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Class modifiers

Author: Bob Nystrom, Lasse Nielsen

Status: Accepted

Version 1.8

Experiment flag: class-modifiers

This proposal specifies four modifiers that can be placed on classes and mixins to allow an author to control whether the type allows being implemented, extended, and/or mixed in from outside of the library where it's defined.

Informally, the new syntax is:

  • No modifier: Mostly as today where the class or mixin has no restrictions, except that we no longer allow a class to be used as a mixin by default.

  • base: As a modifier on a class, allows the class to be extended but not implemented. As a modifier on a mixin, allows it to be mixed in but not implemented. In other words, it takes away being able to implement the interface of the declaration. This also applies transitively to all subtypes, since implementing a subtype also means implementing the superinterface.

  • interface: As a modifier on a class or mixin, allows the type to be implemented but not extended or mixed in. In other words, it takes away being able to inherit from the type.

  • final: As a modifier on a class or mixin, prohibits extending, implementing, or mixing in.

  • mixin class: A declaration that defines both a class and a mixin.

This proposal is a blend of a few earlier proposals:

The type modifiers document has some motivation and discussion around defaults and keyword choice which may be a useful reference. Unlike that proposal, this proposal is mostly non-breaking.


Dart's ethos is to be permissive by default. When you declare a class, it can be constructed, subclassed, and even exposes an implicit interface which can be implemented—a feature (possibly) unique to Dart. Users generally appreciate this flexibility and the power it places in the hands of library consumers.

Why might the author of a class or mixin author want to remove capabilities? Doesn't that just make the type less useful? The type does end up more restricted, but in return, there are more invariants about the type that the type author and users can rely on being true. Those invariants may make the type easier to understand, maintain, evolve, or even just to use.

Here are some use cases where restricting capabilities may lead to more robust software:

Adding methods

It's a compile-time error to have an implements clause on a non-abstract class unless it contains definitions of every member in the type that you claim to implement. This is a useful error because it ensures that any member someone can access on a type is actually defined and will succeed. It helps you in case you forget to implement something.

But it also means that if a new member is added to a class then every single class implementing that class's interface now has a new compile-time error since they are very unlikely to coincidentally already have that member.

This makes it hard to add new members to existing public types in packages. Since anyone could be implementing that type's interface, any new member is potentially a breaking API change which necessitates a major version bump. In practice, many API authors just document "please don't implement this class" and then rely on users to not do that.

However, for widely used packages, that polite agreement isn't sufficient. Instead, they are simply prevented from adding new members and APIs get frozen in time.

If a type disallows being implemented, then it becomes easier to add new members without worrying about breaking existing users. If the type also prevents being extended, then it's entirely safe to add new members to it. This makes it easier to grow and evolve APIs.

Unintended overriding

Most types contain methods that invoke other methods on this, for example:

class Account {
  int _balance = 0;

  bool canWithdraw(int amount) => amount <= _balance;

  bool tryWithdraw(int amount) {
    if (amount <= 0) {
      throw ArgumentError.value(amount, "amount", "Must be positive");

    if (!canWithdraw(amount)) return false;
    _balance -= amount;
    return true;

  // ...

The intent is that _balance should never be negative. There may be other code in this class that breaks if that isn't true. However, there's nothing preventing a subclass from doing:

class BustedAccount extends Account {
  // YOLO.
  bool canWithdraw(int amount) => true;

Extending a class gives you free rein to override whatever methods you want, while also inheriting concrete implementations of other methods that may assume you haven't done that. If we prevent Account from being subclassed, we ensure that when tryWithdraw() calls canWithdraw(), it calls the actual canWithdraw() method we expect.

Note that it's not necessary to prevent implementing Account for this use case. If you implement Account, you inherit none of its concrete implementation, so you don't end up with methods like tryWithdraw() whose behavior is broken.

Safe private members


class Account {
  int _balance = 0;

  bool tryTransfer(int amount, Account destination) {
    if (amount > _balance) return false;

    _balance -= amount;
    destination._balance += amount;

  // ...

What would happen here if a class from another library implemented Account and was passed as destination to tryTransfer()? When you implement a class's interface from outside of the library where it's defined, none of its private members are part of that interface. (If they were, you couldn't implement them.)

This isn't a widely known corner of the language, but if you try to access a private member on a object that doesn't implement it (because the class only implements the public part of the interface being implemented), Dart throws a NoSuchMethodException at runtime.

In general, it's not safe to assume any object coming in to your library actually has the private members you expect, because it could be an outside implementation of your class's interface.

