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A multifunctional Teop-English dictionary

by Ulrike Mosel

This repository contains the data underlying the published version of the dictionary at Dictionaria as CLDF Dictionary CLDF validation

Releases of this repository are archived with and accessible through ZENODO and the latest release is published on the Dictionaria website.

The Teop language and its speakers

Table 1: The Teop language and its speakers

ISO 639-3tio
LocationPapua New Guinea, Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Tinputz District
ClassificationAustronesian, Oceanic, Meso-Melanesian
TypologyVerb-second language
Number of speakers5000
Language useTeop is the language of instruction in the elementary school; later it is English.
Most speakers are literate in Teop, all of them are bilingual in Teop and Tok Pisin, many of them also speak English well.


Table 2: Content of this dictionary Table 2: Content of this dictionary

DialectCoastal dialect
Size6488 entries; 6417 entries with example sentences and/or encyclopaedic descriptions in Teop with English translations; 1641 entries with illustrations
Types information that can be searched for separately or in combination (see the multifunctionality of the Teop-English dictionary) headword: single words, multiword expressions, and clitic constructions are represented in their orthographical forms found in texts; variant forms are represented as separate headwords, e.g. vuuvua, vuvua; words whose final vowel may be dropped are represented in their long form;
part of speech: classification headwords, i.e. of single words and multi- word expressions (MWEs);
meaning description: English translation equivalents and explanations;
examples in Teop with English translations: sentences that illustrate the meaning of the headword and encyclopedic descriptions of animals. things and activities;
semantic domain: a classification of headwords according to the semantic field they belong to, e.g. agriculture, emotions, kinship, which helps users to sort the entries according to their content;
MWE structure: parts of speech of the components of MWEs
morphology & gloss: morphological analysis with glosses of complex words, multi-word expressions and clitic constructions;
scientific names of fishes, shellfish, and plants.
Documentary evidenceExamples taken from the Teop Language Corpus are identified by the label (ID) of the text and the number of the annotation (see the sources of Teop descriptions and example sentences)

In addition, there are 578 entries that contain comments on language use and grammatical issues.

The identification of English and scientific names of marine creatures is based on Allen et al. 2003, Dance 2000 and various web sites (see References), but to what extent the Teop names denote species or families in a scientific sense has not been investigated. The scientific names of plants were listed by Owen Kasinori.

The multifunctionality of the Teop-English dictionary

The basic function of this dictionary is the reception of Teop texts. But as each column, e.g. “headword”, “part of speech”, etc., can be searched separately or in combination with other columns, this dictionary can be used for educational purposes and various kinds of linguistic and anthropological research questions as illustrated by the examples in Table 3.

Table 3: multifunctionality

functionsearch fieldsexamples
text receptionheadword
semantic domain animals, fishes: 162 entries
fishing: 129 entries
plants: 479 entries
morphological analysisglossRED:
1050 headwords with reduplicated syllables
part of speech & glossADJ & RED:
84 adjectives with reduplicated syllables
149 clitic constructions with pronouns
syntactic analysispart of speech ADJ.CONSTR:
69 adjectival constructions
part of speech & meaning descriptionADJ.CONSTR & having:
49 adjectival possessive compunds
part of speech & MWE VT.CONSTR & prep:
166 transitive verb complexes with an incorporated preposition
semantic domaincomparison:
50 entries with various constructions of comparison
semanticssemantic domaincolours & patterns: 101 entries
cutting: 89 entries (see Mosel 2019)
emotions: 142 entries

