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democratic-csi implements the csi (container storage interface) spec providing storage for various container orchestration systems (ie: Kubernetes).

The current focus is providing storage via iscsi/nfs from zfs-based storage systems, predominantly FreeNAS / TrueNAS and ZoL on Ubuntu.

The current drivers implement the depth and breadth of the csi spec, so you have access to resizing, snapshots, clones, etc functionality.

democratic-csi is 2 things:

  • several implementations of csi drivers
    • freenas-nfs (manages zfs datasets to share over nfs)
    • freenas-iscsi (manages zfs zvols to share over iscsi)
    • freenas-smb (manages zfs datasets to share over smb)
    • freenas-api-nfs experimental use with SCALE only (manages zfs datasets to share over nfs)
    • freenas-api-iscsi experimental use with SCALE only (manages zfs zvols to share over iscsi)
    • freenas-api-smb experimental use with SCALE only (manages zfs datasets to share over smb)
    • zfs-generic-nfs (works with any ZoL Ubuntu)
    • zfs-generic-iscsi (works with any ZoL Ubuntu)
    • zfs-generic-smb (works with any ZoL Ubuntu)
    • zfs-generic-nvmeof (works with any ZoL Ubuntu)
    • zfs-local-ephemeral-inline (provisions node-local zfs datasets)
    • zfs-local-dataset (provision node-local volume as dataset)
    • zfs-local-zvol (provision node-local volume as zvol)
    • synology-iscsi experimental (manages volumes to share over iscsi)
    • objectivefs (manages objectivefs volumes)
    • lustre-client (crudely provisions storage using a shared lustre share/directory for all volumes)
    • nfs-client (crudely provisions storage using a shared nfs share/directory for all volumes)
    • smb-client (crudely provisions storage using a shared smb share/directory for all volumes)
    • local-hostpath (crudely provisions node-local directories)
    • node-manual (allows connecting to manually created smb, nfs, lustre, oneclient, nvmeof, and iscsi volumes, see sample PVs in the examples directory)
  • framework for developing csi drivers

If you have any interest in providing a csi driver, simply open an issue to discuss. The project provides an extensive framework to build from making it relatively easy to implement new drivers.


Predominantly 3 things are needed:

  • node prep (ie: your kubernetes cluster nodes)
  • server prep (ie: your storage server)
  • deploy the driver into the cluster (helm chart provided with sample values.yaml)

Community Guides

Node Prep

You should install/configure the requirements for both nfs and iscsi.


# RHEL / CentOS
sudo yum install -y cifs-utils

# Ubuntu / Debian
sudo apt-get install -y cifs-utils


# RHEL / CentOS
sudo yum install -y nfs-utils

# Ubuntu / Debian
sudo apt-get install -y nfs-common


Note that multipath is supported for the iscsi-based drivers. Simply setup multipath to your liking and set multiple portals in the config as appropriate.

If you are running Kubernetes with rancher/rke please see the following:


# Install the following system packages
sudo yum install -y lsscsi iscsi-initiator-utils sg3_utils device-mapper-multipath

# Enable multipathing
sudo mpathconf --enable --with_multipathd y

# Ensure that iscsid and multipathd are running
sudo systemctl enable iscsid multipathd
sudo systemctl start iscsid multipathd

# Start and enable iscsi
sudo systemctl enable iscsi
sudo systemctl start iscsi

Ubuntu / Debian

# Install the following system packages
sudo apt-get install -y open-iscsi lsscsi sg3-utils multipath-tools scsitools

# Enable multipathing
sudo tee /etc/multipath.conf <<-'EOF'
defaults {
    user_friendly_names yes
    find_multipaths yes

sudo systemctl enable multipath-tools.service
sudo service multipath-tools restart

# Ensure that open-iscsi and multipath-tools are enabled and running
sudo systemctl status multipath-tools
sudo systemctl enable open-iscsi.service
sudo service open-iscsi start
sudo systemctl status open-iscsi

To use iscsi storage in kubernetes cluster in talos these steps are needed which are similar to the ones explained in

Patch nodes

since talos does not have iscsi support by default, the iscsi extension is needed create a patch.yaml file with

- op: add
  path: /machine/install/extensions
    - image:

and apply the patch across all of your nodes

talosctl -e <endpoint ip/hostname> -n <node ip/hostname> patch mc -p @patch.yaml

the extension will not activate until you "upgrade" the nodes, even if there is no update, use the latest version of talos installer. VERIFY THE TALOS VERSION IN THIS COMMAND BEFORE RUNNING IT AND READ THE OpenEBS Jiva. upgrade all of the nodes in the cluster to get the extension

talosctl -e <endpoint ip/hostname> -n <node ip/hostname> upgrade

in your values.yaml file make sure to enable these settings

  hostPID: true
        value: nsenter
      - name: ISCSIADM_HOST_PATH
        value: /usr/local/sbin/iscsiadm
    iscsiDirHostPath: /usr/local/etc/iscsi
    iscsiDirHostPathType: ""

and continue your democratic installation as usuall with other iscsi drivers.