Dart users generally prefer to catch bugs at compile time. If we could prevent other libraries from implementing the Account class's interface, then we could be certain that any Account passed to tryTransfer() would be an instance of our Account class (or a subclass of it) and thus be ensured that all private members we expect are defined.

Guaranteed initialization

Here's another example:

/// Assigns a unique ID to each instance.
class Handle {
  static int _nextID = 0;

  final int id;

  Handle() : id = _nextID++;

class Cache {
  final Map<int, Handle> _handles = {};

  void add(Handle handle) {
    _handles[] = handle;

  Handle? find(int id) => _handles[id];

The Cache class assumes each Handle has a unique id field. The Handle class's constructor ensures that (ignoring integer overflow for the moment). This even works if you subclass Handle, since the subclass's constructor must chain to and run the superclass constructor on Handle.

But if an unrelated type implements Handle's interface, then there's no guarantee that every instance of Handle has actually gone through that constructor.

If the constructor is doing validation or caching, you might require that all instances of the type have run it. But if the class's interface can be implemented, then it's possible to route around the constructor and break the class's invariants.

Guardrails and intention

The previous sections show concrete, mechanical reasons why you might want to remove type capabilities in order to enforce invariants and prevent bugs or crashes.

But there are softer reasons to remove capabilities too. You may simply not intend a type to be used in certain ways. There may be better ways for a user of your API to solve their problem. Removing a capability helps guide them towards how your API is supposed to be used.

It can make it simpler and easier to evolve your API. That in turn makes you more productive, which lets you improve your API in ways that also directly benefit your users.

Restrictions within the same library

The previous sections show why you might want to prevent a type from being extended or mixed in outside of the library where it's defined. But what about within the same library? If it's my type, and I choose to prevent outside code from extending or implementing it, can I ignore those restrictions within my own library?

A closely related modifier we are working on is sealed. This works in concert with the new pattern matching features to let you define a closed family of subtypes used for exhaustiveness checking. You put sealed on a supertype. Then you are only allowed to directly extend, implement, or mix in that supertype from within the same library.

In return for that restriction, in a switch, if you cover all of those subtypes, then the compiler knows that you have exhaustively covered all possible instances of the supertype. This is a big part of enabling a functional programming style in Dart.

The sealed modifier prevents direct subtyping from outside of the library where the sealed type is defined. But it doesn't prevent you from subtyping within the same library. In fact, the whole point of sealed is to define subtypes within the same library so that you can pattern match on those to cover the supertype.

Extending non-extensible classes in the same library

Preventing a class from being extended gives you an important invariant: Calls to members on this from within that class won't end up in overrides you don't control. This invariant remains even if we let you extend the class in the same library. Calls to those members may end up in overrides, but they will be overrides you yourself wrote in that same library.

Extending non-extensible classes is also really useful in API design. It lets you offer a class hierarchy to users that is closed to further extension.

Consider the earlier example where you have a Shape base class and a couple of subclasses. Let's say you also have code in that library for performing intersection tests on pairs of shapes. That intersection code needs special support for each pair of types: square and square, square and circle, circle and circle. That means it would be hard to correctly support users adding their own new subclasses of Shape and passing them to the library.

As the shape library author, you want to subclass Shape yourself so that you can define Square and Circle, but disallow others from doing so. (In this specific example, you probably also want to prohibit Shape from being implemented too.)

Implementing non-implementable types in the same library

A key invariant you get by preventing a type from being implemented is that it becomes safe to access private members defined on that type without risking a runtime exception. You are ensured that any instance of the type is an instance of a type from your library that includes all of its private members.

This invariant is still preserved if we allow you to implement the type from within the same library. When you implement a type inside its library, the private members are part of the interface. So any type implementing it must also define those private members and you'll never hit a NoSuchMethodException.

Transitive restrictions

The previous two sections suggest that we can ignore extends and implements restrictions within the same library, and I think there are compelling use cases for why we should, at least for extends, if not both.

If we do, what restrictions do those secondary types have? Let's say I write:

interface class NoExtend {}

class MySubclass extends NoExtend {}

The interface modifier means that NoExtend can only be implemented outside of this library and not extended. We ignore the restriction internally and extend it with MySubclass, which doesn't have any modifiers. What capabilities does MySubclass now expose externally? We have a few options:

  • Inherit restrictions. We could say that MySubclass implicitly gets an interface modifier which it inherits from NoExtend. This way, if you add a restriction to some type and temporarily ignore it, the language continues to enforce that restriction externally all throughout the subtype hierarchy.