Research context, funding, contributors

Table 4: Research context, funding, contributors

Research contextThe dictionary is an outcome of the Teop Language Documentation project which started in 1994
FundingAustralian Research Council 1994; Volkswagen Foundation 2000-2007; the German Research Foundation 2008-2011; the private the sponsor Annemarie Dahlhaus 2011-2014
Project leaderUlrike Mosel
Authors of encyclopedic descriptions in TeopJubilee Kamai, Enoch Horai Magum, Helen Kobaa Magum, Shalom Magum, Joyce Maion, Naphtali Maion, Ruth Simaa Rigamu, Ondria Tavagaga, Jeremiah Vaabero
Teop proof readers Jubilee Kamai, Ondria Tavagaga
English translationsUlrike Mosel with Enoch Magum, Shalom Magum, Joyce Maion, Naphtali Maion, Ruth Saovana Spriggs, Marcia Schwartz, Simaa Rigamu
Research assistantsRuth Saovana Spriggs, Yvonne Schuth, Marcia Schwartz
IllustrationsIllustrations of folk tales: Rodney Rasin
Encyclopedic illustrations: Neville Vitahi
PhotographsPhotographs of mountain trees: Owen Kasinori
All other photographs: Ulrike Mosel

The sources of Teop descriptions and example sentences

Nearly all Teop descriptions and example sentences are quotations from the Teop Language Corpus, which comprises folktales, personal narratives, descriptions, conversations about the culture, and texts that are collections of isolated sentences. All texts are given an ID consisting of abbreviation of the authors’ names, a number and a letter that distinguishes four types of text (see Table 5). 124 example sentences come from fieldnotes. These often, but not consistently contain the native speaker’s name and the year of collection.

Table 5: Types of text

Rtranscription of an audio recording
RGtranscription of an audio recording with morphological segmentation and glossing
Eedited versions of transcriptions of audio recordings; the editor's name is given in abbreviated form in brackets after E, e.g. Aro 03E(Eno) ‘Arovi Magum’s third text edited by Enoch Magum’
Wwritten texts

For the method and the value of editing spoken texts see Mosel 2012b; 2015. The collections of isolated sentences were compiled on the basis of Teop wordlists. Their IDs contain the label “Sen”, e.g. SiiSen 01W ‘Simaa Rigamu’s first collection of sentences’. For the status of such “texts” from a corpus linguistic perspective see Mosel 2018:250-251. Elicitation by English or Tok Pisin wordlists was strictly avoided (Mosel 2012a:81-82).

Phonology and orthography

The Teop orthography is phonological, but not standardized with respect to vowel length and word boundaries.

For a detailed analysis of the realization of Teop consonants and vowels see Radtke 2004.

Table 6: Phonology and orthography


Parts of speech

For Teop parts of speech see Mosel 2017, for the distinction of noun classes by articles Mosel 2014, and for the valency of verbs Mosel 2010b. Note that the three noun classes n1, n2 and n3 were formerly called n.e, n.a and n.o.

Table 7: Part-of-speech classification of single words and MWEs

ADJ.CONSTRadjectival construction, a construction that can substitute for an adjective in various syntactic functions; it is not necessarily headed by an adjective
ADV.CONSTRadverbial construction, a construction that can substitute for an adverb in various syntactic functions
APPLapplicative particle or clitic within the verb complex that changes the valency of the verb
ART.CONSTRthe combination of an object article with a basic article
CLITIC CONSTRa construction with one or more clitics
CONJ.CONSTRa construction in which a conjunction combines with one or more other words to specify the semantic relation between two clauses
DEMa demonstrative that functions as an argument or specifies the reference of a noun
DETERMINERa determiner other than an article or demonstrative; similar to English ‘some’ or ‘other’
DETERMINER CONSTRa disjunctive construction of distinct determiners like ‘one’ ... ‘the other one’
INTERROGATIVE CONSTRa construction that consists of an interrogative adverb and an additional element like an adverb, preposition or relative clause
LINKERa word that links modifiers of a variety of forms to nouns and verbs or functions as a predicate marked for tense and aspect
LINKER CONSTRa construction headed by the linker
N1noun of the 1st class marked by articles of the first class
N1.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for a noun of the 1st class in the formation of a noun phrase
N1/N2.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for a noun of the 1st and 2nd class in the formation of a noun phrase
N2noun of the second class marked by articles of the second class
N2.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for a noun of the 2nd class in the formation of a noun phrase
N2/N3a noun that is marked by articles of the 2nd and the 3rd class
N3noun of the 3rd class marked by articles of the 3rd class
N3.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for a noun of the 3rd class in the formation of a noun phrase
NEG.CONSTRa construction that expresses negation by a disjunctive negation or by a negation in combination with an adverb, a conjunction or a noun phrase
NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSEa relative clause in the function of an argument
NUMERALcardinal and ordinal numerals
OBJECT MARKERa clitic or particle within the verb complex that cross-references the object
PARTICLEa word with an emphasising or a less clear function
POSSESSIVE MARKERa particle that cross-references a pronominal or nominal possessive attribute; possessive markers are most frequently found in clitic constructions; search the column “gloss” for POSS.
PREP.CONSTRa construction that is headed by a preposition
PRONpronouns, including clitics and word forms consisting of a prefixed possessive marker and a pronoun
PRON.CONSTRa construction a personal, indefinite or anaphoric pronoun with an article
QUANTIFIERa quantifying word other than a numeral that precedes the head of a noun phrase
TAMtense-aspect-mood particle
VDditransitive verb
VD.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for ditransitive verb in various syntactic functions
VIintransitive verb
VI.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for an intransitive verb in various syntactic functions
VI/VTa verb that can be used transitively and intransitively
VI/VT.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for an intransitive or a transitive verb in various syntactic functions
VTtransitive verb
VT.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for a transitive verb in various syntactic functions
VT/VDa verb that can be used transitively and ditransitively
VT/VD.CONSTRa construction that can substitute for an adjective in various syntactic functions

