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README.md

Learn to build Elixir APIs 💻

This repo consists of 2 exercises to help you get to grips with servers in Elixir. The first is a shortened and themed version of the guide in the Phoenix docs and uses templates, while the second challenges you to finish a fun geography app called "Hello, World", by writing an API to serve data to a SPA front end. 🌏

Exercise 1 - Your first REST API with Phoenix 🛌🦜

1a) Creating the app

We're going to start by creating a new Phoenix app in this umbrella application and understanding all the awesome boilerplate that comes with it.

Start by cloning this repo, and navigating to the root.

git clone https://github.com/developess/build_a_phoenix_api.git

cd build_a_phoenix_api

Next, ensure you have phoenix installed. Install/update hex by running:

mix local.hex

Then install the phoenix archive:

mix archive.install hex phx_new 1.4.14

Since this is an umbrella application, we want to move to the apps folder to create a new app under the umbrella. I'm calling my app fawkes because this is a throwaway app and it will stand out when we're looking around (plus he's the OG phoenix). Don't name your app something generic that you may see in code like 'Test' or 'Elixir' as you'll just confuse yourself!

From the project root, run:

cd apps

mix phx.new fawkes --no-ecto --no-webpack

mix phx.new creates a new Phoenix app in the umbrella.

The flags --no-ecto and --no-webpack reduce some of the boilerplate that comes with Phoenix, providing just the skeleton app for this example. Ecto is a database wrapper and webpack is for compiling front end code - we don't need this for now.

Select Y to fetch and install dependencies when prompted.

If dependencies don't install properly, you may not have a recent version of hex or Phoenix downloaded. Try running mix local.hex and installing deps again with mix deps.get. Still having issues? Check the phoenix installation guide.

Now let's start this new Phoenix app using mix phx.server:

cd fawkes

mix phx.server

With your server up and running, check out the app at localhost:4000

If you can see a web page, then 🎉 you just made a server.

Now, lets dig into the code and work out how this app was created.

1b) Adding a new page

Your newly created file structure (in apps/fawkes) should look something like the below. The key folder here is the lib folder, which holds your application files (equivalent of src in other languages).

Inside lib should be 2 more folders: fawkes and fawkes_web. We're interested in fawkes_web as that holds the majority of the setup files for the web server. fawkes just holds an application file which starts the server in a process.

├── config
├── lib
│   └── fawkes
│   └── fawkes_web
│   └── fawkes.ex
│   └── fawkes_web.ex
├── priv
├── test
├── ...

Inside fawkes_web our file structure looks like this:

├── channels
│ └── user_socket.ex
├── controllers
│ └── page_controller.ex
├── templates
│ ├── layout
│ │ └── app.html.eex
│ └── page
│ └── index.html.eex
└── views
│ ├── error_helpers.ex
│ ├── error_view.ex
│ ├── layout_view.ex
│ └── page_view.ex
├── endpoint.ex
├── gettext.ex
├── router.ex

As you might recognise, Phoenix has set up a classic "MVC" (Model, View, Controller) pattern for us. I won't dive into the merits of this pattern here, but it provides a useful scaffold to make sense of all these files!

Open up router.ex. The router is often the heart of a web server and is a useful place to start.

defmodule FawkesWeb.Router do
  use FawkesWeb, :router

  pipeline :browser do
    plug :accepts, ["html"]
    plug :fetch_session
    plug :fetch_flash
    plug :protect_from_forgery
    plug :put_secure_browser_headers
  end

  pipeline :api do
    plug :accepts, ["json"]
  end

  scope "/", FawkesWeb do
    pipe_through :browser

    get "/", PageController, :index
  end

  # Other scopes may use custom stacks.
  # scope "/api", FawkesWeb do
  #   pipe_through :api
  # end
end

Routes map unique HTTP verb/path pairs to controller/action pairs which will handle them. The page that you saw when you opened up localhost:4000 is created by this line:

get "/", PageController, :index

Here, get is our HTTP verb - a get request. "/" is the path, the url at which we're serving the resource. PageController is the name of a module in our controllers directory that returns the resource, and :index is the action - and corresponds to a function called index in the PageController controller.

Let's look inside the controllers directory in page_controller.ex. You'll see the index function that returns the resource:

defmodule FawkesWeb.PageController do
  use FawkesWeb, :controller

  def index(conn, _params) do
    render(conn, "index.html")
  end
end

How does this work? conn is short for connection - its actually a connection struct: %Plug.Conn{} - more on that later. You can think of it as equivalent to the request/response in other languages. render is a function afforded to us by the controller macro, which is imported at the top:

use FawkesWeb, :controller

render takes conn as the first argument, and the response body as the second argument.