    This means that you cannot just look at a single type declaration to see what you're allowed to do with it. You have to walk up the hierarchy looking for modifiers. I think it's important for users to be able to quickly tell what they can do with a type just by looking at its declaration, so I don't like this.

  • No inherited restrictions. The simplest option is to say that each type gets whatever restrictions you put on it. Since MySubclass has no modifiers, it has no restrictions. That's what you wrote, so that's what you get. If that's not what you want, then you should put a modifier on it.

    I like the simplicity of this. I think it's consistent with the rest of Dart which is permissive by default. Right now, you can make a class effectively interface by giving it only private generative constructors. Since there's no way for a class outside of the library to call one of those constructors, it cannot be extended externally. But you could subclass it inside the library with a new class that calls that private generative constructor from its own public one. That subclass is now externally extensible and the language quietly lets you do that.

  • Disallow removing restrictions. We could say that you can ignore a type's restrictions within the same library, but any types that do that must have the same restrictions as the type they extend or implement. So if you implement a class marked base in the same library, that implementing class must also be marked base or final.

    This avoids any confusion about whether a subtype removes a restriction. But it comes at the expense of flexibility. If a user wants to remove a restriction, they have no ability to.

    This would contrast with sealed where you can have subtypes of a sealed type that are not themselves sealed. This is a deliberate choice because there's no need for the direct subtypes of a sealed to be sealed in order for exhaustiveness checking to be sound. Since exhaustiveness is the goal and Dart is permissive by default, we allow subtypes of sealed types to be unsealed.

    It also prevents API designs that seem reasonable and useful to me. Imagine a library for transportation with classes like:

    abstract final class Vehicle {}
    class LandVehicle extends Vehicle {}
    class AquaticVehicle extends Vehicle {}
    class FlyingVehicle extends Vehicle {}

    It allows you to define new subclasses of the various modalities. You can add cars, bikes, canoes, and gliders to it. But it deliberately does not want to support adding entire new modalities by extending Vehicle directly. You cannot add vehicles that, say, fly through space because the library isn't designed to support that.

    If we require subclasses to have the same restrictions, then there's no way to make Vehicle final while allowing LandVehicle and friends to be extended.

  • Trust but verify. In the earlier example, it's not clear what the author intends. Maybe they deliberately didn't put any modifiers on MySubclass because they want to re-add the capability that its superclass removed. But maybe they just didn't notice that NoExtend removed them, or they forgot to put interface on MySubclass.

    Since it's not clear what they meant, the language could require them to clarify. If you define a subtype of a type that has removed a capability, we could require you to annotate specifically when you re-add that capability. If you don't intend to re-add a capability, you restate the restriction:

    interface class NoExtend {}
    interface class MySubclass extends NoExtend {}

    And if you do intend to loosen it, you make that explicit by some marker like:

    interface class NoExtend {}
    reopen class MySubclass extends NoExtend {}

    Here "reopen" means, "I know I didn't put any other modifier here and that means this class has more capabilities than my parent."

    Personally, I think this is probably more modifiers than we want and is more trouble than it's worth. I worry about having to explain to users that a class marked reopen means the same thing as a class not marked with it. But I do think it could be useful to offer this as a lint with a metadata annotation for users that are more cautious, like:

    interface class NoExtend {}
    @reopen class MySubclass extends NoExtend {}

This proposal takes the last option where types have exactly the restrictions they declare but a lint can be turned on for users who want to be reminded if they re-add a capability in a subtype.

Inherited restrictions

Allowing you to ignore restrictions on your own types allows some useful architectural patterns, but it's important that doing so doesn't let you ignore restrictions on types from other libraries because then you could break the invariants the library expects. In particular, consider:

// lib_a.dart
base class A {
  void _private() {
    print('Got it.');

callPrivateMethod(A a) {

This library declares a class and marks it base to ensure that every instance of A in the program must be an A or a class that inherits from it. That in turn ensures that the call to _private() in callPrivateMethod() is always safe.

Now consider:

// lib_b.dart
import 'lib_a.dart';

base class B extends A {} // OK: Inheriting.

class C implements B {} // OK: Ignoring restriction on own type B.

These two class declarations each seem to be fine. But put together, the result is a class C that is a subtype of A but doesn't inherit from it and doesn't have the _private() method that lib_a.dart expects.

So we want to allow libraries to ignore restrictions on their own types, but we need to be careful that doing so doesn't break invariants in other libraries. In practice, this means that when a class opts out of being implemented using base or final, then that particular restriction cannot be ignored.

