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Most Learned Societies,
ALL Books, without exception, being undoubtedly under your Jurisdiction, it is
very strange that some Authors of good note, are not ashamed to repine at it;
and the more forward they are in judging others, the less liberty they will
allow to be judged themselves. But, if there was not a necessity, yet I would
make it my choice, To submit, willingly, to your Censures, these Grounds of
Natural Philosophy, in hopes that you will not condemn them, because they want
Art, if they be found fraught with Sense and Reason. You are the Stars of the
First Magnitude, whose Influence governs the World of Learning; and it is my
confidence, That you will be propitious to the Birth of this beloved Child of
my Brain, whom I take the boldness to recommend to your Patronage; and as, if
you vouchsafe to look on it favourably, I shall be extremely obliged to your
Goodness, for its everlasting Life: So, if you resolve to Frown upon it, I beg
the favour, That it be not buried in the hard and Rocky Grave of your
Displeasure; but be suffered, by your gentle silence, to lye still in the soft
and easy Bed of Oblivion, which is incomparably the less Punishment of the
Two. It is so commonly the error of indulgent Parents, to spoil their Children
out of Fondness, that I may be forgiven for spoiling This, in never putting it
to suck at the Breast of some Learned Nurse, whom I might have got from among
your Students, to have assisted me; but would, obstinately, suckle it my self,
and bring it up alone, without the help of any Scholar: Which having caused in
the First Edition, (which was published under the name of Philosophical and
Physical Opinions) many Imperfections; I have endeavoured in this Second, by
many Alterations and Additions, (which have forced me to give it another Name)
to correct them; whereby, I fear, my Faults are rather changed and increased,
than amended. If you expect fair Proportions in the Parts, and a Beautiful
Symmetry in the Whole, having never been taught at all, and having read but
little; I acknowledge my self too illiterate to afford it, and too impatient to
labour much for Method. But, if you will be contented with pure Wit, and the
Effects of mere Contemplation; I hope, that somewhat of that kind may be found
in this Book, and in my other Philosophical, Poetical, and Oratorical Works:
All which I leave, and this especially, to your kind Protection, and am,
Your most humble Servant, and Admirer, MARGARET NEWCASTLE.
The First Part.
Chap. Page. I. OF Matter, 1 II. Of Motion, 2 III. Of the Degrees of Matter, 3
IV. Of Vacuum, 4 V. The difference of the two Self-moving Parts of Matter, 4
VI. Of dividing and uniting of Parts, 6 VII. Of Life and Knowledge, 6 VIII. Of
Nature's Knowledge, and Perception, 7 IX. Of Perception in general, 8 X. Of
double Perception, 9 XI. Whether the Triumphant Parts can be perceived
distinctly from each other, 9 XII. Whether Nature can know her self, or have an
absolute Power of her self, or have an exact Figure, 10 XIII. Nature cannot
judge herself, 12 XIV. Nature poyses or balances her Actions, 12 XV. Whether
there be degrees of Corporal Strength, 13 XVI. Of Effects and Cause, 15 XVII.
Of Influence, 15 XVIII. Of Fortune and Chance, 16 XIX. Of Time and Eternity, 16
The Second Part.
I. Of Creatures, 17 II. Of Knowledge and Perception of different kinds and
sorts of Creatures, 18 III. Of Perception of Parts, and united Perception, 19
IV. Whether the Rational and Sensitive Parts, have a Perception of each other,
20 V. Of Thoughts, and the whole Mind of a Creature, 21 VI. Whether the Mind of
one Creature, can perceive the Mind of another Creature, 22 VII. Of Perception,
and Conception, 23 VIII. Of Human Supposition, 24 IX. Of Information between
several Creatures, 24 X. The reason of several kinds and sorts of Creatures, 25
XI. Of the several Properties of several kinds and sorts of Creatures, 26
The Third Part.
Chap. 1. to 7. Of Productions in general, page. 27, to 35 VIII. Productions
must partake of some parts of their Producers, 36 IX. Of Resemblances of
several Off-springs, or Producers, 37 X. Of the several appearances of the
Exterior parts of one Creature, 38
The Fourth Part.
I. Of Animal Productions, and of the difference between Productions and
Transformations, 39 II. Of different Figurative Motions in Man's production, 40
III. Of the Quickening of a Child, or any other sort of Animal Creatures, 41 IV.
Of the Birth of a Child, 41 V. Of Mischances, or Miscarriages of
Breeding-Creatures, 42 VI. Of the increase of Growth and Strength of Mankind,
or such like Creatures, 43 VII. Of the several properties of the several
exterior shapes of several sorts of Animals, 44 VIII. Of the Dividing and
Uniting parts of a particular Creature, 44
The Fifth Part.
I. Of Man, 47 II. Of the variety of Man's Natural Motions, 48 III. Of Man's
Shape and Speech, 49 IV. Of the several Figurative Parts of human Creatures, 50
V. Of the several perceptions aamongst the several parts of Man, 51 VI. Of
divided and composed Perceptions, 52 VII. Of the ignorances of the several
perceptive Organs, 53 VIII. Of the particular and general perceptions of the
exterior parts of human Creatures, 54 IX. Of the exterior Sensitive Organs of
human Creatures, 55 X. Of the Rational parts of the human Organs, 57 XI. Of the
difference between the human Conception, and Perception, 57 XII. Of the several
varieties of Actions of human Creatures, 58 XIII. Of the manner of information
between the Rational and Sensitive parts, 59 XIV. Of irregularities and
regularities of the Restoring-parts of human Creatures, 60 XV. Of the agreeing
and disagreeing of the Sensitive and Rational parts of human Creatures, 61 XVI.
Of the power of the Rational; or rather, of the indulgency of the Sensitive, 62
XVII. Of human Appetites and Passions, 63 XVIII. Of the Rational actions of the
Head and Heart of human Creatures, 65 XIX. Of Passions and Imaginations, 65 XX.
That Associations, Divisions, and Alterations, cause several Effects, 66 XXI.
Of the differences between Self-love, and Passionate love, 68
The Sixth Part.
I. Of the Motions of some parts of the Mind, and of Foreign Objects, 69 II. Of
the Motions of some parts of the Mind, 70 III. Of the Motions of human Passions
and Appetites; as also, of the Motions of the Rational and Sensitive parts,
towards Foreign Objects, 71 IV. Of the Repetitions of the Sensitive and
Rational actions, 73 V. Of the passionate Love, and sympathetical Endeavours,
amongst the Associate parts of a human Creature, 75 VI. Of Acquaintance, 77
VII. Of the Effects of Foreign Objects of the Sensitive Body; and of the
Rational Mind of a human Creature, 78 VIII. Of the advantage and disadvantage
of the Encounters of several Creatures, 80 IX. That all human Creatures have
the like kind and sorts of properties, 81 X. Of the singularity of the
Sensitive, and of the Rational Corporeal Motions, 82 XI. Of the Knowledge
between the Sensitive Organs of a human Creature, 83 XII. Of human perception,
or defects of a human Creature, 84 XIII. Of Natural Fools. 85
The Seventh Part.
I. Of the Sensitive actions of Sleeping and Waking, 89 II. Of Sleeping, 91
III. Of human Dreams, 92 IV. Of the actions of Dreams, 93 V. Whether the
interior parts of a human Creature, do sleep, 94 VI. Whether all the Creatures
in Nature, have sleeping and waking-actions, 95 VII. Of human Death, 97 VIII.
Of the Heat of human Life, and the Cold of human Death, 98 IX. Of the last act
of human Life, ibid. X. Whether a human Creature hath knowledge in death, or
not, 99 XI. Whether a Creature may be new formed after a general dissolution,
100 XII. Of Foreknowledg, 102
The Eighth Part.
I. Of the irregularity of Nature's parts, 105 II. Of the human parts of a
human Creature, 106 III. Of human Humours, 107 IV. Of Blood, ibid. V. Of the
Radical humours, or parts, 109 VI. Of expelling malignant disorders in a human
Creature, 110 VII. Of human Digestions and Evacuations, 111 VIII. Of Diseases
in general, 112 IX. Of the Fundamental Diseases, 113
The Ninth Part.
I. Of Sickness, 115 II. Of Pain, 117 III. Of Dizziness, 118 IV. Of the Brain
seeming to turn round in the head, 119 V. Of Weakness, 120 VI. Of Swooning,
ibid. VII. Of Numb and Dead Palsies, or Gangren's, 122 VIII. Of Madness, 124
IX. The Sensitive and Rational parts may be distinctly mad, 125 X. The parts of
the head are not only subject to madness; but also, the other parts of the
body, 126 XI. The Rational and Sensitive parts of a human Creature, are apt to
disturb each other, 127 XII. Of Diseases produced by conceit, 130
The Tenth Part.
I. Of Fevers, 131 II. Of the Plague, 132 III. Of the Small-Pox and Measles,
134 IV. Of the intermission of Fevers, or Agues, 143 V. Of Consumptions, 137
VI. of Dropsies, ibid. VII. Of Sweating, 138 VIII. Of Coughs, 139 IX. Of
Gangren's, 143 X. Of Cancers and Fistula's, 144 XI. Of the Gout, ib. XII. Of
the Stone, 145 XII. Of Apoplexies and Lethargies, 146 XIII. Of Epilepsies, 147
XIV. Of Convulsions and Cramps, 148 XV. Of Cholicks, ibid. XVI. Of
Shaking-Palsies, 150 XVII. Of the Muther, Spleen, and Scurvy, 151 XVIII. Of
Food or Digestions, ibid. XIX. Of Surfeits, 153 XX. Of natural Evacuations and
Purgings, 154 XXI. Of Purging-Drugs, 155 XXII. Of the various humours of Drugs,
156 XXIII. Of Cordials, 157 XXIV. Of the different actions of the several
Sensitive Parts of a human Creature. 158 XXV. Of the Antipathy of some human
Creatures, to some Foreign Objects, 159 XXVI. Of the Effects of Foreign
Objects, on the human Mind, ib. XXVII. Of Contemplation, 160 XXVIII. Of
injecting the Blood of one Animal, into the Veins of ather Animal, 161
The Eleventh Part.
I. Of the different Knowledges in different kinds and sorts of Creatures, 163
II. Of the variety of self-actions in particular Creatures, 165 III. Of the
variety of Corporeal Motions of one and the same sort and kind of Motion, 166
IV. Of the variety of particular Creatures, ibid. V. Of dividing, and
rejoyning, or altering exterior figurative Motions, 167 VI. Of different
figurative Motions in particular Creatures, 168 VII. Of the alterations of
exterior and innate figurative Motions of several sorts of Creatures, 169 VIII.
Of Local Motion, 171 IX. Of several manners or ways of Advantages or
Disadvantages, 172 X. Of the actions of some sorts of Creatures, over others,
173 XI. Of Glassie-Bodies, 174 XII. Of Metamorphoses, or Transformations of
Animals and Vegetables, 175 XIII. Of the Life and Death of several Creatures,
176 XIV. Of Circles, 178 XV. Human Creatures cannot so probably treat of other
sorts of Creatures, as of their own, 179
The Twelfth Part.
I. Of the equality of Elements, 181 II. Of several Tempers, 182 III. Of the
change and rechange; and of dividing of the parts of the Elements, 185 IV. Of
the innate figurative Motions of Earth, 186 V. Of the figurative Motions of
Air, ibid. VI. Of the innate figurative Motions of Fire, 188 VII. Of the
productions of Elemental Fire, 189 VIII. Of Flame, 190 IX. Of the two sorts of
Fire most different, ibid. X. Of Dead or Dull Fires, 191 XI. Of the occasional
Actions of Fire, 192 XII. Fire hath not the property to change and rechange,
193 XIII. Of the innate figurative Motions of Water, 194 XIV. The nature or
property of Water, 195 XV. Of the alteration of the exterior figurative motion
of Water, 197 XVI. Of Oil of Vitriol, ibid. XVII. Of Mineral and Sulphurous
Waters, 198 XVIII. The cause of the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea, 199 XIX. Of
Overflows, 201 XX. Of the Figure of Ice and Snow, 203 XXI. Of the change and
rechange of Water, 205 XXII. Of Water quenching Fire, and Fire evaporating
Water, 206 XXIII. Of inflammable Liquors, 207 XXIV. Of Thunder, 208 XXV. Of
Vapour, Smoke, Wind and Clouds, 209 XXVI. Of Wind, 211 XXVII. Of Light, 212
XXVIII. Of Darkness, 213 XXIX. Of Colours, 214 XXX. Of the Exterior Motions of
the Planets, 216 XXXI. Of the Sun, and Planets, and Seasons, 217 XXXII. Of Air
corrupting dead Bodies. 218
The Thirteenth Part.
I. Of the innate figurative Motions of Metal, 221 II. Of the melting of
Metals, 222 III. Of Burning, Melting, Boiling, and Evaporating, 223 IV. Of
Stone, 224 V. Of the Loadstone, 225 VI. Of Bodies apt to ascend, or descend,
226 VII. Why heavy Bodies descend more forcibly than leight Bodies ascend, 227
VIII. Of several sorts of Densities and Rarities, Gravities, and Levities, 228
IX. Of Vegetables, 229 X. Of the production of Vegetables, 230 XI. Of
replanting Vegetables, 232
The First Part.
I. Whether there can be a Substance that is not a Body, 237 II. Of an
Immaterial, 239 III. Whether an Immaterial be perceivable, 240 IV. Of the
Difference between GOD and Nature, 241 V. All the Parts of Nature, worship GOD,
ibid. VI. Whether GOD's Decrees are limited, 242 VII. Of GOD's Decrees
concerning the particular Parts of Nature, 243 VIII. Of the Ten Commandments,
244 IX. Of several Religions, 245 X. Of Rules and Prescriptions, 246 XI. Sins
and Punishments are material, 247 XII. Of human Conscience, 248
The Second Part.
I. Whether it is possible there could be Worlds consisting only of the
Rational parts, and others only of the Sensitive parts, 251 II. Of Irregular
and Regular Worlds, 254 III. Whether there be Egress and Regress between the
Parts of several Worlds, 255 IV. Whether the Parts of one and the same Society,
could (after their dissolution, meet and unite, 256 V. Whether, if a Creature
being dissolved, if it could unite again, would be the same, 257 VI. Of the
Resurrection of Human-kind, 259 VII. Of the dissolution of a World, 260 VIII.
Of a new Heaven, and a new Earth, 261 IX. Whether there shall be a Material
Heaven and Hell, ibid. X. Concerning the Joys or Torments of the Blessed and
Cursed, after they are in Heaven or Hell, 263
The Third Part.
The Preamble. 265 I. Of the Happy and Miserable Worlds, 266 II. Whether there
be such kinds and sorts of Creatures in the Happy and Blessed World, as in this
World, 267 III. Of the Births and Deaths of the Heavenly World, ibid. IV.
Whether those Creatures could be named Blessed, that are subject to dye, 269 V.
Of the Productions of the Creatures of the Regular World, 270 VI. Whether the
Creatures in the Blessed World, do feed and evacuate, 271 VII. Of the Animals,
and of the food of the Humans of the Happy World, 272 VIII. Whether it is not
irregular for one Creature to feed on another, 273 IX. Of the continuance of
life in the Regular World, 275 X. Of the Excellency and Happiness of the
Creatures of the Regular World, 276 XI. Of Human Creatures in the Regular
World, 278 XII. Of the happiness of human Creatures in the Material World,
The Fourth Part.
I. Of the Irregular World, 281 II. Of the Productions and Dissolutions of the
Creatures of the irregular World, 282 III. Of Animals, and of Humans in the
irregular World, 283 IV. Of Objects and Perceptions, 284 V. The Description of
the Globe of the irregular World, ibid. VI. Of the Elemental Air, and Light of
the irregular World, 286 VII. Of Storms and Tempests in the irregular World,
287 VIII. Of the several Seasons; or rather, of the several Tempers in the
irregular World, ibid. IX. The Conclusion of the irregular and unhappy, or
cursed World, 288
The Fifth Part.
Fifteen Sections concerning Restoring-Beds, or Wombs, p. 291, to 308 The
Conclusion, 309
GROUNDS OF Natural Philosophy.
The First Part.
MATTER is that we name Body; which Matter cannot be less, or more, than Body:
Yet some Learned Persons are of opinion, That there are Substances that are not
Material Bodies. But how they can prove any sort of Substance to be no Body, I
cannot tell: neither can any of Nature's Parts express it, because a Corporeal
Part cannot have an Incorporeal Perception. But as for Matter, there may be
degrees, as, more pure, or less pure; but there cannot be any Substances in
Nature, that are between Body, and no Body: Also, Matter cannot be figureless,
neither can Matter be without Parts. Likewise, there cannot be Matter without
Place, nor Place without Matter; so that Matter, Figure, or Place, is but one
thing: for, it is as impossible for One Body to have Two Places, as for One
Place to have Two Bodies; neither can there be Place, without Body.
THough Matter might be without Motion, yet Motion cannot be without Matter;
for it is impossible (in my opinion) that there should be an Immaterial Motion
in Nature: and if Motion is corporeal, then Matter, Figure, Place, and Motion,
is but one thing, viz. a corporeal figurative Motion. As for a First Motion, I
cannot conceive how it can be, or what that First Motion should be: for, an
Immaterial cannot have a Material Motion; or, so strong a Motion, as to set all
the Material Parts in Nature, or this World, a-moving; but (in my opinion)
every particular part moves by its own Motion: If so, then all the Actions in
Nature are self-corporeal, figurative Motions. But this is to be noted, That as
there is but one Matter, so there is but one Motion; and as there are several
Parts of Matter, so there are several Changes of Motion: for, as Matter, of
what degree soever it is, or can be, is but Matter; so Motion, although it make
Infinite Changes, can be but Motion.
CHAP. III. Of the degrees of MATTER.
THough Matter can be neither more nor less than Matter; yet there may be
degrees of Matter, as more pure, or less pure; and yet the purest Parts are as
much material, in relation to the nature of Matter, as the grossest: Neither
can there be more than two sorts of Matter, namely, that sort which is
Self-moving, and that which is not Self-moving. Also, there can be but two
sorts of the Self-moving Parts; as, that sort that moves entirely without
Burdens, and that sort that moves with the Burdens of those Parts that are not
Self-moving: So that there can be but these three sorts; Those parts that are
not moving, those that move free, and those that move with those parts that are
not moving of themselves: Which degrees are (in my opinion) the Rational Parts,
the Sensitive Parts, and the Inanimate Parts; which three sorts of Parts are so
joined, that they are but as one Body; for, it is impossible that those three
sorts of Parts should subsist single, by reason Nature is but one united
material Body.
IN my opinion, there cannot possibly be any Vacuum: for, though Nature, as
being material, is divisible and compoundable; and, having Self-motion, is in
perpetual action: yet Nature cannot divide or compose from her self, although
she may move, divide, and compose in her self: But, were it possible Nature's
Parts could wander and stray in, and out of Vacuum, there would be a Confusion;
for, where Unity is not, Order cannot be: Wherefore, by the Order and Method of
Nature's corporeal Actions, we may perceive, there is no Vacuum: For, what
needs a Vacuum, when as Body and Place is but one thing; and as the Body
alters, so doth the Place?
CHAP. V. The difference of the Two Self-moving Parts of Matter.
THE Self-moving Parts of Nature seem to be of two sorts, or degrees; one being
purer, and so more agil and free than the other; which (in my opinion) are the
Rational Parts of Nature. The other sort is not so pure; and are the
Architectonical Parts, which are the Labouring Parts, bearing the grosser
Materials about them, which are the Inanimate Parts; and this sort (in my
opinion) are the Sensitive Parts of Nature; which form, build, or compose
themselves with the Inanimate Parts, into all kinds and sorts of Creatures, as
Animals, Vegetables, Minerals, Elements, or what Creatures soever there are in
Nature: Whereas the Rational are so pure, that they cannot be so strong
Labourers, as to move with Burdens of Inanimate Parts, but move freely without
Burdens: for, though the Rational and Sensitive, with the Inanimate, move
together as one Body; yet the Rational and Sensitive, do not move as one
(...)Part, as the sensitive doth with the Inanimate. But, pray mistake me not,
when I say, the Inanimate Parts are grosser; as if I meant, they were like some
densed Creature; for, those are but Effects, and not Causes: but, I mean gross,
dull, heavy Parts, as, that they are not Self-moving; nor do I mean by Purity,
Rarity; but Agility: for, Rare or Dense Parts, are Effects, and not Causes: And
therefore, if any should ask, Whether the Rational and Sensitive Parts were
Rare, or Dense; I answer, They may be Rare or Dense, according as they
contract, or dilate their Parts; for there is no such thing as a Single Part in
Nature: for Matter, or Body, cannot be so divided, but that it will remain
Matter, which is divisible.
CHAP. VI. Of Dividing and Uniting of Parts.
THough every Self-moving Part, or Corporeal Motion, have free-will to move
after what manner they please; yet, by reason there can be no Single Parts,
several Parts unite in one Action, and so there must be united Actions: for,
though every particular Part may divide from particular Parts; yet those that
divide from some, are necessitated to join with other Parts, at the same point
of time of division; and at that very same time, is their uniting or joining:
so that Division, and Composition or Joining, is as one and the same act. Also,
every altered Action, is an altered figurative Place, by reason Matter, Figure,
Motion, and Place, is but one thing; and, by reason Nature is a perpetual
motion, she must of necessity cause infinite Varieties.
CHAP. VII. Of Life and Knowledge.
ALL the Parts of Nature have Life and Knowledge; but, all the Parts have not
Active Life, and a perceptive Knowledge, but only the Rational and Sensitive:
And this is to be noted, That the variousness, or variety of Actions, causes
varieties of Lives and Knowledges: For, as the Self-moving parts alter, or vary
their Actions; so they alter and vary their Lives and Knowledges; but there
cannot be an Infinite particular Knowledge, nor an Infinite particular Life;
because Matter is divisible and compoundable.
CHAP. VIII. Of Nature's Knowledge and Perception.
IF Nature were not Self-knowing, Self-living, and also Perceptive, she would
run into Confusion: for, there could be neither Order, nor Method, in Ignorant
motion; neither would there be distinct kinds or sorts of Creatures, nor such
exact and methodical Varieties as there are: for, it is impossible to make
orderly and methodical Distinctions, or distinct Orders, by Chances: Wherefore,
Nature being so exact (as she is) must needs be Self-knowing and Perceptive:
And though all her Parts, even the Inanimate Parts, are Self-knowing, and
Self-living; yet, only her Self-moving Parts have an active Life, and a
perceptive Knowledge.
CHAP. IX. Of PERCEPTION in general.
PErception is a sort of Knowledge, that hath reference to Objects; that is,
Some Parts to know other Parts: But yet Objects are not the cause of
Perception; for the cause of Perception is Self-motion. But some would say, If
there were no Object, there could be no Perception. I answer: It is true; for,
that cannot be perceived, that is not: but yet, corporeal motions cannot be
without Parts, and so not without Perception. But, put an impossible case, as,
That there could be a single Corporeal Motion, and no more in Nature; that
Corporeal Motion may make several Changes, somewhat like Conceptions, although
not Perceptions: but, Nature being Corporeal, is composed of Parts, and
therefore there cannot be a want of Objects. But there are Infinite several
manners and ways of Perception; which proves, That the Objects are not the
Cause: for, every several kind and sort of Creatures, have several kinds and
sorts of Perception, according to the nature and property of such a kind or
sort of Composition, as makes such a kind or sort of Creature; as I shall treat
of, more fully, in the following Parts of this Book.
THere is a Double Perception in Nature, the Rational Perception, and the
Sensitive: The Rational Perception is more subtle and penetrating than the
Sensitive; also, it is more generally perceptive than the Sensitive; also, it
is a more agil Perception than the Sensitive: All which is occasioned not only
through the purity of the Rational parts, but through the liberty of the
Rational parts; whereas the Sensitive being encumbered with the Inanimate parts,
is obstructed and retarded. Yet all Perceptions, both Sensitive and Rational,
are in parts; but, by reason the Rational is freer, (being not a painful
Labourer) can more easily make an united Perception, than the Sensitive; which
is the reason the Rational parts can make a Whole Perception of a Whole Object:
Whereas the Sensitive makes but Perceptions in part, of one and the same
CHAP. XI. Whether the Triumphant Parts can be perceived distinctly from each
SOme may make this Question, Whether the Three sorts of Parts, the Rational,
Sensitive, and Inanimate, may be singly perceived? I answer, Not unless there
were single Parts in Nature; but, though they cannot be singly perceived, yet
they singly perceive; because, every Part hath its own motion, and so its own
perception. And though those Parts, that have not self-motion, have not
perception; yet, being joined, as one Body, to the Sensitive, they may by the
Sensitive Motion, have some different sorts of Self-knowledg, caused by the
different actions of the Sensitive parts; but that is not Perception. But, as I
said, the Triumphant Parts cannot be perceived distinctly asunder, though their
Actions may be different: for, the joining, or intermixing of Parts, hinders
not the several Actions; as for example, A Man is composed of several Parts,
or, (as the Learned term them) Corporeal Motions; yet, not any of those
different Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are a hindrance to each other: The same
between the Sensitive and Rational Parts.
CHAP. XII. Whether Nature can know her self, or have an Absolute Power of her
self, or have an exact Figure.
I Was of an opinion, That Nature, because Infinite, could not know her Self;
because Infinite hath no limit. Also, That Nature could not have an Absolute
Power over her own Parts, because she had Infinite Parts; and, that the
Infiniteness did hinder the Absoluteness: But since I have considered, That the
Infinite Parts must of necessity be Self-knowing; and that those Infinite
Self-knowing Parts are united in one Infinite Body, by which Nature must have
both an United Knowledge, and an United Power. Also, I questioned, Whether
Nature could have an Exact Figure, (but, mistake me not; for I do not mean the
Figure of Matter, but a composed Figure of Parts) because Nature was composed
of Infinite Variety of Figurative Parts: But considering, that those Infinite
Varieties of Infinite Figurative Parts, were united into one Body; I did
conclude, That she must needs have an Exact Figure, though she be Infinite: As
for example, This World is composed of numerous and several Figurative parts,
and yet the World hath an exact Form and Frame, the same which it would have if
it were Infinite. But, as for Self-knowledg, and Power, certainly God hath
given them to Nature, though her Power be limited: for, she cannot move beyond
her Nature; nor hath she power to make her self any otherwise than what she is,
since she cannot create, or annihilate any part, or particle: nor can she make
any of her Parts, Immaterial; or any Immaterial, Corporeal: Nor can she give to
one part, the Nature ( viz. the Knowledge, Life, Motion, or Perception) of
another part; which is the reason one Creature cannot have the properties, or
faculties of another; they may have the like, but not the same.
CHAP. XIII. Nature cannot judge her self.
ALthough Nature knows her self, and hath a free power of her self; (I mean, a
natural Knowledge and Power) yet, Nature cannot be an upright, and just Judge of
her self, and so not of any of her Parts; because every particular part is a
part of her self. Besides, as she is Self-moving, she is Self-changeing, and so
she is alterable: Wherefore, nothing can be a perfect, and a just Judge, but
something that is Individable, and Unalterable, which is the Infinite GOD, who
is Unmoving, Immutable, and so Unalterable; who is the Judge of the Infinite
Corporeal Actions of his Servant Nature. And this is the reason that all
Nature's Parts appeal to God, as being the only Judge.
CHAP. XIV. Nature Poyses, or Balances her Actions.
ALthough Nature be Infinite, yet all her Actions seem to be poised, or
balanced, by Opposition; as for example, As Nature hath dividing, so composing
actions: Also, as Nature hath regular, so irregular actions; as Nature hath
dilating, so contracting actions: In short, we may perceive amongst the
Creatures, or Parts of this World, slow, swift, thick, thin, heavy, leight,
rare, dense, little, big, low, high, broad, narrow, light, dark, hot, cold,
productions, dissolutions, peace, war, mirth, sadness, and that we name Life,
and Death; and infinite the like; as also, infinite varieties in every several
kind and sort of actions: but, the infinite varieties are made by the
Self-moving parts of Nature, which are the Corporeal Figurative Motions of
CHAP. XV. Whether there be Degrees of Corporeal Strength.
