Truly Conversational Search is the next logic step in the journey to generate intelligent and useful AI. To understand what this may mean, researchers have voiced a continuous desire to study how people currently converse with search engines. Traditionally, the desire to produce such a comprehensive dataset has been limited because those who have this data (Search Engines) have a responsibility to their users to maintain their privacy and cannot share the data publicly in a way that upholds the trusts users have in the Search Engines. Given these two powerful forces we believe we have a dataset and paradigm that meets both sets of needs: A artificial public dataset that approximates the true data and an ability to evaluate model performance on the real user behavior. What this means is we released a public dataset which is generated by creating artificial sessions using embedding similarity and will test on the original data. To say this again: we are not releasing any private user data but are releasing what we believe to be a good representation of true user interactions.
To generate our projection corpus, we took the 1,010,916 MSMARCO queries and generated the query vectors for each unique queries. Once we had these embedding spaces, we build an Approximate Nearest Neighbor Index using ANNOY. Next, we sampled our Bing usage log from 2018-06-01 to 2018-11-30 to find a sample of sessions that that had more than 1 query, shared a query that had a query embedding similar to a MSMARCO query, and were likely to be conversational in nature. Next we remove all navigation, bot, junk, and adult sessions. Once we did this, we now had 45,040,730 unique user sessions of 344,147 unique queries. The average session was 2.6 queries long and the longest session was 160 queries. Just like we did for our public queries, we generated embedding for each unique query. Finally, in order to merge the two, for each unique session we perform a nearest neighbor search given the real queries query vector in the MSMARCO ANN Index. This allows us to join the public queries to the private sessions generating an artificial user session grounded in true user behavior.
An example of these search sessions is below.
marco-gen-dev-40 what is the australian flag what is the population of australia what hemisphere is north australia how big is sydney australia is australia a country marco-gen-dev-152 is elements on a periodic table what is the product of ch4 cost of solar system what constellation is cassiopeia in what is the human skeleton what is a isosceles triangle convert a fraction to a % calculator standard deviation difference calculator graph y = 1/2 x cubed how to what is the volume of a pyramid what is american sign language definition how to put word count on word marco-gen-dev-157 define colonialism what are migrant workers office 365 cost to add a user what does per capita means what are tariffs definition for tariffs define urbanization marco-gen-dev-218 icd 10 code rhinitis icd diagnosis code for cva icd code for psoriatic arthritis icd 10 code for facet arthritis of knee icd 10 code for copd icd codes for cad icd diagnosis code for cva icd 10 code for personal history pvd marco-gen-dev-385 circadian activity rhythms definition what is the synonym of insomnia insomnia definition define narcolepsy causes for night terrors types of meditation definition: meditation pros and cons for death penalty marco-gen-dev-397 cost of solar system what is the hottest planet? what is coldest planet what is solar system is what kind of galaxy is the milky way spanish iris is what in english marco-gen-dev-457 can we repeal donald trump what was barack obama is john mccain a republican who is chuck schumer's daughter was bill clinton a democrat is mike pence a veteran why did barack obama get a nobel peace prize was mahatma gandhi awarded a peace prize why did dalai lama win the nobel peace prize marco-gen-dev-485 definition of technology define scientific method definition of constant graphs definition definition of information technology define axis definition of trial legal definition of bias define what an inference is marco-gen-dev-496 illusory definition illusion vs allusion definition declaration + definition define: caste define rhetoric define race marco-gen-dev-572 stock price tesla fb stock price home depot stock price t amazon stock price nxp semiconductors stock price
We first release BERT Based Sessions and Query Embedding Based Sessions which we shared with a small group of researchers to get feedback on what worked better. Based on community feedback and data exploration our we are releasing our first full scale dataset described below.