Mixin classes

In line with Dart's permissive default nature, Dart allows any class declaration to also be used as a mixin (in spec parlance, it allows a mixin to be "derived from a class declaration"), provided the class meets the restrictions that mixins require: Its immediate superclass must be Object and it must not declare any generative constructors.

In practice, mixins are quite different from classes and it's uncommon for users to deliberately define a type that is used as both. It's easy to define a class without intending it to be used as a mixin and then accidentally forbid that usage by adding a generative constructor or superclass to the class. That is a breaking change to any downstream user that had that class in a with clause.

Using a class as a mixin is rarely useful, but it is sometimes, so we don't want to prohibit it entirely. We just want to flip the default since allowing all classes to be used as mixins makes them more brittle with relatively little upside. Under this proposal we require authors to explicitly opt in to allowing the class to be used as a mixin by adding a mixin modifier to the class:

class OnlyClass {}

class FailUseAsMixin extends OtherSuperclass with OnlyClass {} // Error.

mixin class Both {}

class UsesAsSuperclass extends Both {}

class UsesAsMixin extends OtherSuperclass with Both {} // OK.


This proposal builds on the existing sealed types proposal so the grammar includes those changes. The full set of modifiers that can appear before a class declaration are abstract, sealed, base, interface, final, and mixin. Only the base modifier can appear before a mixin declaration.

The modifiers do not apply to other declarations like enum, typedef, or extension.

Many combinations don't make sense:

  • base, interface, and final all control the same two capabilities so are mutually exclusive.
  • sealed types cannot be constructed so it's redundant to combine with abstract.
  • sealed types already cannot be mixed in, extended or implemented from another library, so it's redundant to combine with final, base, or interface.
  • mixin as a modifier can obviously only be applied to a class declaration, which makes it also introduce a mixin.
  • mixin as a modifier cannot be applied to a mixin-application class declaration (the class C = S with M; syntax for declaring a class). The remaining modifiers can.
  • A mixin or mixin class declaration is intended to be mixed in, so its declaration cannot have an interface, final or sealed modifier.
  • A mixin declaration cannot be constructed, so abstract is redundant.
  • enum declarations cannot be extended, implemented, mixed in, and can always be instantiated, so no modifiers apply to enum declarations.

The remaining valid combinations and their capabilities are:

Declaration Construct? Extend? Implement? Mix in? Exhaustive?
class Yes Yes Yes No No
base class Yes Yes No No No
interface class Yes No Yes No No
final class Yes No No No No
sealed class No No No No Yes
abstract class No Yes Yes No No
abstract base class No Yes No No No
abstract interface class No No Yes No No
abstract final class No No No No No
mixin class Yes Yes Yes Yes No
base mixin class Yes Yes No Yes No
abstract mixin class No Yes Yes Yes No
abstract base mixin class No Yes No Yes No
mixin No No Yes Yes No
base mixin No No No Yes No

The grammar is:

classDeclaration  ::= (classModifiers | mixinClassModifiers) 'class' typeIdentifier
                      typeParameters? superclass? interfaces?
                      '{' (metadata classMemberDeclaration)* '}'
                      | classModifiers 'mixin'? 'class' mixinApplicationClass

classModifiers    ::= 'sealed'
                    | 'abstract'? ('base' | 'interface' | 'final')?

mixinClassModifiers ::= 'abstract'? 'base'? 'mixin'

mixinDeclaration  ::= 'base'? 'mixin' typeIdentifier typeParameters?
                      ('on' typeNotVoidList)? interfaces?
                      '{' (metadata classMemberDeclaration)* '}'

Static semantics

The modifiers introduce restrictions on which other declarations can depend on the modified declaration, and how. To express this, we first introduce some terminology that makes it easy to express the relations between declarations.


We distinguish libraries by whether they have this feature enabled, and whether they are platform libraries.

  • A pre-feature library is a library whose language version is lower than the version this feature is released in.

  • A post-feature library is a library whose language version is at or above the version this feature is released in.

  • A platform library is a library with a dart:... URI. A platform library is always a post-feature library in an SDK supporting the feature, but for backwards compatibility, pre-feature libraries may ignore some modifiers in platform libraries, as if the library was also a pre-feature library.

We define the relations between declarations and the other declarations they are declared as subtypes of as follow.

  • A declaration S is the declared superclass of a class declaration D iff:

    • D has an extends T clause and T denotes S.
    • D has the form ... class ... = T with ... and T denotes S.