But where does "index.html" come from? Well, Phoenix is pretty smart and is set up to look in the /templates directory for the templates it renders. index.html matches the index.html.eex template we can see in the template folder, which you'll see matches the webpage you saw at localhost:4000

Now we understand roughly how that page was served up, but there's still more to learn.

Let's add a new page to the app

In router.ex add a new route.

get "/magic", MagicController, :index

Since we're using a new controller, let's create a new file in the controllers directory.

defmodule FawkesWeb.MagicController do
  use FawkesWeb, :controller

  def index(conn, _params) do
    render(conn, "index.html")
  end
end

In order to render templates for MagicController, we need a MagicView. Create a new file called magic_view.ex in the views directory and include the following:

defmodule FawkesWeb.MagicView do
  use FawkesWeb, :view
end

We're also going to need a new template. Let's make it super simple. We want to namespace our magic, so create a /magic directory inside /templates and add a file called index.html.eex and add the following code:

<div class="phx-hero">
  <h2>Accio Brain!</h2>
</div>

Feel free to spice things up and insert your own favourite Harry Potter quote.

Pointing our browser to http://localhost:4000/magic, we should be able to see our own greeting from Phoenix! (if you stopped the server in an earlier step, you can restart it with mix phx.server).

Quick aside: Whats this "eex" stuff?

.eex files are Phoenix templates. EEx stands for Embedded Elixir. Phoenix templates are just that, templates into which data can be rendered.

We can interpolate values into our tempalates with syntax like the following:

render(conn, "spell.html", spell_name: "Obliviate")
<div class="phx-hero">
  <h2>Say good-bye to your memories! <%= @spell_name %>!</h2>
</div>

When we use the render function in the controller, we're optionally passing in values in as a keyword list, which in this case is [spell_name: "Obliviate"]. The square brackets aren't syntactically necessary, but are there invisibly. This is pasted into the template between the <%= and %> by using @ followed by the varable name.

Add one more route

As a mini challenge, add a new route /spell/:spell_name where spell name is a url param. When passed into a function in a controller, this will come through as a map like so:

def index(conn, %{"spell_name" => spell_name}) do
  # Render a template here
end

Everything else you need to know to do this can be found in the eex section above!

Test its working by going to localhost:4000/spell/lumos to see your spell in the browser.

Sucess? Give yourself a pat on the back and make a cup of tea ☕️

1c) Examining our routes

Make sure you're in apps/fawkes and run the following command:

mix phx.routes

What can you see? Hopefully you can see a list of routes for your Phoenix app.

These are likely to all be GET routes as we're only adding those. When we declare our routes in router.ex, we can use all the usual HTTP verbs (get, post, put etc) but there are some other cool macros we can use too.

Go back to the router.ex file. Add the following route:

resources "/spells", SpellController

Run mix phx.routes again. What can you see now?

You should be seeing a LOT more routes. The resources keyword automatically generates routes for the following 8 actions:

  • index (GET)
  • show (GET)
  • edit (GET)
  • new (GET)
  • create (POST)
  • delete (DELETE)
  • update (PUT)
  • update (PATCH)

For more information on what these actions are intended for, checkout the Phoenix routing guide here

If you didn't want all 8 of these routes in your api, you can exclude some like so:

resources "/comments", CommentController, except: [:delete]

Or you can just specify the routes you want:

resources "/posts", PostController, only: [:index, :show]

Note:

So far in examples I've been using :index as the controller action, e.g.

get "/magic", MagicController, :index

However, you're not limited to index, or any other keywords like show or create. Its just convention to use :index for a page, for example.

In an API with loads of routes to the same controller, other words (i.e. function names) might be more appropriate, e.g.

get "/subject/:subject", HogwartsController, :subject_info

1d) Scoping

Lets go back to our router.ex file and see what's going on with the scope keywords.

For example, we've been putting our routes in this section:

  scope "/", FawkesWeb do
    pipe_through :browser

    get "/", PageController, :index
    get "/magic", MagicController, :index
    get "/spell/:spell_name", SpellController, :index
  end

A scope is a way of grouping routes. All our routes are scoped under the home ("/") route, but we could make another scope under an admin route, for example.

  scope "/admin", FawkesWeb do
    pipe_through :browser
    pipe_through :authentication

    get "/spells", PageController, :index
    get "/magic", PageController, :index
  end

This would make 2 new routes available, at: /admin/spells and /admin/magic.

Why would we want to do that? The answer lies in the pipe_through functions at the top of each scope. These pipe_through functions require requests to be passed through certain pipelines before being routed to the relevant controller. These pipelines consist of a series of plugs, which are special functions or modules, that are equivalent to 'middlewares'.

In our boilerplate code we have two pipeline types:

  pipeline :browser do
    plug :accepts, ["html"]
    plug :fetch_session
    plug :fetch_flash
    plug :protect_from_forgery
    plug :put_secure_browser_headers
  end

  pipeline :api do
    plug :accepts, ["json"]
  end

I won't go into the details of each plug (their names are pretty self-explanatory), but these pipelines nicely encapsulate repeated tasks like adding headers or specifying content-types.

