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SQLite3 backend for django.
Works with either the pysqlite2 module or the sqlite3 module in the
standard library.
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import datetime
import decimal
import warnings
import re
import sys
from django.db import utils
from django.db.backends import *
from django.db.backends.signals import connection_created
from django.db.backends.sqlite3.client import DatabaseClient
from django.db.backends.sqlite3.creation import DatabaseCreation
from django.db.backends.sqlite3.introspection import DatabaseIntrospection
from django.utils.dateparse import parse_date, parse_datetime, parse_time
from django.utils.functional import cached_property
from django.utils.safestring import SafeString
from django.utils import timezone
from pyspatialite import dbapi2 as Database
except ImportError, exc:
from pysqlite2 import dbapi2 as Database
except ImportError, exc:
from sqlite3 import dbapi2 as Database
except ImportError, exc:
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
raise ImproperlyConfigured("Error loading either pyspatialite, pysqlite2 or sqlite3 modules (attempted in that order): %s" % exc)
DatabaseError = Database.DatabaseError
IntegrityError = Database.IntegrityError
def parse_datetime_with_timezone_support(value):
dt = parse_datetime(value)
# Confirm that dt is naive before overwriting its tzinfo.
if dt is not None and settings.USE_TZ and timezone.is_naive(dt):
dt = dt.replace(tzinfo=timezone.utc)
return dt
def adapt_datetime_with_timezone_support(value):
# Equivalent to DateTimeField.get_db_prep_value. Used only by raw SQL.
if settings.USE_TZ:
if timezone.is_naive(value):
warnings.warn("SQLite received a naive datetime (%s)"
" while time zone support is active." % value,
default_timezone = timezone.get_default_timezone()
value = timezone.make_aware(value, default_timezone)
value = value.astimezone(timezone.utc).replace(tzinfo=None)
return value.isoformat(b" ")
Database.register_converter(b"bool", lambda s: str(s) == '1')
Database.register_converter(b"time", parse_time)
Database.register_converter(b"date", parse_date)
Database.register_converter(b"datetime", parse_datetime_with_timezone_support)
Database.register_converter(b"timestamp", parse_datetime_with_timezone_support)
Database.register_converter(b"TIMESTAMP", parse_datetime_with_timezone_support)
Database.register_converter(b"decimal", util.typecast_decimal)
Database.register_adapter(datetime.datetime, adapt_datetime_with_timezone_support)
Database.register_adapter(decimal.Decimal, util.rev_typecast_decimal)
if Database.version_info >= (2, 4, 1):
# Starting in 2.4.1, the str type is not accepted anymore, therefore,
# we convert all str objects to Unicode
# As registering a adapter for a primitive type causes a small
# slow-down, this adapter is only registered for sqlite3 versions
# needing it (Python 2.6 and up).
Database.register_adapter(str, lambda s: s.decode('utf-8'))
Database.register_adapter(SafeString, lambda s: s.decode('utf-8'))
class DatabaseFeatures(BaseDatabaseFeatures):
# SQLite cannot handle us only partially reading from a cursor's result set
# and then writing the same rows to the database in another cursor. This
# setting ensures we always read result sets fully into memory all in one
# go.
can_use_chunked_reads = False
test_db_allows_multiple_connections = False
supports_unspecified_pk = True
supports_timezones = False
supports_1000_query_parameters = False
supports_mixed_date_datetime_comparisons = False
has_bulk_insert = True
can_combine_inserts_with_and_without_auto_increment_pk = True
def supports_stddev(self):
"""Confirm support for STDDEV and related stats functions
SQLite supports STDDEV as an extension package; so
connection.ops.check_aggregate_support() can't unilaterally
rule out support for STDDEV. We need to manually check
whether the call works.
cursor = self.connection.cursor()
cursor.execute('CREATE TABLE STDDEV_TEST (X INT)')
has_support = True
except utils.DatabaseError:
has_support = False
cursor.execute('DROP TABLE STDDEV_TEST')
return has_support
class DatabaseOperations(BaseDatabaseOperations):
def date_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
# sqlite doesn't support extract, so we fake it with the user-defined
# function django_extract that's registered in connect(). Note that
# single quotes are used because this is a string (and could otherwise
# cause a collision with a field name).
return "django_extract('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type.lower(), field_name)
def date_interval_sql(self, sql, connector, timedelta):
# It would be more straightforward if we could use the sqlite strftime
# function, but it does not allow for keeping six digits of fractional
# second information, nor does it allow for formatting date and datetime
# values differently. So instead we register our own function that
# formats the datetime combined with the delta in a manner suitable
# for comparisons.
return 'django_format_dtdelta(%s, "%s", "%d", "%d", "%d")' % (sql,
connector, timedelta.days, timedelta.seconds, timedelta.microseconds)
def date_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
# sqlite doesn't support DATE_TRUNC, so we fake it with a user-defined
# function django_date_trunc that's registered in connect(). Note that
# single quotes are used because this is a string (and could otherwise
# cause a collision with a field name).
return "django_date_trunc('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type.lower(), field_name)
def drop_foreignkey_sql(self):
return ""
def pk_default_value(self):
return "NULL"
def quote_name(self, name):
if name.startswith('"') and name.endswith('"'):
return name # Quoting once is enough.