AS I have declared, there are (in my Opinion) Two sorts of Self-moving Parts;
the one Sensitive, the other Rational. The Rational parts of my Mind, moving in
the manner of Conception, or Inspection, did occasion some Disputes, or
Arguments, amongst those parts of my Mind. The Arguments were these: Whether
there were degrees of Strength, as there was of Purity, between their own sort,
as, the Rational and the Sensitive? The Major part of the Argument was, That
Self-motion could be but Self-motion: for, not any part of Nature could move
beyond its power of Self-motion. But the Minor part argued, That the
Self-motion of the Rational, might be stronger than the Self-motion of the
Sensitive. But the Major part was of the opinion, That there could be no
degrees of the Power of Nature, or the Nature of Nature: for Matter, which was
Nature, could be but Self-moving, or not Self-moving; or partly Self-moving, or
not Self-moving. But the Minor argued, That it was not against the nature of
Matter to have degrees of Corporeal Strength, as well as degrees of Purity:
for, though there could not be degrees of Purity amongst the Parts of the same
sort, as amongst the Parts of the Rational, or amongst the Parts of the
Sensitive; yet, if there were degrees of the Rational and Sensitive Parts,
there might be degrees of Strength. The Major part said, That if there were
degrees of Strength, it would make a Confusion, by reason there would be no
Agreement; for, the Strongest would be Tyrants to the Weakest, in so much as
they would never suffer those Parts to act methodically or regularly. But the
Minor part said, that they had observed, That there was degrees of Strength
amongst the Sensitive Parts. The Major part argued, That they had not degrees
of Strength by Nature; but, that the greater Number of Parts were stronger than
a less Number of Parts. Also, there were some sorts of Actions, that had
advantage of other sorts. Also, some sorts of Compositions are stronger than
other; not through the degrees of innate Strength, nor through the number of
Parts; but, through the manner and form of their Compositions, or Productions.
Thus my Thoughts argued; but, after many Debates and Disputes, at last my
Rational Parts agreed, That, If there were degrees of Strength, it could not be
between the Parts of the same degree, or sort; but, between the Rational and
Sensitive; and if so, the Sensitive was Stronger, being less pure; and the
Rational was more Agil, being more pure.
CHAP. XVI. Of Effects, and Cause.
TO treat of Infinite Effects, produced from an an Infinite Cause, is an
endless Work, and impossible to be performed, or effected; only this may be
said, That the Effects, though Infinite, are so united to the material Cause,
as that not any single effect can be, nor no Effect can be annihilated; by
reason all Effects are in the power of the Cause. But this is to be noted, That
some Effects producing other Effects, are, in some sort or manner, a Cause.
AN Influence is this; When as the Corporeal Figurative Motions, in different
kinds, and sorts of Creatures, or in one and the same sorts, or kinds, move
sympathetically: And though there be antipathetical Motions, as well as
sympathetical; yet, all the Infinite parts of Matter, are agreeable in their
nature, as being all Material, and Self-moving; and by reason there is no
Vacuum, there must of necessity be an Influence amongst all the Parts of
FOrtune, is only various Corporeal Motions of several Creatures, designed to
one Creature, or more Creatures; either to that Creature, or those Creatures
Advantage, or Disadvantage: If Advantage, Man names it Good Fortune; if
Disadvantage, Man names it Ill Fortune. As for Chance, it is the visible
Effects of some hidden Cause; and Fortune, a sufficient Cause to produce such
Effects: for, the conjunction of sufficient Causes, doth produce such or such
Effects; which Effects could not be produced, if any of those Causes were
wanting: So that, Chances are but the Effects of Fortune.
TIME is not a Thing by it self; nor is Time Immaterial: for, Time is only the
variations of Corporeal Motions; but Eternity depends not on Motion, but of a
Being without Beginning, or Ending.
The Second Part.
ALL Creatures are Composed-Figures, by the consent of Associating Parts; by
which Association, they join into such, or such a figured Creature: And though
every Corporeal Motion, or Self-moving Part, hath its own motion; yet, by their
Association, they all agree in proper actions, as actions proper to their
Compositions: and, if every particular Part, hath not a perception of all the
Parts of their Association; yet, every Part knows its own Work.
CHAP. II. Of Knowledge and Perception of different kinds and sorts of
THere is not any Creature in Nature, that is not composed of Self-moving
Parts, ( viz. both of Rational and Sensitive) as also of the Inanimate Parts,
which are Self-knowing: so that all Creatures, being composed of these sorts of
Parts, must have a Sensitive, and Rational Knowledge and Perception, as Animals,
Vegetables, Minerals, Elements, or what else there is in Nature: But several
kinds, and several sorts in these kinds of Creatures, being composed after
different manners, and ways, must needs have different Lives, Knowledges, and
Perceptions: and not only every several kind, and sort, have such differences;
but, every particular Creature, through the variations of their Self-moving
Parts, have varieties of Lives, Knowledges, Perceptions, Conceptions, and the
like; and not only so, but every particular part of one and the same Creature,
have varieties of Knowledges, and Perceptions, because they have varieties of
Actions. But, (as I have declared) there is not any different kind of Creature,
that can have the like Life, Knowledge, and Perception; not only because they
have different Productions, and different Forms; but, different Natures, as
being of different kinds.
CHAP. III. Of Perception of Parts, and United Perception.
ALL the Self-moving Parts are perceptive; and, all Perception is in Parts, and
is dividable, and compoundable, as being Material; also, Alterable, as being
Self-moving: Wherefore, no Creature that is composed, or consists of many
several sorts of Corporeal Figurative Motions, but must have many sorts of
Perception; which is the reason that one Creature, as Man, cannot perceive
another Man any otherwise but in Parts: for, the Rational, and Sensitive; nay,
all the Parts of one and the same Creature, perceive their Adjoining Parts, as
they perceive Foreign Parts; only, by their close conjunction and near
relation, they unite in one and the same actions. I do not say, they always
agree: for, when they move irregularly, they disagree: And some of those United
Parts, will move after one manner, and some after another; but, when they move
regularly, then they move to one and the same Design, or one and the same
United Action. So, although a Creature is composed of several sorts of
Corporeal Motions; yet, these several sorts, being properly united in one
Creature, move all agreeably to the Property and Nature of the whole Creature;
that is, the particular Parts move according to the property of the whole
Creature; because the particular Parts, by conjunction, make the Whole: So
that, the several Parts make one Whole; by which, a Whole Creature hath both a
general Knowledge, and a Knowledge of Parts; whereas, the Perceptions of Foreign
Objects, are but in the Parts: and this is the reason why one Creature
perceives not the Whole of another Creature, but only some Parts. Yet this is
to be noted, That not any Part hath another Part's Nature, or Motion, nor
therefore, their Knowledge, or Perception; but, by agreement, and unity of
Parts, there is composed Perceptions.
CHAP. IV. Whether the Rational and Sensitive Parts have a Perception of each
SOme may ask the Question, Whether the Rational and Sensitive, have Perception
of each other? I answer: In my Opinion, they have. For, though the Rational and
Sensitive Parts, be of two sorts; yet, both sorts have Self-motion; so that
they are but as one, as, that they are both Corporeal Motions; and, had not the
Sensitive Parts encumbrances, they would be, in a degree, as agil, and as free
as the Rational. But, though each sort hath perception of each other, and some
may have the like; yet they have not the same: for, not any Part can have
another Perception, or Knowledge; but, by reason the Rational and Sensitive,
are both Corporeal Motions, there is a strong sympathy between those sorts, in
one Conjunction, or Creature. Indeed, the Rational Parts are the Designing
Parts; and the Sensitive, the Labouring Parts; and the Inanimate are as the
Material Parts: not but all the three sorts are Material Parts; but the
Inanimate, being not Self-moving, are the Burdensome Parts.
CHAP. V. Of Thoughts, and the whole Mind of a Creature.
AS for Thoughts, though they are several Corporeal Motions, or Self-moving
Parts; yet, being united, by Conjunction in one Creature, into one whole Mind,
cannot be perceived by some Parts of another Creature, nor by the same sort of
Creature, as by another Man. But some may ask, Whether the whole Mind of one
Creature, as the whole Mind of one Man, may not perceive the whole Mind of
another Man? I answer, That if the Mind was not joined and mixed with the
Sensitive and Inanimate Parts, and had not interior, as well as exterior Parts,
the whole Mind of one Man, might perceive the whole Mind of another Man; but,
that being not possible, one whole Mind cannot perceive another whole Mind: By
which Observation we may perceive, there are no Platonic Lovers in Nature. But
some may ask, Whether the Sensitive Parts can perceive the Rational, in one and
the same Creature? I answer, They do; for if they did not, it were impossible
for the Sensitive Parts to execute the Rational Designs; so that, what the Mind
designs, the Sensitive Body doth put in execution, as far as they have Power:
But if, through Irregularities, the Body be sick, and weak, or hath some
Infirmities, they cannot execute the Designs of the Mind.
CHAP. VI. Whether the Mind of one Creature, can perceive the Mind of another
SOme may ask the reason, Why one Creature, as Man, cannot perceive the
Thoughts of another Man, as well as he perceives his exterior Sensitive Parts?
I answer, That the Rational Parts of one Man, perceive as much of the Rational
Parts of another Man, as the Sensitive Parts of that Man doth of the Sensitive
Parts of the other Man; that is, as much as is presented to his Perception:
for, all Creatures, and every part and particle, have those three sorts of
Matter; and therefore, every part of a Creature is perceiving, and perceived.
But, by reason all Creatures are composed of Parts, ( viz. both of the Rational
and Sensitive) all Perceptions are in parts, as well the Rational, as the
Sensitive Perception: yet, neither the Rational, nor the Sensitive, can
perceive all the Interior Parts or Corporeal Motions, unless they were
presented to their perception: Neither can one Part know the Knowledge and
Perception of another Part: but, what Parts of one Creature are subject to the
perception of another Creature, those are perceived.
CHAP. VII. Of Perception, and Conception.
ALthough the Exterior Parts of one Creature, can but perceive the Exterior
Parts of another Creature; yet, the Rational can make Conceptions of the
Interior Parts, but not Perception: for, neither the Sense, nor Reason, can
perceive what is not present, but by rote, as after the manner of Conceptions,
or Remembrances, as I shall in my following Chapters declare: So that, the
Exterior Rational Parts, that are with the Exterior Sensitive Parts of an
Object, are as much perceived, the one, as the other: but, those Exterior Parts
of an Object, not moving in particular Parties, as in the whole Creature, is
the cause that some Parts of one Creature, cannot perceive the whole
Composition or Frame of another Creature: that is, some of the Rational Parts
of one Creature, cannot perceive the whole Mind of another Creature. The like
of the Sensitive Parts.
CHAP. VIII. Of Human Suppositions.
ALthough Nature hath an Infinite Knowledge and Perception; yet, being a Body,
and therefore divisible and compoundable; and having, also, Self-motion, to
divide and compound her Infinite Parts, after infinite several manners; is the
reason that her finite Parts, or particular Creatures, cannot have a geral or
infinite Knowledge, being limited, by being finite, to finite Perceptions, or
perceptive Knowledge; which is the cause of Suppositions, or Imaginations,
concerning Foreign Objects: As for example, A Man can but perceive the Exterior
Parts of another Man, or any other Creature, that is subject to Human
Perception; yet, his Rational Parts may suppose, or presuppose, what another
Man thinks, or what he will act: and for other Creatures, a Man may suppose or
imagine what the innate nature of such a Vegetable, or Mineral, or Element is;
and may imagine or suppose the Moon to be another World, and that all the fixed
Stars are Sunns; which Suppositions, Man names Conjectures.
CHAP. IX. Of Information between several Creatures.
NO question but there is Information between all Creatures: but, several sorts
of Creatures, having several sorts of Informations, it is impossible for any
particular sort to know, or have perceptions of the Infinite, or Numberless
Informations, between the Infinite and Numberless Parts, or Creatures of
Nature: Nay, there are so many several Informations amongst one sort (as of
Mankind) that it is impossible for one Man to perceive (...) them all; no, nor
can one Man generally perceive the particular Informations that are between the
particular Parts of his Sensitive Body; or between the particular Informations
of his Rational Body; or between the particular Rational and Sensitive Parts:
much less can Man perceive, or know the several Informations of other
CHAP. X. The Reason of several kinds and sorts of Creatures.
SOme may ask, Why there are such sorts of Creatures, as we perceive there are,
and not other sorts? I answer, That, 'tis probable, we do not perceive all the
several kinds and sorts of Creatures in Nature: In truth, it is impossible (if
Nature be Infinite) for a Finite to perceive the Infinite varieties of Nature.
Also they may ask, Why the Planets are of a Spherical Shape, and Human
Creatures are of an Upright shape, and Beasts of a Bending and stooping shape?
Also, Why Birds are made to fly, and not Beasts? And for what Cause, or
Design, have Animals such and such sorts of shapes and properties? And
Vegetables such and such sorts of shapes and properties? And so of Minerals and
Elements? I answer; That several sorts, kinds, and differences of Particulars,
causes Order, by reason it causes Distinctions: for, if all Creatures were
alike, it would cause a Confusion.
CHAP. XI. Of the several Properties of several Kinds and sorts of Creatures.
AS I have said, There are several kinds, and several sorts, and several
particular Creatures of several kinds and sorts; whereof there are some
Creatures of a mixed kind, and some of a mixed sort, and some of a mixture of
some particulars. Also, there are some kind of Creatures, and sorts of
Creatures; as also Particulars of a Dense Nature, others of a Rate Nature; some
of a Leight Nature, some of a Heavy Nature; some of a Bright Nature, some of a
Dark Nature; some of an Ascending Nature, some of a Descending Nature; some of
a Hard Nature, some of a Soft Nature; some of a Loose Nature, and some of a
Fixed Nature; some of an Agil Nature, and some of a Slow Nature; some of a
Consistent Nature, and some of a Dissolving Nature: All which is according to
the Frame and Form of their Society, or Composition.
The Third Part.
CHAP. I. Of Productions in general.
THE Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are the Producers of all Composed
Figures, such as we name Creatures: for, though all Matter hath Figure, by
being Matter; for it were non-sense to say, Figureless Matter; since the most
pure Parts of Matter, have Figure, as well as the grossest; the rarest, as well
as the densed: But, such Composed Figures which we name Creatures, are produced
by particular Associations of Self-moving Parts, into particular kinds, and
sorts; and particular Creatures in every kind, or sort. The particular kinds,
that are subject to Human Perceptions, are those we name Animals, Vegetables,
Minerals, and Elements; of which kinds, there are numerous sorts; and of every
sort, infinite particulars: And though there be Infinite Varieties in Nature,
made by the Corporeal Motions, or Self-moving Parts, which might cause a
Confusion: Yet, considering Nature is entire in her self, as being only
Material, and as being but one United Body; also, poysing all her Actions by
Opposites; 'tis impossible to be any ways in Extremes, or to have a Confusion.
CHAP. II. Of Productions in general.
THE Sensitive Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are the Labouring Parts
of all Productions, or Fabrics of all Creatures; but yet, those Corporeal
Motions, are parts of the Creature they produce: for, Production is only a
Society of particular Parts, that join into particular Figures, or Creatures:
but, as Parts produce Figures, by Association; so they dissolve those Figures
by Division: for, Matter is a perpetual Motion, that is always dividing and
composing; so that not any Creature can be eternally one and the same: for, if
there were no Dissolvings, and Alterings, there would be no varieties of
Particulars; for, though the kinds and sorts may last, yet not the Particulars.
But, mistake me not, I do not say those Figures are lost, or annihilated in
Nature; but only, their Society is dissolved, or divided in Nature. But this is
to be noted, That some Creatures are sooner produced and perfected, than
others; and again, some Creatures are sooner decayed, or dissolved.
CHAP. III. Of Productions in general.
THere are so many different composed Parts, and so much of variety of Action
in every several Part of one Creature, as 'tis impossible for Human Perception
to perceive them; nay, not every Corporeal Motion of one Creature, doth
perceive all the varieties of the same Society; and, by the several actions,
not only of several Parts, but of one and the same Parts, cause such obscurity,
as not any Creature can tell, not only how they were produced, but, not how
they consist: But, by reason every Part knows his own Work, there is Order and
Method: For example, In a Human Creature, those Parts that produce, or nourish
the Bones, those of the Sinews, those of the Veins, those of the Flesh, those
of the Brains, and the like, know all their several Works, and consider not
each several composed Part, but what belongs to themselves; the like, I
believe, in Vegetables, Minerals, or Elements. But mistake me not; for, I do
not say, those Corporeal Motions in those particulars, are bound to those
particular Works, as, that they cannot change, or alter their actions if they
will, and many times do: as some Creatures dissolve before they are perfect, or
quite finished; and some as soon as finished; and some after some short time
after they are finished; and some continue long, as we may perceive by many
Creatures that dye, which I name Dissolving in several Ages; but, untimely
Dissolutions, proceed rather from some particular Irregularities of some
particular Parts, than by a general Agreement.
CHAP. IV. Of Productions in general.
THE Reason that all Creatures are produced by the ways of Production, as one
Creature to be composed out of other Creatures, is, That Nature is but one
Matter, and that all her Parts are united as one Material Body, having no
Additions, or Diminutions; no new Creations, or Annihilations: But, were not
Nature one and the same, but that her Parts were of different natures; yet,
Creatures must be produced by Creatures, that is, Composed Figures, as a Beast,
a Tree, a Stone, Water, c. must be composed of Parts, not a single Part: for, a
single Part cannot produce composed Figures; nor can a single Part produce
another single Part; for, Matter cannot create Matter; nor can one Part produce
another Part out of it self: Wherefore, all Natural Creatures are produced by
the consent and agreement of many Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal Motions,
which work to a particular Design, as to associate into particular kinds and
sorts of Creatures.
CHAP. V. Of Productions in general.
AS I said in my former Chapter, That all Creatures are produced, or composed
by the agreement and consent of particular Parts; yet some Creatures are
composed of more, and some of fewer Parts: neither are all Creatures produced,
or composed after one and the same manner; but some after one manner, and some
after another manner: Indeed, there are divers manners of Productions, both of
those we name Natural, and those we name Artificial; but I only treat of
Natural Productions, which are so various, that it is a wonder if any two
Creatures are just alike; by which we may perceive, that not only in several
kinds and sorts, but in Particulars of every kind, or sort, there is some
difference, so as to be distinguished from each other, and yet the species of
some Creatures are like to their kind, and sort, but not all; and the reason
that most Creatures are in Species, according to their sort, and kind, is not
only, that Nature's Wisdom orders and regulates her Corporeal Figurative
Motions, into kinds and sorts of Societies and Conjunctions; but, those
Societies cause a perceptive Acquaintance, and an united Love, and good liking
of the Compositions, or Productions: and not only a love to their Figurative
Compositions, but to all that are of the same sort, or kind; and especially,
their being accustomed to actions proper to their Figurative Compositions, is
the cause that those Parts, that divide from the Producers, begin a new
Society, and, by degrees, produce the like Creature; which is the cause that
Animals and Vegetables produce according to their likeness. The same may be
amongst Minerals and Elements, for all we can know. But yet, some Creatures of
one and the same sort, are not produced after one and the same manner: As for
example, One and the same sort of Vegetables, may be produced after several
manners, and yet, in the effect, be the same, as when Vegetables are sowed,
planted, engrafted; as also, Seeds, Roots, and the like, they are several
manners, or ways of Productions, and yet will produce the same sort of
Vegetable: but, there will be much alterations in replanting, which is
occasioned by the change of associating Parts, and Parties; but as for the
several Productions of several kinds and sorts, they are very different; as for
example, Animals are not produced as Vegetables, or Vegetables as Minerals, nor
Minerals as any of the rest: Nor are all Animals produced alike, nor Minerals,
or Vegetables; but after many different manners, or ways. Neither are all
Productions like their Producers; for, some are so far from resembling their
Figurative Society, that they produce another kind, or sort of Composed
Figures; as for example, Maggots out of Cheese, other Worms out of Roots,
Fruits, and the like: but these sorts of Creatures, Man names Insects; but yet
they are Animal Creatures, as well as others.
CHAP. VI. Of Productions in general.
ALL Creatures are Produced, and Producers; and all these Productions partake
more or less of the Producers; and are necessitated so to do, because there
cannot be any thing New in Nature: for, whatsoever is produced, is of the same
Matter; nay, every particular Creature hath its particular Parts: for, not any
one Creature can be produced of any other Parts than what produced it; neither
can the same Producer produce one and the same double, (as I may say to express
my self:) for, though the same Producers may produce the like, yet not the
same: for, every thing produced, hath its own Corporeal Figurative Motions; but
this might be, if Nature was not so full of variety: for, if all those
Corporeal Motions, or Self-moving Parts, did associate in the like manner, and
were the very same Parts, and move in the very same manner; the same
Production, or Creature, might be produced after it was dissolved; but, by
reason the Self-moving Parts of Nature are always dividing and composing from,
and to Parts, it would be very difficult, if not impossible.
CHAP. VII. Of Productions in general.
AS there are Productions, or Compositions, made by the Sensitive Corporeal
Motions, so there are of the Rational Corporeal Motions, which are Composed
Figures of the Mind: And the reason the Rational Productions are more various,
as also more numerous, is, That the Rational is more loose, free, and so more
agil than the Sensitive; which is also the reason that the Rational Productions
require not such degrees of Time, as the Sensitive. But I shall treat more upon
this Subject, when I treat of that Animal we name MAN.
CHAP. VII. Lastly, Of Productions in general.
THough all Creatures are made by the several Associations of Self-moving
Parts, or (as the Learned name them) Corporeal Motions; yet, there are infinite
varieties of Corporeal Figurative Motions, and so infinite several manners and
ways of Productions; as also, infinite varieties of Figurative Motions in every
produced Creature: Also, there is variety in the difference of Time, of several
Productions, and of their Consistency and Dissolution: for, some Creatures are
produced in few Hours, others not in many Years. Again, some continue not a
Day; others, numbers of Years. But this is to be noted, That according to the
Regularity, or Irregularity of the Associating Motions, their Productions are
more or less perfect. Also, this is to be noted, That there are Rational
Productions, as well as Sensitive: for, though all Creatures are composed both
of Sensitive and Rational Parts, yet the Rational Parts move after another
CHAP. VIII. Productions must partake of some Parts of their Producers.
NO Animal, or Vegetable, could be produced, but by such, or such particular
Producers; neither could an Animal, or Vegetable, be produced without some
Corporeal Motions of their Producers; that is, some of the Producers
Self-moving Parts; otherwise the like Actions might produce, not only the like
Creatures, but the same Creatures, which is impossible: Wherefore, the things
produced, are part of the Producers; for, no particular Creature could be
produced, but by such particular Producers. But this is to be noted, That all
sorts of Creatures are produced by more, or fewer, Producers. Also, the first
Producers are but the first Founders of the things produced, but not the only
Builders: for, there are many several sorts of Corporeal Motions, that are the
Builders; for, no Creature can subsist, or consist, by it self, but must
assist, and be assisted: Yet, there are some differences in all Productions,
although of the same Producers; otherwise all the Off-springs of one and the
same Producer, would be alike: And though, sometimes, their several Off-springs
may be so alike, as hardly to be distinguished; yet, that is so seldom, as it
appears as a wonder; but there is a property in all Productions, as, for the
Produced to belong as a Right and Property to the Producer.
CHAP. IX. Of Resemblances of several Off-springs, or Producers.
THere are numerous kinds and sorts of Productions, and infinite manners and
ways, in the actions of Productions; which is the cause that the Off-springs of
the same Producers, are not so just alike, but that they are distinguishable;
but yet there may not only be resemblances between particular Off-springs of
the same Producers, as also of the same sort; but, of different sorts of
Creatures: but the Actions of all Productions that are according to their own
Species, are Imitating Actions, but not Bare Imitations, as by an Incorporeal
Motion; for if so, then a covetous Woman, that loves Gold, might produce a Wedg
of Gold instead of a Child; also, Virgins might be as Fruitful as Married
CHAP. X. Of the Several Appearances of the Exterior Parts of One Creature.
EVery altered Action of the Exterior Parts, causes an altered Appearance: As
for example, A Man, or the like Creature, doth not appear when he is old, as
when he was young; nor when he is sick, as when he is well in health; no, nor
when he is cold, as when he is hot. Nor do they appear in several Passions
alike: for, though Man can best perceive the Alteration of his own Kind, or
Sort; yet, other Creatures have several Appearances, as well as Man; some of
which, Man may perceive, though not all, being of a different sort. And not
only Animals, but Vegetables, and Elements, have altered Appearances, and many
that are subject to Man's perception.
The Fourth Part.
CHAP. I. Of Animal Productions; and of the Differences between Productions,
and Transformations.
I Understand Productions to be between Particulars; as, some particular
Creatures to produce other particular Creatures; but not to transform from one
sort of Creature, into another sort of Creature, as Cheese into Maggots, and
Fruit into Worms, c. which, in some manner, is like Metamorphosing. So by
Transformation, the Intellectual Nature, as well as the Exterior Form, is
transformed: Whereas Production transforms only the Exterior Form, but not the
Intellectual Nature; which is the cause that such Transformations cannot return
into their former state; as a Worm to be a Fruit, or a Maggot a Cheese again,
as formerly. Hence I perceive, that all sorts of Fowls are partly Produced, and
partly Transformed: for, though an Egg be produced, yet a Chicken is but a
Transformed Egg.
CHAP. II. Of different Figurative Motions in MAN's Production.
ALL Creatures are produced by Degrees; which proves, That not any Creature is
produced, in perfection, by one Act, or Figurative Motion: for, though the
Producers are the first Founders, yet not the Builders. But, as for Animal
Creatures, there be some sorts that are composed of many different Figurative
Motions; amongst which sorts, is Mankind, who has very different Figurative
Parts, as Bones, Sinews, Nerves, Muscles, Veins, Flesh, Skin, and Marrow,
Blood, Choler, Phlegm, Melancholy, and the like; also, Head, Breast, Neck, Arms,
Hands, Body, Belly, Thighs, Legs, Feet, c. also, Brains, Lungs, Stomach,
Heart, Liver, Midriff, Kidneys, Bladder, Guts, and the like; and all these have
several actions, yet all agree as one, according to the property of that sort
of Creature named MAN.
CHAP. III. Of the Quickening of a Child, or any other sort of Animal Creatures.
THE Reason that a Woman, or such like Animal, doth not feel her Child so soon
as it is produced, is, That the Child cannot have an Animal Motion, until it
hath an Animal Nature, that is, until it be perfectly an Animal Creature; and
as soon as it is a perfect Child, she feels it to move, according to its
nature: but it is only the Sensitive Parts of the Child that are felt by the
Mother, not the Rational; because those Parts are as the Designers, not the
Builders; and therefore, being not the Labouring Parts, are not the Sensible
Parts. But it is to be noted, That, according to the Regularity, or
Irregularity of the Figurative Motions, the Child is well shaped, or mishapped.
CHAP. IV. Of the Birth of a Child.
THE reason why a Child, or such like Animal Creature, stays no longer in the
Mother's Body, than to such a certain Time, is, That a Child is not Perfect
before that time, and would be too big after that time; and so big, that it
would not have room enough; and therefore it strives and labours for liberty.
CHAP. V. Of Mischances, or Miscarriages of Breeding Creatures.
WHen a Mare, Do, Hind, or the like Animal, cast their Young, or a Woman
miscarries of her Child, the Mischance proceeds either through the
Irregularities of the Corporeal Motions, or Parts of the Child; or through some
Irregularity of the Parts of the Mother; or else of both Mother and Child. If
the Irregularities be of the Parts of the Child, those Parts divide from the
Mother, through their Irregularity: but, if the Irregularity be in the Parts of
the Mother, then the Mother divides in some manner from the Child; and if there
be a distemper in both of them, the Child and Mother divide from each other:
but, such Mischances are at different times, some sooner, and some later. As
for false Conceptions, they are occasioned through the Irregularities of
CHAP. VI. Of the Increase of Growth, and Strength of Mankind, or such like
THE reason most Animals, especially Human Creatures, are weak whilst they are
Infants, and that their Strength and Growth increases by degrees, is, That a
Child hath not so many Parts, as when he is a Youth; nor so many Parts when he
is a Youth, as when he is a Man: for, after the Child is parted from the
Mother, it is nourished by other Creatures, as the Mother was, and the Child by
the Mother; and according as the nourishing Parts be Regular, or Irregular, so
is the Child, Youth, or Man, weaker, or stronger; healthful, or diseased; and
when the Figurative Motions move (as I may say for expression sake) curiously,
the Body is neatly shaped, and is, as we say, beautiful. But this is to be
noted, That 'tis not Greatness, or Bulk of Body, makes a Body perfect; for,
there are several sizes of every sort, or kind of Creatures; as also, in every
particular kind, or sort; and every several size may be as perfect, one, as the
other: But, I mean the Number of Parts, according to the proper size.
