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EmailPK - Instant encrypted email



EmailPK is a public-key encryption website and library that lets users encrypt easily encrypt and send email message through a variety of webmail interfaces. A user's email is used as their public key, and their private key is derived from their passphrase. No key files are needed to successfuly send and receive encrypted emails.

This project was heavily inspired by miniLock, which uses the same base encryption libraries as EmailPK. Also, a related project myLock uses a similar approach to EmailPK to encrypt generic files. Check them out!

Why use EmailPK?

  1. The biggest problem with adoption of PGP has been key management. Most email users have no idea what encryption keys are, much less the difference between public and private keys. EmailPK attempts to address this problem by removing the need for key files entirely, and instead focusing on using things the user already uses: emails and passwords. See How it works for more details.

  2. The only software requirements for sending and receiving encrypted emails is a modern web browser and an email account on a popular webmail provider. No additional software or plugins are needed. This allows users to just visit the demo website above to send or receive an email. This can hopefully lower the barrier to entry for people to start encrypting their communications.

  3. The demonstration website above is made to be unhosted. It can be saved to your computer (just right click and "Save As") and opened directly with no need for an internet connection. No external files are required and no server calls are made beyond the initial website page load (or no calls at all if you are hosting the file locally). Additionally, only public webmail links are used to send emails, so no 3rd-party OAuth approval is required.

  4. This entire project is only ~1300 lines of code, and the core library is less than 300 lines of code. It is meant to be self contained, easy to learn, and easy to audit (I would love to have a security audit donated to the project).

  5. Since EmailPK is open source it can be included with other software to allow easy asymmetric email encryption. I would love to see people create EmailPK wrappers for more email providers and social network APIs.

  6. EmailPK is designed to be used anonymously. No personally identifiable information is ever requested, and you can generate as many email codes as you want. You can use EmailPK as disposable encryption by ignoring the passphrase field during message composition, which let only the recipients to be able to decrypt the message (NOTE: the downside to this is that you won't be able to read any replies to that email either).

How it works

Public key encryption works by using a public key to encrypt a file, that then can only be decrypted by the person who has the complementary secret key. This means you can widely publish your public key (on your twitter profile, email signature, personal website, etc.) and others can then encrypt files that only you can decrypt.

Normally, public key encryption requires that the user keep a secret key saved somewhere on your computer. However, EmailPK uses an algorithm that generates a secret key from your email and passphrase, so that you only need the email and passphrase to recreate the secret key (see Drawbacks).

Luckily, many popular webmail providers offer the ability to add aliases to emails (i.e., which means that you can add your public key to your email, which can then be automatically stored in others' contact lists. This basically lets contact lists act as the public key repository for a user.

Additionally, this demo uses the public compose deeplinks offered by several webmail providers to allow for easy sending of encrypted messages. By using these links, EmailPK doesn't need ask for permission to access their APIs. This removes the need to trust EmailPK with API permissions.


  1. Unfortunately, since only your email and passphrase are used to derive your secret key, it means your passphrase has to be strong, so EmailPK requires a passphrase that is at least 20 characters to encourage users to use stronger passphrases. We make it harder to create universal hash or rainbow tables of passphrases by salting them with the user's email, but common phrases such as song lyrics and movie quotes should not be used. A password manager is a great option to use for generating EmailPK passphrases.

  2. Since the email contains the public key for a user, the public key part of the email cannot be chosen by the user. Instead, that part of the email is generated when the passphrase is entered. This can make it more difficult to manually type in someone's email, but the reply functionality in EmailPK partially mitigates the need for that.

  3. You need both your email and your passphrase to log back into your account because your email is used as a salt to generate your secret key. Without the email, the original secret key cannot be recreated. Luckily, you don't have worry about keeping your email secret so you can keep it somewhere you can easily copy/paste from (or it will pre-filled when decrypting a message).

  4. Senders and TO/CC users are included in the clear with the message. This is to allow easy reply/reply-all that is a common use-case in email. BCC recipients are not included in the encrypted message, so use that field if you do not want other recipients to see that recipient.

Technical details

External libraries

EmailPK includes three external libraries:

These libraries are included inline and minified in the EmailPK index.html. The exact commit link from which the minified source was downloaded is included in the comment above the code.

Email encryption steps

  1. A user selects to compose a message, enters their email, recipient emails, and composes a message.
  2. If they want to read replies, they can enter a passphrase (otherwise one is randomly chosen).
  3. The passphrase is hashed using nacl.hash() (uses SHA-512).
  4. The secret key is generated from the passphrase hash and the user's email as salt using scrypt(salt, hash, 17, 8, 32, 1000, callback) (uses scrypt).
  5. A public key is derived form the secret key using (uses curve25519).
  6. If the user's email already has a public key, it is compared with the generated public key.
  7. If the user's email doesn't have a public key, the generated public key is added to their email.
  8. A 32-byte random file key and nonce are generated using nacl.randomBytes() (uses window.crypto.getRandomValues).
  9. The message is symmetrically encrypted with the file key and nonce using nacl.secretbox() (uses xsalsa20-poly1305).
  10. A hash of the sender's full email (with public key) is hashed using nacl.hash() (uses SHA-512).
  11. A header that contains file key, nonce, and sender email hash is encrypted with the public key of the each recipient, a random nonce, and signed with the sender's secret key using (uses curve25519-xsalsa20-poly1305).
  12. The final message is composed by concatting the sender's public key, the list of headers, and the encrypted message.
  13. The final message is encoded from a Uint8Array to a Base58 string.
  14. The final message is added to a helpful link that also contains the sender, recipients (to and cc, but not bcc), and a random subject.
  15. Reply links use the same random subject by default to allow for easy conversation threading in email clients.
  16. Public webmail compose deeplinks are generated that contain the helpful link.

