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AMIE is a system to mine Horn rules on knowledge bases. A knowledge base is a collection of facts, such as e.g.

wasBornIn(Elvis, Tupelo)
isLocatedIn(Tupelo, USA)

AMIE can find rules in such knowledge bases, such as for example

wasBornIn(x, y) & isLocatedIn(y, z) => hasNationality(x, z)

These rules are accompanied by various confidence scores. “AMIE” stands for “Association Rule Mining under Incomplete Evidence”. This repository contains the latest version of AMIE, called AMIE 3. The previous version of AMIE can be found here.

Input files

AMIE takes as input a file that contains a knowledge base. This file must have one of the following formats:

  1. subject DELIM predicate DELIM object [whitespace/tabulation .] NEWLINE
  2. factid DELIM subject DELIM predicate DELIM object [whitespace/tabulation .] NEWLINE

The default delimiter DELIM is the tabulation (.tsv files) but can be changed using the -d option. Any trailing whitespaces followed by a point are ignored. This allows parsing most NT files using the option: -d" ".

However make sure the factid, subject, predicate nor the object contains the delimiter used (particularly in literal facts files). Otherwise the parsing may fail or facts may be wrongfully recognized as the second format.

In the near future, AMIE will be able to parse the W3C Turtle format as well.

Running AMIE

Make sure that you have the latest version of Java installed. Download the jar file, and type:

java -jar amie3.jar [TSV file]

In case of memory issues, try to increase the virtual machine's memory resources using the arguments -XX:-UseGCOverheadLimit -Xmx [MAX_HEAP_SPACE], e.g:

java -XX:-UseGCOverheadLimit -Xmx2G -jar amie3.jar [TSV file]

MAX_HEAP_SPACE depends on your input size and the system's available memory. The package also contains the utilities to generate and evaluate predictions from the rules mined by AMIE. Without additional arguments AMIE thresholds using PCA confidence 0.1 and head coverage 0.01. You can change these default settings. Run java -jar amie3.jar -h (without an input file) to see a detailed description of the available options.

Reproducing our experiments

The executables can be found in the milestone directory or in the "releases" github onglet. Option names and default options are subject to change compared these milestones. To reproduce experiments, use by default:

java -jar amie-milestone-intKB.jar -bias lazy -full -noHeuristics -ostd [TSV file]

Experimental implementation of the GPro and GRank measures can be found in the "gpro" branch. After recompiling the sources ot this branch, use:

java -jar amie3.jar -bias amie.mining.assistant.experimental.[GPro|GRank] [TSVFile]

Deploying AMIE

If you want to modify the code of AMIE, you need

  • Apache Maven >= 3.6.0
  • Java >= 8
  • Apache Commons >= 1.3.1
  • Javatools. This package can be found as Maven projects here: As this artifact is not yet uploaded into a central repository, please follow the installation procedure described in the previous link before trying to compile this project.

AMIE is managed with Maven, therefore to deploy you need:

  1. (Provisional) Install Javatools dependency as explained in (you can omit telecom-util).
  2. Clone this repository: $ git clone
  3. Import and compile the project
  • It is usually done by executing the following command in the amie directory: $ mvn install
  • IDEs such as Eclipse offer the option to create a project from an existing Maven project. The IDE will call Maven to compile the code.
  1. Maven will generate an executable jar named amie3.jar in a new "bin/" directory. This executable accepts RDF files in TSV format like this one as input, but also other format described below. To run it, just write in your comand line:


Jonathan Lajus, Luis Galárraga, Fabian M. Suchanek:
“Fast and Exact Rule Mining with AMIE 3”
Full paper at the Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 2020

Luis Galárraga, Christina Teflioudi, Katja Hose, Fabian M. Suchanek:
“Fast Rule Mining in Ontological Knowledge Bases with AMIE+”
Journal article in the VLDB Journal (VLDBJ), 2015

Luis Galárraga, Christina Teflioudi, Katja Hose, Fabian M. Suchanek:
“AMIE: Association Rule Mining under Incomplete Evidence in Ontological Knowledge Bases”
Full paper at the International World Wide Web Conference (WWW), 2013

Determining Obligatory Attributes in Knowledge Bases

The present repository also contains the code for the following paper:

Jonathan Lajus, Fabian M. Suchanek:
“Are All People Married? Determining Obligatory Attributes in Knowledge Bases”
Full paper at the Web Conference (WWW) , 2018

The code resides in: typing/


Creative Commons License. AMIE is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License by the YAGO-NAGA team and the DIG team.

AMIE uses Javatools, a library released under the Creative Commons Attribution license v3.0 by the YAGO-NAGA team.