CHAP. VII. Of the several Properties of the several Exterior Shapes of several
sorts of Animals.
THE several Exterior Shapes of Creatures, cause several Properties, as
Running, Jumping, Hopping, Leaping, Climbing, Galloping, Trotting, Ambling,
Turning, Winding, and Rolling; also Creeping, Crawling, Flying, Soaring or
Towering; Swimming, Diving, Digging, Stinging or Piercing; Pressing, Spinning,
Weaving, Twisting, Printing, Carving, Breaking, Drawing, Driving, Bearing,
Carrying, Holding, Griping or Grasping, Enfolding, and Millions of the like.
Also, the Exterior Shapes cause Defences, as Horns, Claws, Teeth, Bills,
Talons, Finns, c. Likewise, the Exterior Shapes cause Offences, and give
Offences: As also, the different sorts of Exterior Shapes, cause different
Exterior Perceptions.
CHAP. VIII. Of the Dividing and Uniting Parts of a particular Creature.
THose Parts (as I have said) that were the First Founders of an Animal, or
other sort of Creature, may not be constant Inhabitants: for, though the
Society may remain, the particular Parts may remove: Also, all particular
Societies of one kind, or sort, may not continue the like time; but some may
dissolve sooner than others. Also, some alter by degrees, others of a sudden;
but, of those Societies that continue, the particular Parts remove, and other
particular Parts unite; so, as some Parts were of the Society, so some other
Parts are of the Society, and will be of the Society: But, when the Form,
Frame, and Order of the Society begins to alter, then that particular Creature
begins to decay. But this is to be noted, That those particular Creatures that
dye in their Childhood, or Youth, were never a full and regular Society; and
the dissolving of a Society, whether it be a Full, or but a Forming Society,
Man names DEATH. Also, this is to be noted, That the Nourishing Motion of Food,
is the Uniting Motion; and the Cleansing, or Evacuating Motions, are the
Dividing Corporeal Motions. Likewise it is to be noted, That a Society requires
a longer time of uniting than of dividing; by reason uniting requires
assistance of Foreign Parts, whereas dividings are only a dividing of
home-Parts. Also, a particular Creature, or Society, is longer in dividing its
Parts, than in altering its Actions; because a Dispersing Action is required in
Division, but not in Alteration of Actions.
The Fifth Part.
NOW I have discoursed, in the former Parts, after a general manner, of
Animals: I will, in the following Chapters, speak more particularly of that
sort we name Mankind; who believe (being ignorant of the Nature of other
Creatures) that they are the most knowing of all Creatures; and yet a whole Man
(as I may say for expression-sake) doth not know all the Figurative Motions
belonging either to his Mind, or Body: for, he doth not generally know every
particular Action of his Corporeal Motions, as, How he was framed, or formed,
or perfected. Nor doth he know every particular Motion that occasions his
present Consistence, or Being: Nor every particular Digestive, or Nourishing
Motion: Nor, when he is sick, the particular Irregular Motion that causes his
Sickness. Nor do the Rational Motions in the Head, know always the Figurative
Actions of those of the Heel. In short, (as I said) Man doth not generally know
every particular Part, or Corporeal Motion, either of Mind, or Body: Which
proves, Man's Natural Soul is not inalterable, or individable, and
CHAP. II. Of the variety of Man's Natural Motions.
THere is abundance of varieties of Figurative Motions in Man: As, first, There
are several Figurative Motions of the Form and Frame of Man, as of his Innate,
Interior, and Exterior Figurative Parts. Also, there are several Figures of his
several Perceptions, Conceptions, Appetite, Digestions, Reparations, and the
like. There are also several Figures of several Postures of his several Parts;
and a difference of his Figurative Motions, or Parts, from other Creatures; all
which are Numberless: And yet all these different Actions are proper to the
Nature of MAN.
CHAP. III. Of Man's Shape and Speech.
THE Shape of Man's Sensitive Body, is, in some manner, of a mixed Form: but, he
is singular in this, That he is of an upright and straight Shape; of which, no
other Animal but Man is: which Shape makes him not only fit, proper, easy and
free, for all exterior actions; but also for Speech: for being straight, as in
a straight and direct Line from the Head to the Feet, so as his Nose, Mouth,
Throat, Neck, Chest, Stomach, Belly, Thighs, and Legs, are from a straight
Line: also, his Organ-Pipes, Nerves, Sinews, and Joints, are in a straight and
equal posture to each other; which is the cause, Man's Tongue, and Organs, are
more apt for Speech than those of any other Creature; which makes him more apt
to imitate any other Creature's Voices, or Sounds: Whereas other Animal
Creatures, by reason of their bending Shapes, and crooked Organs, are not apt
for Speech; neither (in my Opinion) have other Animals so melodious a Sound, or
Voice, as Man: for, though some sorts of Birds Voices are sweet, yet they are
weak, and faint; and Beasts Voices are harsh, and rude: but of all other
Animals, besides Man, Birds are the most apt for Speech; by reason they are
more of an upright shape, than Beasts, or any other sorts of Animal Creatures,
as Fish, and the like; for, Birds are of a straight and upright shape, as from
their Breasts, to their Heads; but, being not so straight as Man; causes Birds
to speak uneasily, and constrainedly: Man's shape is so ingeniously contrived,
that he is fit and proper for more several sorts of exterior actions, than any
other Animal Creature; which is the cause he seems as Lord and Sovereign of
other Animal Creatures.
CHAP. IV. Of the several Figurative Parts of Human Creatures.
THE manner of Man's Composition, or Form, is of different Figurative Parts;
whereof some of those Parts seem the Supreme, or (as I may say) Fundamental
Parts; as the Head, Chest, Lungs, Stomach, Heart, Liver, Spleen, Bowels, Reins,
Kidneys, Gaul, and many more: also, those Parts have other Figurative Parts
belonging or adjoining to them, as the Head, Scull, Brains, Pia-mater,
Dura-mater, Forehead, Nose, Eyes, Cheeks, Ears, Mouth, Tongue, and several
Figurative Parts belonging to those; so of the rest of the Parts, as the Arms,
Hands, Fingers, Legs, Feet, Toes, and the like: all which different Parts,
have different sorts of Perceptions; and yet (as I formerly said) their
Perceptions are united: for, though all the Parts of the Human Body have
different Perceptions; yet those different perceptions unite in a general
Perception, both for the Subsistence, Consistence, and use of the Whole Man:
but, concerning Particulars, not only the several composed Figurative Parts,
have several sorts of Perceptions; but every Part hath variety of Perceptions,
occasioned by variety of Objects.
CHAP. V. Of the several Perceptions amongst the several Parts of MAN.
THere being infinite several Corporeal Figurative Motions, or Actions of
Nature, there must of necessity be infinite several Self-knowledges and
Perceptions: but I shall only, in this Part of my Book, treat of the Perception
proper to Mankind: And first, of the several and different Perceptions, proper
for the several and different Parts: for, though every Part and Particle of a
Man's Body, is perceptive; yet, every particular Part of a Man, is not
generally perceived; for, the Interior Parts do not generally perceive the
Exterior; nor the Exterior, generally or perfectly, the Interior; and yet, both
Interior and Exterior Corporeal Motions, agree as one Society; for, every Part,
or Corporeal Motion, knows its own Office; like as Officers in a Common-wealth,
although they may not be acquainted with each other, yet they know their
Employments: So every particular Man in a Common-wealth, knows his own
Employment, although he knows not every Man in the Common-wealth. The same do
the Parts of a Man's Body, and Mind. But, if there be any Irregularity, or
Disorder in a Common-wealth, every Particular is disturbed, perceiving a
Disorder in the Common-wealth. The same amongst the Parts of a Man's Body; and
yet many of those Parts do not know the particular Cause of that general
Disturbance. As for the Disorders, they may proceed from some Irregularities;
but for Peace, there must be a general Agreement, that is, every Part must be
CHAP. VI. Of Divided and Composed Perceptions.
AS I have formerly said, There is in Nature both Divided and Composed
Perceptions; and for proof, I will mention Man's Exterior Perceptions; As for
example, Man hath a Composed Perception of Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tasting,
and Touching; whereof every several sort is composed, though after different
manners, or ways; and yet are divided, being several sorts of Perceptions, and
not all one Perception. Yet again, they are all Composed, being united as
proper Perceptions of one Man; and not only so, but united to perceive the
different Parts of one Object: for, as Perceptions are composed of Parts, so
are Objects; and as there are different Objects, so there are different
Perceptions; but it is not possible for a Man to know all the several sorts of
Perceptions proper to every Composed Part of his Body or Mind, much less of
CHAP. VII. Of the Ignorances of the several Perceptive Organs.
AS I said, That every several composed Perception, was united to the proper
use of their whole Society, as one Man; yet, every several Perceptive Organ of
Man is ignorant of each other; as the Perception of Sight is ignorant of that
of Hearing; the Perception of Hearing, is ignorant of the Perception of Seeing;
and the Perception of Smelling is ignorant of the Perceptions of the other two,
and those of Scent, and the same of Tasting, and Touching: Also, every
Perception of every particular Organ, is different; but some sorts of Human
Perceptions require some distance between them and the Object: As for example,
The Perception of Sight requires certain Distances, as also Magnitudes; whereas
the Perception of Touch requires a Joyning-Object, or Part. But this is to be
noted, That although these several Organs are not perfectly, or thoroughly
acquianted; yet in the Perception of the several parts of one Object, they do
all agree to make their several Perceptions, as it were by one Act, at one
point of time.
CHAP. VIII. Of the particular and general Perceptions of the Exterior Parts of
Human Creatures.
THere is amongst the Exterior Perceptions of Human Creatures, both particular
sorts of Perceptions, and general Perceptions: For, though none of the Exterior
Parts, or Organs, have the sense of Seeing, but the Eyes; of Hearing, but the
Ears; of Smelling, but the Nose; of Tasting, but the Mouth: yet all the
Exterior Parts have the Perception of Touching; and the reason is, That all the
Exterior Parts are full of pores, or at least, of such composed Parts, that are
the sensible Organs of Touching: yet, those several Parts have several Touches;
not only because they have several Parts, but because those Organs of Touching,
are differently composed. But this is to be noted, That every several part hath
perception of the other parts of their Society, as they have of Foreign parts;
and, as the Sensitive, so the Rational parts have such particular and general
perceptions. But it is to be noted, That the Rational parts, are parts of the
same Organs.
CHAP. IX. Of the Exterior Sensitive Organs of Human Creatures.
AS for the manner, or ways, of all the several sorts, and particular
perceptions, made by the different composed parts of Human Creatures; it is
impossible, for a Human Creature, to know any otherwise, but in part: for,
being composed of parts, into Parties, he can have but a parted knowledge, and a
parted perception of himself: for, every different composed part of his Body,
have different sorts of Self-knowledg, as also, different sorts of Perceptions;
but yet, the manner and way of some Human Perceptions, may probably be
imagined, especially those of the exterior parts, Man names the Sensitive
Organs; which Parts (in my opinion) have their perceptive actions, after the
manner of patterning, or picturing the exterior Form, or Frame, of Foreign
Objects: As for example, The present Object is a Candle; the Human Organ of
Sight pictures the Flame, Light, Week, or Snuff, the Tallow, the Colour, and
the dimension of the Candle; the Ear patterns out the sparkling noise; the Nose
patterns out the scent of the Candle; and the Tongue may pattern out the taste
of the Candle: but, so soon as the Object is removed, the figure of the Candle
is altered into the present Object, or as much of one present Object, as is
subject to Human Perception. Thus the several parts or properties, may be
patterned out by the several Organs. Also, every altered action, of one and the
same Organ, are altered Perceptions; so as there may be numbers of several
pictures or Patterns made by the Sensitive Actions of one Organ; I will not
say, by one act; yet there may be much variety in one action. But this is to be
noted, That the Object is not the cause of Perception, but is only the
occasion: for, the Sensitive Organs can make such like figurative actions, were
there no Object present; which proves, that the Object is not the Cause of the
Perception. Also, when as the Sensitive parts of the Sensitive Organs, are
Irregular, they will make false perceptions of present Objects; wherefore the
Object is not the Cause. But one thing I desire, not to be mistaken in; for I
do not say, that all the parts belonging to any of the particular Organs, move
only in one sort or kind of perception; but I say, Some of the parts of the
Organ, move to such, or such perception: for, all the actions of the Ears, are
not only hearing; and all the actions of the Eye, seeing; and all the actions
of the Nose, smelling; and all the actions of the Mouth, tasting; but, they
have other sorts of actions: yet, all the sorts of every Organ, are according
to the property of their figurative Composition.
CHAP. X. Of the Rational Parts of the Human Organs.
AS for the Rational parts of the Human Organs, they move according to the
Sensitive parts, which is, to move according to the Figures of Foreign Objects;
and their actions are (if Regular) at the same point of time, with the
Sensitive: but, though their Actions are alike, yet there is a difference in
their Degree; for, the figure of an Object in the Mind, is far more pure than
the figure in the Sense. But, to prove that the Rational (if Regular) moves
with the Sense, is, That all the several Sensitive perceptions of the Sensitive
Organs, (as all the several Sights, Sounds, Scents, Tastes, and Touches) are
thoughts of the same.
CHAP. XI. Of the difference between the Human Conception, and Perception.
THere are some differences between Perception, and Conception: for, Perception
doth properly belong to present Objects; whereas Conceptions have no such
strict dependency: But, Conceptions are not proper to the Sensitive Organs, or
parts of a Human Creature; wherefore, the Sensitive never move in the manner of
Conception, but after an irregular manner; as when a Human Creature is in some
violent Passion, Mad, Weak, or the like Distempers. But this is to be noted,
That all sorts of Fancies, Imaginations, c. whether Sensitive, or Rational, are
after the manner of Conceptions, that is, do move by Rote, and not by Example.
Also, it is to be noted, That the Rational parts can move in more various
Figurative Actions than the Sensitive; which is the cause that a Human Creature
hath more Conceptions than Perceptions; so that the Mind can please it self
with more variety of Thoughts than the Sensitive with variety of Objects: for
variety of Objects consists of Foreign Parts; whereas variety of Conceptions
consists only of their own Parts: Also, the Sensitive Parts are sooner
satisfied with the perception of particular Objects, than the Mind with
particular Remembrances.
CHAP. XII. Of the Several Varieties of Actions of Human Creatures.
TO speak of all the Several Actions of the Sensitive and Rational parts of one
Creature, is not possible, being numberless: but, some of those that are most
notable, I will mention, as, Respirations, Digestions, Nourishments, Appetites,
Satiety, Aversions, Conceptions, Opinions, Fancies, Passions, Memory,
Remembrance, Reasoning, Examining, Considering, Observing, Distinguishing,
Contriving, Arguing, Approving, Disapproving, Discoveries, Arts, Sciences. The
Exterior Actions are, Walking, Running, Dancing, Turning, Tumbling, Bearing,
Carrying, Holding, Striking, Trembling, Sighing, Groaning, Weeping, Frowning,
Laughing, Speaking, Singing and Whistling: As for Postures, they cannot be well
described; only, Standing, Sitting, and Lying.
CHAP. XIII. Of the manner of Information between the Rational and Sensitive
THE manner of Information amongst the Self-moving Parts of a Human Creature,
is after divers and several manners, or ways, amongst the several parts: but,
the manner of Information between the Sensitive and Rational parts, is, for the
most part, by Imitation; as, imitating each other's actions: As for example,
The Rational parts invent some Sciences; the Sensitive endeavour to put those
Sciences into an Art. If the Rational perceive the Sensitive actions are not
just, according to that Science, they inform the Sensitive; then the Sensitive
Parts endeavour to work, according to the directions of the Rational: but, if
there be some obstruction or hindrance, then the Rational and Sensitive agree
to declare their Design, and to require assistance of other Associates, which
are other Men; as also, other Creatures. As for the several Manners and
Informations between Man and Man, they are so ordinary, I shall not need to
mention them.
CHAP. XIV. Of Irregularities and Regularities of the Self-moving Parts of
Human Creatures.
NAture being poised, there must of necessity be Irregularities, as well as
Regularities, both of the Rational and Sensitive parts; but when the Rational
are Irregular, and the Sensitive Regular, the Sensitive endeavour to rectify
the Errors of the Rational. And if the Sensitive be Irregular, and the Rational
Regular, the Rational do endeavour to rectify the Errors of the Sensitive:
for, the particular parts of a Society, are very much assistant to each other;
as we may observe by the Exterior parts of Human Bodies; the Hands endeavour to
assist any part in distress; the Legs will run, the Eyes will watch, the Ears
will listen, for any advantage to the Society; but when there is a general
Irregularity, then the Society falls to ruin.
CHAP. XV. Of the Agreeing, or Disagreeing, of the Sensitive and Rational Parts
of Human Creatures.
THere is, for the most part, a general agreement between the Rational and
Sensitive Parts of Human Creatures; not only in their particular, but general
actions; only the Rational are the Designing-parts; and the Sensitive, the
Labouring parts: As for proof, The Mind designs to go to such, or such Foreign
Parts, or Places; upon which design the Sensitive Parts will labour to execute
the Mind's intention, so as the whole Sensitive Body labours to go to the
designed place, without the Mind's further Concern: for, the Mind takes no
notice of every action of the Sensitive parts; neither of those of the Eyes,
Ears; or of the Legs, or feet; nor of their perceptions: for, many times, the
Mind is busied in some Conception, Imagination, Fancy, or the like; and yet the
Sensitive Parts execute the Mind's Design exactly. But, for better proof, When
as the Sensitive parts are sick, weak, or defective, through some
irregularities, the Sensitive parts cannot execute the Mind's Design: also,
when the Sensitive parts are careless, they oft mistake their way; or when they
are irregularly opposed, or busied about some Appetite, they will not obey the
Mind's desire; all which are different degrees of Parts. But, as it is amongst
the particular parts of a Society; so, many times, between several Societies;
for, sometimes, the Sensitive parts of two Men will take no notice of each
other: As for example, When two men speak together, one man regards not what
the other says; so many times, the Sensitive parts regard not the Propositions
of the Rational; but then the Sensitive is not perfectly Regular.
CHAP. XVI. Of the Power of the Rational; or rather, of the Indulgency of the
THE Rational Corporeal Motions, being the purest, most free, and so most
active, have great power over the Sensitive; as to persuade, or command them to
obedience: As for example, When a man is studying about some Inventions of
Poetical Fancies, or the like; though the Sensitive Corporeal Motions, in the
Sensitive Organs, desire to desist from patterning of Objects, and would move
towards sleep; yet the Rational will not suffer them, but causes them to work,
viz. to write, or to read, or do some other Labour: Also, when the Rational
Mind is merry, it will cause the Legs to dance, the Organs of the Voice to
sing, the Mouth to speak, to eat, to drink, and the like: If the Mind moves to
sadness, it causes the Eyes to weep, the Lungs to sigh, the Mouth to speak
words of Complaint. Thus the Rational Corporeal Motions of the Mind, will
occasion the Senses to watch, to work, or to sport and play. But mistake me
not; for I do not mean, the Senses are bound to obey the Rational Designs; for,
the Sensitive Corporeal Motions, have as much freedom of Self-moving, as the
Rational: for, the Command of the Rational, and the Obedience of the Sensitive,
is rather an Agreement, than a Constraint: for, in many cases, the Sensitive
will not agree, and so not obey: also, in many cases, the Rational submits to
the Sensitive: also, the Rational sometimes will be irregular; and, on the
other side, sometimes the Sensitive will be irregular, and the Rational
regular; and sometimes both irregular.
CHAP. XVII. Of Human Appetites and Passions.
THE Sensitive Appetites, and the Rational Passions do so resemble each other,
as they would puzzle the most wise Philosopher to distinguish them; and there
is not only a Resemblance, but, for the most part, a sympathetical Agreement
between the Appetites, and the Passions; which strong conjunction, doth often
occasion disturbances to the whole life of Man; with endless Desires,
unsatiable Appetites, violent Passions, unquiet Humours, Grief, Pain, Sadness,
Sickness, and the like; through which, Man seems to be more restless, than any
other Creature: but, whether the cause be in the Manner, or Form of Man's
Composition, or occasioned by some Irregularities; I will leave to those who
are wiser than I, to judge. But this is to be noted, That the more Changes and
Alterations the Rational and Sensitive Motions make, the more variety of
Passions and Appetites the Man hath: also, the quicker the Motions are, the
sharper Appetite, and the quicker Wit, Man hath. But, as all the Human Senses
are not bound to one Organ; so all Knowledges are not bound to one Sense, no
more than all the Parts of Matter to the composition of one particular
Creature: but, by some of the Rational and Sensitive actions, we may perceive
the difference of some of the Sensitive and Rational actions; as, Sensitive
Pain, Rational Grief; Sensitive Pleasure, Rational delight; Sensitive Appetite,
Rational Desire; which are sympathetical actions of the Rational and Sensitive
Parts: Also, through sympathy, Rational Passions will occasion Sensitive
Appetites; and Appetites, the like Passions.
CHAP. XVIII. Of the Rational Actions of the Head and Heart of Human Creatures.
AS I formerly said, In every Figurative Part of a Human Creature, the Actions
are different, according to the Property of their different Composers; so that
the Motions of the Heart are different to the Motions of the Head, and of the
other several Parts: but, as for the Motions of the Head, they are (in my
Opinion) more after the manner of Embossed Figures; and those of the Heart,
more after the manner of Flat Figures; like Painting, Printing, Engraving, c.
For, if we observe, the Thoughts in our Heads are different from the Thoughts
in our Hearts. I only name these two Parts, by reason they seem to sympathize,
or to agree, more particularly to each other's actions, than some of the other
Parts of Human Creatures.
CHAP. XIX. Of Passions and Imaginations.
SOme sorts of Passions seem to be in the Heart; as, Love, Hate, Grief, Joy,
Fear, and the like; and all Imaginations, Fancies, Opinions, Inventions, c. in
the Head. But, mistake me not, I do not say, that none of the other Parts of a
Man have not Passions and Conceptions: but, I say, they are not after the same
manner, or way, as in the Heart, or Head: as for example, Every Part of a Man's
Body is sensible, yet not after one and the same manner: for, every Part of a
Man's Body hath different perceptions, as I have formerly declared, and yet may
agree in general actions: but, unless the several composed Parts of a Human
Creature, had not several perceptive actions, it were impossible to make a
general perception, either amongst the several Parts of their own Society, or
of Foreign Objects. But, it is impossible for me to describe the different
manners and ways of the particular Parts, or the different actions of any one
Part: for, what Man can describe the different perceptive actions of that
composed Part, the Eye, and so of the rest of the Parts.
CHAP. XX. That Associations, Divisions, and Alterations, cause several
THE Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, are the perceptive Parts of
Nature; and that which causes acquaintance amongst some parts, is their Uniting
and Association: That which loses acquaintance of other Parts, is their
Divisions and Alterations: for, as Self-compositions cause particular
Knowledges, or Acquaintances: So Self-divisions cause particular Ignorances, or
Forgetfulnesses: for, as all kinds and sorts of Creatures are produced,
nourished, and increased by the Association of Parts; so are all kinds and
sorts of Perceptions; and according as their Associations, or their
Compositions do last, so doth their Acquaintance; which is the cause, that the
Observations and Experiences of several and particular Creatures, such as Men,
in several and particular Ages, joined as into one Man or Age, causes strong
and long-liv'd Opinions, subtle and ingenious Inventions, happy and profitable
Advantages; as also, probable Conjectures, and many Truths, of many Causes and
Effects: Whereas, the Divisions of particular Societies, causes what we name
Death, Ignorance, Forgetfulness, Obscurity of particular Creatures, and of
perceptive Knowledges; so that as particular perceptive Knowledges do alter and
change, so do particular Creatures: for, though the Kinds and Sorts last, yet
the Particulars do not.
CHAP. XXI. Of the Differences between Self-Love, and Passionate Love.
SElf-love, is like Self-knowledg, which is an innate Nature; and therefore is
not that Love Man names Passionate Love: for, Passionate Love belongs to
several Parts; so that the several parts of one Society, as one Creature, have
both Passionate Love, and Self-love, as being sympathetically united in one
Society: Also, not only the Parts of one and the same Society, may have
Passionate Love to each other; but, between several Societies; and not only
several Societies of one Sort, but of different Sorts.
The Sixth Part.
CHAP. I. Of the Motions of some parts of the Mind; and of Foreign Objects.
NOtions, Imaginations, Conceptions, and the like, are such Actions of the
Mind, as concern not Foreign Objects: and some Notions, Imaginations, or
Conceptions of one man, may be like to another man, or many men. Also, the Mind
of one man may move in the like Figurative Actions, as the Sensitive Actions of
other sorts of Creatures; and that, Man names Understanding: and if those
Conceptions be afterwards produced, Man names them Prudence, or Fore-sight; but
if those Parts move in such Inventions as are capable to be put into Arts, Man
names that, Ingenuity: but, if not capable to be put into the practice of Arts,
Man names it, Sciences: if those Motions be so subtle, that the Sensitive
cannot imitate them, Man names them, Fancies: but, when those Rational Parts
move promiscuously, as partly after their own inventions, and partly after the
manner of Foreign or outward Objects; Man names them, Conjectures, or
Probabilities: and when there are very many several Figurative, Rational
Motions, then Man says, The Mind is full of Thoughts: when those Rational
Figurative Motions, are of many and different Objects, Man names them,
Experiences, or Learning: but, when there are but few different sorts of such
Figurative Motions, Man names them Ignorances.
CHAP. II. Of the Motions of some Parts of the Mind.
WHen the Rational Figurative Corporeal Motions of an Human Creature, take no
notice of Foreign Objects, Man names that, Musing, or Contemplating. And, when
the Rational Parts repeat some former Actions, Man names that, Remembrances.
But, when those Parts alter those Repetitions, Man names that, Forgetfulness.
And, when those Rational Parts move, according to a present Object, Man names
it, Memory. And when those Parts divide in divers sorts of Actions, Man names
it, Arguing, or Disputing in the Mind. And when those divers sorts of Actions
are at some strife, Man names it, A contradicting of himself. And if there be a
weak strife, Man names it, Consideration. But, when those different Figurative
Motions move of one accord, and sympathetically, this Man names, Discretion.
But, when those different sorts of Actions move sympathetically, and continue
in that manner of action, without any alteration, Man names it, Belief, Faith,
or Obstinacy. And when those Parts make often changes, as altering their
Motions, Man names it Inconstancy. When their Rational Parts move slowly,
orderly, equally, and sympathetically, Man names it Sobriety. When all the
Parts of the Mind move regularly, and sympathetically, Man names it, Wisdom.
When some Parts move partly regularly, and partly irregularly, Man names that,
Foolishness, and Simplicity. When they move generally irregularly, Man names it
CHAP. III. Of the Motions of Human Passions, and Appetites; as also, of the
Motions of the Rational and Sensitive Parts, towards Foreign Objects.
when some of the Rational Parts move sympathetically, to some of the
Sensitive Perceptions; and those Sensitive Parts sympathize to the Object, it
is Love. If they move antipathetically to the Object, it is Hate. When those
Rational and Sensitive Motions, make many and quick repetitions of those
sympathetical actions, it is Desire and Appetite. When those Parts move
variously, (as concerning the Object) but yet sympathetically (concerning their
own Parts) it is Inconstancy. When those Motions move cross towards the Object,
and are perturbed, it is Anger. But when those perturbed Motions are in
confusion, it is Fear. When the Rational Motions are partly sympathetical, and
partly antipathetical, it is Hope, and Doubt. And if there be more
sympathetical Motions than antipathetical, there is more Hope than Doubt. If
more antipathetical than sympathetical, then more Doubt than Hope. If those
Rational Motions move after a dilating manner, it is Joy. If after a
contracting manner, it is Grief. When those Parts move partly after a
contracting, and partly after an attracting manner, as attracting from the
Object, it is Covetousness. But, if those Motions are sympathetical to the
Object, and move after a dilating manner towards the Object, it is Generosity.
