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Raspbian (minimal) unattended netinstaller
Shell

Merge pull request #266 from goranche/master

merged v1.0.x branch onto master

README.md

raspbian-ua-netinst

The minimal Raspbian unattended netinstaller for Raspberry Pi Model 1B, 1B+ and 2B.

This project provides Raspbian power users the possibility to install a minimal base system unattended using latest Raspbian packages regardless when the installer was built.

The installer with default settings configures eth0 with DHCP to get Internet connectivity and completely wipes the SD card from any previous installation.

There are different kinds of "presets" that define the default packages that are going to be installed. Currently, the default one is called server which installs only the essential base system packages including NTP and OpenSSH to provide a sane minimal base system that you can immediately after install ssh in and continue installing your software.

Other presets include minimal which has even less packages (no logging, no text editor, no cron) and base which doesn't even have networking. You can customize the installed packages by adding a small configuration file to your SD card before booting up.

Features

  • completely unattended, you only need working Internet connection through the Ethernet port
  • DHCP and static ip configuration (DHCP is the default)
  • always installs the latest version of Raspbian
  • configurable default settings
  • extra configuration over HTTP possible - gives unlimited flexibility
  • installation takes about 15 minutes with fast Internet from power on to sshd running
  • can fit on 512MB SD card, but 1GB is more reasonable
  • default install includes fake-hwclock to save time on shutdown
  • default install includes NTP to keep time
  • /tmp is mounted as tmpfs to improve speed
  • no clutter included, you only get the bare essential packages
  • option to install root to USB drive

Requirements

  • a Raspberry Pi Model 1B, Model 1B+ or Model 2B
  • SD card of at least 640MB or at least 128MB for USB root install (without customization)
  • working Ethernet with Internet connectivity

Writing the installer to the SD card

Obtaining installer files on Windows and Mac

Installer archive is around 17MB and contains all firmware files and the installer.

Go to our latest release page and download the .zip file.

Format your SD card as FAT32 (MS-DOS on Mac OS X) and extract the installer files in.
Note: If you get an error saying it can't mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 on /boot then the most likely cause is that you're using exFAT instead of FAT32. Try formatting the SD card with this tool: https://www.sdcard.org/downloads/formatter_4/

Alternative method for Mac, writing image to SD card

Prebuilt image is around 17MB bzip2 compressed and 64MB uncompressed. It contains the same files as the .zip but is more convenient for Mac users.

Go to our latest release page and download the .img.bz2 file.

Extract the .img file from the archive with bunzip2 raspbian-ua-netinst-<latest-version-number>.img.bz2.
Find the /dev/diskX device you want to write to using diskutil list. It will probably be 1 or 2.

To flash your SD card on Mac:

diskutil unmountDisk /dev/diskX
sudo dd bs=1m if=/path/to/raspbian-ua-netinst-<latest-version-number>.img of=/dev/rdiskX
diskutil eject /dev/diskX

Note the r in the of=/dev/rdiskX part on the dd line which should speed up writing the image considerably.

SD card image for Linux

Prebuilt image is around 11MB xz compressed and 64MB uncompressed. It contains the same files as the .zip but is more convenient for Linux users.

Go to our latest release page and download the .img.xz file.

To flash your SD card on Linux:

xzcat /path/to/raspbian-ua-netinst-<latest-version-number>.img.xz > /dev/sdX

Replace /dev/sdX with the real path to your SD card.

Installing

In normal circumstances, you can just power on your Pi and cross your fingers.

If you don't have a display attached you can monitor the Ethernet card leds to guess activity. When it finally reboots after installing everything you will see them going out and on a few times when Raspbian configures it on boot.

If you do have a display, you can follow the progress and catch any possible errors in the default configuration or your own modifications.
If you have a serial cable, then remove 'console=tty1' at then end of the cmdline.txt file.

Note: During the installation you'll see various warning messages, like "Warning: cannot read table of mounted file systems" and "dpkg: warning: ignoring pre-dependency problem!". Those are expected and harmless.