Privileged Namespace

democratic-csi requires privileged access to the nodes, so the namespace should allow for privileged pods. One way of doing it is via namespace labels. Add the followin label to the democratic-csi installation namespace

kubectl label --overwrite namespace democratic-csi


# not required but likely helpful (tools are included in the democratic images
# so not needed on the host)
apt-get install -y nvme-cli

# get the nvme fabric modules
apt-get install linux-generic

# ensure the nvmeof modules get loaded at boot
cat <<EOF > /etc/modules-load.d/nvme.conf

# load the modules immediately
modprobe nvme
modprobe nvme-tcp
modprobe nvme-fc
modprobe nvme-rdma

# nvme has native multipath or can use DM multipath
# democratic-csi will gracefully handle either configuration
# RedHat recommends DM multipath (nvme_core.multipath=N)
cat /sys/module/nvme_core/parameters/multipath

# kernel arg to enable/disable native multipath


This driver provisions node-local ephemeral storage on a per-pod basis. Each node should have an identically named zfs pool created and avaialble to the driver. Note, this is NOT the same thing as using the docker zfs storage driver (although the same pool could be used). No other requirements are necessary.


This driver provisions node-local storage. Each node should have an identically named zfs pool created and avaialble to the driver. Note, this is NOT the same thing as using the docker zfs storage driver (although the same pool could be used). Nodes should have the standard zfs utilities installed.

In the name of ease-of-use these drivers by default report MULTI_NODE support (ReadWriteMany in k8s) however the volumes will implicity only work on the node where originally provisioned. Topology contraints manage this in an automated fashion preventing any undesirable behavior. So while you may provision MULTI_NODE / RWX volumes, any workloads using the volume will always land on a single node and that node will always be the node where the volume is/was provisioned.


This driver provisions node-local storage. Each node should have an identically name folder where volumes will be created.

In the name of ease-of-use these drivers by default report MULTI_NODE support (ReadWriteMany in k8s) however the volumes will implicity only work on the node where originally provisioned. Topology contraints manage this in an automated fashion preventing any undesirable behavior. So while you may provision MULTI_NODE / RWX volumes, any workloads using the volume will always land on a single node and that node will always be the node where the volume is/was provisioned.

The nature of this driver also prevents the enforcement of quotas. In short the requested volume size is generally ignored.


Support for Windows was introduced in v1.7.0. Currently support is limited to kubernetes nodes capabale of running HostProcess containers. Support was tested against Windows Server 2019 using rke2-v1.24. Currently any of the -smb and -iscsi drivers will work. Support for ntfs was added to the linux nodes as well (using the ntfs3 driver) so volumes created can be utilized by nodes with either operating system (in the case of cifs by both simultaneously).

If using any -iscsi driver be sure your iqns are always fully lower-case by default (PowerShell/PowerShell#17306).

Due to current limits in the kubernetes tooling it is not possible to use the local-hostpath driver but support is implemented in this project and will work as soon as kubernetes support is available.

# ensure all updates are installed

# enable the container feature
Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Containers –All

# install a HostProcess compatible kubernetes

# smb support
# If using with Windows based machines you may need to enable guest access
# (even if you are connecting with credentials)
Set-ItemProperty HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanWorkstation\Parameters AllowInsecureGuestAuth -Value 1
Restart-Service LanmanWorkstation -Force

# iscsi
# enable iscsi service and mpio as appropriate
Get-Service -Name MSiSCSI
Set-Service -Name MSiSCSI -StartupType Automatic
Start-Service -Name MSiSCSI
Get-Service -Name MSiSCSI

# mpio
Get-WindowsFeature -Name 'Multipath-IO'
Add-WindowsFeature -Name 'Multipath-IO'

Enable-MSDSMAutomaticClaim -BusType "iSCSI"
Disable-MSDSMAutomaticClaim -BusType "iSCSI"

Set-MSDSMGlobalLoadBalancePolicy -Policy RR

Server Prep

Server preparation depends slightly on which driver you are using.

