ubuntu: apt-get install coreutils.
      • For MacOS: brew install coreutils and then create a symbolic link ln -s /usr/local/bin/gtimeout /usr/local/bin/timeout
    • Compilation: To compile the Lean package of BIRDS, type:
      cd BIRDS/verification
      leanpkg configure
      leanpkg build
  • Rosette: After installing Racket (Minimal Racket can work well, for macos, brew install minimal-racket), Rosette can be installed by raco pkg install rosette.

To check whether the required external tools and configurations (except PostgreSQL) are installed properly, run birds --environment.


The docker image that contains all the features and the integrated systems of BIRDS can be built by:

  docker build -t "birds" .

In this docker image, the PostgreSQL database runs on port 5432 and the BIRDS WebUI runs on port 3010