Email decryption steps

  1. The user either clicks on a helpful link they receive or manually pastes the link into the Read Existing textarea.
  2. The encrypted message is extracted from the link and decoded to a Uint8Array.
  3. The user is asked to enter their email and passphrase (if they haven't already). To and cc recipients are provided in a dropdown to allow for easy email selection.
  4. The passphrase is hashed using nacl.hash() (uses SHA-512).
  5. The secret key is generated from the passphrase hash and the user's email as salt using scrypt(salt, hash, 17, 8, 32, 1000, callback) (uses scrypt).
  6. Each header is attempted to be decrypted using the secret key, the sender's public key, and the header nonce using (uses curve25519-xsalsa20-poly1305).
  7. If a header is successfully decrypted, the message is decrypted with file key and nonce using (uses xsalsa20-poly1305).
  8. The sender's email is compared to the decrypted senderEmailHash to authenticate the sender using nacl.hash() (uses SHA-512).
  9. If the sender is authenticated, the decrypted message is displayed.
  10. The sender's email in the helpful link is compared to the sender's public key included in the encrypted message.
  11. If the sender email's public from the helpful link matches the sender's public key from the encrypted message, the sender is displayed and the user can reply to the message.
  12. If the sender email's public from the helpful link does not match the sender's public key from the encrypted message, a warning is shown that the sender could not be verified.

Message format

The helpful link (i.e. what the user clicks on) uses the following format:

<BaseURL>                (i.e. or file:///path/to/index.html)
?from=<senderEmail>      (contains the sender's public key)
&subject=<randomString>  (random subject field, consistent across replies for easy threading)
&to=<recipientEmail>,... (comma separated emails, if any)
&cc=<recipientEmail>,... (comma separated emails, if any)
&msg=<encryptedMessage>  (the encrypted file)

The encrypted message (i.e. what's in the &msg=<encryptedMessage>) uses the following format:

<encryptedMessage> = [
    <senderPublicKey(32 bytes)>,
    <header(160 bytes)>,
    <header(160 bytes)>,
    <encryptedBody(variable bytes)>

Headers use the following format:

<header(160 bytes)> = [
    <textInfoNonce(24 bytes)>,
    <textInfoEncrypted(136 bytes)> = [
        <textKey(32 bytes)>,
        <textNonce(24 bytes)>,
        <senderEmailHash(64 bytes)>
    ] (encrypted with recipient.publicKey, textInfoNonce, and sender.secretKey (encryption adds 16 bytes)),

EmailPK core library API

EmailPK.setEmail(email, passphrase)

Sets salt, public key, and secret key in the EmailPK object. If email does not contain a public key, the public key is derived from the email and passphrase and added back to the email (can be retrieved via the EmailPK.getEmail() function). Passphrases must be at least 20 characters.


Gets called when a email has been set. A successful completion will leave error undefined. An unsuccessful completion will have an error string.


Will return the email set in the EmailPK object that contains the user's public key. NOTE: there is not a way to retrieve the secret key in the EmailPK object.


Determines if an email contains a valid public key or not. Returns an error string if there is an error. Returns an object if there is not an error. The object is {'salt': <String>} if the email does not contain a public key. The object is {'salt': <String>, 'publicKey': <Uint8Array>} if the email does contain a public key. The salt field is the email without the public key.

EmailPK.encrypt(text, recipients)

Encrypt some text for a list of recipients (text is a string, recipients is an array of emails that contain).

EmailPK.onEncryptDone(encrypted_text, error)

Gets called when the text has been encrypted. A successful completion will leave error undefined. An unsuccessful completion will have an error string. The encrypted_text is a base 58 encoded string.

EmailPK.decrypt(encrypted_text, sender_email)

Decrypt an encrypted_text string from a sender's email.

EmailPK.onDecryptDone(text, error)

Gets called when the text has been decrypted. A successful completion will leave error undefined. An unsuccessful completion will have an error string. The text variable is the decrypted string.


var EPK = new EmailPK();

//fires on email creation or login
EPK.onEmailDone = function(error){

    //errors are strings or undefined
    if(error !== undefined){
        console.log("Email error: " + error);

    //get the created email
    var my_email = EPK.getEmail();
    console.log("Email: " + my_email);

    //fires on encrypt completion
    EPK.onEncryptDone = function(enc_txt, error){

        //errors are strings or undefined
        if(error !== undefined){
            console.log("Encryption error: " + error);

        console.log("Encrypted message: " + enc_txt);

        //fires on decrypt completion
        EPK.onDecryptDone = function(text, error){
            //errors are strings or undefined
            if(error !== undefined){
                console.log("Decryption error: " + error);

            console.log("Decrypted message from '" + my_email + "': " + text);

        //decrypt the text
        EPK.decrypt(enc_txt, my_email);
    EPK.encrypt("Hello World!", [my_email]);
EPK.setEmail("", "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa");


License and Feedback

This project is released under the GPLv2 license, but external libraries may be licensed differently. This project is hosted on Github, so please file bug reports and pull requests there.


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