    A type clause T denotes a declaration S if T of the form id or id<typeArgs>, and id is an identifier or qualified identifier which resolves to S, or which resolves to a type alias with a right-hand-side which denotes S. _(This allows us to refer to the "declared superclass" uniformly across mixin-application class declaration and a "normal" class declaration, even though the former cannot have any extends clause. A class declaration has at most one declared superclass declaration, it can have none if it's a non-mixin application declaration with no extends clause.)

  • A declaration S is a declared mixin of a class or enum declaration which has a with T1, ..., Tn clause where any of T1,...,Tn denotes S.

  • A declaration S is a declared interface of a class, mixin class, mixin or enum declaration which has an implements T1, ..., Tn clause where any of T1,...,Tn denotes S.

  • A declaration S is a declared on type of a mixin declaration which has an on T1, ..., Tn clause where any of T1,...,Tn denotes S.

We need these independently, but we also need the union of these relations, capturing that a declaration depends directly on another in any way.

  • A declaration S is a direct superdeclaration of a declaration D iff S is a declared superclass, mixin, interface or on type of D.

We then define the transitive closure of this relation, expression that a declaration depends on another through any number of intermediate declarations.

  • A declaration S is a proper superdeclaration of a declaration D iff either S is a direct superdeclaration of D, or there exists a declaration P such that P is a direct superdeclaration of D and S is a proper superdeclaration of P.

The language prevents dependency cycles in declarations, because cycles prevent subtyping from being well-defined. Because of that, the "proper superdeclaration" relation is a directed acyclic relation. Or alternatively, we could write the rule against cycles as it being a compile-time error if any declaration S is a proper superdeclaration of itself.

Finally we define the reflexive closure of the proper superdeclaration relations, because it's sometimes useful to talk about a the entire super-hierarchy of a declaration including itself.

  • A declaration is a superdeclaration of a declaration D iff S is D or S is a proper superdeclaration of D.

With all these syntactic relations between declarations in place, we can specify the restrictions imposed by modifiers.

Basic restrictions

With respect to compile-time errors caused by missing required class modifiers, every enum declaration is considered to have the modifier final. An enum declaration is always subject to restrictions which are at least as strong as the restrictions implied by that modifier. This ensures that we can specify those errors without mentioning an exception for enum declarations in every rule.

It's a compile-time error if:

  • A declaration depends directly on a sealed declaration from another library. No exceptions, not even for platform libraries.

    More formally: A declaration D from library L has a direct superdeclaration S marked sealed (so necessarily a class declaration) in a library different from L.

    // a.dart
    sealed class S {}
    // b.dart
    import 'a.dart';
    class E extends S {} // Error.
    class I implements S {} // Error.
    mixin O on S {}  // Error.
    class M with S {} // Error, for several reasons.
  • A declaration has a direct super declaration from another library which is marked final(with some exceptions for platform libraries).

    More formally: A declaration D from library L has a direct superdeclaration S marked final (so necessarily a class declaration) in library K, and neither

    • L and K is the same library, nor
    • K is a platform library and L is a pre-feature library.
    // a.dart
    final class F {}
    // b.dart
    import 'a.dart';
    class C1 extends F {}  // Error.
    class C2 implements F {}  // Error.
    mixin class C3 implements F {}  // Error.
    mixin M1 implements F {}  // Error.
    mixin M2 on F {}  // Error.
    enum E1 implements F {}  // Error.
  • A class extends or mixes in a declaration marked interface from another library (with some exceptions for platform libraries).

    (You cannot inherit implementation from a class marked interface except inside the same library. Unless you are in a pre-feature library and you are inheriting from a platform library.)

    More formally: A declaration C from library L has a declared superclass declaration S marked interface from library K, and neither

    • L and K is the same library, nor
    • K is a platform library and L is a pre-feature library.
    // a.dart
    interface class I {}
    // b.dart
    import 'a.dart';
    class C1 extends I {} // Error.
  • A declaration implements another declaration, and the other declaration itself, or any of its super-declarations, are marked base or final and are not from the first declaration's library (with some exceptions for platform libraries).

    (You can only implement an interface if all base or final superdeclarations are inside your own library. Or if you're in a pre-feature library and all base or final superdeclarations are in platform libraries.)

    More formally: A declaration C in library L has a declared interface P, and P has any superdeclaration S, from a library K, which is marked base or final (including S being P itself), and neither:

    • K and L is the same library, mor
    • K is a platform library and L is a pre-feature library.
    // a.dart
    base class S {}
    base mixin M {}
    final class F {}
    // b.dart
    import 'a.dart';
    // Direct implementation of other-library `base` class.
    base class D implements S {} // Error
    mixin N implements M {} // Error.
    enum E implements F { e } // Error.
    // Indirect implementation of other-library `base` class.
    base class P extends S {}
    base class C implements P {} // Error.
  • A declaration has a base or final superdeclaration, and is not itself marked base, final or sealed. This also applies to declarations inside the same library.