If those Motions are sympathetical to the Object, and move after the manner of
a Contraction, it is Pity or Compassion. If those Motions move antipathetically
towards the Object, yet after a dilating manner, it is Pride. When those
Motions move sympathetically towards the Object, after a dilating manner, it is
Admiration. If the dilating Action is not extreme, it is only Approving. If
those Motions are antipathetical towards the Object, and are after the manner
of an extreme contraction, it is Horror. But, if those Actions are not so
extraordinary as to be extreme, it is only Disapproving, Despising, Rejecting,
or Scorning. If the Rational Parts move carelessly towards Foreign Objects, as
also partly antipathetically, Man names it, Ill-nature. But, if
sympathetically and industriously, Man names it, Good-nature. But this is to
be noted, That there are many sorts of Motions of one and the same kind; and
many several particular Motions, of one sort of Motion; which causes some
difference in the Effects: but, they are so nearly related, that it requires a
more subtle Observation than I have, to distinguish them.
CHAP. IV. Of the Repetitions of the Sensitive and Rational Actions.
BOth the Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, make often Repetitions of
one and the same Actions: The Sensitive Repetitions, Man names, Custom. The
Rational Repetitions, Man names, Remembrances: for, Repetitions cause a
facility amongst the Sensitive Parts; but yet, in some Repeating Actions, the
Senses seem to be tired, being naturally delighted in variety. Also, by the
Rational Repetitions, the Mind is either delighted, or displeased; and
sometimes, partly pleased, and partly displeased: for, the Mind is as much
pleased, or displeased in the absence of an Object, as in the presence; only
the Pleasure, and Displeasure of the Senses, is not joined with the Rational:
for, the Sense, if Regular, makes the most perfect Copies when the Object is
present: but, the Rational can make as perfect Copies in the absence, as in the
presence of the Object; which is the cause that the Mind is as much delighted,
or grieved, in the absence of an Object, as with the presence: As for example,
A Man is as much grieved when he knows his Friend is wounded, or dead, as if he
had seen his Wounds, or had seen him dead: for, the Picture of the dead Friend,
is in the mind of the living Friend; and if the dead Friend was before his
Eyes, he could but have his Picture in his mind; which is the same for an
absent Friend alive; only, as I said, there is wanting the Sensitive Perception
of the absent Object: And certainly, the Parts of the Mind have greater
advantage than the Sensitive Parts; for, the Mind can enjoy that which is not
subject to the Sense; as those things Man names, Castles in the Air, or
Poetical Fancies; which is the reason Man can enjoy Worlds of its own making,
without the assistance of the Sensitive Parts; and can govern and command those
Worlds; as also, dissolve and compose several Worlds, as he pleases: but
certainly, as the pleasures of the Rational Parts are beyond those of the
Sensitive, so are their Troubles.
CHAP. V. Of the Passionate Love, and Sympathetical Endeavours, amongst the
Associate Parts of a Human Creature.
IN every Regular Human Society, there is a Passionate Love amongst the
Associated Parts, like fellow-Students of one College, or fellow-Servants in
one House, or Brethren in one Family, or Subjects in one Nation, or
Communicants in one Church: So the Self-moving Parts of a Human Creature, being
associated, love one another, and therefore do endeavour to keep their Society
from dissolving. But perceiving, by the example of the lives of the same sort
of Creatures, that the property of their Nature is such, that they must
dissolve in a short time, this causes these Human sorts of Creatures, (being
very ingenuous) to endeavour an after-life: but, perceiving again, that their
after-life cannot be the same as the present life is, they endeavour (since
they cannot keep their own Society from dissolving) that their Society may
remain in remembrance amongst the particular and general Societies of the same
sort of Creatures, which we name Mankind: And this Design causes all the
Sensitive and Rational Parts, in one Society, to be industrious, to leave some
Mark for a lasting Remembrance, amongst their fellow-Creatures: which general
remembrance, Man calls Fame; for which Fame, the Rational Parts are industrious
to design the manner and way, and the Sensitive Parts are industrious to put
those Designs in execution; as, their Inventions, into Arts or Sciences; or to
cause their Heroic or Prudent, Generous or Pious Actions; their Learning, or
witty Fancies, or subtle Conceptions, or their industrious Observations, or
their ingenious Inventions, to be set in Print; or their Exterior Effigies to
be cast, cut, or engraven in Brass, or Stone, or to be painted; or they
endeavour to build Houses, or cut Rivers, to bear their Names; and millions of
other Marks, for remembrance, they are industrious to leave to the perception
of after-Ages: And many men are so desirous of this after-life, that they would
willingly quit their present life, by reason of its shortness, to gain this
after-life, because of the probability of a long continuance; and not only to
live so in many several Ages, but in many several Nations. And amongst the
number of those that prefer a long after-life, before a short present life, I
am one. But, some men dispute against these Desires, saying, That it doth a man
no good to be remembered when he is dead. I answer: It is very pleasing, whilst
as man lives, to have in his Mind, or in his Sense, the Effigies of the Person,
and of the good Actions of his Friend, although he cannot have his present
company. Also, it is very pleasant to any body to believe, that the Effigies
either of his own Person, or Actions, or both, are in the Mind of his Friend,
when he is absent from him; and, in this case, Absence and Death are much
alike. But, in short, God lives no other ways amongst his Creatures, but in
their Rational Thoughts, and Sensitive Worship.
AS there are Perceptive Acquaintances amongst the Parts of a Human Creature;
so there is a Perceptive Acquaintance between, or amongst the Human sorts of
Creatures. But, mistake me not; for I do not say, Men only are acquainted with
each other; for, there is not only an Acquaintance amongst every particular
sort, as between one and the same sort of Creatures, but there are some
Acquaintances between some sorts of different kinds: as for example, Between
some sorts of Beasts, and Men; as also, some sorts of Birds, and Men, which
understand each other, I will not say, so well as Man and Man; but so well, as
to understand each other's Passions: but certainly, every particular sort of
Creatures, of one and the same kind, understand each other, as well as Men
understand one another; and yet, for all that, they may be unacquainted: for,
Acquaintance proceeds from Association; so that, some Men, and some Beasts, by
Association, may be acquainted with each other; when as some Men, not
associating, are mere strangers. The truth is, Acquaintance belongs rather to
Particularities, than Generalities.
CHAP. VII. Of the Effects of Foreign Objects of the Sensitive Body; and of the
Rational Mind of a Human Creature.
ACCording as the Rational Parts are affected, or disaffected with Foreign
Objects, the Sensitive is apt to express the like affections, or disaffections:
for, most Foreign Objects occasion either pleasure and delight, or displeasure
and dislike: but, the effects of Foreign Objects are very many, and, many times
very different; as, some Objects of Devotion, occasion a Fear, or Superstition,
and Repentance in the Mind; and the Mind occasions the Sensitive Parts to
several actions, as, Praying, Acknowledging Faults, Begging pardon, making
Vows, imploring Mercy, and the like, in words: also, the Body bows, the Knees
bend, the Eyes weep, the hands hold up, and many the like devout actions. Other
sorts of Objects occasion pity and compassion in the Mind, which occasions the
Sensitive Parts to attend the sick, relieve the poor, help the distressed, and
many more actions of Compassion. Other sorts of Foreign Objects, occasion the
Rational Mind to be dull and melancholy; and then the Sensitive Parts are dull,
making no variety of Appetites, or regard Foreign Objects. Other sorts of
Objects occasion the Mind to be vain and ambitious, and often to be proud; and
those occasion the Sensitive Actions to be adventurous and bold; the
Countenance of the face, scornful; the Garb of the Body, stately; the Words,
vaunting, boasting, or bragging. Other Objects occasion the Mind to be furious;
and then the Sensitive Actions are, Cursing Words, Frowning Countenances, the
Legs stamping, the Hands and Arms fighting, and the whole Body in a furious
posture. Other sorts of Objects occasion the Mind to a passionate Love; and
then the Sensitive Actions are, Flattering, Professing, Protesting in words,
the Countenance smiling, the Eyes glancing; also, the Body bows, the Legs
scrape, the Mouth kisses: also, the Hands mend their Garments, and do many of
the like amorous actions. Other Objects occasion the Mind to Valour; and then
the Sensitive Actions are, Daring, Encouraging, or Animating. Other Objects
occasion the Mind to Mirth, or Cheerfulness; and they occasion the Sensitive
Actions of the Voice, to Sing, or Laugh; the Words to be jesting, the Hands to
be toying, the Legs to be dancing. Other sorts of Objects occasion the Mind to
be Prudent; and then the Sensitive Actions, are Sparing or Frugal. Other sorts
of Objects occasion the Mind to be Envious, or Malicious; and then the
Sensitive Actions are Mischievous. There are great numbers of Occasional
Actions, but these are sufficient to prove, That Sense and Reason understand
each other's Actions or Designs.
CHAP. VIII. Of the Advantage and Disadvantage of the Encounters of several
THere is a strong Sympathy between the Rational and Sensitive Parts, in one
and the same Society, or Creature: not only for their Consistency, Subsistency,
Use, Ease, Pleasure, and Delight; but, for their Safety, Guard, and Defence: as
for example, When one Creature assaults another, then all the Powers,
Faculties, Properties, Ingenuities, Agilities, Proportions, and Shape, of the
Parts of the Assaulted, unite against the Assaulter, in the defence of every
particular Part of their whole Society; in which Encounter, the Rational
advises, and the Sensitive labours. But this is to be noted concerning
advantage and disadvantage in such Encounters, That some sorts of Creatures
have their advantage in the Exterior Shape, others merely in the Number of
Parts; others in the agility of their Parts, and some by the ingenuity of their
parts: but, for the most part, the greater Number have advantage over the less,
if the greater number of Parts be as regular, and as ingenious as the less
number: but, if the less number be more regular, and more ingenious than the
greater, then 'tis a hundred to one but the less number of Parts have the
CHAP. IX. That All Human Creatures have the like Kinds and Sorts of
ALL Human Creatures have the like Kinds and Sorts of Properties, Faculties,
Respirations, and Perceptions; unless some Irregularities in the Production,
occasion some Imperfections, or some Misfortunes, in some time of his Age: yet,
no Man knows what another Man perceives, but by guess, or information of the
Party: but, as I said, if they have have no Imperfections, all Human Creatures
have like Properties, Faculties, and Perceptions: As for example, All Human
Eyes may see one and the same Object alike; or hear the same Tune, or Sound;
and so of the rest of the Senses. They have also the like Respirations,
Digestions, Appetites; and the like may be said of all the Properties belonging
to a Human Creature. But, as one Human Creature doth not know what another
Human Creature knows, but by Confederacy; so, no Part of the Body, or Mind of a
Man, knows each Part's perceptive knowledge, but by Confederacy: so that, there
is as much Ignorance amongst the Parts of Nature, as Knowledge. But this is to
be noted, That there are several manners and ways of Intelligences, not only
between several sorts of Creatures, or amongst particulars of one sort of
Creatures; but, amongst the several Parts of one and the same Creature.
CHAP. X. Of the Irregularity of the Sensitive, and of the Rational Corporeal
AS I have often mentioned, and do here again repeat, That the Rational and
Sensitive Parts of one Society, or Creature, do understand, as perceiving each
other's Self-moving Parts; and the proof is, That, sometimes, the Human Sense
is regular, and the Human Reason irregular; and sometimes the Reason regular,
and the Sense irregular: but, in these differences, the Regular Parts endeavour
to reform the Irregular; which causes, many times, repetitions of one and the
same Actions, and Examinations; as, sometimes the Reason examines the Sense;
and sometimes the Sense, the Reason: and sometimes the Sense and Reason do
examine the Object; for, sometimes an Object will delude both the Sense and
Reason; and sometimes the Sense and Reason are but partly mistaken: As for
example, A fired end of a Stick, by a swift exterior Circular Motion, appears a
Circle of fire, in which they are not deceived: for, by the Exterior Motion,
the fired end is a Circle; but they are mistaken, to conceive the Exterior
Figurative Action to be the proper natural Figure: but when one man mistakes
another, that is some small Error, both of the Sense and Reason. Also, when one
man cannot readily remember another man, with whom he had formerly been
acquainted, it is an Error; and such small Errors, the Sense and Reason do soon
rectify: but in causes of high Irregularities, as in Madness, Sickness, and
the like, there is a great Bustle amongst the Parts of a Human Creature; so as
those Disturbances cause unnecessary Fears, Grief, Anger, and strange
CHAP. XI. Of the Knowledge between the Sensitive Organs of a Human Creature.
THE Sensitive Organs are only ignorant of each other, as they are of Foreign
Objects: for, as all the Parts of Foreign Objects, are not subject to one
Sensitive Organ; so all the Sensitive Organs are not subject to each Sensitive
Organ of a Human Creature: yet, in the perceptive Actions of Foreign Objects,
they do so agree, that they make an united Knowledge: Thus we may be
particularly ignorant one way, and yet have a general Knowledge another way.
CHAP. XII. Of Human Perception, or Defects of a Human Creature.
IT is not the great quantity of Brain, that makes a Man wise; nor a little
quantity, that makes a Man foolish: but, the irregular, or regular Rational
Corporeal Motions of the Head, Heart, and the rest of the Parts, that causes
dull Understandings, short Memories, weak Judgments, violent Passions,
extravagant Imaginations, wild Fancies, and the like. The same must be said of
the Sensitive Irregular Corporeal Motions, which make Weakness, Pain, Sickness,
disordered Appetites, and perturbed Perceptions, and the like: for, Nature
poysing her Actions by Opposites, there must needs be Irregularities, as well
as Regularities; which is the cause that seldom any Creature is so exact, but
there is some Exception. But, when the Sensitive and Rational Corporeal Motions
are regular, and move sympathetically, then the Body is healthful and strong,
the Mind in peace and quiet, understands well, and is judicious: and, in short,
there are perfect Perceptions, proper Digestions, easy Respirations, regular
Passions, temperate Appetites. But when the Rational Corporeal Motions are
curious in their change of Actions, there are subtle Conceptions, and elevated
Fancies: and when the Sensitive Corporeal Motions move with curiosity, (as I
may say) then there are perfect Senses, exact Proportions, equal Temperaments;
and that, Man calls Beauty.
THere is great difference between a Natural Fool, and a Mad Man: for, Madness
is a Disease, but a Natural Fool is a Defect; which Defect was some Error in
his Production, that is, in the form and frame either of the Mind, or Sense, or
both; for, the Sense may be a Natural Fool as well as the Reason; as we may
observe in those sorts of Fools whom we name Changelings, whose Body is not
only deformed, but all the Postures of the Body are defective, and appear as so
many fools: but sometimes, only some Parts are fools; as for example; If a Man
be born Blind, then only his Eyes are Fools; if Deaf, then only his Ears are
Fools, which occasions his dumbness; Ears being the informing Parts, to speak;
and wanting those informations, he cannot speak a Language. Also, if a Man is
born lame, his Legs are Fools; that is, those Parts have no knowledge of such
Properties that belong to such Parts; but the Sensitive Parts may be wise, as
being knowing; and the Rational Parts may be defective; which Defects, Man
names Irrational. But this is to be noted, That there may be Natural and
Accidental Fools, by some extraordinary Frights, or by extraordinary Sickness,
or through the defects of Old Age. As for the Errors of Production, they are
incurable; as also, those of Old Age; the First being an Error in the very
Foundation, and the other a Decay of the whole Frame of the Building: for,
after a Human Creature is brought to that perfection, as to be, as we may say,
at full growth and strength, at the prime of his age; the Human Motions, and
the very Nature of Man, after that time, begins to decay; for then the Human
Motions begin to move rather to the dissolution, than to the continuance;
although some Men last to very old Age, by reason the unity of their Society is
regular and orderly, and moves so Sympathetically. as to commit few or no
Disorders, or Irregularities; and such old Men are, for the most part,
Healthful, and very wise, through long Experience; and their Society having got
a habit of Regularity, is not apt to be disturbed by Foreign Parts. But this is
to be noted, That sometimes the Sensitive Body decays, before the Rational
Mind; and sometimes the Rational Mind, before the Sensitive Body. Also, this is
to be noted, That when the Body is defective, but not the Mind; then the Mind
is very industrious to find out Inventions of Art, to help the Defects that are
natural. But pray mistake me not; for I do not say, That all Deformities, or
Defects, but only some particular sorts of Deformity, or Defects, are Foolish.
The Seventh Part.
CHAP. I. Of the Sensitive Actions of Sleeping and Waking.
THE Sensitive and Rational Corporeal Figurative Motions, are the cause of
infinite varieties: for, though Repetitions make no varieties; yet, every
altered action is a variety: Also, different Actions, make different Effects;
opposite Actions, opposite Effects; not only of the actions of the several
Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal Motions, but of the same Parts: As for example,
The same Parts, or Corporeal Motions, may move from that, Man names Life, to
that which Man names Death; or, from Health to Sickness, from Ease to Pain,
from Memory to Forgetfulness, from Forgetfulness to Remembrance, from Love to
Hate, from Grief to Joy, from Irregularity to Regularity; or, from Regularity
to Irregularity, and the like; and from one Perception to another: for, though
all actions are perceptive, yet there are several kinds, several sorts, and
several particular perceptions: But, amongst the several Corporeal Motions of
Animal, or Human kind, there are the opposite Motions of what we name Waking,
and Sleeping; the difference is, That Waking-actions are, most commonly,
actions of Imitation, especially of the Sensitive Parts; and are more the
Exterior, than the Interior actions of a Human Creature. But, the actions of
Sleep, are the alterations of the Exterior Corporeal Motions, moving more
interiorly, as it were inwardly, and voluntarily: As for example, The Optic
Corporeal Motions, in Waking-actions, work, or move, according to the outward
Object: but, in Sleeping-actions, they move by rote, or without Examples; also,
as I said, they move, as it were, inwardly; like as a Man should turn himself
inward, or outward, of a door, without removing from the door, or out of the
place he stood in.
ALthough the Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, can never be tired, or
weary of moving or acting, by reason it is their nature to be a perpetual
Corporeal Motion; yet they may be weary, or tired with particular actions.
Also, it is easier and more delightful, to move by Rote, than to take Copies,
or Patterns; which is the reason that Sleep is easy and gentle, if the
Corporeal Motions be regular; but if they be irregular, Sleep is perturbed. But
this is to be noted, That the Corporeal Motions delight in varieties so well,
that, many times, many and various Objects will cause the Sensitive and
Rational Corporeal Motions in a Man, to retard their actions of Sleep; and,
oft-times, want of variety of Foreign or outward Objects, will occasion the
action of Sleep; or else Musing and Contemplating actions. Also, it is to be
noted, That if some Parts of the Body, or Mind, be distempered with
Irregularities, it occasions such disturbances to the Whole, as hinders that
repose; but if the Regular Parts endeavour not to be disturbed with the
Irregular; and the Irregulars do disturb the Regular; then it occasions that
which Man names, Half-sleeps, or Slumbers, or Drowsiness. And if the Regular
Corporeal Motions get the better, (as many times they do) then we say, Sleep
hath been the occasion of the Cure; and it oft proves so. And it is a common
saying, That a good Sleep will settle the Spirits, or ease the Pains; that is,
when the Regular Corporeal Motions have had the better of the Irregular.
THere are several kinds, sorts, and particulars of Corporeal Irregularities,
as well as of Regularities; and amongst the infinite kinds, sorts, and
particulars, there is that of Human Dreams; for, the Exterior Corporeal Motions
in Waking-actions, do copy or pattern outward Objects; whereas, in actions of
Sleep, they act by rote, which, for the most part, is erroneous, making mixed
Figures of several Objects; as, partly like a Beast; and partly, like a Bird,
or Fish; nay, sometimes, partly like an Animal, and partly like a Vegetable;
and millions of the like Extravagancies; yet, many times, Dreams will be as
exact as if a Man was awake, and the Objects before him; but, those actions by
rote, are more often false than true: but, if the Self-moving Parts move after
their own inventions, and not after the manner of Copying; or, if they move not
after the manner of Human Perception, then a Man is as ignorant of his Dreams,
or any Human Perception, as if he was in a Swooned; and then he says, he did not
dream; and, that such Sleeps are like Death.
CHAP. IV. Of the Actions of DREAMS.
when the Figures of those Friends and Acquaintants that have been dead a long
time, are made in our Sleep, we never, or seldom question the truth of their
being alive, though we often question them how they came to be alive: And the
reason that we make no doubt of their being alive, is, That those Corporeal
Motions of Sleep, make the same pattern of that Object in Sleep, as when that
Object was present, and patterned awake; so as the Picture in Sleep seems to be
the Original awake: and until such times that the Corporeal Motions alter their
Sleeping-Actions to Waking-Actions, the truth is not known. Though Sleeping and
Dreaming, is somewhat after the manner of Forgetfulness and Remembrance; yet,
perfect Dreams are as perceptive as Waking-patterns of present Objects; which
proves, That both the Sensitive and Rational Motions, have Sleeping Actions;
but both the Sensitive and Rational Corporeal Actions in Sleep, moving partly
by rote, and partly voluntarily, or by invention, make Walking-Woods, or
Wooden Men; or make Wars and Battles, where some Figures of Men are killed,
or wounded, others have victory: They also make Thieves, Murderers, falling
Houses, great Fires, Floods, Tempests, high Mountains, great Precipices; and
sometimes pleasant Dreams of Lovers, Marriage, Dancing, Banqueting, and the
like: And the Passions in Dreams are as real, as in waking actions.
CHAP. V. Whether the Interior Parts of a Human Creature, do sleep.
THE Parts of my Mind were in dispute, Whether the Interior Parts of a Human
Creature, had sleeping and waking actions? The Major Part was of opinion, That
Sleep was not proper to those Human Parts, because the Interior Motions were
not like the Exterior. The Opinion of the Minor Part was, That change of
Action, is like Ease after Labour; and therefore it was probable, the Interior
Parts had sleeping and waking actions. The Opinion of the Major Parts, was,
That if those Parts, as also the Food received into the Body, had sleeping
actions, the Body could not be nourished; for, the Meat would not be digested
into the like Parts of the Body, by reason sleeping actions were not such sorts
of actions. The Opinion of the Minor Parts was, That the sleeping actions were
nourishing actions, and therefore were most proper for the Interior Parts; and,
for proof, the whole Human Body becomes faint and weak, when they are hindered,
either by some Interior Irregularity, or through some Exterior Occasion, from
their sleeping actions. The Opinion of the Major Part, was, That sleeping
actions are actions of rote, and not such altering actions as digesting
actions, and nourishing actions, which are uniting actions. Besides, that the
reason why the Interior actions are not sleeping actions, was, That when the
Exterior Parts move in the actions of Sleep, the Interior Parts move when the
Exterior are awake; as may be observed by the Human Pulse, and Human
Respiration; and by many other Observations which may be brought.
CHAP. VI. Whether all the Creatures in Nature, have Sleeping and Waking
SOme may ask this Question, Whether all Creatures have sleeping Actions? I
answer, That though sleeping actions are proper to Human Creatures, as also, to
most Animal Creatures; yet, such actions may not any ways be proper to other
kinds and sorts of Creatures: and if (as in all probability it is) that the
Exterior Parts of a Human Creature have no such sleeping actions, it is
probable that other kinds and sorts of Creatures move not at any time, in such
sorts of actions. But some may say, That if Nature is poised, all Creatures
must have sleeping actions, as well as waking actions. I answer, That though
Nature's actions are poised, yet that doth not hinder the variety of Nature's
actions, so as to tie Nature to particular actions: As for example, The
Exterior Parts of Animals have both sleeping and waking actions; yet that doth
not prove, that therefore all the Parts or Creatures in Nature, must have
sleeping and waking actions. The same may be said of all the actions of an
Animal Creature, or of a Human Creature; nay, of all the Creatures of the
World: for, several kinds and sorts of Creatures, have several kinds and sorts
of Properties: Wherefore, if there be other kinds and sorts of Worlds besides
this, 'tis probable that those Worlds, and all the Parts, or several kinds and
sorts of Creatures there, have different properties and actions, from those of
this World; so that though Nature's actions are poised and balanced, yet they
are poised and balanced after different manners and ways.
CHAP. VII. Of Human Death.
DEATH is not only a general Alteration of the Sensitive and Rational Motions,
but a general Dissolution of their Society. And as there are degrees of Time in
Productions, so in Dissolutions. And as there are degrees to Perfection, as
from Infancy to Manhood; so there are degrees from Manhood to Old Age. But, as
I said, Death is a general Dissolution, which makes a Human Creature to be no
more: yet, some Parts do not dissolve so soon as others; as for example, Human
Bones; but, though the Form or Frame of Bones is not dissolved; yet the
Properties: of those Bones are altered. The same when a Human Creature is kept
by Art from dissolving, so as the Form, or Frame, or Shape may continue; but
all the Properties are quite altered; though the Exterior Shape of such Bodies
doth appear somewhat like a Man, yet that Shape is not a Man.
CHAP. VIII. Of the Heat of Human Life, and the Cold of Human Death.
THere are not only several sorts of Properties belonging to several sorts of
Creatures, but several sorts of Properties belonging to one and the same sort
of Creature; and amongst the several sorts of Human Properties, Human Heat is
one, which Man names Natural Heat: but, when there is a general alteration of
the Human Properties, there is that alteration of the Property as well of his
Natural, as Human Heat: but, Natural Heat is not the cause of Human Life,
though Human Life is the cause of that Natural Heat: so that, when Human Life
is altered or dissolved, Human Heat is altered or dissolved: And as Death is
opposite Actions to that Man names Life; so Cold is opposite Actions to that
Man names Heat.
CHAP. IX. Of the Last Act of Human Life.
THE reason some Human Creatures dye in more pain than others, is, That the
Motions of some Human Creatures are in strife, because some would continue
their accustomed Actions, others would alter their accustomed Actions; which
Strife causes Irregularities, and those Irregularities cause Differences, or
Difficulties, which causes Pain: but certainly, the last Act of Human Life is
easy; not only that the Expulsive Actions of Human Respirations, are more
easy than the Attracting Actions; but, that in the last act of Human Life, all
the Motions do generally agree in one Action.
CHAP. X. Whether a Human Creature hath Knowledge in Death, or not?
SOme may ask the Question, Whether a dead Man hath any Knowledge or Perception?
I answer, That a dead Man hath not a Human Knowledge or Perception; yet all, and
every Part, hath Knowledge and Perception: But, by reason there is a general
alteration of the actions of the Parts of a Human Creature, there cannot
possibly be a Human Knowledge or Perception. But some may say, That a Man in a
Swooned hath a general alteration of Human actions; and yet those Parts of a
Human Creature do often repeat those former actions, and then a Man is as he
was before he was in that Swooned. I answer, That the reason why a Man in a
Swooned hath not the same Knowledge as when he is not in a Swooned, is, That the
Human Motions are not generally altered, but only are generally irregular;
which makes such a disturbance, that no Part can move so regularly, as to make
proper Perceptions; as in some sorts of Distempers, a Man may be like a Natural
Fool; in others, he may be Mad; and is subject to many several Distempers,
which cause several Effects: but a Human Swooned is somewhat like Sleeping
without Dreaming; that is, the Exterior Senses do not move to Human Exterior
CHAP. XI. Whether a Creature may be new Formed, after a general Dissolution.
SOme may ask the Question, Whether a Human Creature, or any other Creature,
after their Natural Properties are quite altered, can be repeated, and
rechanged, to those Properties that formerly were?
I answer, Yes, in case none of the Fundamental Figurative Parts be dissolved.
But some may ask, That if those dissolved Parts were so enclosed in other
Bodies, that none of them could easily disperse or wander; whether they might
not join into the same Form and Figure again, and have the same Properties?
I answer, I cannot tell well how to judge; but I am of the opinion, they
cannot: for, it is the property of all such Productions, to be performed by
degrees, and that there should be a dividing and uniting of Parts, as an
intercourse of Home and Foreign Parts; and so there is required all the same
Parts, and every Part of the same Society, or that had any adjoining actions
with that particular Creature; as all those Parts, or Corporeal Motions, that
had been from the first time of Production, to the last of the Dissolving; and
that could not be done without a Confusion in Nature.
