An extensive evaluation and comparison of 28 state-of-the-art superpixel algorithms on 5 datasets.
C++ Matlab C CMake Java Shell Other
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Latest commit 5049485 Feb 15, 2018
Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
ccs_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
cis_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
cmake Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
crs_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
cw_cli Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
dasp_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
data Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
docs Wrong package name Oct 14, 2017
eams_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
ergc_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
ers_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
etps_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
eval_average_cli Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
eval_boundaries2labels_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
eval_connected_relabel_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
eval_parameter_optimization_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
eval_summary_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
eval_visualization_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
eval_visualization_fuse_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
examples Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
fh_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
lib_ccs Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_cis Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_crs Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_cw Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_dasp Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_eams Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_ergc Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_ers Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
lib_etps Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_eval Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
lib_fh Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_lsc Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_mss Updated Doxygen and MSS docs. Feb 11, 2017
lib_nc Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_pb Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
lib_pbedges Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_pf Added PF and SEAW. Jan 21, 2017
lib_poise Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_preslic Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
lib_qs Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_refh @ b02188e Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_reseeds @ 22a9d2d Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_rw Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_seaw Added PF and SEAW. Jan 21, 2017
lib_seeds Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
lib_sfedges Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_slic Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
lib_tools Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
lib_tp Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_tps Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_vc Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_vccs Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_vlslic Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lib_wp Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
lsc_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
mss_cli Added MSS code. Feb 11, 2017
nc_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
pb_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
pf_cli Added PF and SEAW. Jan 21, 2017
poise_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
preslic_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
qs_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
refh_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
reseeds_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
rw_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
seaw_cli Added PF and SEAW. Jan 21, 2017
seeds_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
slic_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
tp_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
tps_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
vc_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
vccs_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
vlslic_cli Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
w_cli Updated documentation, added Doxygen documentation, updated README. Dec 19, 2016
wp_cli Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
.gitignore Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
.gitmodules Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016
.travis.yml Updated Travis and building instructions. Dec 7, 2016
CMakeLists.txt Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
DOXYGEN.md Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
RANKING.png Forgot image. Dec 8, 2016
README.md Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
config.doxygen Added average metrics including easy-to-use cli, fixed some cmake iss… Apr 16, 2017
make.m Initial commit with README and documentation. Dec 7, 2016

README.md

Superpixels: An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

Build Status

This repository contains the source code used for evaluation in [1], a large-scale comparison of state-of-the-art superpixel algorithms.

ArXiv | Project Page | Datasets | Doxygen Documentation

This repository subsumes earlier work on comparing superpixel algorithms: davidstutz/gcpr2015-superpixels, davidstutz/superpixels-revisited.

Please cite the following work if you use this benchmark or the provided tools or implementations:

[1] D. Stutz, A. Hermans, B. Leibe.
    Superpixels: An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art.
    Computing Research Repository, abs/1612.01601.

Also make also sure to cite additional papers when using datasets or superpixel algorithms.

Updates:

  • An implementation of the average metrics, i.e. Average Boundary Recall (called Average Miss Rate in the updated paper), Average Undersegmentation Error and Average Explained Variation (called Average Unexplained Variation in the updated paper) is provided in lib_eval/evaluation.h and an easy-to-use command line tool is provided, see eval_average_cli and the corresponding documentation and examples in Executables and Examples respectively.
  • As of Mar 29, 2017 the paper was accepted for publication at CVIU.
  • The converted (i.e. pre-processed) NYUV2, SBD and SUNRGBD datasets are now available in the data repository.
  • The source code of MSS has been added.
  • The source code of PF and SEAW has been added.
  • Doxygen documentation is now available here.
  • The presented paper was in preparation for a longer period of time — some recent superpixel algorithms are not included in the comparison. These include SCSP and LRW.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Superpixels group pixels similar in color and other low-level properties. In this respect, superpixels address two problems inherent to the processing of digital images: firstly, pixels are merely a result of discretization; and secondly, the high number of pixels in large images prevents many algorithms from being computationally feasible. Superpixels were introduced as more natural entities - grouping pixels which perceptually belong together while heavily reducing the number of primitives.

This repository can be understood as supplementary material for an extensive evaluation of 28 algorithms on 5 datasets regarding visual quality, performance, runtime, implementation details and robustness - as presented in [1]. To ensure a fair comparison, parameters have been optimized on separate training sets; as the number of generated superpixels heavily influences parameter optimization, we additionally enforced connectivity. Furthermore, to evaluate superpixel algorithms independent of the number of superpixels, we propose to integrate over commonly used metrics such as Boundary Recall, Undersegmentation Error and Explained Variation. Finally, we present a ranking of the superpixel algorithms considering multiple metrics and independent of the number of generated superpixels, as shown below.

Algorithm ranking.

The table shows the average ranks across the 5 datasets, taking into account Average Boundary Recall (ARec) and Average Undersegmentation Error (AUE) - lower is better in both cases, see Benchmark. The confusion matrix shows the rank distribution of the algorithms across the datasets.

Algorithms

The following algorithms were evaluated in [1], and most of them are included in this repository:

Included Algorithm Reference
☑️ CCS Ref. & Web
Instructions CIS Ref. & Web
☑️ CRS Ref. & Web
☑️ CW Ref. & Web
☑️ DASP Ref. & Web
☑️ EAMS Ref., Ref., Ref. & Web
☑️ ERS Ref. & Web
☑️ FH Ref. & Web
☑️ MSS Ref.
☑️ PB Ref. & Web
☑️ preSLIC Ref. & Web
☑️ reSEEDS Web
☑️ SEAW Ref. & Web
☑️ SEEDS Ref. & Web
☑️ SLIC Ref. & Web
☑️ TP Ref. & Web
☑️ TPS Ref. & Web
☑️ vlSLIC Web
☑️ W Web
☑️ WP Ref. & Web
☑️ PF Ref. & Web
☑️ LSC Ref. & Web
☑️ RW Ref. & Web
☑️ QS Ref. & Web
☑️ NC Ref. & Web
☑️ VCCS Ref. & Web
☑️ POISE Ref. & Web
☑️ VC Ref. & Web
☑️ ETPS Ref. & Web
☑️ ERGC Ref., Ref. & Web

Submission

To keep the benchmark alive, we encourage authors to make their implementations publicly available and integrate them into this benchmark. We are happy to help with the integration and update the results published in [1] and on the project page. Also see the Documentation for details.

License

Note that part of the provided algorithms come with different licenses, see Algorithms for details. Also note that the datasets come with different licenses, see Datasets for details.

Further, note that the additional dataset downloads as in Datasets follow the licenses of the original datasets.

The remaining source code provided in this repository is licensed as follows:

Copyright (c) 2016, David Stutz All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  • Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.