Abbreviations of glosses

All complex words and MWEs are glossed.

Table 8: Abbreviations of glosses

ACAUSanticausative prefix
ADJRsuffix that derives adjectives from nouns in combination with reduplication
ADVRprefix that derives adverbs from adjectives
ANAanaphoric pronoun
APPLapplicative particle that changes the valency of verb complexes (Mosel 2010b)
ARTarticle (see Mosel 2014)
ART1 article of the 1st class
ART2 article of the 2nd class
ART3 article of the 3rd class
CAUScausative prefix
COMPL1complementiser introducing complement clauses with anaphoric zero subjects
COMPL2complementiser introducing complement clauses whose subject is different from that of the main clause
CONTadverb that expresses continuity
DATpreposition indicating that a pronoun or NP refers to an addressee or beneficiary; it may be incorporated in the verb complex
DEMdemonstrative; the distinct types of demonstratives are indicated by numbers
DERELsuffix that derives non-relational nouns of the 3rd class from relational nouns of the 2nd class (see Mosel 2014)
EXexclusive (‘we, but not you’)
GOALpreposition vo ‘to a place’, which combines with an adverb, an NP without an article, or a prepositional phrase introduced by the multi-purpose preposition te
H-prefix marking heavy personal pronouns
IMMimmediateness marker indicating either that an event just happened and is still relevant or that an event will immediately happen
INinclusive (‘we including you’)
IPFVimperfective aspect marker; it is incorporated in the verb complex, inflects for person and number and cross-references the subject or the object in case that the object is a 1st or 2nd person and the subject a 3rd person; there are four categories:
nom IPFV with the realis tense/aspect/mood: 1st pers. sg., 2nd pers. sg., 1st pers. pl. exclusive; 2nd pers. pl.; otherwise all persons and numbers; na, nana 3SG.IPFV; ra, rara 1PL.IN.IPFV; ri, rori 3PL.IPFV with the realis tense/aspect/mood
KIN.PLMplural marker for kinship terms; morpho-syntactically classified as a noun of the 2nd class
MULTprefix that derives verbs denoting multiple actions, including reciprocal actions
NSPECnon-specific article indicating noun class and number
NSPEC2 non-specific article of the 2nd class
NSPEC3 non-specific article of the 3rd class
OBJ.ARTobject article used with non-topical objects
OBJMobject marker incorporated in the verb complex and cross-referencing objects (Mosel 2010b); there is no object marker for the 3rd person singular:
PLMplural marker; morpho-syntactically classified as a noun of the 2nd class
POSSaffix or clitic following a relational noun; it marks a possessive relation and agrees with the possessor pronoun or NP in person and number; there is no possessive marker for the 1st person singular
PREPthe multi-purpose preposition te
PRONpersonal pronoun; numbers indicate the person, SG and PL singular and plural, respectively, EX and IN exclusive and inclusive, respectively
for the 4th person see Mosel 2010a
RELrelative pronoun


References to linguistic research

Mosel, Ulrike. 2010a. The fourth person in Teop. In John Bowden, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, and Malcolm Ross (eds). A Journey through Austronesian and Papuan Linguistic and Cultural Space: Papers in Honour of Andrew K. Pawley. Pacific Linguistics. Canberra: The Australian National University, 391-404.

