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1pass is a caching wrapper for the 1Password CLI op.


WARNING 1password 2 CLI compatibility

Do not upgrade to 1password CLI version 2! This 1pass tool is not yet compatible with it.


Upgrading to version 1.1 requires installation of the expect tool. 1pass will check for this (and other) dependencies and remind you to install them.


1pass is designed to make using your 1Password usernames and passwords quick and easy. It is intended for use within an interactive shell as well as from scripts. Once installed and configured as described below, you can obtain an account password in a shell simply by typing:

$ 1pass Github

and your Github password will be copied to the clipboard.

The official 1Password CLI application (op) can be difficult to use interactively, and unlike the macOS or Windows 1Password native applications, requires an internet connection to fetch data from your password vaults. 1pass solves both of these problems. Op needs session tokens to be revalidated manually after 30 minutes of inactivity and produces rich output in JSON format. The JSON output is easy for a program to use, but is not trivially consumed by humans without help. 1pass provides that help, with two main features:

  • a simplified interface for listing and fetching usernames, passwords, and other fields for individual items.
  • an encrypted local cache of 1Password CLI results.

Together these features enable easy use of 1Password-stored credentials.


First make sure that the op 1Password CLI and the jq JQ and expect requirements are installed. If you use homebrew cask on macOS, this works well:

$ brew install 1password-cli
$ brew install jq expect

If you want to automate 2FA (TOTP) logging into, then also install the oathtool, and see further instructions below.

$ brew install oath-toolkit

Copy the 1pass executable file to a suitable location on your PATH (for example, /usr/local/bin) and ensure that it is executable. For example:

curl > /usr/local/bin/1pass
chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/1pass

Bash Completion

If you would like to install bash-completion for 1pass, place the script in and accessible location and then source it from your .bash_profile. For example:

mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/1pass
curl > /usr/local/etc/1pass/
echo "source /usr/local/etc/1pass/" >> ~/.bash_profile

By default the completion script will look for fzf completion support in your environment. If present, it will use fzf completion (see here).

Note: If you have installed fzf using homebrew on macOS, make sure you have enabled completion by running $(brew --prefix)/opt/fzf/install --completion and follow the prompts.

If you do not have fzf or if you turn this feature off it will revert to standard bash completion behavior. If you would like to explicitly disable FZF completion for 1pass, you can do so as follows:


This line should be added to your .bash_profile

Security and Warning

1pass requires you to store your 1Password master password in a local GPG-encrypted file. You should inspect the source code to ensure that you trust the software, as well as read this documentation to understand the security tradeoffs.

Like the 1Password application itself, 1pass relies on one password. However that password is not your 1Password "master password" -- it is your Gnu Privacy Guard (gpg) private key. GPG, when configured to use the GPG-agent, will cache your private key password for a configurable length of time (a few hours to a day is perhaps reasonable). 1pass uses your GPG key to store an encrypted copies of your 1Password master password and your 1Password account secret key.

When data is needed from your online 1Password data store, the master password and secret key are temporarily decrypted and exchanged for a session token, which is also then encrypted and stored. The session token will be refreshed as needed. These actions happen automatically once your GPG key is available in the GPG-agent.

The data that is fetched from the 1Password service is cached in local files -- once again also encrypted using your GPG private key.

You can "lock" your 1pass session by running the "forget" command:

$ 1pass -f
cleared local session

which removes the local session token (if any), and calls gpgconf --kill gpg-agent to purge any running gpg-agent of your GPG secret keys.


In order to run with minimum user input, 1pass relies on the Gnu Privacy Guard gpg to encrypt all locally stored data. 1Password needs both a master password and a secret key to access your vault. Each of these must be stored in an encrypted file (in ~/.1pass or $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/1pass) for 1pass to work correctly. 1pass encrypts these and all other files with your own gpg key. This key, as well as your 1Password login email and domain must be configured in the ~/.1pass/config file. The domain is the full domain name that you use to sign-in when you use the 1Password website, for example or

GPG can be configured to use the gpg-agent, which can prompt for your gpg password, and cache it in a local agent for a fixed amount of time. If you configure GPG this way, you will only need to enter you GPG password (e.g.) once a day, and then seldom need to enter your 1Password master password.

Running 1pass -rv repeatedly will output instructions on how to configure this file and safely store your master password and secret key.