By creating an /admin scope, we could add an authentication pipeline that forces users to be authenticated to access certain pages. Pretty cool!

We can even nest scopes within scopes, to create versioned APIs. For example:

scope "/api", HelloWeb.Api, as: :api do
  pipe_through :api

  scope "/v1", V1, as: :v1 do
    resources "/spells",  ImageController
    resources "/subjects", ReviewController
    resources "/creatures",   UserController
  end
end

Creates routes like so:

  • api/v1/spells
  • api/v1/subjects
  • api/v1/creatures

Note, routes don't have to sit inside a scope, and plugs don't have to sit inside pipelines. If you had a simple server that treated all requests the same, you could have a few plug middlewares followed by a few lone routes, and requests would run top-to-bottom through the plugs before finding their route. However, by doing so you'd be missing out on the neat router modularisation that Phoenix offers.

1e) Hol' up, whats exactly is a plug?

Are you ready to have your mind blown a little bit? Plugs live at the heart of Phoenix's HTTP layer. We've been interacting with plugs throughout this tutorial - they're at every step of the connection lifecycle, and the core Phoenix components like Endpoints, Routers, and Controllers are all just Plugs internally 😱

Plugs aren't something created by Phoenix - they're a thing used by Phoenix, and can be used outside Phoenix when dealing with HTTP in elixir more generally. Remember, Phoenix isn't the only way to make a web server in elixir, just like Express isn't the only way to make a server in Node.js.

Plug the specification describes itself as 'a specification for composable modules in between web applications'.

The basic idea of Plug is to unify the concept of a "connection" that we operate on. This differs from other HTTP middleware layers (e.g. Rack), where the request and response are separated in the middleware stack.

There are 2 main types of plug: Function plugs and Module plugs

Function Plugs

In order to act as a plug, a function simply needs to accept a connection struct (%Plug.Conn{}) and options. It also needs to return a connection struct.

Here's an example. It simply converts a key_values list to response headers, and adds them to the response.

def put_headers(conn, key_values) do
  Enum.reduce key_values, conn, fn {k, v}, conn ->
    Plug.Conn.put_resp_header(conn, to_string(k), v)
  end
end

We could use this plug in a pipeline like so:

 pipeline :api do
    plug :accepts, ["json"]
    plug :put_headers, %{content_encoding: "gzip", cache_control: "max-age=3600"}
  end

Module plugs

Module plugs are another type of Plug that let us define a connection transformation in a module. The module only needs to implement two functions:

  • init/1 which initializes any arguments or options to be passed to call/2
  • call/2 which carries out the connection transformation. call/2 is just a function plug like what you see above.

You use a module plug like so:

plug MyWebApp.Plugs.Locale, "en"

For more info on module plugs, and plugs in general read on here.

1f) Returning different stuff, redirecting and error codes

So far we've just rendered templates. What if we want to build an API that returns json, or text?

The answer is suprisingly simple. Remember our render function in our controller earlier?

defmodule FawkesWeb.MagicController do
  use FawkesWeb, :controller

  def index(conn, _params) do
    render(conn, "magic.html")
  end
end

Well, render isn't our only option here.

We can return plain text with the text function like so:

text(conn, "It does not do to dwell on dreams and forget to live.")

or json with the json function like this:

json(conn, %{"spell" => %{"name" => "Imperius Curse", "incantation" => "Imperio"}})

When using json(), you should pass in a map with string keys. Phoenix ships with a json encoder/decoder package called Jason that takes care of encoding that map to json. Win!

What if I want to return a 404, or a redirect?

Phoenix.Controller offers several functions including redirect out the box:

redirect(conn, to: "/login")

However, we might want something a bit more home-grown. Because the conn argument is a %Plug.Conn struct, we can go to the Plug documentation and find some more fundamental functions, like send_resp for sending responses. Check out some of our options here.

Phoenix abstracts away a lot of these functions for us, by creating controller macros like json(). This is good and bad. It makes things easy, but sometimes we can't find the thing we need or we don't see how things are really working 'under the hood'. We can get back to basics with code like this:

send_resp(conn, 404, "Much like the room of requirement, this web page is not found\n")

You made it to the end! 🎉🔥

Congrats on making it through this exercise. Don't worry, the next one is much less text-heavy and more hands on!

I hope this helped you get to grips with Phoenix, and you are beginning to understand the power and flexibility of web server programming in Elixir!

Part deux

You should see a directory called hello_world inside your apps folder. Navigate to the README in there to find your next challenge. Or go to the github web page here

...After a deserved break from your screen, and maybe a cookie 🍪

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