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dfuse Live Search Example (using GraphQL Subscription & Apollo Client)
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Stéphane Duchesneau
Latest commit 816f222 May 6, 2019

Get started with GraphQL API using REACT

Stream action rates example

This example demonstrates how to use the dfuse GraphQL APIs in a React application to livestream the average rates from the top actions. A live demo is available here

Token managment

First, head on to our self-service API management portal (, after signing up you will be able to create long-term API keys.

Once you have this API key, call the endpoint to get a fresh Authentication Token (JWT).

/** getTokenFromServer: fetch new token from backend using the dfuse api key **/
async function getTokenFromServer(apiKey: string): Promise<ApiTokenInfo> {
  const jsonBody = JSON.stringify({ api_key: apiKey })

  return fetch("", {  method: "POST", body: jsonBody })
    .then(async (response: Response) => {
      const tokenInfo = await response.json()
      return Promise.resolve(tokenInfo)
const API_KEY= "<Your-api-key>"

getTokenFromServer(API_KEY).then((token: ApiTokenInfo) => {

When to refresh your JWT token

Tokens have a life span of 24h (that can vary) and need to be refreshed before they expire. Please see Lifecycle of short-lived JWTs endpoint is rated limited. Full documentation can be found here API key types & Rate limiting

 * parseJwt: Extracts JSON data from the JWT token
function parseJwt(token: string) {
  let base64Url = token.split('.')[1];
  let base64 = base64Url.replace(/-/g, '+').replace(/_/g, '/');
  return JSON.parse(window.atob(base64));

 * getToken: handles the token refresh,
 * only when it is expired, else use the token in local storage
export async function getToken(apiKey: string): Promise<ApiTokenInfo> {
  const tokenInfo: ApiTokenInfo | undefined = ApiTokenLocalStorage.get()

  if(!tokenInfo) {
    return await getTokenFromServer(apiKey)

  const jwt = parseJwt(tokenInfo.token);
  const expiration = jwt["exp"];
  const now = / 1000;

  const remainingTime = expiration - now;

  console.log("Time remaining in second: " + remainingTime);
  if (remainingTime < 60 * 60) {
    return await getTokenFromServer(apiKey)

  return tokenInfo

Initializing the graphql client (apollo)

We use the apollo client to connect to the graphQL server. You can install the apollo client and other required packages via:

yarn add apollo-boost graphql apollo-client apollo-link-ws react-apollo subscriptions-transport-ws

In our example, we instantiate the apollo client like follows:

import { WebSocketLink } from "apollo-link-ws";
import { getToken } from "./token-refresher";
import ApolloClient from "apollo-client/ApolloClient";
import { InMemoryCache } from "apollo-cache-inmemory";
import { ApiTokenInfo } from "./models";

const API_KEY = "<your-api-key>";

 * wsLink: websocket link that will be used by apollo
 * the connection is async as it may require a token refresh
const wsLink = new WebSocketLink({
  uri: "wss://",
  options: {
    lazy: true,
    reconnect: true,
    connectionParams: async () => {
      const apiToken: ApiTokenInfo | undefined = await getToken(API_KEY);
      if (apiToken) {
        return {
          Authorization: `Bearer ${apiToken.token}`
      throw new Error("can't get token");

export const apolloClient = new ApolloClient({
  link: wsLink,
  cache: new InMemoryCache()

GraphQL query

Build the graphQL subscription

We use the gql function to build our subscription query:

import { gql } from "apollo-boost";

* subscribeTransactions:
* Subscription query to connect to the transaction stream
* $cursor: pagination cursor, can be saved to be reused in case of disconnection
* $lowBlockNum: starting block num, a negative number means fetching the past N blocks
export const subscribeTransactions = gql`
  fragment actionTracesFragment on ActionTrace {
  subscription subscribeTransactions($cursor: String, $lowBlockNum: Int64) {
      query: "status:executed notif:false"
      lowBlockNum: $lowBlockNum
      cursor: $cursor
    ) {
      trace {
        block {
        executedActions {

Use in react application

Apollo provides an ApolloProvider component to link the apollo client to the React application. Using the subscription query is as simple as passing it to the Subscription component (read apollo doc for more details)

class App extends Component {
  onSubscriptionData = ({ client, subscriptionData }: any) => {
    const response =;
  render() {
    return <ApolloProvider client={apolloClient}>
        variables={{ cursor: "", lowBlockNum: -100 }}

Parsing server response

The response from the server is parsed and fed into an actionsMap hash to hold the rates for each action contract/name pair

** interfaces representing the output from graphql
export interface GraphQLTransactionTrace {
  block: {
    id: string;
    num: number;
    timestamp: string;
  executedActions: GraphQLActionTrace[];
  id: string;
  status: string;

export interface GraphQLActionTrace {
  account: string;
  data: any;
  name: string;
  receiver: string;

* ActionMap:
* format "<action-acccount>:<action-name>": count
* used to render stats in the react application
export interface ActionMap {
 [key:string]: number

 * parseResponseFromGraphQL:
 * parses the transaction trace from the backend and fills an actionsMap bucket with it
 * returns the actionsMap
 * the 'undo' property relates to the block irreversibility and controls the incrementation
export function parseResponseFromGraphQL(
  actionsMap: ActionMap,
  data: GraphQLTransactionTrace,
  undo: boolean
) { GraphQLActionTrace) => {
    const key = `${action.account}:${}`;
    const increment = undo ? -1 : 1;
    if (!actionsMap[key]) {
      actionsMap[key] = increment;
    } else {
      actionsMap[key] += increment;
  return actionsMap;

The snippet above contains an undo parameter (returned inside the payload of the subscription response), that parameter handles forks inside the chain and the counter is decremented if it is set to true. Please refer to the full example to see how the output of parseResponseFromGraphQL is used inside the view.

Quick start to run the example

The following assumes you have yarn installed on your computer

  • Clone this repository
  • yarn install
  • yarn start
  • open localhost:3000 in a new tab in your webbrowser
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