Mosel, Ulrike. 2010b. Ditransitive constructions and their alternatives in Teop. In Andrej Malchukov, Martin Haspelmath, and Bernard Comrie. Studies in Ditransitive Constructions: a Comparative Handbook. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton, pp. 486-509.

Mosel, Ulrike. 2012a. Morphosyntactic analysis in the field; a guide to the guides. In Nicholas Thieberger (ed). The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic fieldwork. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 72-89.

Mosel, Ulrike. 2012b. Creating educational materials in language documentation projects -- creating innovative resources for linguistic research. In Frank Seifart, Geoffrey Haig, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, Dagmar Jung, Anna Margetts, and Paul Trilsbeek (eds.) Potentials of Language Documentation: Methods, Analyses, and Utilization. Language Documentation & Conservation Special Publication No. 3, Hawaii: University of Hawai'i at Manoa, pp. 111-117. (accessed June 2019)

Mosel, Ulrike. 2014. Type shifts of nouns under determination in Teop, an Oceanic language of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. In Doris Gerland, Christian Horn, Anja Latrouite & Albert Ortmann (eds.). Meaning and Grammar of Nouns and Verbs. Düsseldorf: dup, pp. 49-75. (accessed June 2019)

Mosel, Ulrike. 2015. Putting oral narratives into writing - experiences from a language documentation project in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. In Bernard Comrie and Lucía Golluscio (eds). Language Contact and Documentation. Contacto lingüístico y documentación. Berlin, Munich, Boston: de Gruyter Mouton, pp.321-342.

Mosel, Ulrike. 2017. Teop – an Oceanic language with multifunctional verbs, nouns and adjectives. In Eva van Lier (ed.) Lexical Flexibility in Oceanic Languages. Studies in Language. Vol. 41.2, Special Issue, pp. 255-293.

Mosel, Ulrike. 2018. Corpus compilation and exploitation in language documentation projects. In Regh, Kenneth and Lyle Campbell (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 248-270.

Mosel, Ulrike. 2019. Cut-verbs of the Oceanic language Teop, a criticial study of collecting and analysing data in a language documentation project. (Festschrift)

Mosel, Ulrike, Enoch Horai Magum, Jubilie Kamai, Joyce Maion, Naphtali Maion, Simaa Ruth Rigamu, Ruth Saovana Spriggs and Yvonne Thiesen. 2007. The Teop Language Corpus. (accessed 18 June 2019)

Mosel, Ulrike and Yvonne Thiessen. 2007. The Teop Sketch Grammar. (accessed 18 June 2019)

Radtke, Alexander. 2004/2005. Explorative Studie zur phonetischen Realisierung des Teop auf perzeptorischer Basis mit Ergänzungen zu den Vokalphonemen. (accessed 18 June 2019)

References to books and websites used for the identification of plant and animal names

Allen, Gerald, Roger Steene, Paul Humann, Ned DeLoach. 2003. Reef fish identification. Tropical Pacific. Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A: New World Publications.

Dance, S. Peter. 2000. Shells. The photographic recognition guide to seashells of the world. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited.

Haddon, Don.2004. Birds and bird lore of Bougainville and the North Solomons. Alderly, Queensland, Australia: Dove Publications.

Schoffner, Robert Kirk. 1976. The economy and cultural ecology of Teop : an analysis of the fishing, gardening, and cash cropping systems in a Melanesian Society. Diss. University of Hawai'i.

Websites (accessed June 2019)

Useful Tropical Plants:

Appendix: Texts cited in the dictionary

In the references to transcriptions of audio recordings (R), the first abbreviation, which is the ID of the text, refers the sole or the main speaker. In addition, you find in the annotations of conversations a second abbreviation in brackets that refers to the speaker of a particular utterance that is given as an example, e.g. Bua 02R(Sao).