But some may say, That although the same Creature could not be produced after
the same manner, nor return to the degree of his Infancy, and pass the degrees
from his Infancy, to some degree of Age; yet, those parts that are together,
might so join, and move, in the same manner, as to be the same Creature it was
before its dissolution?
I answer, It may not be impossible: but yet, It is very improbable, that such
numerous sorts of Motions, after so general an Alteration, should so generally
agree in an unnatural action.
I Have had some Disputes amongst the Parts of my Mind, Whether Nature hath
Foreknowledg? The Opinion of the Minor Parts was, That Nature had Foreknowledg,
by reason all that was Material, was part of her self; and those Self-parts
having Self-motion, she might foreknow what she would act, and so what they
should know. The Opinion of the Major Parts was, That by reason every Part had
Self-motion, and natural Free-will, Nature could not foreknow how they would
move, although she might know how they have moved, or how they do move.
After this Dispute was ended, then there was a Dispute, Whether the particular
Parts had a Foreknowledg of Self-knowledg? The Opinion of the Minor Parts was,
That since every Part in Nature had Self-motion, and natural Free-will, every
Part could know how they should move, and so what they should know. The Opinion
of the Major Parts was, That first, the Self-knowledg did alter according to
Self-action, amongst the Self-moving Parts: but, the Self-knowledg of the
Inanimate Parts, did alter according to the actions of the Sensitive
Self-moving Parts; and the Perceptive actions of the Self-moving Parts, were
according to the form and actions of the Objects: so that Foreknowledg of
Foreign Parts, or Creatures, could not be: And for Foreknowledg of Self-knowledg
of the Self-moving Parts, there were so many occasional actions, that it was
impossible the Self-moving Parts could know how they should move, by reason
that no Part had an Absolute Power, although they were Self-moving, and had a
natural Free-will: which proves, That Prophesies are somewhat of the nature of
Dreams, whereof some may prove true by chance; but, for the most part, they are
The Eighth Part.
CHAP. I. Of the Irregularity of Nature's Parts.
SOME may make this Question, that, If Nature were Self-moving, and had
Free-will, it is probable that she would never move her Parts so irregularly,
as to put her self to pain.
I answer, first, That Nature's Parts move themselves, and are not moved by any
Agent. Secondly, Though Nature's Parts are Self-moving, and Self-knowing, yet
they have not an infinite or uncontrollable Power; for, several Parts, and
Parties, oppose, and oft-times obstruct each other; so that many times they are
forced to move, and they may not when they would. Thirdly, Some Parts may
occasion other Parts to be irregular, and keep themselves in a regular posture.
Lastly, Nature's Fundamental actions are so poised, that Irregular actions are
as natural as Regular.
CHAP. II. Of the Human Parts of a Human Creature.
THE Form of Man's Exterior and Interior Parts, are so different, and so
numerous; that I cannot describe them, by reason I am not so learned to know
them: But, some Parts of a Human Creature, Man names Vital; because, the least
disturbance of any of those Parts, endangers the Human Life: and if any of
those Vital Parts are diminished, I doubt whether they can be restored; but if
some of those Parts can be restored, I doubt all cannot. The Vital Parts are,
the Heart, Liver, Lungs, Stomach, Kidneys, Bladder, Gaul, Guts, Brains, Radical
Humours, or Vital Spirits; and others which I know not of. But this is to be
noted, That Man is composed of Rare and Solid Parts, of which there are more
and less Solid, more and less Rare; as also, different sorts of Solid, and
different sorts of Rare: also, different sorts of Soft and Hard Parts;
likewise, of Fixed and Loose Parts; also, of Swift and Slow Parts. I mean by
Fixed, those that are more firmly united.
CHAP. III. Of Human Humours.
HVmours are such Parts, that some of them may be divided from the whole Body,
without danger to the whole Body; so that they are somewhat like Excremental
parts, which Excremental parts, are the superfluous parts: for, though the
Humours be so necessary, that the Body could not well subsist without them;
yet, a Superfluity of them is as dangerous, (if not more) as a Scarcity. But
there are many sorts of Humours belonging to a Human Creature, although Man
names but Four, according to the Four Elements, viz. Phlegm, Choler, Melancholy,
and Blood: but, in my opinion, there are not only several sorts of Choler,
Phlegm, Melancholy, and Blood; but other sorts that are none of these Four.
I Have heard, that the Opinions of the most Learned Men, are, That all Animal
Creatures have Blood, or at least, such Juyces that are in lieu of Blood; which
Blood, or Juyces, move circularly: for my part, I am too ignorant to dispute
with Learned Men; but yet I am confident, a Moth (which is a sort of Worm, or
Fly, that eats Cloth) hath no Blood, no, nor any Juice; for, so soon as it is
touched, it dissolves straight to a dry dust, or like ashes. And there are many
other Animals, or Insects, that have no appearance of Blood; therefore the life
of an Animal doth not consist of Blood: And as for the Circulation of Blood,
there are many Animal Creatures that have not proper Vessels, as Veins and
Arteries, or any such Gutters, for their Blood, or Juice, to circulate through.
But, say the Blood of Man, or of such like Animal, doth circulate; then it is
to be studied, Whether the several parts of the Blood do intermix with each
other, as it flows; or, whether it flows as Water seems to do; where the
following parts may be as great strangers to the Leading parts, as in a Crowd
of People, where some of those behind, do not know those that are before: but,
if the Blood doth not intermix as it flows, then it will be very difficult for
a Chyrurgion, or Physician, to find where the ill Blood runs: besides, if the
Blood be continually flowing, when a sick Man is to be let blood, before the
Vein is opened, the bad Blood may be past that Part, or Vein, and so only the
good Blood will be let out; and then the Man may become worse than if he had
not been let blood.
CHAP. V. Of the Radical Humours, or Parts.
THere are many Parts in a Human Body, that are as the Foundation of a House;
and being the Foundation, if any of those Parts be removed or decayed, the
House immediately falls to ruin. These Fundamental Parts, are those we name
the Vital Parts; amongst which are those Parts we name the Vital and Radical
Spirits, which are the Oil and Flame of a Human Creature, causing the Body to
have that we name a Natural Heat, and a Radical Moisture. But it is to be
noted, That these Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are not like gross Oil, or
Flame: for, I believe, there are more differences between those Flames, and
ordinary Flames, than between the Light of the Sun, and the Flame of a Tallow
Candle; and as much difference between this Oil, and the greasy Oil, as
between the purest Essence, and Lamp-Oyl. But, these Vital Parts are as
necessary to the Human Life, as the solid Vital Parts, viz. the Heart, Liver,
Lungs, Brains, and the like.
CHAP. VI. Of Expelling Malignant Disorders in a Human Creature.
EXpelling of Poison, or any Malignity in the Body, is, when that Malignity
hath not got, or is not settled into the Vital Parts; so that the Regular
Motions of the Vital Parts, and other Parts of the Body, endeavour to defend
themselves from the Foreign Malignancies; which if they do, then the Malignant
Motions do dilate to the Exterior Parts, and issue out of those Exterior
Passages, at least, through some; as, either by the way of Purging, Vomiting,
Sweating, or Transpiration, which is a breathing through the Pores, or other
passages. After the same manner is the expelling of Surfeits, or Superfluities
of Natural Humours: but, if the Malignity or Surfeit, Superfluity or
superfluous Humours, have the better, (as I may say) then those Irregular
Motions, by their Disturbances, cause the Regular Motions to be Irregular, and
to follow the Mode; which is, to imitate Strangers, or the most Powerful; the
most Fantastical, or the most debauched: for it is, many times, amongst the
Interior Motions of the Body, as with the Exterior Actions of Men.
CHAP. VII. Of Human Digestions and Evacuations.
TO treat of the several particular Digestive Actions of a Human Creature, is
impossible: for, not only every part of Food hath a several manner of Digestive
Action; but, every action in Transpiration, is a sort of Digestion and
Evacuation: so that, though every sort of Digestion and Evacuation, may be
guest at; yet, every Particular is not so known, that it can be described. But
this is to be noted, That there is no Creature that hath Digestive Motions, but
hath Evacuating Motions; which Actions, although they are but Dividing, and
Uniting; yet they are such different manners and ways of uniting and dividing,
that the most observing Man cannot particularly know them, and so not express
them: but, the Uniting actions, if regular, are the Nourishing actions; the
Dividing actions, if regular, are the Cleansing actions: but if irregular, the
Uniting actions are the Obstructive actions; and the Dividing actions, the
Destructive actions.
CHAP. VIII. Of DISEASES in general.
THere are many sorts of Human Diseases; yet, all sorts of Diseases are
Irregular Corporeal Motions; but, every sort of Motion is of a different
Figure: so that, several Diseases are different Irregular Figurative Motions;
and according as the Figurative Motions vary, so do the Diseases: but, as there
are Human Diseases, so there are Human Defects; which Defects (if they be those
which Man names Natural) cannot be rectified by any Human Means. Also, there
are Human Decays, and Old Age; which, although they cannot be prevented, or
avoided; yet, they may, by good Order, and wise Observations, be retarded: but
there are not only numerous sorts of Diseases, but every particular it self,
and every particular sort, are more or less different; insomuch, that seldom a
Disease of one and the same sort, is just alike, but there are some
differences; as in Men, who though they be all of one sort of Animal-kind, yet
seldom any two Men are just alike: and the same may be said of Diseases both of
Body and Mind; as for example, concerning Irregular Minds, as in Mad-Men;
Although all Mad-Men are mad, yet not mad alike; though they all have the
Disease either of Sensitive or Rational Madness, or are both Sensitively and
Rationally mad. Also, this is to be noted, That as several Diseases may be
produced from several Causes, so several Diseases from one: Cause, and one
Disease from several Causes; which is the cause that a Physician ought to be a
long and subtle Observer and Practiser, before he can arrive to that
Experience which belongs to a good Physician.
CHAP. IX. Of the Fundamental Diseases.
THere are numerous sorts of Diseases, to which Human Creatures are subject;
and yet there are but few Fundamental Maladies; which are these as follow;
Pain, Sickness, Weakness, Dizziness, Numbness, Deadness, Madness, Fainting and
Swooning; of which one is particular, the rest are general: The particular is
Sickness, to which no parts of the Body are subject, but the Stomach: for,
though any parts of the Body may have Pain, Numbness, Dizziness, Weakness, or
Madness; yet in no part can be that which we name Sickness, but the Stomach. As
for Dizziness, the Effects are general, as may be observed in some drunken Men:
for, many times, the Head will be in good temper, when the Legs (I cannot say,
are dizzy, yet) will be so drunk, as neither to go or stand; and many times
the Tongue will be so drunk, as not to speak plain, when all the rest of the
body is well tempered; at least so well, as not to be any ways perceived, but
by the tripping of their Speech: but, as I said, no Part is subject to be sick,
but the Stomach: And though there are numerous sorts of Pains to which every
Part is subject, and every several Part hath a several Pain; yet they are still
Pain. But some may say, That there are also several sorts of Sicknesses. I
grant it; but yet those several sorts of Sicknesses, belong only to the
Stomach, and to no other Part of the Body.
The Ninth Part.
TO go on as orderly as I can, I will treat of the Fundamental Diseases, and
first of Sickness, by reason it is the most particular Disease: for though, as
I have said, no part of a Human Creature is subject to that Disease, (namely,
Sickness) but the Stomach; yet, there are different sorts of Sicknesses of the
Stomach; as for example, Some sorts of Sickness is like the flowing and ebbing
of the Sea: for, the Humours of the Stomach agitate in that manner, as, if the
flowing motions flow upwards, it occasions Vomiting; if downwards, Purging: if
the Humours divide, as, partly to flow upwards, and partly downwards, it
occasions both Vomiting and Purging.
But the Question is, Whether it is the motion of the Humours, that occasions
the Stomach to be sick; or the sickness of the Stomach, that occasions the
Humours to flow?
I answer: That 'tis probable, that sometimes the flowing of the Humours causes
the Stomach to be sick; and sometimes the sickness of the Stomach occasions the
Humours to flow; and sometimes the Stomach will be sick without the flowing of
Humours, as when the Stomach is empty; and sometimes the Humours will flow,
without any disturbance to the Stomach; and sometimes both the Humours and the
Stomach do jointly agree in Irregularities: but, as I said, there are several
sorts of sicknesses of the Stomach, or at least, that sickness doth produce
several sorts of Effects; as, for example, some sorts of sickness will occasion
faint and cold Sweats; which sick Motion is not flowing up or down of the
Humours; but it is a cold dilatation, or rarefying, after a breathing manner;
also expelling of those rarefied parts through the pores: Other sorts of
Motions of the Humours, are like Boiling motions, viz. Bubbling motions; which
occasion steaming or watery vapours, to ascend to the Head; which vapours are
apt to cloud the perception of Sight. Other sorts of sick Motions, are
Circular, and those cause a swimming, or a dizzy motion in the Head, and
sometimes a staggering motion in the Legs. Other sorts of sick Motions are
occasioned through tough and clammy Humours, the motion of which Humours, is a
winding or turning in such a manner, that it removes not from its Center; and
until such time as that Turning or Winding Motions alter, or the Humour is cast
out of the Stomach, the Patient finds little or no ease.
AS I said, No Part is subject to be sick, but the Stomach; but every several
Part of a Human Creature, is subject to Pain; and not only so, but every
particular Part is subject to several sorts of Pain; and every several sort of
Pain, hath a several Figurative Motion: but to know the different Figurative
Motions, will require a subtle Observation: for, though those painful Parts,
know their own Figurarative Motions; yet, the whole Creature (suppose Man) doth
not know them. But it may be observed, Whether they are caused by Irregular
Contractions or Attractions, Dilatations or Retentions, Expulsions or Irregular
Pressures and Re-actions, or Irregular Transformations, or the like; and by
those Observations, one may apply, or endeavour to apply proper Remedies: but
all Pain proceeds from Irregular and perturbed Motions.
I Cannot say, Dizziness belongs only to the Head of an Animal Creature,
because we may observe, by irregular Drinkers, that sometimes the Legs will
seem more drunk than their Heads; and sometimes all the Parts of their Body
will seem to be temperate, as being Regular, but only the Tongue seems to be
drunk: for, staggering of the Legs, and a staggering of the Tongue, or the
like, in a drunken Distemper, is a sort of Dizziness, although not such a sort
as that which belongs to the Head; so that, when a man is dead-drunk, we may
say, that every part of the Body is Dizzily drunk. But mistake me not; for I do
not mean, that all sorts of dizzinesses proceed from drinking; I only bring
Drunkenness for an Example: but, the Effects of dizziness of the Head, and
other parts of the Body, proceed from different Causes; for, some proceed from
Wind, not Wine; others from Vapour; some from the perception of some Foreign
Object; and numbers of the like Examples may be found. But this is to be noted,
That all such sorts of Swimming and Dizziness in the Head, are produced from
Circular Figurative Motions. Also it is to be noted, That many times the
Rational Corporeal Motions are Irregular with the Sensitive, but not always:
for, sometimes in these and the like Distempers, the Sensitive will be
Irregular, and the Rational Regular; but, for the most part, the Rational is so
compliant with the Sensitive, as to be Regular, or Irregular, as the Sensitive
CHAP. IV. Of the Brain seeming to turn round in the Head.
WHen the Human Brain seems to turn round, the cause is, that some Vapours do
move in a Circular Figure, which causes the Head to be dizzy; as when a man
turns round, not only his Head will be dizzy, but all the Exterior Parts of his
Body; insomuch that some, by often turning round, will fall down; but if,
before they fall, they turn the contrary way, they will be free from that
dizziness: The reason of which is, That, by turning the contrary way, the Body
is brought to the same posture it was before; as, when a man hath travelled
some way, and returns the same way back, he returns to the place where first he
began his Journey.
THere are many sorts of Weakness; some Weakness proceeds from Age; others,
through want of Food; others are occasioned by Oppression; others, by Disorders
and Irregularities; and so many other sorts, that it would be too tedious to
repeat them, could I know them: But, such sorts of Weakness, as Human Creatures
are subject to, after some Disease or Sickness, are somewhat like Weariness
after a Laborious or over-hard Action; as, when a Man hath run fast, or
laboured hard, he fetches his breath short and thick; and as most of the
Sensitive Actions are by degrees, so is a Returning to Health after Sickness:
but, all Irregularities are Laborious.
THE cause why a Man in Swooned, is, for a time, as if he were dead; is, an
Irregularity amongst some of the Interior Corporeal Motions, which causes an
Irregularity of the Exterior Corporeal Motions, and so a general Irregularity;
which is the cause that a Man appears as if he were dead.
But some may say, A Man in a Swooned is void of all Motion.
I answer: That cannot be: for, if the Man was really dead, yet his Parts are
moving, though they move not according to the property or nature of a living
Man: but, if the Body had not consistent Motions, and the Parts did not hold
together, it would be dissolved in a moment; and when the Parts do divide, they
must divide by Self-motion: but, in a Man in a Swooned, some of his Corporeal
Motions are only altered from the property and nature of a living Man; I say,
some of his Corporeal Motions, not all: Neither do those Motions quite alter
from the nature of a living Man, so as the alterations of the Fundamental
Motions do: but they are so altered, as Language may be altered, viz. From
Hebrew to Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, English, and many others; and although
they are all but Languages, yet they are several Languages or Speeches; so the
alteration of the Corporeal Motions of a Man in a Swooned, is but as the
altering of one sort of Language to another; as put the case, English were the
Natural Language or Speech, then all other Languages were unknown to him that
knows no other than his Natural: So a Man in a Swooned is ignorant of those
Motions in the Swooned: but, when those Motions return to the Nature of a living
Man, he hath the same knowledge he had before. Thus Human Ignorance, and Human
Knowledge, may be occasioned by the alterations of the Corporeal Motions. The
truth is, that Swooning and Reviving, is like Forgetfulness and Remembrance,
that is, Alteration and Repetition, or Exchange of the same Actions.
CHAP. VII. Of Numb and Dead Palsies, or Gangren's.
AS for Numb and Dead Palsies, they proceed not only from disordered and
Irregular Motions, but from such Figurative Motions as are quite different from
the nature of the Creature: for, though it be natural for a Man to dye; yet the
Figurative Motions of Death are quite different from the Figurative Motions of
Life; so in respect to that which Man names Life, that which Man names Death,
is unnatural: but, as there are several sorts of that Man names Life, or Lives;
so there are several sorts of those Corporeal Motions, Man names Death: but,
Dead Palsies of some Parts of a Man's Body, are not like those of a Man when he
is, as we say, quite dead; for, those are not only such sorts of Motions that
are quite, or absolutely different from the life of the Man, or such like
Creature; but such as dissolve the whole Frame, or Figure of the Creature: But,
the Motions of a Dead Palsy, are not dissolving Motions, although they are
different from the natural living Motions of a Man. The same, in some manner,
are Numb Palsies; only the Motions of Numb Palsies are not so absolutely
different from the Natural living Motions; but have more Irregularities, than
perfect Alterations. As for that sort of Numbness we name Sleepy Numbness, it
is occasioned through some obstruction that hinders and stops the Exterior
Sensitive Perception. As, when the Eyes are shut, or blinded, or the Ears
stopped, or the Nostrils; the Sensitive Figurative Motions of those Sensitive
Organs, cannot make Perceptions of Foreign Objects: so, when the Pores of the
Flesh, which are the perceptive Organs of Foreign Touches, are stopped, either by
too heavy burdens or pressings, or tying some Parts so hard, as to close the
Exterior Organs, ( viz. the Pores) they cannot make such Perceptions as belong
to Touch: but, when those hindrances are removed, then the Sensitive
Perception of Touch, is, in a short time, as perfect as before.
As for Gangren's, although they are somewhat like Dead Palsies, yet they are
more like those sorts of dead Corporeal Motions, that dissolve the Frame and
Form of a Creature: for, Gangren's dissolve the Frame and Form of the Diseased
Part; and the like do all those Corporeal Motions that cause Rottenness, or
Parts to divide and separate after a rotten manner.
THere are several sorts of that Distemper named Madness; but they all proceed
through the Irregularities, either of the Rational, or the Sensitive Parts; and
sometimes from the Irregularities both of Sense and Reason: but these
Irregularities are not such as are quite different from the Nature or Property
of a Human Creature, but are only such Irregularities as make false Perceptions
of Foreign Objects, or else make strange Conceptions; or move after the manner
of Dreams in waking-actions; which is not according to the Perception of
present Objects: As for example, The Sensitive Motions of the Exterior Parts,
make several Pictures on the outside of the Organs; when as no such Object is
present; and that is the reason Mad-men see strange and unusual Sights, hear
strange and unusual Sounds, have strange and unusual Tastes and Touch: but, when
the Irregularities are only amongst the Rational Parts, then those that are so
diseased, have violent Passions, strange Conceptions, wild Fancies, various
Opinions, dangerous Designs, strong Resolutions, broken Memories, imperfect
Remembrances, and the like. But, when both the Sensitive and Rational are
sympathetically disorderly; then the Mad-men will talk extravagantly, or laugh,
sing, sigh, weep, tremble, complain, c. without cause.
CHAP. IX. The Sensitive and Rational Parts may be distinctly Mad.
THE Senses may be irregularly Mad, and not the Reason; and the Reason may be
irregularly mad, and not the Sense; and, both Sense and Reason may be both
sympathetically mad: And, an evident proof that there is a Rational and
Sensitive Madness, is, That those whose Rational Parts are Regular, and only
some of the Sensitive Irregular, will speak soberly, and declare to their
Friends, how some of their Senses are distempered, and how they see strange and
unusual Sights, hear unusual Sounds, smell unusual Scents, feel unusual Touches,
and desire some Remedy for their Distempers. Also, it may be observed, That
sometimes the Rational Parts are madly distempered, and not the Sensitive; as
when the Sensitive Parts make no false Perceptions, but only the Rational; and
then only the Mind is out of order, and is extravagant, and not the Senses:
but, when the Senses and Reason are madly Irregular, then the diseased Man is
that we name, Outrageously Mad.
CHAP. X. The Parts of the Head are not only subject to Madness, but also the
other Parts of the Body.
MAdness is not only in the Head, but in other Parts of the Body: As for
example, Some will feel unusual Touches in their Hands, and several other parts
of their Body. We may also observe by the several and strange Postures of
Mad-men, that the several Parts of the Body are madly distempered. And it is to
be noted, That sometimes some Parts of the Body are mad, and not the other; as,
sometimes only the Eyes, sometimes only the Ears; and so of the rest of the
Organs, and of the rest of the Parts of the Body; one Part only being mad, and
the rest in good order. Moreover, it is to be noted, That some are not
continually mad, but only mad by fits, or at certain times; and those fits, or
certain times of disorders, proceed from a custom or habit of the Rational or
Sensitive Motions, to move Irregularly at such times; and a proof that all the
Parts are subject to the Distemper of Madness, is, That every part of the Body
of those sorts of Mad-men that believe their Bodies to be Glass, moves in a
careful and wary motion, for fear of breaking in pieces: Neither are the
Exterior Parts only subject to the Distemper of Madness, but the Interior
Parts; as may be observed, when the whole Body will tremble through a mad fear,
and the Heart will beat disorderly, and the Stomach will many times be sick.
CHAP. XI. The Rational and Sensitive Parts of a Human Creature, are apt to
disturb each other.
ALthough the Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, may, and do sometimes
disagree; yet, for the most part, there is such a sympathetical Agreement
between the Sensitive and Rational Corporeal Motions of one Society, ( viz. of
one Creature) as they often disturb each other: As for example, If the Rational
Motions are so irregular, as to make imaginary Fears, or fearful Imaginations,
these fearful Imaginations cause the Sensitive Corporeal motions, to move
according to the Irregularities of the Rational; which is the cause, in such
fears, that a man seems to see strange and unusual Objects, to hear strange and
unusual Sounds, to smell unusual Scents, to feel unusual Touches, and to be
carried to unusual Places; not that there are such Objects, but the Irregular
Senses make such Pictures in the Sensitive Organs; and the whole Body may,
through the strength of the Irregular motions, move strangely to unusual
places: As for example, A Mad-man, in a strong mad fit, will be as strong as
Ten men; whereas, when the mad Fit is over, he seems weaker than usually, or
regularly, he uses to be; not that the Self-moving Parts of Nature are capable
of being weaker, or stronger, than naturally they are: but having liberty to
move as they will, they may move stronger, or weaker, swifter or slower,
regularly or irregularly, as they please; nor doth Nature commonly use Force.
But this is to be noted, That there being a general Agreement amongst the
particular Parts, they are more forcible than when those Parts are divided into
Factions and Parties: so that in a general Irregular Commotion or Action, all
the Sensitive Parts of the Body of a man, agree to move with an extraordinary
force, after an unusual manner; provided it be not different from the property
and nature of their Compositions; that is, not different from the Property and
Nature of a Man. But this is likewise to be noted, That in a general Agreement,
man may have other Properties, than when the whole Body is governed by Parts,
as it is usual when the Body is Regular, and that every Part moves in his
proper Sphere, as I may say, (for example) the Head, Heart, Lungs, Stomach,
Liver, and so the rest, where each Part doth move in several sorts of Actions.
The like may also may be said of the Parts of the Legs and Hands, which are
different sorts of Actions; yet all move to the use and benefit of the whole
Body: but, if the Corporeal motions in the Hands, and so in the Legs, be
irregular, they will not help the rest of the Parts; and so, in short, the same
happens in all the Parts of the Body, whereof some Parts may be Regular, and
others Irregular; and sometimes all may be Irregular. But, to conclude this
Chapter, the Body may have unusual Force and Properties; as when a man says, He
was carried and flung into a Ditch, or some place distant; and that he was
pinch't, and did see strange sights, heard strange sounds, smelt strange
scents; all which may very well be caused by the Irregular motions, either by a
general Irregularity, or by some particular Irregularity; and the truth is, The
particular Corporeal motions, know not the power of the general, until they
unite by a general Agreement; and sometimes there may be such Commotions in the
Body of a Man, as in a Common-wealth, where many times there is a general
Uproar and Confusion, and none know the Cause, or who began it. But this is to
be noted, That if the Sensitive motions begin the Disorder, then they cause the
Rational to be so disordered, as they can neither advise wisely, or direct
orderly, or persuade effectually.
CHAP. XII. Of Diseases produced by Conceit.
AS there are numerous sorts of Diseases, so there are numerous manners or ways
of the production of Diseases; and those Diseases that are produced by Conceit,
are first occasioned by the Rational Corporeal Figurative Motions: for, though
every several Conceit, or Imagination, is a several Rational Corporeal
Figurative Motion; yet, every Conceit or Imagination doth not produce a
Sensitive Effect: but in those that do produce a Sensitive Effect, it is the
Conceit or Imagination of some sorts of Diseases; but in most of those sorts
that are dangerous to Life, or causes Deformity: The reason is, That as all the
Parts of Nature are Self-knowing, so they are Self-loving: Also, Regular
Societies beget an united Love, by Regular Agreements, which cause a Rational
Fear of a disuniting, or dissolving; and that is the reason, that upon the
perception of such a Disease, the Rational, through some disorder, figures that
Disease; and the Sensitive Corporeal Motions, take a pattern from the Rational,
and so the Disease is produced.
The Tenth Part.
SOME are of opinion, That all, or, at least, most Diseases, are accompanied,
more or less, with a Feverous Distemper: If so, then we may say, A Fever is the
Fundamental Disease: but, whether that Opinion is true, or no, I know not; but
I observe, there are many sorts of Fevers, and so there are of all other
Diseases or Distempers: for, every alteration, or difference, of one and the
same kind of Disease, is a several sort. As for Fevers, I have observed, there
are Fevers in the Blood, or Humours, and not in any of the Vital Parts; and
those are ordinary Burning-Fevers: and there are other sorts of Fevers that are
in the Vital Parts, and all other Parts of the Body, and those are Malignant
Fevers; and there are some sorts of Fevers which are in the Radical Humours,
and those are Hectic Fevers; and there are other sorts of Fevers that are in
those Parts, which we name the Spiritous Parts. Also, all Consumptions are
accompanied with a Feverish Distemper: but, what the several Figurative Motions
are of these several sorts of Fevers, I cannot tell.