    (A base or final declaration doesn't expose an implementable interface, and for that to matter, nor must any of its subclasses. The entire subclass tree below such a declaration must prevent implementation too.)

    More formally: A class, mixin class or mixin declaration D in a post-feature library has any proper superdeclaration marked base or final, and D is not itself marked base, final or sealed.

    // a.dart
    base class B {}
    sealed class S extends B {}
    enum E extends S { e }
    class C0 extends B {} // Error.
    class C1 implements B {} // Error.
    base mixin BM {}
    mixin M0 implements B {} // Error
    mixin M1 on B {} // Error
    // b.dart
    import 'a.dart';
    base class V1 extends B {}
    final class V2 extends B {}
    sealed class V3 extends B {}
    enum E2 with BM { e } // Not a class/mixin class/mixin declaration.
    class C2 extends B {} // Error.
    class C3 with BM {} // Error.

An enum declaration still cannot be implemented, extended or mixed in anywhere, independently of modifiers.

A type alias (typedef) cannot be used to subvert these restrictions or any of the restrictions below. The actual superdeclaration used in these checks is the one that the type alias expands to. Note that the library where the type alias is defined does not come into play. Type aliases cannot be marked with any of the new modifiers.

Mixin restrictions

As before, a declared superclass declaration must be a class declaration (you can only extend another class) and a declared interface declaration must be a class or mixin declaration, and now it may also be a mixin class declaration (you can only implement something which has an interface, and not enums which cannot be implemented at all).

The new mixin class declaration has a set of syntactic rules which ensures that it can be used as both a class and a mixin.

It's a compile-time error if a mixin class declaration:

  • has an interface, final or sealed modifier. This is baked into the grammar, but it bears repeating.
  • does not have Object from dart:core as immediate superclass.
  • declares any non-trivial generative constructor.

A mixin class declaration has Object from dart:core as superclass iff it’s either:

  • A mixin application class declaration where the declared superclass is the Object class from dart:core, and which has precisely one declared mixin. E.g., mixin class C = Object with M;
  • A non-mixin-application class declaration with no declared mixins, and either no declared superclass, or with a type denoting Object from dart:core as the declared superclass. E.g., mixin class C {} or mixin class C extends Object {}

_The mixin class declarations can also have interfaces, type parameters, _ and modifiers, but no extends or with clauses other than those shown here.

A trivial generative constructor is a generative constructor that:

  • Is not a redirecting constructor _(Foo(...) : this.other(...);),
  • declares no parameters (parameter list is precisely ()),
  • has no initializer list (no : ... part, so no asserts or initializers, and no explicit super constructor invocation),
  • has no body (only ;), and
  • is not external. An external constructor is considered to have an externally provided initializer list and/or body.

A trivial generative constructor may be named or unnamed, and may be const or non-const. A non-trivial generative constructor is a generative constructor which is not a trivial generative constructor.

A trivial generative constructor has no effect on object construction, so it can be safely ignored and omitted when the mixin class is used as a mixin, but it allows the mixin class declaration to also be used a superclass, even for subclasses with constant constructors.


mixin class C {
  // Trivial generative constructors:
  const C();
  const C.alsoNamed();

  // Non-trivial generative constructors:
  C(int x); // Error.
  C(this.x); // Error.
  C() {} // Error.
  C(): x = 0; // Error.
  C(): assert(true); // Error.
  C(): super(); // Error.
  C(): this.named(); // Error.

  // Not generative constructors, so neither trivial generative nor non-trivial
  // generative:
  factory C.f = C;
  factory C.f2() { ... }

  int? x;

mixin class C2 extends Object implements I {}

abstract base mixin class C3 = Object with M implements I {
  const C3();

// Invalid mixin classes.
mixin class E extends C {} // Error.
mixin class E extends Object with M {} // Error.
mixin class E with M {} // Error.
mixin class E = C with M; // Error
mixin class E = Object with M1, M2; // Error

There are also changes to which declarations can be mixed in.

A post-feature class can no longer be used as a mixin unless it's declared as a mixin class. In post-feature code, you can only mix in mixin or mixin class declarations Pre-feature code is not changed, so some pre-feature classes can still be mixed in, and the SDK exception allows pre-feature code to pretend platform libraries are still pre-feature libraries.