FreeNAS (freenas-nfs, freenas-iscsi, freenas-smb, freenas-api-nfs, freenas-api-iscsi, freenas-api-smb)

The recommended version of FreeNAS is 12.0-U2+, however the driver should work with much older versions as well.

The various freenas-api-* drivers are currently EXPERIMENTAL and can only be used with SCALE 21.08+. Fundamentally these drivers remove the need for ssh connections and do all operations entirely with the TrueNAS api. With that in mind, any ssh/shell/etc requirements below can be safely ignored. The minimum volume size through the api is 1G so beware that requested volumes with a size small will be increased to 1G. Also note the following known issues:

Ensure the following services are configurged and running:

  • ssh (if you use a password for authentication make sure it is allowed)

  • ensure zsh, bash, or sh is set as the root shell, csh gives false errors due to quoting

  • nfs

  • iscsi

    • (fixed in 12.0-U2+) when using the FreeNAS API concurrently the /etc/ctl.conf file on the server can become invalid, some sample scripts are provided in the contrib directory to clean things up ie: copy the script to the server and directly and run - ./ | logger -t & please read the scripts and set the variables as appropriate for your server.
    • ensure you have pre-emptively created portals, initatior groups, auths
      • make note of the respective IDs (the true ID may not reflect what is visible in the UI)
      • IDs can be visible by clicking the the Edit link and finding the ID in the browser address bar
      • Optionally you may use the following to retrieve appropiate IDs:
        • curl --header "Accept: application/json" --user root:<password> 'http(s)://<ip>/api/v2.0/iscsi/portal'
        • curl --header "Accept: application/json" --user root:<password> 'http(s)://<ip>/api/v2.0/iscsi/initiator'
        • curl --header "Accept: application/json" --user root:<password> 'http(s)://<ip>/api/v2.0/iscsi/auth'
    • The maximum number of volumes is limited to 255 by default on FreeBSD (physical devices such as disks and CD-ROM drives count against this value). Be sure to properly adjust both tunables and to avoid running out of resources when dynamically provisioning iSCSI volumes on FreeNAS or TrueNAS Core.
  • smb

If you would prefer you can configure democratic-csi to use a non-root user when connecting to the FreeNAS server:

  • Create a non-root user (e.g., csi)

  • Ensure that user has passwordless sudo privileges:

    # if on CORE 12.0-u3+ you should be able to do the following
    # which will ensure it does not get reset during reboots etc
    # at the command prompt
    # after you enter the truenas cli and are at that prompt
    account user query select=id,username,uid,sudo_nopasswd
    # find the `id` of the user you want to update (note, this is distinct from the `uid`)
    account user update id=<id> sudo=true
    account user update id=<id> sudo_nopasswd=true
    # optional if you want to disable password
    #account user update id=<id> password_disabled=true
    # exit cli by hitting ctrl-d
    # confirm sudoers file is appropriate
    cat /usr/local/etc/sudoers

    (note this can get reset by FreeNAS if you alter the user via the GUI later)

  • Instruct democratic-csi to use sudo by adding the following to your driver configuration:

        sudoEnabled: true

Starting with TrueNAS CORE 12 it is also possible to use an apiKey instead of the root password for the http connection.

Issues to review:

ZoL (zfs-generic-nfs, zfs-generic-iscsi, zfs-generic-smb, zfs-generic-nvmeof)

Ensure ssh and zfs is installed on the nfs/iscsi server and that you have installed targetcli.

The driver executes many commands over an ssh connection. You may consider disabling all the motd details for the ssh user as it can spike the cpu unecessarily:

####### nfs
yum install -y nfs-utils
systemctl enable --now nfs-server.service

apt-get install -y nfs-kernel-server
systemctl enable --now nfs-kernel-server.service

####### iscsi
yum install targetcli -y
apt-get -y install targetcli-fb

####### smb
apt-get install -y samba smbclient

# create posix user
groupadd -g 1001 smbroot
useradd -u 1001 -g 1001 -M -N -s /sbin/nologin smbroot
passwd smbroot (optional)

# create smb user and set password
smbpasswd -L -a smbroot

####### nvmeof
# ensure nvmeof target modules are loaded at startup
cat <<EOF > /etc/modules-load.d/nvmet.conf