In the references to edited texts (E), the names of the original speakers comes first and the editor’s name is given in brackets, e.g. Aro 01E(Eno).

If a text was created by two or more authors, the abbreviations of all their names are given, e.g. Aro Sha Joy 01W.

The editors are:

  • Enoch Horai Magum (Eno)
  • Joyce Maion (Joy)
  • Naphtali Maion (Naph)
  • Shalom Magum (Sha)

Table 1: The texts from which the definitions and examples originate

Aro Sha Joy 01WArovi Magum,
Shalom Magum,
Joyce Maion
description of plants
Aro 01R; Aro 01E(Eno),
Aro 02R, Aro 02E(Eno),
Aro 03R, Aro 03E(Eno),
Aro 04R, Aro 04E(Eno),
Aro 05R, Aro 05E(Eno),
Aro 06R, Aro 06E(Eno),
Aro 07R, Aro 07E(Eno),
Aro 08R, Aro 08E(Eno),
Aro 10R, Aro 10E(Eno),
Aro 11R, Aro 11E(Eno),
Aro 12R, Aro 12E(Joy),
Aro 14R, Aro 14E(Eno),
Aro 15R
Leah Arovi Magumfolk tales
Asu 15R, Asu 01E(Eno)Asuvefolk tale
Ata 01R, Ata 01E(Eno)Atafolk tale
Auv 01RAuvia Magumfolk tale
Bua 01RMarlon Buasianadescription of the boys’ initiation
Bua 02RMarlon Buasianadescription of the traditional wedding, and the ceremony of blessing the children
Daa 01R, Daa 01E(Naph)Kelemen Daana description of funerals
Daa 02R;
Daa 02E (Eno, Naph)
description of weeding customs
Eno Aro 01EEnoch Horai Magum,
Leah Arovi Magum
dialogue about the 2nd World War
Eno 01R, Eno 01E(Eno)Enoch Horai Magumfolk tale
Eno 02 WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of how to make the thatch of a house
Eno 03WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of how to make bamboo walls
Eno 04WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of how to make the floor of a house
Eno 05WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of parts of the house
Eno 06WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of the boys’ house
Eno 07WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of making the top thatch of a house
Eno 08WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of making the fishing net for turtles
Eno 09WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of how to launch a net for catching turtles
Eno 10E(Eno)Enoch Horai Magumdescription of butchering a pig
Eno 11WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of how fishes are caught
Eno 12WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of the fishing method called varigomo
Eno 13WEnoch Horai Magumexamples for words used is the descriptions of house building
Eno 14WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of the fishing method called siege
Eno 15WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of the fishing method called vavaaiku
Eno 16WEnoch Horai Magumdescription of fishing activities
Eno 19WEnoch Horai Magumexamples for words concerning plants
Eno 20WEnoch Horai Magumdescriptions of fishes
Eno 21WEnoch Horai Magumdefinitions and examples of words related to fishing
Eno 23WEnoch Horai Magumdefinition of kikimoto, a beam used in house building
Gol 01R, Gol 01E(Eno)Goldie Magumfolktale
Hel 01RGHelen Kobaa Magumcooking recipe
Hel 02RHelen Kobaa Magumcooking recipe
Hel 03RHelen Kobaa Magumcooking recipe
Hel 04RHelen Kobaa Magumcooking recipe
Hel 05RHelen Kobaa Magumcooking recipe
Hel 06 RHelen Kobaa Magumcooking recipe
Hel 07E(Sha)Helen Kobaa Magum description of how to catch bêche-de-mer
Hel 08E(Sha)Helen Kobaa Magum description of the fishing method called tanaa