THere are Two visible sorts of the Disease named the Plague: The weaker sort
is that which produces Swellings, or inflamed or corrupted Sores, which are
accompanied with a Fever. The other sort is that which is named the Spotted
Plague. The First sort is sometimes Curable; but the Second is Incurable; at
least, no Remedy as yet hath been found. The truth is, the Spotted Plague is a
Gangrene, but is somewhat different from other sorts of Gangren's; for this
begins amongst the Vital Parts, and, by an Infection, spreads to the Extreme
Parts; and not only so, but to Foreign Parts; which makes not only a general
Infection amongst all the several Parts of the Body, but the Infection spreads
it self to other Bodies. And whereas other sorts of Gangren's begin outwardly,
and pierce inwardly; the Plaguy Gangrene begins inwardly, and pierces
outwardly: so as the difference (as I said) is, That the ordinary sort of
Gangren's infect the next adjoining Parts of the Body, by moderate degrees;
whereas the Plaguy Gangrene infects not only the adjoining Parts of the same
Body, and that suddenly, but infects Foreign Bodies. Also, the ordinary
Gangren's may be stopped from their Infection, by taking off the Parts
infected, or diseased. But the Plaguy Gangrene can no ways be stopped, because
the Vital Parts cannot be separated from the rest of the Parts, without a total
ruin: besides, it pierces and spreads more suddenly, than Remedies can be
applied. But, whether there are Applications of Preventions, I know not; for,
those Studies belong more to the Physicians, than to a Natural Philosopher. As
for the Diseases we name the Purples, and the Spotted Fever, they are of the
same Kind, or Kindred, although not of the same sort, as Measles, and the
Small-Pox. But this is to be noted, That Infection is an act of Imitation: for,
one Part cannot give another Part a Disease, but only that some imitate the
same sorts of Irregular Actions of other Parts; of which some are near
adjoining Imitators, and some occasion a general Mode.
CHAP. III. Of the Small-Pox, and Measles.
THE Small-Pox is somewhat like the Sore-Plague, not only by being Infectious,
as both sorts of Plagues are; but, by being of a corrupt Nature, as the
Sore-Plague is; only the Small-Pox is innumerable, or very many small Sores;
whereas the Sore-Plague is but one or two great Sores. Also, the Small-Pox and
Sore-Plague, are alike in this, That if they rise and break, or if they fall
not flat, but remain until they be dry and scabbed, the Patient lives: but, if
they fall flat, and neither break, nor are scabbed, the Patient is in danger to
dye. Also, it is to be noted, That this Disease is sometimes accompanied with a
Feverish Distemper; I say, Sometimes, not Always; and that is the cause that
many dye, either with too hot, or too cooling Applications: for, in a Feverish
Distemper, hot Cordials are Poison; and when there is no Fever, Cooling
Remedies are Opium: The like for letting Blood; for if the Disease be
accompanied with a Fever, and the Fever be not abated by letting Blood, 'tis
probable the Fever, joined with the Pox, will destroy the Patient: and if no
Fever, and yet loose Blood, the Pox hath not sufficient Moisture to dilate, nor
a sufficient natural Vapour to breathe, or respirate; so as the Life of the
Patient is choked or stifled with the contracted Corruptions. As for Measles,
though they are of the same kind, yet not of the same sort; for they are rather
Small Risings, than Corrupted Sores, and so are less dangerous.
CHAP. IV. Of the Intermission of Fevers or Agues.
AGVES have several sorts of Distempers, and those quite opposite to each
other, as Cold and Shaking, Hot and Burning, besides Sweating: Also, there are
several times of Intermissions; as some are Every-day Agues, some Third-day
Agues, and some Quart Agues; and some Patient may be thus distempered, many
times, in the compass of Four and twenty hours: but those are rather of the
Nature of Intermitting Fevers, than of perfect Agues. Also, in Agues, there is
many times a difference of the Hot and Cold fits: for sometimes the Cold Fits
will be long, and the Hot short; other times, the Hot Fits will be long, and
the Cold Fits short; other times, much of an equal degree: but, most
Intermitting Fevers and Agues, proceed either from ill-digestive Motions, or
from a superfluity of Cold and Hot Motions, or an Irregularity of the Cold,
Hot, Dry; or Moist Motions, where each sort strives and struggles with each
other. But, to make a comparison, Agues are somewhat like several sorts of
Weather, as Freezing and Thawing, Cloudy or Rainy, or Fair and Sun-shining
days: or like the Four Seasons of the Year, where the Cold Fits are like
Winter, cold and windy; the Hot Fits like Summer, hot and dry; the Sweating
Fits like Autumn, warm and moist; and, when the Fit is past, like the Spring.
But, to conclude, the chief Cause of Agues, is, Irregular Digestions, that make
half-concocted Humours; and according as these half-concocted Humours digest,
the Patient hath his Aguish Distempers, where some are every day, others every
second day, some every third day, and some Quartans: but, by reason those
half-concocted Humours, are of several sorts of Humours, some Cold, some Hot,
some Cold and Dry, some Hot and Dry, or Hot and Moist; and those different
sorts, raw, or but half-concocted Humours; they occasion such disorder, not
only by an unnatural manner of Digestion, as not to be either timely, or
regular, by degrees; but, those several sorts of Raw Humours, strive and
struggle with each other for Power or Supremacy: but, according as those
different Raw Humours concoct, the Fits are longer or shorter: also, according
to the quantity of those Raw Humours, and according as those Humours are a
gathering, or breeding, so are the times of those Fits and Intermissions. But
here is to be noted, That some Agues may be occasioned from some Particular
Irregular Digestions; others from a General Irregular Digestion, some from some
obscure Parts, others from ordinary Humours.
THere are many sorts of Consumptions; as, some are Consumptions of the Vital
Parts, as the Liver, Lungs, Kidneys, or the like Parts: Others, a Consumption
of the Radical Parts: Others a Consumption of the Spiritous Parts: Other
Consumptions are only of the Flesh; which, in my opinion, is the only Curable
Consumption. But, all Consumptions, are not only an Alteration, but a Wasting
and Dis-uniting of the Fundamental Parts; only those Consuming Parts do, as it
were, steal away by degrees; and so, by degrees, the Society of a Human
Creature is dissolved.
DRopsies proceed from several Causes; as, some from a decay of some of the
Vital Parts; others through a superfluity of indigested Humours; some from a
supernatural Dryness of some Parts; others through a superfluity of Nourishing
Motions; some, through some Obstructions; others, through an excess of Moist
Diet: but, all Dropsies proceed not only from Irregular Motions, but from such
a particular Irregularity, as all the Motions endeavour to be of one Mode, (as
I may say) that is, To move after the manner of those sorts of Motions which
are the innate Nature of Water, and are some sorts of Circular Dilatations:
but, by these actions, the Human Society endeavours to make a Deluge, and to
turn from the Nature of Blood and Flesh, to the Nature of Water.
ALL Sweating-Diseases are somewhat of the nature of Dropsies; but they are (at
least, seem to be) more Exterior, than Interior Dropsies: but, though there be
Sweating-Diseases which are Irregular; yet, Regular Sweating is as proper as
Regular Breathing; and so healthful, that Sweating extraordinary, in some
Diseases, occasions a Cure: for, Sweating is a sort of Purging; so that the
evacuation of Sweat, through the Pores, is as necessary as other sorts of
evacuation, as Breathing, Urine, Siege, Spitting, Purging through the Nose, and
the like. But, Excess of Sweating, is like other sorts of Fluxes, of which,
some will scour to death; others vomit to death; and others the like Fluxes
will occasion death; the like is of Sweating: so that the Sweating-Sickness is
but like a Fluxive-Sickness. But, as I said, Regular Sweating is as necessary
as other ordinary Evacuations: and as some are apt to be restringent, others
laxative; and sometimes one and the same Man will be laxative, other times,
costive; so are Men concerning Sweating: and as some Men take Medicines to
purge by Stool, or Vomits, or Urine; so they take Medicines to purge by
Sweating. And, as Man hath several sorts of Excremental Humours, so, several
sorts of Sweats; as, Clammy Sweats, Cold Sweats, Hot Sweats, and Faint Sweats:
and, as all Excess of other sorts of Purgings, causes a Man to be weak and
faint; so doth Sweating.
THere are many several sorts of Coughs, proceeding from several Causes; as,
some Coughs proceed from a Superfluity of Moisture; others from an Unnatural
Heat; others from a Corruption of Humours; others from a Decay of the Vital
Parts; others from sudden Colds upon Hot Distempers: Some are caused by an
Interior Wind; some Coughs proceed from Salt Humours, Bitter, Sharp, and Sweet:
some Coughs proceed from Phlegm, which Phlegm arises like a Scum in a Pot, when
Meat is boiling on a Fire: for when the Stomach is distemperedly hot, the
Humours in the Stomach boil as Liquid Substances on the Fire; those boiling
Motions bearing up the gross Humours beyond the Mouth of the Stomach, and,
causing a Dispute between the Breath and Humours, produce the Effect of
Straining, or Reaching upwards towards the Mouth, much like the Nature and
Motions of Vomiting: but, by reason those Motions are not so strong in
Coughing, as in Vomiting, the Coughing Motions bring up only pieces or parts of
superfluous Phlegm, or gross Spittle. The like for corrupt Humours. Other Coughs
proceed from Unnatural or Distempered Heats; which Heats cause Unnecessary
Vapours, and those Vapours ascending up from the Bowels, or Stomach, to the
Head, and finding a Depression, are converted or changed into a Watery
Substance; which Watery Substance falls down, like mizling or small Rain, or in
bigger drops, through the passage of the Throat and Wind-pipe: which being
oppressed, and the Breath hindered, causes a Strife; which Striving, is a
Straining; like as when Crumbs of Bread, or Drops of Drink, go not rightly
through the Throat, but trouble and obstruct the Wind-pipe, or when any such
Matter sticks in the passage of the Throat: for, when any Part of the Body is
obstructed, it endeavours to release it self from those Obstructions: Also,
when the Vapour that arises, arises in very Thin and Rarefied Vapour, that
Rarefied Vapour thickens or condenses not so suddenly, being farther from the
degree of Water; but when condensed into Water, it falls down by drops; which
drops trickling down the Throat, (like as Tears from the Eyes trickle down the
Cheeks of the Face) the Cough is not so violent, but more frequent: but if the
Rheum be salt or sharp, that trickles down the Throat, it causes a gentle or
soft smart, which is much like the touch of Tickling or Itching, which provokes
a faint or weak Strain or Cough. Also, Wind will provoke to Strain or Cough:
The Motion of Wind is like as if Hair should tickle the Nose. Or, Wind will
cause a tickling in the Nose, which causes the Effect of Sneezing: for,
Sneezing is nothing but a Cough through the Nose; I may say, It is a
Nose-Cough. And Hickops are but Stomach-Coughs, Wind causing the Stomach to
strain. Also, the Guts have Coughs, which are caused by the Wind, which makes a
strife in the Guts and Bowels. Other Coughs are produced from Decayed Parts:
for, when any Part is corrupted, it becomes less Solid than naturally it should
be: As for example, The Flesh of the Body, when corrupted, becomes from Dense
Flesh, to a Slimy Substance; thence, into a Watery Substance, which falls into
Parts, or changes from Flesh, into a Mixed Corrupted Matter, which falls into
Parts. The several Mixtures, or Distempered Substances, and Irregular Motions,
causes Division of the composed Parts; but in the time of dissolving, and
divisions of any Part, there is a strife which causes Pain: and if the strife
be in the Lungs, it causes Coughs, by obstructing the Breath: but, some Coughs
proceed from Vapours and Winds, arising from the decayed Interior Parts,
sending up Vapours from the Dissolving Substance, which causes Coughs; and
some Coughs cause Decays of the Prime Interior Parts: for, when there falls
from the Head a constant Distillation, this Distillation is like dropping
Water, which will penetrate or divide Stone; and more easily will dropping or
drilling Water do it, as Rheum, will corrupt Spongy Matter as Flesh is: but,
according as the Rheum is Fresh, Salt, or Sharp, the Parts are a longer or
shorter time decaying: for, Salt and Sharp is Corroding; and, by the Corroding
Motions, Ulcerates those Parts the Salt Rheums fall on, which destroys them
soon. As for Chin-Cough, 'tis a Wind or Vapour arising from the Lungs, through
the Wind-pipe; and as long as the Wind or Vapour ascends, the Patient cannot
draw in Reviving Air or Breath, but Coughs violently and incessantly, until it
faint away, or have no Strength left; and with straining, will be as if it were
choked or strangled, and become black in the face, and, after the Cough is
past, recover again; but some dye of these sorts of Coughs.
GAngren's are of the Nature of the Plague; and they are of Two sorts, as the
Plague is; the one more sudden and deadly than the other: The only difference
of their Insecting Qualities, is, That Gangren's spread by insecting still the
next, or Neighbouring Parts; whereas Plagues infect Foreign, as much as
Home-Parts. Also, the deadly sort of Gangren's, infect (as I may say) from the
Circumference towards the Center: when as the deadly sorts of Plague, infect
from the Center, towards the Circumference. But, that sort of Gangrene that is
the weaker sort, infects only the next adjoining Parts, by degrees, and after a
spreading manner, rather than after a piercing manner.
But some may object, That Plagues and Gangren's are produced from different
Causes; as for example, Extreme Cold will cause Gangren's; and Extreme Heat
causes Plagues.
I answer, That Two opposite Causes may produce like Effects, for which may be
brought numerous Examples.
CHAP. X. Of Cancers and Fistula's.
CAncers and Fistula's are somewhat alike, in that they are both produced from
Salt, or sharp corroding Motions: but in this they differ, that Cancers keep
their Center, and spread in streams; whereas Fistula's will run from place to
place: for if it be stopped in one place, it is apt to remove and break out in
another. Yet Cancers are somewhat like Gangren's, in infecting adjoining Parts;
so that unless a Cancer be in such a place as can be divided from the Sound
Parts, it destroys the Human Life, by eating (as I may say) the Sound Parts of
the Body, as all Corroding, and Sharp or Salt Diseases do.
CHAP. XI. Of the GOVT.
AS for the Disease named the Gout, I never heard but of Two sorts; the Fixed,
and the Running Gout: but, mistake me not, I mean Fixed for Place, not Time. The
Fixed proceeds from Hot, Sharp, or Salt Motions: The Running Gout from Cold,
Sharp Motions; but, both sorts are Intermitting Diseases, and very painful; and
I have heard those that have had the Fixed Gout, say, That the pain of the Fixed
Gout, is somewhat like the Tooth-ach: but, all Gouts are occasioned by
Irregular Pressures and Re-actions. As for that sort that is named the Windy
Gout, it is rather a Sciatica, than a Gout.
OF the Disease of the Stone in Human Creatures, there are many sorts: for,
though the Stone of the Bladder, of the Kidneys, and in the Gaul, be all of one
kind of Disease called the Stone, yet they are of different sorts: but, whether
the Disease of the Stone be produced of Hot or Cold Motions, I cannot judge: but
'tis probable, some are produced of Hot Motions, others of Cold; and perchance,
others of such sorts of Motions as are neither perfectly Hot, nor Cold: for,
the Stone is produced, as all other Creatures, by such or such sorts of
Figurative Motions. Here is to be noted, That some of the Humours of the Body
may alter their Motion, and turn from being Phlegm, Choler, or the like, to be
Stone; and so from being a Rare, Moist, or Loose Body, to be a Dry, Densed,
Hard, or Fixed Body. But certainly, the Stone of the Bladder, Kidneys and Gaul,
are of several sorts, as being produced by several sorts of Figurative Motions;
as also, according to the Properties and Forms of those several Parts of the
Body they are produced in: for, as several sorts of Soils, or Parts of the
Earth, produce several sorts of Minerals; so several Parts of the Body, several
sorts of the Disease of the Stone: And, as there are several sorts of Stones in
the several Parts of the Earth; so, no doubt, there may not only be several
sorts of Stone in several Parts, but several sorts in one and the same Part; at
least, in the like Parts of several Men.
CHAP. XII. Of Apoplexies, and Lethargies.
APoplexies, Lethargies, and the like Diseases, are produced by some decay of
the Vital Spirits, or by Obstructions, as being obstructed by some
Superfluities, or through the Irregularities of some sorts of Motions, which
occasion some Passages to close, that should be open. But mistake me not, I do
not mean empty Passages; for there is no such thing (in my opinion) in Nature:
but, I mean an open passage for a frequent Course and Recourse of Parts. But an
Apoplexy is somewhat of the Nature of a Dead-Palsie; and a Lethargy, of a
Numb-Palsie; but I have heard, that the Opinion of Learned Men is, That some
sorts of Vaporous Pains are the Fore-runners of Apoplexies and Palsies: but, in
my opinion, though a Man may have two Diseases at once; yet surely, where
Vapour can pass, there cannot be an absolute Stoppage.
EPilepsies, or that we name the Falling-Sickness, is of the nature of
Swooning or Fainting Fits: but there are two visible sorts; the one is, that
only the Head is affected, and not the other Parts of the Body; and for proof,
Those that are thus distempered only in the Head, all the other Parts will
struggle and strive to help or assist the affected or afflicted Parts, and
those Parts of the Head that are not Irregular, as may be observed by their
Motions; but, by the means of some other Parts, there will also be striving and
struggling, as may be observed by foaming through the Mouth. The other sort is
like ordinary Swounding-Fits, where all the Parts of the Body seem, for a time,
to be dead. But this is to be observed, That those that are thus diseased, have
certain times of Intermissions, as if the Corporeal Motions did keep a Decorum
in being Irregular. But some have had Epilepsies from their Birth; which
proves, That their Productive Motions was Irreguar.
CHAP. XIV. Of Convulsions, and Cramps.
COnvulsions and Cramps are somewhat alike; and both, in my Opinion, proceed
from Cold Contractions: but, Cramps are caused by the Contractions of the
Capillary Veins, or small Fibers, rather than of the Nerves and Sinews: for,
those Contractions, if violent, are Convulsions: so that Cramps are
Contractions of the small Fibers; and Convulsions are Contractions of the
Nerves and Sinews. But the reason (I believe) that these Diseases proceed from
Cold Contractions, is, That Hot Remedies produce, for the most part, perfect
Cures; but, they must be such sorts of Hot Remedies, that are of a dilating or
extenuating nature; and not such whose Properties are Hot and Dry, or
Contracting: also, the Applications must be according to the strength of the
CHolicks are like Cramps or Convulsions; or Convulsions and Cramps, like
Cholicks: for, as Convulsions are Contractions of the Nerves and Sinews; and
Cramps, Contractions of the small Fibers: so Cholicks are a Contracting of the
Guts: and, for proof, So soon as the Contracting Motions alter, and are turned
to Dilating or Expelling Actions, the Patient is at ease. But, there are
several Causes that produce the Cholick: for, some Cholicks are produced by Hot
and Sharp Motions, as Bilious Cholicks; others from Cold and Sharp Motions, as
Splenetic Cholicks; others from Crude and Raw Humours; some from Hot Winds;
some from Cold Winds. The same some sorts of Convulsions and Cramps may be:
but, though these several Cholicks may proceed from several Causes; yet, they
all agree in this, To be Contractions: for, as I said, when those Corporeal
Motions alter their Actions to Dilatation or Expulsion, the Patient is at ease.
But, those Cholicks that proceed from Hot and Sharp Motions, are the most
painful and dangerous, by reason they are, for the most part, more strong and
stubborn. As for Cholicks in the Stomach, they are caused by the same sorts of
Motions that cause some sorts of Contractions: but, those sorts of Cholick
Contractions, are after the manner of wreathing, or wringing Contractions. The
same in Convulsive-Contractions.
CHAP. XVI. Of Shaking Palsies.
SHaging Palsies proceed from a Slackness of the Nerves, or Sinew strings, as
may be observed by those that hold or lay any heavy weight upon the Arms, Hands
or Legs: for, when the Burdens are removed, those Limbs will be apt to tremble
and shake so much, for a short time, (until they have recovered their former
strength) that the Legs cannot go, or stand steadily; nor the Arms, or Hands,
do any thing without shaking. The reason of these sorts of Slackness, is, That
heavy Burdens occasion the Nerves and Sinews to extend beyond their Order; and
being stretched, they become more slack, and loose, by how much they were
stretched, or extended; until such time as they contract again into their
proper Posture: And the reason that Old Age is subject to Shaking-Palsies, is,
That the Frame of their whole Body is looser and slacker, than when it was
young: As in a decayed House, every Material is looser than when it was first
built; but yet, sometimes an old shaking House will continue a great while,
with some Repairs: so old shaking Men, with Care, and good Diet, will continue
a great time. But this is to be noted, That trembling is a kind of a
Shaking-Palsie, although of another sort; and so is Weakness after Sickness:
but, these sorts are occasioned, as when a House shakes in a great Wind, or
Storm; and not through any Fundamental Decay.
CHAP. XVII. Of the Muther, Spleen, and Scurvy.
AS for those Diseases that are named the Fits of the Muther, the Spleen, the
Scurvy, and the like; although they are the most general Diseases, especially
amongst the Females; yet, each particular sort is so various, and hath such
different Effects, that, I observe, they puzzle the most Learned Men to find
out their juggling, intricate, and uncertain Actions. But this is to be
observed, That the Richest sorts of Persons are most apt to these sorts of
Diseases; which proves, That Idleness and Luxury is the occasion.
CHAP. XVIII. Of Food, or Digestions.
AS I have said, Digestions are so numerous, and so obscure, that the most
Learned Men know not how Food is converted and distributed to all the Parts of
the Body: Which Obscurity occasions many Arguments, and much Dispute amongst
the Learned; but, in my opinion, it is not the Parts of the Human Body, that do
digest the Food, although they may be an occasion (through their own
Regularities, or Irregularities) to cause good or bad digestions: but, the
Parts of the Food, do digest themselves; that is, alter their actions to the
Property and Nature of a Human Body: so that Digestive Parts are only
Additional Parts; and, if those Nourishing Motions be Regular,they distribute
their several Parts, and join their several Parts, to those several Parts of
the Body that require Addition. Also, the Digestive Motions are according to
the Nature or Property of each several Part of the Human Body, As for example,
Those Digestive Parts alter into Blood, Flesh, Fat, Marrow, Brains, Humours, and
so into any other Figurative Parts of the Sensitive Body. The same may be said
of the Rational Parts of the Mind: but, if those Digestive Parts be Irregular,
they will cause a Disorder in a well-ordered Body: and, if the Parts of the
Body be Irregular, they will occasion a Disorder amongst the Digestive Parts:
but, according to the Regularities and Irregularities of the Digestive Parts,
is the Body more or less nourished. But this is to be noted, That according to
the Superfluity or Scarcity of those Digestive Parts, the Body is oppressed, or
SVrfeits are occasioned after different manners: for, though many Surfeits
proceed from those Parts that are received into the Body; yet, some are
occasioned through often repetitions of one and the same actions: As for
example, The Eyes may surfeit with too often viewing one Object; the Ears, with
often hearing one Sound; the Nose, with smelling one Sent; the Tongue, with one
Taste. The same is to be said of the Rational Actions; which Surfeits, occasion
an aversion to such or such Particulars: but, for those Surfeits that proceed
from the Parts that are received into the Body, they are either through the
quantity that oppresses the Nature of the Body; or, through the quality of
those Parts, being not agreeable to the Nature of the Body; or, through their
Irregularities, that occasion the like Irregularities in the Body: and
sometimes, the fault is through the Irregularities of the Body, that hinder
those received Parts, or obstruct their Regular Digestions; and sometimes, the
fault is both of the Parts of the Body, and those of the Food: but, the
Surfeits of those Parts that receive not Food, are caused through the often
repetition of one and the same Action.
CHAP. XX. Of Natural Evacuations, or Purgings.
THere are many sorts, and several ways or means of Purging actions; whereof
some we name Natural, which purge the Excremental Parts; and such Natural
Purgings, are only of such Parts as are no ways useful to the Body; or of those
that are not willing to convert themselves into the Nature and Property of the
Substantial Parts. There must of necessity be Purging actions, as well as
Digestive actions; because, no Creature can subsist singly of it self, but all
Creatures subsist each by other; so that, there must be Dividing actions, as
well as Uniting actions; only, several sorts of Creatures, have several sorts
of Nourishments and Evacuations. But this is to be noted, in the Human
Nourishments and Evacuations, that, through their Irregularities, some Men may
nourish too much, and others purge too much; and some may nourish too little,
and some may purge too little. The Irregularities concerning Nourishments, are
amongst the adjoining Parts; the Errors concerning Purging, are amongst the
Dividing Parts.
THere are many sorts of Druggs, whereof some are beneficial, by assisting
those particular Parts of the Body that are oppressed and offended, either by
Superfluous Humours, or Malignant Humours: but, there are some sorts of Druggs
that are as malicious to the Human Life, as the Assistant Druggs are friendly.
Several sorts of Druggs, have several sorts of Actions, which causes several
Effects; as, some Druggs work by Siege; others, by Urine; some, by Vomit;
others, by Spitting; others, by Sweating; some cause sleep; some are hot,
others are cold; some dry, others moist. But this is to be noted, That 'tis not
the Motions of the Druggs, but the Motion of the Humours, which the Druggs
occasion to flow; and not only to flow, but to flow after such or such a manner
and way. The Actions of Druggs, are like the Actions of Hounds, or Hawks, that
fly at a particular Bird, or run after a particular beast of their own kind,
although of a different sort: The only difference is, That Druggs are not only
of a different sort, but of a different Kind from Animal Kind; at least, from
Human Sort.
CHAP. XXII. Of the Various Humours of Druggs.
THE reason, one and the same Quantity or Dose of one and the same sort of
Purging-Druggs or Medicine, will often work differently in several Human
Bodies; as also, differently in one and the same Body, at several times of
taking the same sorts of Medicines; is, That several Parts of one and the same
sort, may be differently humoured: as, some to be duller and slower than
others; and some to be more active than others. Also, some Parts may be
ill-natured, and cause Factions amongst the Parts of the Body; whereas others
will endeavour to rectify Disorders, or Factions. And sometimes both the
Druggs, and the Body, falls out; and then there is a dangerous strife; the Body
striving to expel the Physic, and the Physic endeavouring to stay in the
Body, to do the Body some mischief. Also, some Parts of one and the same sort,
may be so Irregular, as to hunt not only the superfluous Humours, or the
Malignant Humours, but all sorts of flowing Parts; which may cause so great and
general Disorder, as may endanger Human Life.
THere are many sorts of Cordials: for, I take every Beneficial Remedy to be a
Cordial: but, many of the Vulgar believe, That there is no Cordial but Brandy,
or such like Strong-waters; at least, they believe all such Remedies that are
virtually Hot, to be Cordials: but, when they take too much of such Cordials,
either in Sickness, or Health, they will, in some time, find them as bad as
Poison. But, all such Applications as are named Cordials, are not hot: for,
some are cool, at least, of a temperate degree. And as there are Regular and
Irregular Corporeal Motions; so there are Sympathetical, and Antipathetical
Motions; and yet both sorts may be Regular. Also, there is a Neutral sort, that
has neither Sympathy nor Antipathy, but is Indifferent. But in Disputes between
Two different Parties, a Third may come in to the assistance of one Side, more
out of hate to the Opposite, than love to the Assisted. The same may Cordials,
or such like Applications, do, when the Corporeal Motions of Human Life are in
disorder, and at variance: for, oftentimes there is as great a Mutiny and
Disorder amongst the Corporeal Motions, both in the Mind and Body of a Man, as
in a Public State in time of Rebellion: but, all Assistant Cordials, endeavour
to assist the Regular Parts of the Body, and to persuade the Irregular Parts.
As for Poisons, they are like Foreign War, that endeavours to destroy a
Peaceable Government.
CHAP. XXIV. Of the different Actions of the several Sensitive Parts of a Human
SOme Parts of a Human Creature will be Regular, and some Irregular: as, some
of the Sensitive Parts will be Regular, and some Irregular; that is, some Parts
will be Painful, or Sick, others well: some Parts will make false Perceptions;
others, true Perceptions: some Parts be Temperate; others, Intemperate: some
Parts be Mad, other Parts Sober: some Parts be Wise; others, Foolish: and the
same is to be said of the Rational Motions. But, in a Regular Society, every
Part and Particle of the Body, is Regularly agreeable, and Sympathetical.