return '"%s"' % name
def no_limit_value(self):
return -1
def sql_flush(self, style, tables, sequences):
# NB: The generated SQL below is specific to SQLite
# Note: The DELETE FROM... SQL generated below works for SQLite databases
# because constraints don't exist
sql = ['%s %s %s;' % \
) for table in tables]
# Note: No requirement for reset of auto-incremented indices (cf. other
# sql_flush() implementations). Just return SQL at this point
return sql
def value_to_db_datetime(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
# SQLite doesn't support tz-aware datetimes
if timezone.is_aware(value):
if settings.USE_TZ:
value = value.astimezone(timezone.utc).replace(tzinfo=None)
raise ValueError("SQLite backend does not support timezone-aware datetimes when USE_TZ is False.")
return unicode(value)
def value_to_db_time(self, value):
if value is None:
return None
# SQLite doesn't support tz-aware datetimes
if timezone.is_aware(value):
raise ValueError("SQLite backend does not support timezone-aware times.")
return unicode(value)
def year_lookup_bounds(self, value):
first = '%s-01-01'
second = '%s-12-31 23:59:59.999999'
return [first % value, second % value]
def convert_values(self, value, field):
"""SQLite returns floats when it should be returning decimals,
and gets dates and datetimes wrong.
For consistency with other backends, coerce when required.
internal_type = field.get_internal_type()
if internal_type == 'DecimalField':
return util.typecast_decimal(field.format_number(value))
elif internal_type and internal_type.endswith('IntegerField') or internal_type == 'AutoField':
return int(value)
elif internal_type == 'DateField':
return parse_date(value)
elif internal_type == 'DateTimeField':
return parse_datetime_with_timezone_support(value)
elif internal_type == 'TimeField':
return parse_time(value)
# No field, or the field isn't known to be a decimal or integer
return value
def bulk_insert_sql(self, fields, num_values):
res = []
res.append("SELECT %s" % ", ".join(
"%%s AS %s" % self.quote_name(f.column) for f in fields
res.extend(["UNION SELECT %s" % ", ".join(["%s"] * len(fields))] * (num_values - 1))
return " ".join(res)
class DatabaseWrapper(BaseDatabaseWrapper):
vendor = 'sqlite'
# SQLite requires LIKE statements to include an ESCAPE clause if the value
# being escaped has a percent or underscore in it.
# See for an explanation.
operators = {
'exact': '= %s',
'iexact': "LIKE %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'contains': "LIKE %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'icontains': "LIKE %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'regex': 'REGEXP %s',
'iregex': "REGEXP '(?i)' || %s",
'gt': '> %s',
'gte': '>= %s',
'lt': '< %s',
'lte': '<= %s',
'startswith': "LIKE %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'endswith': "LIKE %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'istartswith': "LIKE %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'iendswith': "LIKE %s ESCAPE '\\'",
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
super(DatabaseWrapper, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self.features = DatabaseFeatures(self)
self.ops = DatabaseOperations(self)
self.client = DatabaseClient(self)
self.creation = DatabaseCreation(self)
self.introspection = DatabaseIntrospection(self)
self.validation = BaseDatabaseValidation(self)
def _sqlite_create_connection(self):
settings_dict = self.settings_dict
if not settings_dict['NAME']:
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
raise ImproperlyConfigured(
"settings.DATABASES is improperly configured. "
"Please supply the NAME value.")
kwargs = {
'database': settings_dict['NAME'],
'detect_types': Database.PARSE_DECLTYPES | Database.PARSE_COLNAMES,
# Always allow the underlying SQLite connection to be shareable
# between multiple threads. The safe-guarding will be handled at a
# higher level by the `BaseDatabaseWrapper.allow_thread_sharing`
# property. This is necessary as the shareability is disabled by
# default in pysqlite and it cannot be changed once a connection is
# opened.
if 'check_same_thread' in kwargs and kwargs['check_same_thread']:
'The `check_same_thread` option was provided and set to '
'True. It will be overriden with False. Use the '
'`DatabaseWrapper.allow_thread_sharing` property instead '
'for controlling thread shareability.',
kwargs.update({'check_same_thread': False})
self.connection = Database.connect(**kwargs)