Hel 09E(Sha)Helen Kobaa Magum description of how to catch the Olive-Scribbled-Wrasse
Hel 13RG, Hel 13E(Sha)Helen Kobaa Magumdescription of how to butcher a chicken
Hel 14R, 14E(Sha)Helen Kobaa Magum description of how to poison fish with leaves
Hel 15R, Hel 15E(Sha)Helen Kobaa Magum description of how to poison fish with roots
Hel 16R, Hel 16E(Sha)Helen Kobaa Magum description of how to poison fish with bêche-de-mer
Hoa 02E(Joy)Philip Hoagaepersonal narrative
Iar 01Rpersonal narrative
Iar 02RG, Iar 02E(Eno)Ruth Iarabeefolk tale
Jan 01WJanet Nasindescriptions of body parts and diseases
Jan 02WJanet Nasindescriptions of plants
Jan 03WJanet Nasindefinitions and examples of words related to body and health
Jan 04WJanet Nasindescription of how to cook manioc dumplings
Jen 01R, Jen 01E(Eno)Jennifer Tavagagafolk tale
Joy 01WJoyce Maiondescription of the traditional backpack
Joy 02WJoyce Maiondescription of how to butcher a chicken
Joy 03WJoyce Maiondescription of how to carve a mortar
Joy 08WJoyce Maiondescription of cooking activities
Joy 11WJoyce Maioncaptions of photographs depicting the butchering of a chicken
Joy 12WJoyce Maiondescription of plants
Joy 14WJoyce Maionpersonal history
Joy 15WJoyce Maiongrammar: valency
Joy 17WJoyce Maiondescription of the coconut palm
Joy 18WJoyce Maiondescription of the coastal hibiscus
Joy 19WJoyce Maiondescription of plants
Joy 20WJoyce Maiondescription of the sea-poison tree
Joy 24WJoyce Maiondescription of the blackboard tree
Joy 26WJoyce Maiondescription of animals
Jub 01WJoyce Maionexamples of bodily functions
Jub 02WJubilee Kamaidescription of fishes
Kae 01RSilas Kaetavarainterview about traditional wedding customs
Kae 02RSilas Kaetavarainterview about the ceremony of blessing the children
Kae 03RSilas Kaetavarainterview about the boys’ initiation and related customs
Kor 01R, Kor 01E(Eno)Koreavu Sanakidescription of the ceremony of letting a first-born child sit on the ground for the first time
Mag 01E(Eno)Magret Siniviadescription of the ceremony of showing the sea to a small child
Mah Loa Vaa 01RMark Mahaka,
Loata Nahiana,
Jeremiah Vaabero,
Ruth Saovana Spriggs
conversation about the child blessing ceremony
Mah Loa Vaa 02RMark Mahaka,
Loata Nahiana,
Jeremiah Vaabero
conversation about the exchange of food and valuables
Mah Loa Vaa 03RMark Mahaka,
Loata Nahiana,
Jeremiah Vaabero
conversation about various traditional customs
Mah Loa Vaa 04RMark Mahaka,
Loata Nahiana,
Jeremiah Vaabero
conversation about Loata and Marakai Nahiana’s life
Mah 01RMark Mahakashort autobiography
Mah 02RMark Mahakatalk about parts of the boys’ initiation
Mah 03RMark Mahakatalk about the child blessing ceremony
Mah 04RMark Mahakatalk about bad habits
Mah 13R, Mah 13E(Eno)Mark Mahakapersonal narrative about the Bougainville crisis
Mat 01R, Mat 01E(Joy)Materavifolk tale
Mom 01R, Mom 01E(Joy)Momovifolk tale
Mor 01R, Mor 01E(Joy)Paul Morekevanpersonal narrative
Mor 02R, Mor 02E(Eno)Paul Morekevanfolk tale
Mor 03R, Mor 03E(Eno)Paul Morekevanfolk tale
Mor 04R, Mor 04E(Eno)Paul Morekevandescription of the potee canoe
Mui 01R, Mui 01E(Eno)Muihafolk tale
Nah 01R, Nah 01E(Joy)Marakai Nahianahistorical tale
Nah 02R, Nah 02E(Eno)Marakai Nahianafolk tale
Nah 05E(Eno)Marakai Nahianadescription of parrots
Nan 01R; Nan 01E(Joy)Joan Nanau Morekevanpersonal narrative