CHAP. XXV. Of the Antipathy of some Human Creatures, to some Foreign Objects.
AS I have often said, There is often both Sympathy and Antipathy between the
Parts of some particular Human and Foreign Objects; in so much, that some will
occasion such a general Disturbance, as will cause a general Alteration, viz.
cause a Man to swooned, or at least, to be very faint, or sick: as for example,
Some will Swooned at some sorts of Sounds, some sorts of Scents, some sorts of
Taste, some sorts of Touches, and some sorts of Sights. Again, on the other
side, some Human Creatures will so sympathize with some sorts of Foreign
Objects, as some will Long for that, another will Swooned to have.
CHAP. XXVI. Of the Effects of Foreign Objects, on the Human Mind.
AS there is often Antipathy of the Parts of a Human Creature, to Foreign
Objects; so there are often Sympathetical Effects produced from Foreign
Objects, with the Parts of a Human Creature. As for example, A timely, kind,
and discreet Discourse from a Friend, will compose or quiet his troubled Mind:
Likewise, an untimely, unkind, hasty, malicious, false, or sudden Discourse,
will often disorder a well-temper'd, or Regular Mind, the Mind imitating the
smooth or harsh strains of the Object: and the same Effects hath Music, on the
Minds of many Human Creatures.
HUman Contemplation, is a Conversation amongst some of the Rational Parts of
the Human Mind; which Parts, not regarding present Objects, move either in
devout Notions, or vain Fancies, Remembrances, Inventions, Contrivancies,
Designs, or the like. But the question is, Whether the Sensitive Parts of a
Human Society, do, at any time, Contemplate? I answer, That some of the
Sensitive Parts are so sociable, that they are, for the most part, agreeable to
the Rational: for, in deep Contemplations, some of the Sensitive Parts do not
take notice of Foreign Objects, but of the Rational Actions. Also, if the
Contemplations be in devout Notions, the Sensitive Parts express Devotion by
their Actions, as I have formerly mentioned. Also, when the Rational Parts move
in Actions of Desire, straight the Sensitive move in Sympathetical Appetites:
Wherefore, if the Society be Regular, the Sensitive and Rational Parts are
agreeable and sociable.
CHAP. XXVIII. Of Injecting of the Blood of one Animal, into the Veins of
another Animal.
TO put Blood of one Animal, into another Animal; as for example, Some Ounces
of Blood taken, by some Art, out of a Dogg's Veins, and, by some Art, put into
a Man's Veins, may very easily be done by Injection; and certainly, may as
readily convert it self to the Nature of Human Blood, as Roots, Herbs, Fruit,
and the like Food; and probably, will more aptly be transformed into Human
Flesh, than Hogg's Blood, mixed with many Ingredients, and then put into Guts,
and boiled, (an ordinary Food amongst Country People;) but Blood being a loose
Humourish Part, may increase or diminish, as the other Humours, viz. Phlegm,
Choler, and Melancholy, are apt to do. But this is to be observed, That by
reason Blood is the most flowing Humour, and of much more, or greater quantity
than all the rest of the Humours, it is apt (if Regular) to cause, not only
more frequent, but a more general Disturbance.
The Eleventh Part.
CHAP. I. Of the different Knowledges, in different Kinds and Sorts of
IF there be not Infinite Kinds, yet, it is probable, there are Infinite
several Sorts; at least, Infinite particular Creatures, in every particular
Kind and Sort; and the Corporeal Motions moving after a different manner, is
the cause there are different Knowledges, in different Creatures; yet, none can
be said to be least knowing, or most knowing: for, there is (in my opinion) no
such thing as least and most, in Nature: for, several kinds and sorts of
Knowledges, make not Knowledge to be more, or less; but only, they are different
Knowledges proper to their kind, (as, Animal-kind, Vegetable-kind,
Mineral-kind, Elemental-kind) and are also different Knowledges in several
sorts: As for example, Man may have a different Knowledge from Beasts, Birds,
Fish, Flies, Worms, or the like; and yet be no wiser than those sorts of
Animal-kinds. The same happens between the several Knowledges of Vegetables,
Minerals, and Elements: but, because one Creature doth not know what another
Creature knows, thence arises the Opinion of Insensibility, and
Irrationability, that some Creatures have of others. But there is to be noted,
That Nature is so Regular, or wise, in her Actions, that the Species and
Knowledge of every particular Kind, is kept in an Even, or Equal Balance: For
example, The Death or Birth of Animals, doth neither add or diminish from, or
to the Knowledge of the Kind, or rather the Sort. Also, an Animal can have no
Knowledge, but such as is proper to the species of his Figure: but, if there be
a Creature of a mixed Species, or Figure, then their Knowledge is according to
their mixed Form: for, the Corporeal Motions of every Creature, move according
to the Form, Frame, or Species of their Society: but, there is not only
different Knowledges, in different Kinds and Sorts of Creatures; but, there are
different Knowledges in the different Parts of one and the same; as, the
different Senses of Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tasting, and Touching, have not
only different Knowledges in different Sensitive Organs, but in one Sense, they
have several Perceptive Knowledges: and though the different Sensitive Organs
of a Human Creature, are ignorant of each other; yet, each Sense is as knowing
as another. The same (no question) is amongst all the Creatures in Nature.
CHAP. II. Of the Variety of Self-actions in particular Creatures.
THere are numerous Varieties of Figurative Motions in some Creatures; and in
others, very few, in comparison: but, the occasion of that, is the manner of
the Frame and Form of a Creature: for, some Creatures that are but small, have
much more variety of Figurative Motions, than others that are very big and
large Creatures: so that, it is not only the Quantity of Matter, or Number of
Parts, but the several Changes of Motion, by the Variety of their Active Parts,
that is the cause of it: for, Nature is not only an Infinite Body, but, being
Self-moving, causes Infinite Variety, by the altered Actions of her Parts;
every altered Action, causing both an altered Self-knowledg, and an altered
Perceptive Knowledge.
CHAP. III. Of the Variety of Corporeal Motion, of one and the same sort or
kind of Motion.
THere is Infinite Variety of Motion of the same sorts and kinds of Motions; as
for example, Of Dilatations, or Extensions, Expulsions, Attractions,
Contractions, Retentions, Digestions, Respirations: There is also Varieties of
Densities, Rarities, Gravities, Levities, Measures, Sizes, Agilness, Slowness,
Strength, Weakness, Times, Seasons, Growths, Decays, Lives, Deaths,
Conceptions, Perceptions, Passions, Appetites, Sympathies, Antipathies, and
Millions the like kinds, or sorts.
CHAP. IV. Of the Variety of particular Creatures.
NAture is so delighted with Variety, that seldom two Creatures (although of
the same sort, nay, from the same Producers) are just alike; and yet Human
Perception cannot perceive above four kinds of Creatures, viz. Animals,
Vegetables, Minerals, and Elements: but, the several sorts seem to be very
numerous; and the Varieties of the several Particulars, Infinite: but, Nature
is necessitated to divide her Creatures into Kinds and Sorts, to keep Order and
Method: for, there may be numerous Varieties of sorts; as for example, Many
several Worlds, and infinite Varieties of Particulars in those Worlds: for,
Worlds may differ from each other, as much as several sorts of Animals,
Vegetables, Minerals, or Elements; and yet be all of that sort we name Worlds:
but, as for the Infinite Varieties of Nature, we may say, That every Part of
Nature is Infinite, in some sort; because every Part of Nature is a perpetual
Motion, and makes Infinite Varieties, by change or alteration of Action: but,
there is so much Variety of the several Shapes, Figures, Forms, and Sizes, as,
Bigger, and Less; as also, several sorts of Heats, Colds, Droughts, Moistures,
Fires, Airs, Waters, Earths, Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, as are not to
be expressed.
CHAP. V. Of Dividing, and Rejoyning, or Altering Exterior Figurative Motions.
THE Interior and Exterior Figurative Motions of some sorts of Creatures, are
so united by their Sympathetical Actions, as they cannot be separated without a
Total Dissolution; and some cannot be altered without a Dissolution; and other
Figurative Motions may separate, and unite again; and others, if separate,
cannot unite again, as they were before: As for example, The Exterior Parts of
a Human Creature, if once divided, cannot be rejoyned; when as some sorts of
Worms may be divided, and if those divided Parts meet, can rejoyn, as before.
Also, some Figurative Motions of different sorts, and so different, that they
are opposite, may unite in agreement, in one Composition, or Creature; yet,
when the very same sorts of Figurative Motions, are not so united, they are, as
it were, deadly Enemies.
CHAP. VI. Of Different Figurative Motions in particular Creatures.
THere are many Creatures that are composed of very opposite Figurative
Motions; as for example, Some Parts of Fire and Water; also, all Cordials,
Vitriols, and the like Waters; also, Iron and Stone, and Infinite the like:
But, that which is composed of the most different Figurative Motions, is
Quick-silver, which is exteriorly Cold, Soft, Fluid, Agil, and Heavy: also,
Divisible, and Rejoynable; and yet so Retentive of its Innate Nature, that
although it can be rarefied, yet not easily dissolved; at least, not that Human
Creatures can perceive; for, it hath puzzled the best Chemists.
CHAP. VII. Of the Alterations of Exterior and Innate Figurative Motions of
several sorts of Creatures.
THE Form of several Creatures, is after several manners and ways, which causes
several Natures or Properties: As for example, The Exterior and Innate
Corporeal Motions of some Creatures, depend so much on each other, That the
least Alteration of the one, causes a Dissolution of the whole Creature;
whereas the Exterior Corporeal Motions of other sorts of Creatures, can change
and rechange their actions, without the least disturbance to the Innate
Figurative Motions: In other sorts the Innate Motions shall be quite altered,
but their Exterior Motions be in some manner consistent: As for proof, Fire is
of that Nature, that both the Exterior and Innate Motions, are of one and the
same sort; so that the Alteration of the one, causes a Dissolution of the
other; that is, Fire loses the Property of Fire, and is altered from being
Fire. On the other side, the Exterior Figurative Motions of Water, can change
and rechange, without any disturbance to the Innate Nature: but, though the
Alteration of the Innate Figurative Motions of all Creatures, must of necessity
alter the Life and Knowledge of that Creature; yet there may be such consistent
Motions amongst the Exterior Parts of some sorts of Creatures, that they will
keep their Exterior Form: As for example, A Tree that is cut down, or into
pieces, when those pieces are withered, and, as we say, dead; yet, they remain
of the Figure of Wood. Also, a dead Beast doth not alter the Figure of Flesh or
Bones, presently. Also, a dead Man doth not presently dissolve from the Figure
of Man; and some, by the Art of embalming, will occasion the remaining
Figurative Motions of the dead Man to continue, so that those sorts of Motions,
that are the Frame and Form, are not quite altered: but yet, those Exterior
Forms are so altered, that they are not such as those by which we name a Living
Man. The same of Flies, or the like, entombed in Amber: but by this we may
perceive, That the Innate Figurative Motions may be quite altered, and yet the
Exterior Figurative consistent Motions, do, in some manner, keep in the Figure,
Form, or Frame of their Society. The truth is, (in my opinion) That all the
Parts that remain undissolved, have quite altered their Animal actions; but
only the Consistent actions, of the Form of their Society, remains, so as to
have a resemblance of their Frame or Form.
ALL Corporeal Motion is Local; but only they are different Local Motions: and
some sorts or kinds, have advantage of others, and some have power over others,
as, in a manner, to enforce them to alter their Figurative motions; as for
example, When one Creature doth destroy another, those that are the Destroyers,
occasion those that we name the Destroyed, to dissolve their Unity, and to
alter their actions: for, they cannot annihilate their actions; nor can they
give or take away the Power of Self-motions; but, as I said, some Corporeal
motions can occasion other Corporeal motions to move so, or so. But this is to
be noted, That several sorts of Creatures have a mixture of several sorts of
Figurative motions; as for example, There are Flying Fish, and Swimming Beasts;
also, there are some Creatures that are partly Beasts, and partly Fish, as
Otters, and many others; also, a Mule is partly a Horse, and an Ass; a Batt is
partly a Mouse, and a Bird; an Owl is partly a Cat and a Bird; and numerous
other Creatures there are, that are partly of one sort, and partly of another.
CHAP. IX. Of several manners, or ways of Advantages, or Disadvantages.
NOT only the Manner, Form, Frame, or Shape of particular Creatures; but also,
the Regularity or Irregularity of the Corporeal motions of particular
Creatures, doth cause that which Man names Strength or Weakness, Obedience or
Disobedience, Advantages or Disadvantages of Power and Authority, or the like:
As for example, A greater Number will overpower a less: for, though there be
no Differences (as being no Degrees) of Self-strength amongst the Self-moving
Parts, or Corporeal motions; yet, there may be stronger and weaker
Compositions, or Associations; and a greater Number of Corporeal motions, makes
a stronger Party: but, if the greater Party be Irregular, and the lesser Party
be Regular, a hundred to one, but the weaker Party is victorious. Also, the
manner of the Corporeal motions; as, a Diving-motion may get the better of a
Swimming-motion; and, in some cases, the Swimming, the better of the Diving.
Jumping may have the advantage over Running; and, in other cases, Running, over
Jumping. Also, Creeping may have the advantage over Flying; and, in other
cases, Flying, over Creeping. A Cross Motion may have the advantage over a
Straight; and, in other cases, a Straight, over a Cross. So it may be said, of
Turning and Lifting, of Contracting and Dilating Motions. And many the like
Examples may be had; but, as I have often said, There is much Advantage and
Disadvantage in the manner and way of the Composed Form and Figure of
CHAP. X. Of the Actions of some sorts of Creatures, over others.
SOME sorts of Creatures are more Exteriorly active, than other sorts; and some
more Interiorly active; some more rare, some more dense, and the like: also,
some dense Creatures are more active than the rare; and some rare, are more
active than other sorts that are dense. Also, some Creatures that are rare,
have advantage of some that are dense; and some that are dense, over some sorts
that are rare; some leight Bodies, over some heavy Bodies; and some heavy
Bodies, over some sorts of leight Bodies. Also, several sorts of Exterior
Motions, of several sorts of Creatures, have advantage and disadvantage of each
other; as for example, Springs of Water, and Air, will make Passages, and so
divide hard strong Rocks. And, on the other side, a Straw will divide Parts of
Water; and a small Fly, will divide Parts of the Air: but, mistake me not, I
mean, that they occasion the Airy or Watery Parts, to divide.
TIS impossible, as I have said, to describe the Infinite Corporeal Figurative
Motions: but, amongst those Creatures that are subject to Human Perception,
there are some that resemble each other, and yet are of different Natures; as
for example, Black Ebony, and Black Marble, they are both Glassy, smooth, and
black; yet, one is Stone, the other Wood. Also, there be many light and shining
Bodies, that are of different Natures; as for example, Metal is a bright
shining Body; and divers sorts of Stones, are bright shining Bodies: also,
clear Water is a bright shining Body; yet, the Metal and Stones are Minerals,
and Water is an Element. Indeed, Most Bodies are of a Glassy Hue, or, as I may
say, Complexion; as may be observed in most Vegetables; as also, Skins,
Feathers, Scales, and the like.
But some may say, That Glassiness is made by the Brightness of the Light that
shines upon them.
I answer: If so, then the ordinary Earth would have the like Glassiness: but,
we perceive the Earth to appear dull in the clearest Sun-shining Day:
wherefore, it is not the Light, but the nature of their own Bodies. Besides,
every Body hath not one and the same sort of Glassiness, but some are very
different: 'Tis true, some sorts of Bodies do not appear Glassy, or shining,
until they be polished: but, as for such sorts of shining Bodies that appear in
the dark, there is not many of them perceived by us, besides the Moon and
Stars; but yet some there are, as Fire; but that is an Element. There are also
Glow-worms Tails, Cats Eyes, Rotten Wood, and such like shining-Bodies.
CHAP. XII. Of Metamorphoses, or Transformations of Animals and Vegetables.
THere are some Creatures that cannot be Metamorphosed: as for example, Animals
and Vegetables, at least, most of those sorts, by reason they are composed of
many several and different Figurative Motions; and I understand Metamorphose,
to be a change and alteration of the Exterior Form, but not any change or
alteration of the Interior or Intellectual Nature: and how can there be a
general change of the Exterior Form or Shape of a Human Creature, or such like
Animal, when the different Figurative Motions of his different Compositions,
are, for the most part, ignorant of each others particular Actions? Besides, as
Animals and Vegetables require degrees of time for their Productions, as also,
for their Perfections; so, some Time is required for their Alterations: but, a
sudden alteration amongst different Figurative Motions, would cause such a
Confusion, that it would cause a Dissolution of the whole Creature, especially
in actions that are not natural, as being improper to their kind, or sort: The
same of Vegetables, which have many different Figurative Motions. This
considered, I cannot choose but wonder, that wise men should believe (as some
do) the Change or Transformation of Witches, into many sorts of Creatures.
CHAP. XIII. Of the Life and Death of several Creatures.
THAT which Man names Life, and Death, (which are some sorts of Compositions
and Divisions of Parts of Creatures) is very different, in different kinds and
sorts of Creatures, as also, in one and the same sort: As for example, Some
Vegetables are old and decrepit in a Day; others are not in Perfection, or in
their Prime, in less than a hundred years. The same may be said of Animal
kinds. A Silk-worm is no sooner born, but dyes; when as other Animals may live
a hundred years. As for Minerals, Tinn and Lead seem but of a short Life, to
Gold; as a Worm to an Elephant, or a Tulip to an Oak for lasting; and 'tis
probable, the several Productions of the Planets and Fixed Stars, may be as
far more lasting, than the parts of Gold more lasting than a Fly: for, if a
Composed Creature were a Million of years producing, or Millions of years
dissolving, it were nothing to Eternity: but, those produced Motions that make
Vegetables, Minerals, Elements, and the like, the subtilest Philosopher, or
Chemist, in Nature, can never perceive, or find out; because, Human Perception
is not so subtle, as to perceive that which Man names Natural Productions:
for, though all the Corporeal Motions in Nature are perceptive; yet, every
Perceptive Part doth not perceive all the actions in Nature: for, though every
different Corporeal Motion, is a different Perception; yet, there are more
Objects than any one Creature can perceive: also, every particular kind or sort
of Creatures, have different Perceptions, occasioned by the Frame and Form of
their Compositions, or unities of their Parts: So as the Perceptions of
Animals, are not like the Perceptions of Vegetables; nor Vegetables, like the
Perceptions of Minerals; nor Minerals, like the Perceptions of Elements: For,
though all these several kinds and sorts, be perceptive; yet, not after one and
the same way, or manner of Perception: but, as there is infinite variety of
Corporeal Motions, so there are infinite varieties of Perceptions: for,
Infinite Self-moving Matter, hath infinite varieties of Actions. But, to return
to the Discourse of the Productions and Dissolutions of Creatures; The reason,
that some Creatures last longer than others, is, That some Forms or Frames of
their Composition, are of a more lasting Figure. But this is to be observed,
That the Figures that are most solid, are more lasting than those that are more
slack and loose: but mistake me not; I say, For the most part, they are more
lasting. Also, this is to be noted, That some Compositions require more labour;
some, more curiosity; and some are more full of variety, than others.
A Circle is a Round Figure, without End; which Figure can more easily and
aptly alter the Exterior Form, than any other Figure. For example, A Circular
Line may be drawn many several ways, into different and several sorts of
Figures, without breaking the Circle: also, it may be contracted or extended
into a less or wider compass; and drawn or formed into many several sorts of
Figures, or Works; as, into a Square, or Triangle, or Oval, or Cylinder, or
like several sorts of Flowers, and never dissolve the Circular Line. But this
is to be noted, that there may be several sorts of Circular Lines; as, some
Broad, some Narrow, some Round, some Flat, some Ragged or Twisted, some Smooth,
some Pointed, some Edged, and numbers of the like; and yet the compass be
exactly round.
But some may say, that, When a Circle is drawn into several Works, it is not a
Circle: As for example, When a Circle is squared, it is not a Circle, but a
I answer: It is a Circle squared, but not a Circle broken, or divided: for,
the Interior Nature is not dissolved, although the Exterior Figure is altered:
it is a Natural Circle, although it should be put into a Mathematical Square.
But, to conclude this Chapter, I say, That all such sorts of Figures that are
(like Circular Lines) of one piece, may change and rechange their Exterior
Figures, or Shapes, without any alterations of their Interior Properties.
CHAP. XV. Human Creatures cannot so probably treat of other sorts of
Creatures, as of their own.
TO treat of the Productions of Vegetables, Minerals, and Elements, is not so
easy a Task, as to treat of Animals; and, amongst Animals, the most easy Task
is, to treat of Human Productions; by reason one Human Creature may more
probably guess at the Nature of all Human Creatures (being of the same Nature)
than he can of other kinds of other kinds of Creatures, that are of another
Nature. But, mistake me not, I mean not of another Nature, being not of the
same kind of Creature, but concerning Vegetables, Minerals, and Elements. The
Elements may more easily be treated of, than the other Two kinds: for, though
there be numerous sorts of them, at least, numerous several Particulars; yet,
not so many several Sorts, as of Vegetables: and though Minerals are not, as to
my knowledge, so numerous as Vegetables; yet, they are of more, or at least, of
as many Sorts as Elements are. But, by reason I am unlearned, I shall only give
my Opinion of the Productions of some sorts; in which, I fear, I shall rather
discover my Ignorance, than the Truth of their Productions. But, I hope my
Readers will not find fault with my Endeavour, though they may find fault with
my little Experience, and want of Learning.
The Twelfth Part.
CHAP. I. Of the Equality of ELEMENTS.
AS for the Four Elements, Fire, Air, Water, and Earth; they subsist, as all
other Creatures, which subsist by each other: but, in my opinion, there should
be an Equality of the Four Elements, to balance the World: for, if one sort
should superabound, it would occasion such an Irregularity, that would cause a
Dissolution of this World; as, when some particular Humour in Man's Body
superabounds, or there is a scarcity of some Humours, it causes such
Irregularities, that do, many times, occasion his Destruction. The same may be
said of the Four Elements of the World: as for example, If there were not a
sufficient quantity of Elemental Air, the Elemental Fire would go out; and if
not a sufficient quantity of Elemental Fire, the Air would corrupt: also, if
there were not a sufficient quantity of Elemental Water, the Elemental Fire
would burn the Earth; and if there were not a sufficient quantity of Earth,
there would not be a solid and firm Foundation for the Creatures of the Earth:
for, if there were not Density, as well as Rarity; and Levity, as well as
Gravity; Nature would run into Extremes.
CHAP. II. Of several TEMPERS.
HEAT doth not make Drought: for, there is a Temper of Hot and Moist. Nor Cold
doth not make Drought: for, there is a Temper of Cold and Moist. Neither doth
Heat make Moisture: for, there is a Temper of Hot and Dry. Nor doth Cold make
Moisture: for, there is a Temper of Cold and Dry. But, such or such sorts of
Corporeal Figurative Motions, make Hot, Cold, Moist, Dry; Hot and Dry, Hot and
Moist; Cold and Dry, Cold and Moist; and, as those Figurative Motions alter
their Actions, those Tempers are altered: the like happens in all Creatures.
But this is to be observed, That there is some opposite or contrary Tempers,
which have a likeness of Motion: as for example, A Moist Heat, and a Moist
Cold, have a likeness or resemblance of Moistness; and the same is in dry Heats
and Cold: but surely, most sorts of Moistures, are some sorts of dilative
Motions; and most Droughts, are some sorts of Contractive Motions: but, there
are several sorts of Dilatations, Contractions, Retentions, Expulsions, and the
like: for, there are Cold Contractions, Hot Contractions; Cold Dilatations, Hot
Dilatations; Hot Retentions, Cold Retentions; and so of Digestions, Expulsions,
and the like: But, as I said, Moist Heats, and Moist Colds, seem of a Dilative
Nature; as Dry, of a Contractive Nature. But, all Cold and Heat, or Dry and
Moist, may be made by one and the same Corporeal Motions: for, though the
Actions may vary, the Parts may be the same: yea, the like Actions may be in
different Parts. But, no Part is bound to any particular Action, having a free
Liberty of Self-motion. But, concerning Hot and Cold, and the like Actions, I
observe, That Extreme Heat, and Extreme Cold, is of a like Power, or Degree:
neither can I perceive the Hot Motions to be quicker than Cold: for Water, in
little quantity, shall as suddenly freeze, as any leight Fuel or Straw, burn:
and Animals will as soon freeze to death, as be burned to death: and Cold is as
powerful at the Poles, as Heat in the Torrid Zone. And 'tis to be observed,
That Freezing is as quick and sudden, as Thawing: but sometimes, nay very
often, Cold and Hot Motions will dispute for Power; and some sorts of Hot, with
other sorts. The like Disputes are amongst several sorts of Cold Motions; Dry
with Moist, Dry with Dry, Moist with Moist. And the like Disputes are also
often amongst all Creatures. As for Density, it doth not make Gravity: for,
there may be Dense Bodies, that are not Grave; as for example, Feathers, and
Snow. Neither doth Gravity make Density: for, a quantity of Air hath some
weight, and yet is not dense. But mistake me not; for, I mean by Grave, Heavy;
and not for the Effects of Ascending, and Descending: for Feathers, though
Dense, are more apt to ascend, than descend; and Snow, to descend. Also, all
sorts of Fluidity, do not cause Moist, Liquid, or Wet; nor all Extenuations,
cause Light: but, they are such and such sorts of Fluidities and Extenuations,
that cause such and such Effects. And so for Heats, Colds, Droughts, Moistures,
Rarities. The same for Gravities, Levities, and the like. So that, Creatures
are Rare, Fluid, Moist, Wet, Dry, Dense, Hard, Soft, Leight, Heavy, and the
like, according to their Figurative Motions.
CHAP. III. Of the Change and Rechange; and of Dividing and Joining of the
Parts of the Elements.
OF all Creatures subject to Human Perception, the Elements are most apt to
Transform, viz. to Change and Rechange; also, to Divide and Join their Parts,
without altering their Innate Nature and Property. The reason is, because the
Innate Figurative Motions of Elements, are not so different as those of Animals
and Vegetables, whose Compositions are of many different Figurative Motions; in
so much, that dis-joining any Part of Animals, or Vegetables, they cannot be
joined again, as they were before; at least, it is not commonly done: but, the
Nature and Property of the Elements, is, That every Part and Particle are of
one innate Figurative Motion; so that the least grain of Dust, or the least
drop of Water, or the least spark of Fire, is of the same Innate Nature,
Property, and Figurative Motions, as the whole Element; when as, of Animals,
and Vegetables, almost, every Part and Particle is of a different Figurative
CHAP. IV. Of the Innate Figurative Motions of Earth.
THere are many sorts of Earth, yet all sorts are of the same kind; that is,
they are all Earth: but (in my opinion) the prime Figurative Motions of Earth,
are Circles; but not dilated Circles, but contracted Circles: neither are those
Circles smooth, but rugged; which is the cause that Earth is dull, or dim, and
is easily divided into dusty Parts: for all, or at least, most Bodies that are
smooth, are more apt to join, than divide; and have a Glassy Hew or
Complexion; which is occasioned by the smoothness, and the smoothness
occasioned by the evenness of Parts, being without Intervals: but, according as
these sorts of Circular Motions are more or less contracted, and more or less
rugged, they cause several sorts of Earth.
CHAP. V. Of the Figurative Motions of Air.
THere are many sorts of Airs, as there is of other Creatures, of one and the
same kind: but, for Elemental Air, is composed of very Rare, Figurative
Motions; and the Innate Motions, I conceive to be somewhat of the Nature of
Water, viz. Circular Figurative Motions, only of a more Dilating Property;
which causes Air, not to be Wet, but extraordinary Rare; which again causes it
to be somewhat of the nature of Light: for, the Rarity occasions Air to be very
searching and penetrating; also, dividable and compoundable: but, the Rarity of
Air, is the cause that it is not subject to some sorts of Human Perception; but
yet, not so Rare, as not to be subject to Human Respirations; which is one sort
of Human Perception: for, all Parts of all Creatures, are perceptive one way,
or another: but, as I said, there are many sorts of Air; as, some Cold, some
Hot; some Dry, some Moist; some Sharp; some Corrupt, some Pure, some Gross; and
numbers more: but, many of these sorts are rather Metamorphosed Vapours, and
Waters, than pure Elemental Air: for, the pure Elemental Air, is, in my
opinion, more searching and penetrating, than Light; by reason Light may be
more easily eclipsed, or stopped; when as Air will search every Pore, and every
Creature, to get entrance.