# Register extract, date_trunc, and regexp functions.
self.connection.create_function("django_extract", 2, _sqlite_extract)
self.connection.create_function("django_date_trunc", 2, _sqlite_date_trunc)
self.connection.create_function("regexp", 2, _sqlite_regexp)
self.connection.create_function("django_format_dtdelta", 5, _sqlite_format_dtdelta)
connection_created.send(sender=self.__class__, connection=self)
def _cursor(self):
if self.connection is None:
return self.connection.cursor(factory=SQLiteCursorWrapper)
def check_constraints(self, table_names=None):
Checks each table name in `table_names` for rows with invalid foreign key references. This method is
intended to be used in conjunction with `disable_constraint_checking()` and `enable_constraint_checking()`, to
determine if rows with invalid references were entered while constraint checks were off.
Raises an IntegrityError on the first invalid foreign key reference encountered (if any) and provides
detailed information about the invalid reference in the error message.
Backends can override this method if they can more directly apply constraint checking (e.g. via "SET CONSTRAINTS
cursor = self.cursor()
if table_names is None:
table_names = self.introspection.table_names(cursor)
for table_name in table_names:
primary_key_column_name = self.introspection.get_primary_key_column(cursor, table_name)
if not primary_key_column_name:
key_columns = self.introspection.get_key_columns(cursor, table_name)
for column_name, referenced_table_name, referenced_column_name in key_columns:
% (primary_key_column_name, column_name, table_name, referenced_table_name,
column_name, referenced_column_name, column_name, referenced_column_name))
for bad_row in cursor.fetchall():
raise utils.IntegrityError("The row in table '%s' with primary key '%s' has an invalid "
"foreign key: %s.%s contains a value '%s' that does not have a corresponding value in %s.%s."
% (table_name, bad_row[0], table_name, column_name, bad_row[1],
referenced_table_name, referenced_column_name))
def close(self):
# If database is in memory, closing the connection destroys the
# database. To prevent accidental data loss, ignore close requests on
# an in-memory db.
if self.settings_dict['NAME'] != ":memory:":
FORMAT_QMARK_REGEX = re.compile(r'(?<!%)%s')
class SQLiteCursorWrapper(Database.Cursor):
Django uses "format" style placeholders, but pysqlite2 uses "qmark" style.
This fixes it -- but note that if you want to use a literal "%s" in a query,
you'll need to use "%%s".
def execute(self, query, params=()):
query = self.convert_query(query)
return Database.Cursor.execute(self, query, params)
except Database.IntegrityError as e:
raise utils.IntegrityError, utils.IntegrityError(*tuple(e)), sys.exc_info()[2]
except Database.DatabaseError as e:
raise utils.DatabaseError, utils.DatabaseError(*tuple(e)), sys.exc_info()[2]
def executemany(self, query, param_list):
query = self.convert_query(query)
return Database.Cursor.executemany(self, query, param_list)
except Database.IntegrityError as e:
raise utils.IntegrityError, utils.IntegrityError(*tuple(e)), sys.exc_info()[2]
except Database.DatabaseError as e:
raise utils.DatabaseError, utils.DatabaseError(*tuple(e)), sys.exc_info()[2]
def convert_query(self, query):
return FORMAT_QMARK_REGEX.sub('?', query).replace('%%', '%')
def _sqlite_extract(lookup_type, dt):
if dt is None:
return None
dt = util.typecast_timestamp(dt)
except (ValueError, TypeError):
return None
if lookup_type == 'week_day':
return (dt.isoweekday() % 7) + 1
return getattr(dt, lookup_type)
def _sqlite_date_trunc(lookup_type, dt):
dt = util.typecast_timestamp(dt)
except (ValueError, TypeError):
return None
if lookup_type == 'year':
return "%i-01-01 00:00:00" % dt.year
elif lookup_type == 'month':
return "%i-%02i-01 00:00:00" % (dt.year, dt.month)
elif lookup_type == 'day':
return "%i-%02i-%02i 00:00:00" % (dt.year, dt.month,
def _sqlite_format_dtdelta(dt, conn, days, secs, usecs):
dt = util.typecast_timestamp(dt)
delta = datetime.timedelta(int(days), int(secs), int(usecs))
if conn.strip() == '+':
dt = dt + delta
dt = dt - delta
except (ValueError, TypeError):
return None
# typecast_timestamp returns a date or a datetime without timezone.
# It will be formatted as "%Y-%m-%d" or "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S[.%f]"
return str(dt)
def _sqlite_regexp(re_pattern, re_string):
return bool(, re_string))
return False
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