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package DBIx::Class;
use strict;
use warnings;
# Always remember to do all digits for the version even if they're 0
# i.e. first release of 0.XX *must* be 0.XX000. This avoids fBSD ports
# brain damage and presumably various other packaging systems too
# $VERSION declaration must stay up here, ahead of any other package
# declarations, as to not confuse various modules attempting to determine
# this ones version, whether that be s.c.o. or Module::Metadata, etc
$VERSION = '0.08209';
$VERSION = eval $VERSION if $VERSION =~ /_/; # numify for warning-free dev releases
package # hide from pause
use Config;
use constant {
# but of course
BROKEN_FORK => ($^O eq 'MSWin32') ? 1 : 0,
HAS_ITHREADS => $Config{useithreads} ? 1 : 0,
# ::Runmode would only be loaded by DBICTest, which in turn implies t/
DBICTEST => eval { DBICTest::RunMode->is_author } ? 1 : 0,
# During 5.13 dev cycle HELEMs started to leak on copy
# request for all tests would force "non-leaky" illusion and vice-versa
# otherwise confess that this perl is busted ONLY on smokers
: eval { DBICTest::RunMode->is_smoker } && ($] >= 5.013005 and $] <= 5.013006) ? 1
# otherwise we are good
: 0
if ($] < 5.009_005) {
require MRO::Compat;
constant->import( OLD_MRO => 1 );
else {
require mro;
constant->import( OLD_MRO => 0 );
use mro 'c3';
use DBIx::Class::Optional::Dependencies;
use base qw/DBIx::Class::Componentised DBIx::Class::AccessorGroup/;
use DBIx::Class::StartupCheck;
use DBIx::Class::Exception;
__PACKAGE__->mk_group_accessors(inherited => '_skip_namespace_frames');
sub mk_classdata {
sub mk_classaccessor {
my $self = shift;
$self->mk_group_accessors('inherited', $_[0]);
$self->set_inherited(@_) if @_ > 1;
sub component_base_class { 'DBIx::Class' }
my ($class,$code,@attrs) = @_;
$class->mk_classdata('__attr_cache' => {})
unless $class->can('__attr_cache');
$class->__attr_cache->{$code} = [@attrs];
return ();
sub _attr_cache {
my $self = shift;
my $cache = $self->can('__attr_cache') ? $self->__attr_cache : {};
return {
%{ $self->maybe::next::method || {} },
=head1 NAME
DBIx::Class - Extensible and flexible object <-> relational mapper.
The community can be found via:
=item * IRC:
=for html
<a href="">(click for instant chatroom login)</a>
=item * Mailing list: L<>
=item * Twitter L<>
=item * Web Site: L<>
=item * RT Bug Tracker: L<>
The project is maintained in a git repository, accessible from the following sources:
=item * git: L<git://>
=item * gitweb: L<>
=item * github mirror: L<>
=item * authorized committers: L<ssh://>
=item * Travis-CI log: L<>
=for html
<img src=""></img>
Create a schema class called MyApp/
package MyApp::Schema;
use base qw/DBIx::Class::Schema/;
Create a result class to represent artists, who have many CDs, in
See L<DBIx::Class::ResultSource> for docs on defining result classes.
package MyApp::Schema::Result::Artist;
use base qw/DBIx::Class::Core/;
__PACKAGE__->add_columns(qw/ artistid name /);
__PACKAGE__->has_many(cds => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::CD', 'artistid');
A result class to represent a CD, which belongs to an artist, in
package MyApp::Schema::Result::CD;
use base qw/DBIx::Class::Core/;
__PACKAGE__->add_columns(qw/ cdid artistid title year /);
__PACKAGE__->belongs_to(artist => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Artist', 'artistid');
Then you can use these classes in your application's code:
# Connect to your database.
use MyApp::Schema;
my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect($dbi_dsn, $user, $pass, \%dbi_params);