Installer customization

You can use the installer as is and get a minimal system installed which you can then use and customize to your needs.
But you can also customize the installation process and the primary way to do that is through a file named installer‑config.txt. When you've written the installer to a SD card, you'll see a file named cmdline.txt and you create the installer‑config.txt file alongside that file. The defaults for installer‑config.txt are displayed below. If you want one of those settings changed for your installation, you should only place that changed setting in the installer‑config.txt file. So if you want to have vim and aptitude installed by default, create a installer‑config.txt file with the following contents:

packages=vim,aptitude

and that's it! While most settings stand on their own, some settings influence each other. For example rootfstype is tightly linked to the other settings that start with rootfs_.
So don't copy and paste the defaults from below!

The installer‑config.txt is read in at the beginning of the installation process, shortly followed by the file pointed to with online_config, if specified. There is also another configuration file you can provide, post‑install.txt, and you place that in the same directory as installer‑config.txt. The post‑install.txt is executed at the very end of the installation process and you can use it to tweak and finalize your automatic installation.
The configuration files are read in as shell scripts, so you can abuse that fact if you so want to.

The format of the installer‑config.txt file and the current defaults:

preset=server
packages= # comma separated list of extra packages
mirror=http://mirrordirector.raspbian.org/raspbian/
release=wheezy
hostname=pi
domainname=
rootpw=raspbian
cdebootstrap_cmdline=
bootsize=+128M # /boot partition size in megabytes, provide it in the form '+<number>M' (without quotes)
rootsize=     # / partition size in megabytes, provide it in the form '+<number>M' (without quotes), leave empty to use all free space
timeserver=time.nist.gov
ip_addr=dhcp
ip_netmask=0.0.0.0
ip_broadcast=0.0.0.0
ip_gateway=0.0.0.0
ip_nameservers=
online_config= # URL to extra config that will be executed after installer-config.txt
usbroot= # set to 1 to install to first USB disk
cmdline="dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=ttyAMA0,115200 kgdboc=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 elevator=deadline"
rootfstype=ext4
rootfs_mkfs_options=
rootfs_install_mount_options='noatime,data=writeback,nobarrier,noinit_itable'
rootfs_mount_options='errors=remount-ro,noatime'

The time server is only used during installation and is for rdate which doesn't support the NTP protocol.

Available presets: server, minimal and base. Presets set the cdebootstrap_cmdline variable. For example, the current server default is:

--flavour=minimal --include=kmod,fake-hwclock,ifupdown,net-tools,isc-dhcp-client,ntp,openssh-server,vim-tiny,iputils-ping,wget,ca-certificates,rsyslog,dialog,locales,less,man-db

(If you build your own installer, which most won't need to, and the configuration files exist in the same directory as this README.md, it will be include in the installer image automatically.)

Logging

The output of the installation process is now also logged to file.
When the installation completes successfully, the logfile is moved to /var/log/raspbian-ua-netinst.log on the installed system.
When an error occurs during install, the logfile is moved to the sd card, which gets normally mounted on /boot/ and will be named raspbian-ua-netinst-<datetimestamp>.log

First boot

The system is almost completely unconfigured on first boot. Here are some tasks you most definitely want to do on first boot.

The default root password is raspbian.

Set new root password: passwd (can also be set during installation using rootpw in installer-config.txt)
Configure your default locale: dpkg-reconfigure locales
Configure your timezone: dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

The latest kernel and firmware packages are now automatically installed during the unattended installation process. When you need a kernel module that isn't loaded by default, you will still have to configure that manually.

Optional: apt-get install raspi-copies-and-fills for improved memory management performance.
Optional: Create a swap file with dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap bs=1M count=512 && mkswap /swap (example is 512MB) and enable it on boot by appending /swap none swap sw 0 0 to /etc/fstab.
Optional: apt-get install rng-tools and add bcm2708-rng to /etc/modules to auto-load and use the kernel module for the hardware random number generator. This improves the performance of various server applications needing random numbers significantly.

Reinstalling or replacing an existing system

If you want to reinstall with the same settings you did your first install you can just move the original config.txt back and reboot. Make sure you still have kernel_install.img and installer.cpio.gz in your /boot partition. If you are replacing your existing system which was not installed using this method, make sure you copy those two files in and the installer config.txt from the original image.

mv /boot/config-reinstall.txt /boot/config.txt
reboot

Remember to backup all your data and original config.txt before doing this!

Disclaimer

We take no responsibility for ANY data loss. You will be reflashing your SD card anyway so it should be very clear to you what you are doing and will lose all your data on the card. Same goes for reinstallation.

See LICENSE for license information.

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