Nan 02RJoan Nanau Morekevandescription of the girls’ initiation
Nan 03R, Nan 03E(Eno)Joan Nanau Morekevanfolk tale
NaphSen 01WNaphtali Maion
NaphSen 02WNaphtali Maion
Naph 01WNaphtali Maiondescription of the turtle
Naph 02WNaphtali Maiondescription of kite fishing
Naph 03WNaphtali Maiondescription of the fishing net kakavei
Naph 04WNaphtali Maiondescription of the fishing net kave baoru
Ond 01WOndria Tavagagasentences describing plants and their parts
Ond 02WOndria Tavagagasentences describing plants and their parts
Ond 03WOndria Tavagagadescription of animals
Pau 01R, Pau 01E(Joy)Paulinepersonal narrative about the butchering of a chicken
Primer 01WRuth Saovana Spriggsschoolbook, see references below
Primer 04WRuth Saovana Spriggsschoolbook, see references below
Primer 05WRuth Saovana Spriggsschoolbook, see references below
Pur 01R, Pur 01E(Joy)Samson Purupuru personal narrative
Pur 02R, Pur 02E(Eno)Samson Purupuru personal narrative about the Bougainville crisis
Pur 05R, Pur 05E(Eno)Samson Purupuru folk tale
Rum 01R, Rum 01E(Joy)Ruben Rum personal narrative
San 01R, San 01E(Eno)John Sanakifolk tale
San 02R, San 02E(Eno)John Sanakifolk tale
San 03RJohn Sanakidescription of the boys’ initiation
SaoSen 01WRuth Saovana Spriggs
Sap 01RHelen Sapiatalk about Tearuki Catholic Women’s association
Sha Aro 01E(Sha)description of trees
Sha 01RG; Sha 01E(Eno)Shalom Magum folk tale
Sia 01R; Sia 01E(Joy)Salote Siarivepersonal narrative about the 2nd World War
Sii Eno 01WSimaa Rigamu,
Enoch Horai Magum
personal narrative about a journey to Israel
Sii Joy 02WSimaa Rigamu,
Joyce Maion
description of the galip nut tree
Sii Joy 03WSimaa Rigamu,
Joyce Maion
description of the sago palm
Sii Joy 04WSimaa Rigamu,
Joyce Maion
description of black wild banana sheaths
Sii Joy 05WSimaa Rigamu,
Joyce Maion
description of the young breadfruit tree
Sii Ond 01WSimaa Rigamu,
Ondria Tavagaga
historical narrative about the 2nd World War
Sii 01RSimaa Rigamupersonal narrative
Sii 02RSimaa Rigamupersonal narrative
Sii 03RSimaa Rigamupersonal narrative
Sii 06RG, Sii 06E(Joy)Simaa Rigamu folk tale
Sii 07WSimaa Rigamufolk tale
Sii 08RSimaa Rigamutalk to the audience before telling a folk tale
Sii 09WSimaa Rigamudescription of mammals
Sii 10WSimaa Rigamudescription of birds
Sii 11WSimaa Rigamudescription of fishes
Sii 14WSimaa Rigamudefinitions of words related to the body parts and bodily functions
Sii 15WSimaa Rigamudescription of plants
Sii 16WSimaa Rigamudescription of parts of the coconut palm
Sii 17WSimaa Rigamudescription of plants
Sii 18WSimaa Rigamudescription of shellfish
Sii 19WSimaa Rigamudescription of taro
Sii 20WSimaa Rigamudescription of the sweet potato garden
Sii 2005WSimaa Rigamuexamples
Sii 2008WSimaa Rigamudescriptions of animals
Sii 22WSimaa Rigamudescriptions of plants
Sii 23Simaa Rigamudescription of paying the husband’s clan a compensation for his work for the woman’s clan
Sii 24WSimaa Rigamudescription of vines
Sii 26WSimaa Rigamudescription of tides and fishing
Sii 29WSimaa Rigamuexample sentences for words denoting body parts and functions
Sii 31WSimaa Rigamudescription of plants
Sii 33WSimaa Rigamudescription of insects
Sii 34WSimaa Rigamudescription of leaves and their properties
Sii 37WSimaa Rigamudescription of the nests of birds
Sii 38WSimaa Rigamudescription of plants