- Split the 45,040,730 artificial sessions into a train, dev and test. To do so, any session that included a query from the QnA eval set was considered eval and the remaining sessions were split 90%/10% between train and dev. These files are called full_marco_sessions_ann_split.* and have the following sizes
spacemanidol@spacemanidol:/mnt/c/Users/dacamp/Desktop$ wc -l full_marco_sessions_ann_split.* 3656706 full_marco_sessions_ann_split.dev.tsv 8480280 full_marco_sessions_ann_split.test.tsv 32903744 full_marco_sessions_ann_split.train.tsv 45040730 total
- Use the query vectors to generate a similairty score between edges and filter out four types of edges
- Topic Change: (cosine similarity) <= 0.4
- Explore: (cosine similarity) \in (0.4, 0.7]
- Specify: (cosine similarity) \in (0.7, 0.85]
- Paraphrase: (cosine similarity) \in (0.85, 1]
- Filter by session coherence
- treat "topic change" as non-related and no edge,
- build the graph in each session,
- pick the biggest sub-graph in the session,
- throw away the rest queries not in the biggest sub-graph
- Filter by session length removing anything with less than 4 queries.
- Filter any session where the chain of queries were just paraphrases
75193 marco_ann_session.dev.all.tsv 774724 marco_ann_session.test.all.tsv 675334 marco_ann_session.train.all.tsv 1525251 total
To provide more exploratory content, we further filter the sessions in each split(Train, Dev, Eval) using three types of filtering:
- ".half_trans.jsonl": half (explore|specifiy) >= 50% adjacent edges in (0.4, 0.85]
- ".half_explore.jsonl": half (explore): >= 50% adjacent edges in (0.4, 0.7]
- ".half_specify.jsonl": half (specifiy): >= 50% adjacent edges in (0.7, 0.85]
Explicit size numbers below
spacemanidol@spacemanidol:/mnt/c/Users/dacamp/Desktop$ wc -l marco_ann_session.*.half* 53791 marco_ann_session.dev.half_explore.tsv 5646 marco_ann_session.dev.half_specify.tsv 63854 marco_ann_session.dev.half_trans.tsv 548101 marco_ann_session.test.half_explore.tsv 42032 marco_ann_session.test.half_specify.tsv 648868 marco_ann_session.test.half_trans.tsv 482021 marco_ann_session.train.half_explore.tsv 50980 marco_ann_session.train.half_specify.tsv 572791 marco_ann_session.train.half_trans.tsv 2468084 total
We are currently assembling baselines and building an evaluation framework but the initial task will be as follows: Given a chain of queries q1, q2,...,q(n-1) predict q(n). Ideally systems will train and test on the public artificial and will be evaluated on both the private real data and public artificial eval data.
Initial 500k Sample Process
- Downloaded the data
- Generate the querySets
python generateQuerySets.py <msmarco train queries> <msmarco dev queries> <msmarco eval queries> <quoraQueries> <NQFolder>
- Get Query Embeddings
python generateQueryEmbeddings.py <url> allQueries.tsv queryEmbeddings.tsv
- Generate BERT Query Embeddings To generate our Query Embeddings we used BERT As A Service to generate a unique query embedding for each query in our set. If you want to go ahead and regenerate embeddings(or use it to generate another alternate query source for you model) you can follow what we did below.
cd Data/BERT pip install bert-serving-server # server pip install bert-serving-client # client, independent of `bert-serving-server` wget https://storage.googleapis.com/bert_models/2018_10_18/cased_L-24_H-1024_A-16.zip unzip cased_L-24_H-1024_A-16 bert-serving-start -model_dir ~/Data/BERT/cased_L-24_H-1024_A-16 -num_worker=4 -device_map 0 #depending on your computer play around with these settings
In a separate shell
python3 generateQueryEmbeddingsBERT.py allQueries.tsv BERTQueryEmbeddings.tsv
- Generate Sessions
python generateArtificialSessions.py realQueries queryEmbeddings.tsv BERTQueryEmbeddings.tsv queryEmbeddings.ann sessions.tsv