The formal rules for which declarations can be mixed in become:

It's a compile-time error if a class or enum declaration D from library L has S from library K as a declared mixin, unless:

  • S is a mixin or mixin class declaration (necessarily from a post-feature library), or
  • S is a non-mixin class declaration which has Object as superclass and declares no generative constructor, and either
    • K is a pre-feature library, or
    • K is a platform library and L is a pre-feature library.

That is, a class not marked mixin can still be used as a mixin when the class's declaration is in a pre-feature library and it satisfies specific requirements.

For pre-feature libraries, we cannot tell if the intent of class was "just a class" or "both a class and a mixin". For compatibility, we assume the latter, even if the class is being used as a mixin in a post-feature library where it does happen to be possible to distinguish those two intents.

@reopen lint

We don't specify lints and metadata annotations in the language specification, so this part of the proposal will not become a formal part of the language. Instead, it's a suggested part of the overall user experience of the feature.

A metadata annotation @reopen is added to package meta and a lint "implicit_reopen" is added to the linter. When the lint is enabled, a lint warning is reported if a class is not annotated @reopen and it:

  • extends a class marked interface or final and is not itself marked interface or final, or
  • extends a sealed class which itself transitively extends a class marked interface or final.

Runtime semantics

There are no runtime semantics.


The changes in this proposal are guarded by a language version. This makes the restriction on not allowing classes to be used as mixins by default non-breaking.

  • base, interface, final, sealed and mixin can only be applied to classes and mixins in post-feature libraries.

  • When the base, interface, final, mixin, or sealed modifiers are placed on a class or mixin, the resulting restrictions apply to all other libraries, even pre-feature libraries.

    In other words, we gate being able to author the restrictions to post-feature libraries. But once a type has those restrictions, they apply to all other libraries, regardless of the versions of those libraries. "Ignorance of the law is no defense."

  • We will add modifiers to some classes in platform (i.e., dart:) libraries when this feature ships. But we will also like to not immediately break existing code. To avoid forcing users to immediately migrate, declarations in pre-feature libraries can ignore some base, interface and final modifiers on some declarations in platform libraries, and can mix in non-mixin classes from platform libraries, as long as such a class has Object as superclass and declares no constructors. (legacy-mixin-tests). Instead, users will only have to abide by those restrictions when they upgrade their library's language version to 3.0 or later. It will still not be possible to, e.g., extend or implement the int class, even if will now have a final modifier. Going through a pre-feature library does not remove transitive restrictions for code in post-feature libraries. Any post-feature library declaration which has a platform library class marked base or final as a superinterface must be marked base, final or sealed, and cannot be implemented locally, even if the superinterface chain goes through a pre-feature library declaration, and even if that declaration ignores the base modifier.

    This ability to ignore modifiers only apply to platform libraries accessed from pre-feature libraries, because code doesn't get to decide the version of the SDK that it runs on, unlike how a package can depend on specific versions of another package. Packages should use package versioning to introduce breaking restrictions instead (a major version semantic version upgrade), but those libraries can then rely on the restrictions being enforced. The platform libraries will bear the cost of not being able to rely on its own modifiers until all code in a program is language version 3.0 later.


When upgrading your library to the new language version, you can preserve the previous behavior by adding mixin to every class declaration that can be used as a mixin. If the class defines a generative constructor or extends anything other than Object, then it already cannot be used as a mixin and no change is needed.

Implementation and documentation suggestions for usability

This section is non-normative. It's a set of suggestions to implementation and documentation teams to help ensure that the feature is easy for users to use and discover.

Errors, error recovery, and fixups

First of all, to the extent that it's reasonably feasible to do so, we should try to make the parser understand that any time it sees a top level sequence of any of the keywords sealed, abstract, final, interface, base, mixin, or class, the user is trying to declare something class-like or mixin-like, even if they left out an important keyword, used conflicting keywords, or put keywords in the wrong order. That way we can issue errors whose IDE fixups will help the user clean up their class or mixin declaration, rather than just unexpected { or something. For example, this should be recognized by the parser as an attempt to make a mixin or class:

interface sealed C {

(The parser will obviously issue an error, but it should still fire the appropriate events to allow the analyzer to create a ClassDeclaration AST node, and it should analyze the things inside the curly braces as class members).

If the keywords aren't in the proper order (sealed/abstract, then final/interface/base, then mixin, then class), or if a keyword was repeated, the parser error should be on the first keyword token that's out of order or repeated, and the fixup should offer to fix the order by sorting and de-duplicating the keywords appropriately. So in the example above, the "wrong order" error should be on the keyword sealed, and the fixup should change it to sealed interface, which is still an error for other reasons, but is at least in the right order now.