Sii 39WSimaa Rigamudescription of plants
Sii 40WSimaa Rigamudescription of koverau bamboo
Sii 41WSimaa Rigamudescription of plants
Sii 42WSimaa Rigamudescription of fishes, shellfish and fishing
Sii 43WSimaa Rigamudescription of birds
Sii 44WSimaa Rigamudescription of the crocodile and other animals
Sii 45W(Joy)Simaa Rigamu with Joyce Maiondescription of shellfish (revision of Sii 18W)
Sii 46WSimaa Rigamudescription of fishes
Sii 47WSimaa Rigamudescription of animals and the environment
Sii 48WSimaa Rigamudescription of various things
Sii 50WSimaa Rigamudescription of animals
Sii 51WSimaa Rigamudescription of the reef and its animals
SiiSen 01WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 02WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 03WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2005WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2006WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2008WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2009WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2011WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2012WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2013WSimaa Rigamu
SiiSen 2014WSimaa Rigamu
Sir 01WJanet Sirarudescriptions of insects
Siv 01RSivitae Siovorofolk tale
Skae 01WStephen Kaenapifolk tale
Skae 02WStephen Kaenapifolk tale
Skae 03WStephen Kaenapifolk tale
Sta 01R, Sta 01E(Eno)Stanley Vitaonofolk tale
Tah 01RMark Tahidescription of wedding customs
Tah 02R, Tah 02E(Eno)Mark Tahi description of the indigenous canoe
Tah 03RMark Tahidescription of wedding customs
Tah 05R, Tah 05E(Joy)Mark Tahifolk tale about a fishing method called baesusu
Tav 01R, Tav 01E(Joy)Elijah Tavagagapersonal narrative
Ter 01RG, Ter 01E(Eno)Terema Tahifolk tale
Vaa Mah 01RJeremiah Vaabero,
Mark Mahaka
dialogue about the spinning top game
Vaa Mah 04RJeremiah Vaabero,
Mark Mahaka
dialogue about house building
Vaa Mah 05RJeremiah Vaabero,
Mark Mahaka
talk about the anniversary of the Catholic Church in Tearuki
Vaa Mah 06R,
Vaa Mah 06E(Eno)
Jeremiah Vaabero,
Mark Mahaka
talk about the Methodist missionaries
Vaa Mah 07RJeremiah Vaabero,
Mark Mahaka
talk about a bridge
Vaa Mah 08RJeremiah Vaabero,
Mark Mahaka
dialogue about kite fishing
Vaa Mah 09R,
Vaa Mah 09E(Eno)
Jeremiah Vaabero,
Mark Mahaka
talk about the Methodist missionaries
Vaa 09WJeremiah Vaaberodescription of fishes
VaaSen 01WJeremiah Vaabero
Vae 01R, Vae 01E(Eno)William Vaereerefolk tale
Val 01R, Val 01E(Eno)Valmai Madaifolk tale
Val 02R, Val 02E(Eno)Valmai Madaifolk tale
Val 03R, Val 03E(Eno)Valmai Madaifolk tale
Viv 01R, Viv 01E(Eno)Vivian Tatanafolk tale
Vos 01RJoanna Vosunana Kaetamana,
Ruth Saovana Spriggs
dialogue about women
Vos 02RJoanna Vosunana Kaetamana,
Ruth Saovana Spriggs
dialogue about ending a taboo that forbid any games in the village
Vos 03RJoanna Vosunana Kaetamana,
Ruth Saovana Spriggs
dialogue about the girls' initiation


Saovana-Spriggs, Ruth. 1987. _Teop Primer 1_. Department of North Solomons Province, Division of Education, Arawa, N.S.P., Papua New Guinea.

Saovana-Spriggs, Ruth and Marjotie Dubert. 1988. Teop Primer 4. Department of North Solomons Province, Division of Education, Arawa, N.S.P., Papua New Guinea.

Spriggs, Ruth. n.d. Teop Primer 5. Department of North Solomons Province, Division of Education, Arawa, N.S.P., Papua New Guinea.