$ ./1pass -rv
please config 1pass by editing /home/me/.1pass/config
$ vi ~/.1pass/config 
$ ./1pass -rv
please put your master password into /home/me/.1pass/_master.gpg
ex: echo "master-password" | gpg -er > /home/me/.1pass/_master.gpg
$ echo "sEcre77" | gpg -er > /home/me/.1pass/_master.gpg
$ ./1pass -rv
please put your secret key into /home/me/.1pass/_secret.gpg
ex: echo "A3-XXXXXX-XXXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX" | gpg -er > /home/me/.1pass/_secret.gpg
$ echo "A3-XXXXXX-XXXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX" | gpg -er > /home/me/.1pass/_secret.gpg
$ ./1pass -rv
signing in to


Once you are configured and signed in, you are ready to use 1pass. The simplest command is 1pass with no arguments to list all items in your vault:

$ 1pass

The list consists of the titles of each item. You can then retrieve the password of an item:

$ 1pass -p Github

The password is echoed to the standard output (when the '-p' option is used). You can easily use this in scripts, for example:

export PGPASSWORD=$(1pass -p MyPostgresServer)

Without the '-p' option, 1pass copies the password to the clipboard:

$ 1pass Github

The contents of the clipboard will be automatically cleared after 30 seconds. You can also pass 1pass an optional field argument -- for example "username" to retrieve that field from the item:

$ 1pass -p MyBankAccount username

Sometimes it's easier to pass the title to search for via stdin, rather than as a command line argument. Use the - character to force 1pass to read from stdin for the value.

$ echo "MyBankAccount" | 1pass -p - username

1pass can lookup other fields besides username or password. They field name is the "label" for the field in the 1Password GUI.

$ 1pass -p MyBankAccount pin

1pass has special support for TOTP fields -- these are fetched directly via op rather than a local cache. (Thanks to (@ev0rtex)[]). Note that this is different from using TOTP 2FA to log into your 1Password account (that is supported too -- see below)

$ 1pass -p MyBankAccount totp

FZF Integration

1pass can be nicely combined with fzf for fuzzy search and completion.

Starting with 1pass v1.5:

$ 1pass | fzf | 1pass -p -

which can be easily created as an alias in your .bashrc or equivalent:

alias fp="1pass | fzf | 1pass -p -"

In older versions: See or for sample integration functions.


For the brave, a trivial Emacs wrapper library is included. E.g.

(setq freenode-nick-username (1pass--item-username "Freenode/nick1"))
(setq freenode-nick-password (1pass--item-password "Freenode/nick1"))
(setq freenode-nick-password (1pass--item-field "Freenode" "server"))

Iterm2 integration

(This work is thanks to birlog). This integration lets you select and insert passwords into programs running in iTerm2(shell). If you are tired of typing in your sudo password, this is for you.

This is effectively a clone of sudolikeaboss functionality. with the caveat that all of your passwords are available, not just ones tagged x-sudolikeaboss

Using choose (a GUI fzf clone)

in iTerm2, go to preferences, then keys, add a new key open-apple+/ to run coprocess and then copy paste in the command to run box:

export PATH="/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin"; 1pass | choose | 1pass -p -

Then start a program asking for input like sudo -s and then at the password prompt push the key you assigned earlier(open-apple+/ above) and select the password title by typing or arrowing down/up and then hit enter. It might take a second, as 1pass has to go fetch your password from 1pass, but it then should type in your password and hit enter for you.

If you run into trouble, iTerm2 should attach a little yellow bar at the top, select 'view errors' and it should then open a new window showing the output of the commands above, you will need to work through whatever issue comes up.

If you get a Command not found error You installed choose, 1pass or op other than /usr/local/bin/, you will need to edit the PATH part of the line above.

FZF will not work in place of choose, as coprocesses if they want to ask for user input need to happen in their own window.

Caching and Sessions

When using 1pass, all response data from 1Password is encrypted and then cached to ~/.1pass/cache. Sometimes this cache will be out of date -- for example if you have created a new password entry via the 1Password application. Passing -r to 1pass will force a refresh from the online 1Password vault.

Similarly, 1Password CLI sessions last for 30 minutes from the time of last use. 1pass will manage the session for you, and refresh it as needed.

2FA for 1Password

If you have turned on two-factor authentication (2FA) support for your 1Password account, then 1pass will prompt for you to enter a TOTP code when creating a session. You can either re-enter this code after every session expiration (30 minutes of inactivity), or automate entry of the code using the oath-toolkit oathtool command. If you wish to automate the 2FA process, add use_totp="1" to your config file, and follow the instructions to store the TOTP secret:

$ ./1pass -rv
please put your ${domain} totp secret into /home/me/.1pass/_totp.gpg
ex: echo \"XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\" | $GPG -er $email > /home/me/.1pass/_totp.gpg


Copyright (c) 2017-2021, David Creemer (twitter: @dcreemer) with some components from other GPL 2+ software.



Some ideas, and a tiny bit of code are taken from pass by Jason A. Donenfeld. Please see the git commit log for contributions from others.