# load the modules immediately
modprobe nvmet
modprobe nvmet-tcp
modprobe nvmet-fc
modprobe nvmet-rdma

# install nvmetcli and systemd services
git clone git://
cd nvmetcli

## install globally
python3 install --prefix=/usr
pip install configshell_fb

## install to root home dir
python3 install --user
pip install configshell_fb --user

# prevent log files from filling up disk
ln -sf /dev/null ~/.nvmetcli/log.txt
ln -sf /dev/null ~/.nvmetcli/history.txt

# install systemd unit and enable/start
## optionally to ensure the config file is loaded before we start
## reading/writing to it add an ExecStartPost= to the unit file
## ExecStartPost=/usr/bin/touch /var/run/nvmet-config-loaded
## in your dirver config set nvmeof.shareStrategyNvmetCli.configIsImportedFilePath=/var/run/nvmet-config-loaded
## which will prevent the driver from making any changes until the configured
## file is present
vi nvmet.service

cp nvmet.service /etc/systemd/system/
mkdir -p /etc/nvmet
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable --now nvmet.service
systemctl status nvmet.service

# create the port(s) configuration manually
echo "
cd /
" | nvmetcli

# do this multiple times altering as appropriate if you have/want multipath
# change the port to 2, 3.. each additional path
# the below example creates a tcp port listening on all IPs on port 4420
echo "
cd /ports
create 1
cd 1
set addr adrfam=ipv4 trtype=tcp traddr= trsvcid=4420

saveconfig /etc/nvmet/config.json
" | nvmetcli

# if running TrueNAS SCALE you can skip the above and simply copy
# contrib/ to your machine and add it as a startup script
# to launch POSTINIT type COMMAND
# and then create the port(s) as mentioned above

Synology (synology-iscsi)

Ensure iscsi manager has been installed and is generally setup/configured. DSM 6.3+ is supported.

objectivefs (objectivefs)

ObjectiveFS requires the use of an Admin Key to properly automate the lifecycle of filesystems. Each deployment of the driver will point to a single pool (bucket) and create individual filesystems within that bucket on-demand.

Ensure the config value used for pool is an existing bucket. Be sure the bucket is NOT being used in fs mode (ie: the whole bucket is a single fs).

The democratic-csi node container will host the fuse mount process so be careful to only upgrade when all relevant workloads have been drained from the respective node. Also beware that any cpu/memory limits placed on the container by the orchestration system will impact any ability to use the caching, etc features of objectivefs.

Helm Installation

helm repo add democratic-csi
helm repo update
# helm v2
helm search democratic-csi/

# helm v3
helm search repo democratic-csi/

# copy proper values file from
# edit as appropriate
# examples are from helm v2, alter as appropriate for v3

# add --create-namespace for helm v3
helm upgrade \
--install \
--values freenas-iscsi.yaml \
--namespace democratic-csi \
zfs-iscsi democratic-csi/democratic-csi

helm upgrade \
--install \
--values freenas-nfs.yaml \
--namespace democratic-csi \
zfs-nfs democratic-csi/democratic-csi

A note on non standard kubelet paths

Some distrobutions, such as minikube and microk8s use a non-standard kubelet path. In such cases it is necessary to provide a new kubelet host path, microk8s example below:

microk8s helm upgrade \
  --install \
  --values freenas-nfs.yaml \
  --set node.kubeletHostPath="/var/snap/microk8s/common/var/lib/kubelet"  \
  --namespace democratic-csi \
  zfs-nfs democratic-csi/democratic-csi
  • microk8s - /var/snap/microk8s/common/var/lib/kubelet
  • pivotal - /var/vcap/data/kubelet
  • k0s - /var/lib/k0s/kubelet


democratic-csi generally works fine with openshift. Some special parameters need to be set with helm (support added in chart version 0.6.1):

# for sure required
--set node.rbac.openshift.privileged=true
--set node.driver.localtimeHostPath=false

# unlikely, but in special circumstances may be required
--set controller.rbac.openshift.privileged=true


democratic-csi works with Nomad in a functioning but limted capacity. See the Nomad docs for details.

Docker Swarm

Multiple Deployments

You may install multiple deployments of each/any driver. It requires the following:

  • Use a new helm release name for each deployment
  • Make sure you have a unique in the values file (within the same cluster)
  • Use unqiue names for your storage classes (per cluster)
  • Use a unique parent dataset (ie: don't try to use the same parent across deployments or clusters)
  • For iscsi and smb be aware that the names of assets/shares are global and so collisions are possible/probable. Appropriate use of the respective nameTemplate, namePrefix, and nameSuffix configuration options will mitigate the issue #210.

Snapshot Support

Install snapshot controller (once per cluster):


Install democratic-csi as usual with volumeSnapshotClasses defined as appropriate.

Migrating from freenas-provisioner and freenas-iscsi-provisioner

It is possible to migrate all volumes from the non-csi freenas provisioners to democratic-csi.

Copy the contrib/ script from the project to your workstation, read the script in detail, and edit the variables to your needs to start migrating!