# Query for all artists and put them in an array,
# or retrieve them as a result set object.
# $schema->resultset returns a DBIx::Class::ResultSet
my @all_artists = $schema->resultset('Artist')->all;
my $all_artists_rs = $schema->resultset('Artist');
# Output all artists names
# $artist here is a DBIx::Class::Row, which has accessors
# for all its columns. Rows are also subclasses of your Result class.
foreach $artist (@all_artists) {
print $artist->name, "\n";
# Create a result set to search for artists.
# This does not query the DB.
my $johns_rs = $schema->resultset('Artist')->search(
# Build your WHERE using an SQL::Abstract structure:
{ name => { like => 'John%' } }
# Execute a joined query to get the cds.
my @all_john_cds = $johns_rs->search_related('cds')->all;
# Fetch the next available row.
my $first_john = $johns_rs->next;
# Specify ORDER BY on the query.
my $first_john_cds_by_title_rs = $first_john->cds(
{ order_by => 'title' }
# Create a result set that will fetch the artist data
# at the same time as it fetches CDs, using only one query.
my $millennium_cds_rs = $schema->resultset('CD')->search(
{ year => 2000 },
{ prefetch => 'artist' }
my $cd = $millennium_cds_rs->next; # SELECT ... FROM cds JOIN artists ...
my $cd_artist_name = $cd->artist->name; # Already has the data so no 2nd query
# new() makes a Result object but doesnt insert it into the DB.
# create() is the same as new() then insert().
my $new_cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->new({ title => 'Spoon' });
$new_cd->insert; # Auto-increment primary key filled in after INSERT
$schema->txn_do(sub { $new_cd->update }); # Runs the update in a transaction
# change the year of all the millennium CDs at once
$millennium_cds_rs->update({ year => 2002 });
This is an SQL to OO mapper with an object API inspired by L<Class::DBI>
(with a compatibility layer as a springboard for porting) and a resultset API
that allows abstract encapsulation of database operations. It aims to make
representing queries in your code as perl-ish as possible while still
providing access to as many of the capabilities of the database as possible,
including retrieving related records from multiple tables in a single query,
DBIx::Class can handle multi-column primary and foreign keys, complex
queries and database-level paging, and does its best to only query the
database in order to return something you've directly asked for. If a
resultset is used as an iterator it only fetches rows off the statement
handle as requested in order to minimise memory usage. It has auto-increment
support for SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, SQL Server and DB2 and is
known to be used in production on at least the first four, and is fork-
and thread-safe out of the box (although
L<your DBD may not be|DBI/Threads and Thread Safety>).
This project is still under rapid development, so large new features may be
marked EXPERIMENTAL - such APIs are still usable but may have edge bugs.
Failing test cases are *always* welcome and point releases are put out rapidly
as bugs are found and fixed.
We do our best to maintain full backwards compatibility for published
APIs, since DBIx::Class is used in production in many organisations,
and even backwards incompatible changes to non-published APIs will be fixed
if they're reported and doing so doesn't cost the codebase anything.
The test suite is quite substantial, and several developer releases
are generally made to CPAN before the branch for the next release is
merged back to trunk for a major release.
L<DBIx::Class::Manual::DocMap> lists each task you might want help on, and
the modules where you will find documentation.