With order and duplication out of the way, that leaves 127 possible combinations of the 7 keywords. The remaining error cases (and their associated IDE fixups) are:

  • Did you say both abstract and sealed? Drop abstract; it’s redundant. Now there's only 95 possibilities.

  • Did you say both interface and final? Drop interface; it’s redundant. Now there's only 71 possibilities.

  • Did you say both base and final? Drop base; it’s redundant. Now there's only 59 possibilities.

  • Did you say both interface and base? Say final instead. Now there's only 47 possibilities.

  • Did you say neither mixin nor class? You have to pick one or the other or both. The fixup can probably safely assume you mean class. (Exception: if you just said interface and no other keywords, you probably mean abstract class). Now there's only 36 possibilities.

  • Did you say both sealed and final? Drop final; it’s redundant. Now there's only 33 possibilities.

  • Did you say both sealed and base? Drop base; it’s redundant. Now there's only 30 possibilities.

  • Did you say both sealed and interface? Drop interface; it’s redundant. Now there's only 27 possibilities.

  • Did you say both mixin and class, as well as one of the following keywords: sealed, interface, or final? Drop class and replace extends M with with M wherever it appears in your library. Now there's only 22 possibilities.

  • Did you say both abstract and mixin, but not class? Drop abstract; it’s redundant. Now we are down to the 18 permitted possibilities.

If we take this sort of approach, then users who don't love reading documentation will be able to just experimentally string together combinations of the keywords we've made available to them, and the errors and fixups will guide them to something valid, and then they can play around and see the effect.

Introducing the feature to users

If we assume that most users will have access to the IDE fixups noted above, it suggests that a nice way to introduce the feature to folks would be to gloss over what combinations are redundant or contradictory, and just tell them in plain English what each keyword does. Users who love reading documentation can read further and find out which combinations are prohibited; users who don't can just try them out, and the IDE will train them which combinations are valid over time. So the core of the feature becomes explainable in just seven lines, three of which are just restatements of things the user was already familiar with. Something like:

  • sealed means "this type has a known set of direct subtypes, so switching on it will require the switch to be exhaustive".

  • abstract means "this type can't be constructed directly", but you already knew that. It's only included in the list to help clarify that abstract is one of the seven keywords users should try combining together at the top of your declaration.

  • interface means "this type can't be extended from outside this library".

  • base means "this type can't be implemented from outside this library".

  • final means "this type can neither be extended nor implemented from outside this library".

  • mixin means "this type can be used in mixin-like ways, i.e. it can appear in the 'with' clause of other classes". Granted, this is kind of a circular definition, but this explanation is intended for programmers familiar with Dart 2.19, and they're already familiar with mixins.

  • class means "this type can be used in class-like ways, i.e. it can be extended, or constructed, unless otherwise forbidden". Again, this is a circular definition, but our audience obviously already knows what classes are. Including it in the list helps make it clear that we're putting mixins and classes on equal footing, and helps clarify why mixin class is a reasonable thing.

(Note that this list is deliberately in the order required by the grammar).

Obviously there are plenty of details left out of this description. But hopefully it should be enough to get people started using the feature, and the errors and fixups would help keep them on the rails.



  • Allow any class declaration with Object as superclass to be a mixin class.


  • Update the modifiers applied to anonymous mixin applications to closer match the superclass/mixin modifiers.
  • State that enum declarations count as final.
  • Rephrase semantics completely, based only on relations between declarations.
  • Say that pre-feature libraries can mix in non-mixin platform library classes which satisfy the old requirements for being used as a mixin.


  • Add implementation suggestions about errors, error recovery, and fixups for class modifiers.


  • Fix mixin application grammar to match prose where mixin can't be applied to a mixin application class.


  • Update rules to close loopholes on classes that don't want to expose interfaces (#2755, #2757).
  • Only allow mixing in mixin and mixin class declarations, even inside the same library.
  • Specify modifiers for anonymous mixin application classes.


  • Specify and update restrictions on mixin class declarations to allow trivial generative constructors.

  • Specify that "mixin application" class declarations (class C = S with M) cannot be mixin class declaration, but can use other modifiers


  • Specify how all modifiers interact with language versioning (#2725).


  • Clarify that all modifiers are gated behind a language version.

  • Rationalize which modifiers can be combined with mixin class and specify behavior of mixin class.

  • Rename to "Class modifiers" with the corresponding experiment flag name.