=head1 AUTHOR
mst: Matt S. Trout <>
(I mostly consider myself "project founder" these days but the AUTHOR heading
is traditional :)
abraxxa: Alexander Hartmaier <>
acca: Alexander Kuznetsov <>
aherzog: Adam Herzog <>
Alexander Keusch <>
alexrj: Alessandro Ranellucci <>
alnewkirk: Al Newkirk <>
amiri: Amiri Barksdale <>
amoore: Andrew Moore <>
andrewalker: Andre Walker <>
andyg: Andy Grundman <>
ank: Andres Kievsky
arc: Aaron Crane <>
arcanez: Justin Hunter <>
ash: Ash Berlin <>
bert: Norbert Csongradi <>
blblack: Brandon L. Black <>
bluefeet: Aran Deltac <>
bphillips: Brian Phillips <>
boghead: Bryan Beeley <>
brd: Brad Davis <>
bricas: Brian Cassidy <>
brunov: Bruno Vecchi <>
caelum: Rafael Kitover <>
caldrin: Maik Hentsche <>
castaway: Jess Robinson
claco: Christopher H. Laco
clkao: CL Kao
da5id: David Jack Olrik <>
davewood: David Schmidt <>
debolaz: Anders Nor Berle <>
dew: Dan Thomas <>
dkubb: Dan Kubb <>
dnm: Justin Wheeler <>
dpetrov: Dimitar Petrov <>
dwc: Daniel Westermann-Clark <>
dyfrgi: Michael Leuchtenburg <>
edenc: Eden Cardim <>
felliott: Fitz Elliott <>
freetime: Bill Moseley <>
frew: Arthur Axel "fREW" Schmidt <>
goraxe: Gordon Irving <>
gphat: Cory G Watson <>
Grant Street Group L<>
groditi: Guillermo Roditi <>
Haarg: Graham Knop <>
hobbs: Andrew Rodland <>
ilmari: Dagfinn Ilmari MannsE<aring>ker <>
initself: Mike Baas <>
ironcamel: Naveed Massjouni <>
jawnsy: Jonathan Yu <>
jasonmay: Jason May <>
jesper: Jesper Krogh
jgoulah: John Goulah <>
jguenther: Justin Guenther <>
jhannah: Jay Hannah <>
jmac: Jason McIntosh <>
jnapiorkowski: John Napiorkowski <>
jon: Jon Schutz <>
jshirley: J. Shirley <>
kaare: Kaare Rasmussen
konobi: Scott McWhirter
littlesavage: Alexey Illarionov <>
lukes: Luke Saunders <>
marcus: Marcus Ramberg <>
mattlaw: Matt Lawrence
mattp: Matt Phillips <>
michaelr: Michael Reddick <>
milki: Jonathan Chu <>
mjemmeson: Michael Jemmeson <>
mstratman: Mark A. Stratman <>
ned: Neil de Carteret
nigel: Nigel Metheringham <>
ningu: David Kamholz <>
Nniuq: Ron "Quinn" Straight" <>
norbi: Norbert Buchmuller <>
nuba: Nuba Princigalli <>
Numa: Dan Sully <>
ovid: Curtis "Ovid" Poe <>
oyse: E<Oslash>ystein Torget <>
paulm: Paul Makepeace
penguin: K J Cheetham
perigrin: Chris Prather <>
peter: Peter Collingbourne <>
Peter Valdemar ME<oslash>rch <>
phaylon: Robert Sedlacek <>
plu: Johannes Plunien <>
Possum: Daniel LeWarne <>
quicksilver: Jules Bean
rafl: Florian Ragwitz <>
rainboxx: Matthias Dietrich <>
rbo: Robert Bohne <>
rbuels: Robert Buels <>
rdj: Ryan D Johnson <>
ribasushi: Peter Rabbitson <>
rjbs: Ricardo Signes <>
robkinyon: Rob Kinyon <>
Robert Olson <>
moltar: Roman Filippov <>
Sadrak: Felix Antonius Wilhelm Ostmann <>
sc_: Just Another Perl Hacker
scotty: Scotty Allen <>
semifor: Marc Mims <>
SineSwiper: Brendan Byrd <>
solomon: Jared Johnson <>
spb: Stephen Bennett <>
Squeeks <>
sszabo: Stephan Szabo <>
talexb: Alex Beamish <>
tamias: Ronald J Kimball <>
teejay : Aaron Trevena <>
Todd Lipcon
Tom Hukins
tonvoon: Ton Voon <>
triode: Pete Gamache <>
typester: Daisuke Murase <>
victori: Victor Igumnov <>
wdh: Will Hawes
wesm: Wes Malone <>
willert: Sebastian Willert <>
wreis: Wallace Reis <>
xenoterracide: Caleb Cushing <>
yrlnry: Mark Jason Dominus <>
zamolxes: Bogdan Lucaciu <>
Copyright (c) 2005 - 2011 the DBIx::Class L</AUTHOR> and L</CONTRIBUTORS>
as listed above.
=head1 LICENSE
This library is free software and may be distributed under the same terms
as perl itself.
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