CHAP. VI. Of the Innate Figurative Motion of Fire.
THE Innate Figurative Motions of Elemental Fire, seem the most difficult to
Human Perception, and Conception: for, by the Agilness, it seems to be more
pure than the other sorts of Elements; yet, by the Light, or Visibleness, it
seems more gross than Air; but, by the dilating Property, it seems to be more
rare than air, at least, as rare as Air. By the Glassy or Shining Property, it
seems to be of Smooth and Even Parts: also, by the piercing and wounding
Property, Fire seems to be composed of sharp-pointed Figurative Motions:
Wherefore, the Innate Figurative Motions of Fire, are, Pure, Rare, Smooth,
Sharp Points, which can move in Circles, Squares, Triangles, Parallels, or any
other sorts of Exterior Figures, without an alteration of its Interior Nature;
as may be observed by many sorts of Fuels: as also, it can contract and dilate
its Parts, without any alteration of its Innate Property.
CHAP. VII. Of the Productions of Elemental Fire.
IT is to be observed, That Points of Fire are more numerous, and more suddenly
propagating, than any other Element, or any other Creature that is subject to
Human Perception. But, Sparks of Fire, resemble the Seeds of Vegetables, in
this, That as Vegetables will not increase in all sorts of Soils, alike;
neither will the Points of Fire, in all sorts of Fuel, alike. And, as
Vegetables produce different Effects in several Soils; so doth Fire on several
Fuels: As for example, The Seeds of Vegetables do not work the same Effect in a
Birds Crop, as in the Earth: for, there they increase the Bird by digestion;
but, in the ground, they increase their own Issue (as I may say): So Fire, in
some Fuels, doth destroy it self, and occasions the Fuel to be more consumed;
when as, in other sorts of Fuel, Fire increases extremely. But Fire, as all
other Creatures, cannot subsist single of it self, but must have Food and
Respiration; which proves, Fire is not an Immaterial Motion. Also, Fire hath
Enemies, as well as Friends; and some are deadly, namely, Water, or Watery
Liquors. Also, Fire is forced to comply with the Figurative Motions of those
Creatures it is joined to: for, all Fuels will not burn, or alter, alike.
FLAME is the Rarest Part of Fire: and though the Fuel of Flame be of a
vaporous and smoky Substance; yet surely, there are pure Flames, which are
perfect Fires: and, for proof, we may observe, That Flame will dilate and run,
as it were, to catch Smoke: but, when the Smoke is above the Flame, if it be
higher than the Flame can extend, it contracts back to the Fiery Body. But,
Flame doth somewhat resemble that we name Natural Light: but yet, in my
opinion, Light is not Flame; nor hath it any Fiery Property, although it be
such a sort of Extenuating or Dilating Actions, as Flame hath.
CHAP. IX. Of the two sorts of Fire most different.
THere are many sorts of Fires: but two sorts are most opposite; that is, the
Hot, Glowing, Burning, Bright, Shining Fire; and that sort of Fire we name a
Dead, Dull Fire; as, Vitriol Fires, Cordial Fires, Corrosive Fires, Feverish
Fires, and numerous other sorts; and every several sort, hath some several
Property: as for example, There is greater difference between the Fiery
Property of Oil, and the Fiery Property of Vitriol: for, Oil is neither
Exteriorly Hot, nor Burning; whereas Vitriol is Exteriorly Burning, though not
Exteriorly Hot: but, the difference of these sorts of Fires, is, That the
Actions of Elemental Fire, are to ascend, rather than to descend: and the Dull,
Dead Fire, is rather apt to descend, than ascend; that is, to pierce, or
dilate, either upwards, or downwards: but, they are both of Dilating and
Dividing Natures. But this is to be noted, That all sorts of Heats, or Hotness,
are not Fire. Also it is to be noted, That all Fires are not Shining.
CHAP. X. Of Dead or Dull Fires.
OF Dull, Dead Fires, some sorts seem to be of a mixed sort: as for example,
Vitriol, and the like, seem to be Exteriorly, of the Figurative Motions of
Fire; and Interiorly, of the Figurative Motions of Water, or of Watery Liquors:
And Oil is of Fiery Figurative Motions, Interiorly; and of Liquid Figurative
Motions, Exteriorly; which is the cause that the Fiery Properties of Oil cannot
be altered, without a Total Dissolution of their Natures. But, such sorts whose
Fiery Figurative Motions are Exterior, as being not their Innate Nature, may be
divided from those other Natural Parts they were joined to, without altering
their Innate Nature.
CHAP. XI. Of the Occasional Actions of Fire.
ALL Creatures have not only Innate figurative Motions that cause them to be
such or such a sort of Creature; but, they have such and such actions, that
cause such and such Effects: also, every Creature is occasioned to particular
Actions, by foreign Objects; many times to improper actions, and sometimes to
ruinous actious, even to the dissolution of their Nature: And, of all
Creatures, Fire is the most ready to occasion the most Mischief; at least,
Disorders: for, where it can get entrance, it seldom fails of causing such a
Disturbance, as occasions a Ruin. The reason is, that most Creatures are
porous: for, all Creatures, subsisting by each other, must of necessity have
Egress and Regress, being composed of Interior and Exterior Corporeal Motions.
And Fire, being the sharpest figurative Motion, is apt to enter into the
smallest Pores.
But some may ask, Whether Fire is porous it self?
I answer: That having Respiration, it is a sufficient proof that it is Porous:
for, Fire dyes if it hath not Air.
But some may say, How can a Point be porous?
I answer, That a Point is composed of Parts, and therefore may very well be
porous: for, there is no such thing as a Single Part in Nature, and therefore,
not a Single Point.
Also, some may say, If there be Pores in Nature, there may be Vacuum.
I answer, That, in my opinion, there is not; because there is no empty Pores
in Nature: Pores signifying only an Egress and Regress of Parts.
CHAP. XII. Fire hath not the Property to Change and Rechange.
OF all the Elemental Creatures, Fire is the least subject to change: for,
though it be apt to occasion other Creatures to alter; yet it keeps close to
its own Properties, and proper Actions: for, it cannot change, and rechange, as
Water can. Also, Natural Air is not apt to change and rechange, as Water: for,
though it can (as all the Elements) divide and join its Parts, without altering
the Property of its Nature: yet, it cannot readily alter, and alter again, its
Natural Properties, as Water can. The truth is, Water and Fire, are opposite in
all their Properties: but, as Fire is, of all the Elements, the furthest from
altering: so Water is, of all the Elements, the most subject to alter: for, all
Circular Figures are apt to variety.
CHAP. XIII. Of the Innate Figurative Motions of Water.
THE Nature of Water is, Rare, Fluid, Moist, Liquid, Wet, Glutinous, and
Glassy. Likewise, Water is apt to divide and unite its Parts, most of which
Properties are caused by several sorts of Dilatations, or Extenuations: but,
the Interior, or Innate Figure of Water, is a Circular Line. But yet, it is to
be observed, That there are many several sorts of Waters, as there are many
several sorts of Airs, Fires, and Earths, and so of all Creatures: for, some
Waters are more rare than others, some more leight, and some more heavy; some
more clear, and some more dull; some salt, some sharp; some bitter, some more
fresh, or sweet; some have cold Effects, some hot Effects: all which is caused
by the several Figurative Motions of several sorts of Waters: but, the nature
of Water is such, as it can easily alter, or change, and rechange, and yet keep
its Interior, or Innate Nature or Figure. But this is also to be observed, That
the Dilating or Extenuating Circle of Water, is of a middle Degree, as between
Two Extremes.
CHAP. XIV. The Nature or Property of Water.
WEtness, which is the Interior or Innate Property, or Nature of Water, is, in
my opinion, caused by some sort of Dilatations or Extenuations. As, all
Droughts, or Dryness, are caused by some sorts of Contractions; so, all
Moistures, Liquors, and Wets, by Dilatations: yet, those Extenuations, or
Dilatations, that cause Wet, must be of such a sort of Dilatations, as are
proper to Wet; viz. Such a sort of Extenuations, as are Circular Extenuations;
which do dilate, or extenuate, in a smooth, equal dilatation, from the Center,
to the Circumference; which Extenuations, or Dilatations, are of a middle
Degree; for otherwise, the Figure of Water might be extended beyond the Degree
of Wet; or, not extended to the Degree of Wet. And it is to be observed, That
there is such a Degree as only causes moistness, and another to cause
liquidness, the third to cause wetness: for, though Moistness and Liquidness
are in the way of Wetness; yet, they are not that which we name Wet: also, all
that is Soft, or Smooth, is not Wet; nor is all that is Liquid, or Flowing,
Wet: for, some sorts of Air are liquid and flowing, but not wet: nay, Flame is
liquid and flowing, but yet quite opposite from wet. Dust is flowing, but
neither liquid or wet, in its Nature. And Hair and Feathers are soft and
smooth, but neither liquid, nor wet. But, as I said, Water is of such a Nature,
as to have the Properties of Soft, Smooth, Moist, Liquid, and VVet; and is also
of such flowing Properties, caused by such a sort of Extenuating Circles as are
of a Middle or Mean Degree: but yet, there are many several sorts of Liquors,
and VVets, as we may perceive in Fruit, Herbs, and the like: but, all sorts of
VVets, and Liquors, are of a watery kind, though of a different sort. But, as I
have said, all things that are Fluid, are not VVet; as, Melted Metal, Flame,
Light, and the like, are fluid, but not wet: and Smoke and Oil are of another
sort of Liquidness, than Water, or Juice; but yet they are not wet: and that
which causes the difference of different sorts of VVaters, and VVatry Liquors,
are the differences of the watery Circular Lines; as, some are edged, some are
pointed, some are twisted, some are braided, some are flat, some are round,
some ruff, some smooth; and so after divers several Forms or Figures: and yet
are perfect Circles, and of some such a Degree of Extenuations or Dilatations.
CHAP. XV. Of the Alteration of the Exterior Figurative Motion of Water.
AS I formerly said, The Figurative Motions of the Innate Nature of Water, is
a sort of Extenuating; as being an equal, smooth Circle: which is the cause
Water is rare, fluid, moist, liquid, and wet. But, the Exterior Figurative
Motions of the watery Circle, may be edged, pointed, sharp, blunt, flat, round,
smooth, ruff, or the like; which may be either divided, or altered, without any
alteration of the Innate Nature, or Property: As for example, Salt-water may be
made fresh, or the Salt Parts divided from the watery Circle: The like of other
sorts of VVaters; and yet the Nature of Water remains.
THE Exterior Figurative Motions of Oil, are so much like those of Water, as,
to be fluid, smooth, soft, moist, and liquid, although not perfectly wet: but,
the Interior Figurative Motions of Oil, are of that sort of Fire, that we name
a Dull, Dead Fire: and the difference between Salt Waters, Vitriol or the like,
and Oil, is, That the Exterior Figurative Motions of Vitriol and Salt Waters,
are of a sort of Fire; whereas it is the Interior Figurative Motions of Oil, or
the like, that are of those sorts of Fire; and that is the reason that the
fiery Motions of Oil cannot be altered, as the fiery Motions of Vitriol may.
But this is to be noted, That although the Interior Figurative Motions of Oil,
are of such a sort of fiery Motions; yet, not just like those of Vitriol; and
are not burning, corroding, or wounding, as Vitriols, Corrosives, and the like,
are: for, those are somewhat more of the Nature of bright shining Fires, than
CHAP. XVII. Of Mineral and Sulphurous Waters.
IN Sulphurous and Mineral Waters, the Sulphurous and Mineral Corporeal
Motions, are Exterior, and not Interior, like Salt waters: but, there are
several sorts of such waters; also, some are occasionally, others naturally so
affected: for, some waters running through Sulphurous, or Mineral Mines,
gather, like a rolling Stone, some of the loose Parts of Gravel, or Sand;
which, as they stick or cleave to the rolling Stone; so they do to the running
Waters; as we may perceive by those waters that spring out of Chalk, Clay, or
Lime Grounds, which will have some Tinctures of the Lime, Chalk, or Clay; and
the same happens to Minerals. But, some are naturally Sulphurous; as for
example, Some sorts of hot Baths are as naturally Sulphurous, as the Sea-water
is Salt: but, all those Effects of Minerals, Sulphurs, and the like, are
dividable from, and also may be joined to, the Body of water, without any
disturbance to the nature of water; as may be proved by Salt-water, which will
cause fresh Meat to be salt; and salt Meat will cause Fresh-water to be salt.
As for hot Baths, those have hot figurative Motions, but not burning: and the
moist, liquid, and wet Nature of water, makes it apt to join, and divide, to,
and from other sorts of Motions; as also, to and from its own sort.
CHAP. XVIII. The Cause of the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea.
THE Nature of water is to flow; so that all sorts of waters will flow, if they
be not obstructed: but it is not the Nature of Water, to ebb. Neither can water
flow beyond the Power of its Quantity: for, a little water will not flow so far
as a great one. But, I do not mean by flowing, the falling of water from some
Descent; but, to flow upon a Level: for, as I have said, all waters do
naturally flow, if they be not obstructed; but, few sorts of water, besides
Sea-water, ebbs. As for the Exterior Figurative Motions of water, in the action
of flowing, they are an Oval, or a half Circle, or a half Moon; where the
middle parts of the half Moon, or Circle, are fuller than the two Ends. Also,
the figure of a half Moon, or half Circle, is concave on the inside, and convex
on the outside of the Circle: but, these Figurative Motions, in a great
quantity of water, are big and full, which we name Waves of Water; which waves
flowing fast upon each other, presses each other forward, until such time as
the half Circle divides: for, when the Bow of the half Circle is over-bent, or
stretched, it divides into the middle, which is most extended: and when a half
Circle (which is a whole wave of water) is divided, the divided Parts fall
equally back on each side of the flowing waves: so, every wave dividing, after
that manner, in the full extension, it causes the motion of ebbing, that is, to
flow back, as it flowed forward: for, the divided Parts falling back, and
joining as they meet, makes the head of the half Circle, where the Ends of the
half Circle were; and the Convex, where the Concave was; by which action, the
ebbing Parts are become the flowing Parts. And the reason that it ebbs and
flows by degrees, is, That the flowing half Circles require so much time to be
at the utmost extension. Also, every wave, or half Circle, divides not all at
one time, but one after another: for, two Bodies cannot be in one place at one
point of time; and until the second, third, and so the rest, flow as far as the
first, they are not at their full extension. And thus the Sea, or such a great
Body of Water, must flow, and ebb, as being its nature to flow; and the flowing
Figure, being over-extended, by endeavouring to flow beyond its power, causes a
dividing of the Extended Parts, which is the Cause of the Ebbing.
But, whether this Opinion of mine, be as probable as any of the former
Opinions concerning the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea, I cannot judge: but I
would not be mistaken; for the flowing of the water, is according to its
Quantity; for, the further it flows, the fainter, or weaker it is.
AS for Overflows, there be many; and many more would be, if the waters were
not hindered and obstructed by Man's Inventions. But, some Overflows are very
Uncertain and Irregular; others, Certain and Regular, as, the flowing of Nilus
in Egypt: but as for the distance of time of its flowing, it may proceed from
the far Journey of those flowing-waters: and, the time of its ebbing, may be
attributed to the great Quantity of Water; so that the great quantity of water,
will cause a longer or a shorter time in the flowing or ebbing; and certainly
the waters are as long a flowing back, as flowing forward.
As for Spring Tides, they are only in such a time when there is a Natural
Issue of a greater quantity of water: so that Spring-Tides are but once a
Month, and Single-Tides in so many hours: but, many several occasions, may make
the Tides to be more or less full.
As for Double-Tides, they are occasioned through the Irregular dividing of the
Half-Circle; as, when they divide not orderly, but faster than they orderly
should do; which, falling back in a Crowd, and being, by that means,
obstructed, so that they cannot get forward, they are necessitated to flow,
where they ebbed.
The reason the Tides flow through Streams of Running-waters, is, That the Tide
is stronger than the Stream: but, if the Stream and Tides pass through each
other, then the Tide and Stream are somewhat like Duellers together, which make
Passes and Passages for their convenience.
CHAP. XX. Of the Figure of Ice and Snow.
A Circle may not only extend and contract it self without dividing; but may
draw it self into many several Figures, as Squares, or Triangles: as also, into
many other Figures mixed of Squares, Triangles, Cubes, or the like; being
partly one, and partly, another; and into other several ways, and after several
manners; which is the reason, Water may appear in many several Postures of
Snow, Ice, Hail, Frost, and the like: and, in my Opinion, when the Water-Circle
is Triangular, it is Snow; when the Circle is Square, it is Ice: as for Hail,
they are but small pieces of Ice; that is, small Parts, or few Drops of Water,
changed into Ice; and those several Parts moving after several manners, make
the Exterior Figures, after several shapes; as, great Bodies of Ice will be of
many several shapes, occasioned by many or fewer Parts, and by the several
Postures of those Parts: but, such Figures, though they are of Ice, yet, are
not the Innate Figures of Ice. The same is to be said of Snow. But, the reason
of these my Opinions concerning the Figures of Ice and Snow, is, That Snow is
leighter than the Water it self; and Ice is heavier, at least, as heavy. And
the reason Snow is so leight, is, That a Triangular Figure hath no poise, being
an odd Figure; whereas a Square is poised by Even and Equal Lines, and just
Number of Points, as, Two to Two: but, a Triangle is Two to One. Also, a Circle
is a poised Figure, as being equal every way, from the Center to the
Circumference; and from the Circumference to the Center, all the Lines drawing
to one Point. But, mistake me not; for I treat (concerning the Figures of Snow
and Ice) only of those Figures that cause Water to be Snow or Ice; and not of
the Exterior Figures of Snow and Ice, which are occasioned by the Order or
Disorder of Adjoining Parts: for, several Parts of Water, may order themselves
into numerous several Figures, which concern not the nature of Water, as it is
Water, Snow, or Ice: As for example, Many Men in a Battle, or upon Ceremony,
join into many several Figures or Forms; which Figures or Forms, are of no
concern to their Innate Nature. Also, the several Figures or Forms of several
Houses, or several sorts of Building in one House, are of no concern to the
Innate Nature of the Materials. The like for the Exterior Figures of Ice and
Snow; and therefore Microscopes may deceive the Artist, who may take the
Exterior for the Interior Figure; but there may be great difference between
CHAP. XXI. Of the Change and Rechange of Water.
WATER being of a Circular Figurative Motion, is, as it were, but one Part,
having no divisions; and therefore can more easily change and rechange it self
into several Postures, viz. into the Posture of a Triangle, or Square; or can
be dilated or extended into a larger compass, or contracted into a lesser
compass; which is the cause it can turn into Vapour and Vaporous Air; or into
Slime, or into some grosser Figure: For example, Water can extend it self
beyond the proper degrees of Water, into the degree of Vapour; and the Circle,
extending further than the degree of a Vaporous Circle, is extended into a
Vaporous Air; and if the Vaporous Airy Circle be extremely extended, it becomes
so small, as it becomes to be a sharp Edg, and so, in a degree, next to Fire;
at least, to have a hot Effect: but, if it extends further than an Edg, the
Circle breaks into Flashes of Fire, like Lightning, which is a flowing Flame:
for, being produced from Water, it hath the property of Flowing, or Streaming,
as Water hath, as we may perceive by the Effects of some few Parts of Water
flung on a bright Fire; for those few drops of Water being not enough to
quench the Fire, straight dilate so extremely, that they break into a Flame; or
else cause the Fire to be more brisk and bright: and as the Water-Circle can be
turned into Vapour, Air, and Flame, by Extension; so, it can be turned into
Snow, Hail, or Ice, by Contraction.
CHAP. XXII. Of Water Quenching Fire; and Fire Evaporating Water.
THERE is such an Antipathy betwixt Water and Fire, (I mean bright shining
Fire) that they never meet Body to Body, but Fire is in danger to be quenched
out, if there be a sufficient Quantity of Water. But it is to be observed, That
it is not the actual Coldness of Water, that quenches out Fire; for,
Scalding-water will quench out Fire: wherefore, it is the Wetness that quenches
out Fire; which Wetness chokes the Fire, as a Man that is drowned: for, Water
being not fit for Man's Respiration, because it is too thick, chokes and
smuthers him; and the same doth Water to Fire: for, though Air is of a proper
temper for Respiration, both to some sorts of Animals, such as Man; as also, to
Fire: yet, Water is not: which is most proper for other sorts of Animals,
namely, Fish; as also, for some sorts of Animals that are of a mixed kind or
sort, partly Fish, and partly Flesh: to which sort of Creatures, both Air and
Water are both equally proper for their Respiration; or, their Respiration
equal to either: for certainly, all sorts of Creatures have Respiration, by
reason all Creatures subsist by each other; I say, By each other, not Of each
other. But, there are many several sorts and kinds of Respirations; as
concerning Water and Fire, though a sufficient quantity of Water, to Fire,
doth always choke, smuther, or quench out the Fire's Life, if joined Body to
Body; yet, when there is another Body between those two Bodies, water is in
danger to be infected with the Fire's heat; the Fire first infecting the Body
next to it; and that Body infecting the Water: by which Infection, Water is
consumed, either by a languishing Hectic Fever; or, by a raging Boiling Fever;
and the Life of Water evaporates away.
CHAP. XXIII. Of Inflammable Liquors.
THERE are many Bodies of mixed Natures; as for example, Wine, and all Strong
Liquors, are partly of a watery Nature, and partly of a fiery Nature; but, 'tis
of that sort we name a Dead, or Dull Fire: but, being of such a mixed Nature,
they are both apt to quench Bright Fire, as also, apt to burn or flame; so that
such sorts are both Inflammable, and Quenchable. But, some have more of the
fiery Nature; and others more of the watery Nature; and, by those Effects, we
may perceive, that not only different, but opposite Figurative Motions, do well
agree in one Society.
I Observe, that all Tempestuous Sounds have some resemblances to the flowing
of waters, either in great and ruffling waves; or, when the waters flow in such
sort, as to break in pieces against hard and rugged Rocks; or run down great
Precipices, or against some Obstruction. And the like Sound hath the Blowings
of Wind, or the Clappings of Thunder; which causes me to be of opinion, That
Thunder is occasioned by a Discord amongst some VVater-Circles in the Higher
Region; which, pressing and beating upon each other in a confused manner, cause
a confused Sound, by reason all Circles are Concave within the Bow, and Convex
without; which is a Hollow Figure, although no Vacuum: which Hollow Figure,
causes quick Repetitions and Replies; which Replies and Repetitions, we name
Rebounds but, Replies are not Rebounds; for, Rebounds are Pressures and
Re-actions; whereas Repetitions are without Pressure, but Re-action is not:
and, Replies are of several Parts; as, one Part to reply to another. But for
Thunder, it is occasioned both by Pressures and Re-actions; as also, Replies of
Extended Water-Circles, which make a kind or sort of Confusion, and so a
confused Sound, which we name Horrid; and, according to their Discord, the
Sound is more or less terrifying, or violent. But this is to be noted, That as
Thunder is caused by undivided or broken Circles; so Lightning is caused by
broken or divided Circles, that are extended beyond the Power of the Nature of
the Water-Circle; and when the Circle is extremely extended, it divides it self
into a straight Line, and becomes a flowing Flame.
CHAP. XXV. Of Vapour, Smoke, Wind, and Clouds.
VApour and Smoke are both fluid Bodies: but, Smoke is more of the Nature of
Oil, than Water; and Vapour more of the Nature of Water, than Oil; they are
dividable: and may be joined, as other Elements: also, they are of a
Metamorphosing Nature, as to change and rechange; but, when they are
Metamorphosed into the form of Air, that Air is a gross Air, and is, as we say,
a corruptible Air. As for Vapour, it is apt to turn into Wind: for, when it is
rarefied beyond the Nature of Vapour, and not so much as into the Nature of
Air, it turns into some sorts of Wind. I say, some sorts: and certainly, the
strongest Winds are made of the grossest Vapours. As for Smoke, it is apt to
turn into some sorts of Lightning; I say, apt: for, both Vapour and Smoke can
turn into many sorts of Metamorphosed Elements. As for Wind, it proceeds either
from Rarefied Vapour, or Contracted Air. And there are many sorts of Vapours,
Smokes, and Winds; all which sorts of Vapours and Smokes, are apt to ascend:
but, Wind is of a more level action. As for Clouds, they cannot be composed of
a Natural Air; because Natural Air is too rare a Body to make Clouds.
Wherefore, Clouds are composed of Vapour and Smoke: for, when Vapour and Smoke
ascends up high without transformation, they gather into Clouds, some higher,
some lower, according to their purity: for, the purer sort (as I may say for
expression-sake) ascends the highest, as being the most agil. But, concerning
the Figurative Motions of Vapour and Smoke, they are Circles; but of VVinds,
they are broken Parts of Circular Vapours: for, when the Vaporous Circle is
extended beyond its Nature of Vapour, the Circumference of the Circle breaks
into perturbed Parts; and if the Parts be small, the wind is, in our
perception, sharp, pricking, and piercing: but, if the Parts are not so small,
then the wind is strong and pressing: but wind, being rarefied Vapour, is so
like Air, as it is not perceived by human sight, though it be perceived by
human touch. But, as there are hot vapours, cold vapours, sharp vapours, moist
vapours, dry vapours, subtle vapours, and the like; so there is such sorts of
winds. But, pray do not mistake me, when I say, that some sorts of winds are
broken and perturbed Circles, as if I meant, such as those of Lightning: for,
those of Lightning, are extended beyond the degree of Air; and those of
Vapours, are not extended to the degree of Air: also, those of Lightning, are
not perturbed; and those of Wind, are perturbed. Again, those of Lightning,
flow in Streams of smooth, small, even Lines; those of Wind, in disordered
Parts and Fragments.
WIND and Fire have some resemblance in some of their particular actions: as
for example, Wind and Fire endeavour the disturbance of other Creatures,
occasioning a separating and disjoining of Parts. Also, Wind is both an Enemy
and Friend to Fire: for Wind, in some sorts of its actions, will assist Fire;
and in other actions, dissipates Fire, nay, blows it out: but certainly, the
powerful Forces of Wind, proceed not so much from Solidity, as Agility: for,
soft, weak, (...) quick Motions, are far more powerful, than strong, slow
Motions; because, quick Replies are of great Force, as allowing no time of
respit. But this is to be observed, That Wind hath some watery Effects: for, the
further water flows, the weaker and fainter it is: so the Wind, the further it
blows, the weaker and fainter it is. But this is to be observed, That according
to the agilness or slowness of the Corporeal Motions; or, according to the
number; or, according to the manner of the compositions, or joynings, or
divisions; or, according to the regularity or irregularity of the Corporeal
Figurative Motions, so are the Effects.
WATER, Air, Fire, and Light; are all Rare and Fluid Creatures; but they are of
different sorts of Rarities and Fluities: and, though Light seems to be
extremely Rare and Fluid; yet, Light is not so Rare and Fluid, as pure Air is,
because it is subject to that sort of Human Perception we name Sight; but yet,
it is not subject to any of the other Perceptions: and, pure Air is only
subject to the Perception of Respiration, which seems to be a more subtle
Perception than Sight; and that occasions me to believe, That Air is more Rare
and Pure, than Light: but howsoever, I conceive the Figurative Motions of
Light, to be extraordinary even, smooth, agil Lines of Corporeal Motions: but,
as I said before, there are many sorts of Lights that are not Elemental Lights;
as, Glow-worms Tails, Cats Eyes, Rotten Wood, Fish Bones, and that Human Light
which is made in Dreams, and Infinite other Lights, not subject to our
Perception: which proves, That Light may be without Heat. But, whether the
Light of the Sun, which we name Natural Light, is naturally hot, may be a
dispute: for, many times, the Night is hotter than the Day.
THE Figurative Motions of Light and Darkness, are quite opposite; and the
Figurative Motions of Colours, are as a Mean between both, being partly of the
Nature of both: but, as the Figurative Motions of Light, in my opinion, are
rare, straight, equal, even, smooth Figurative Motions: those of Darkness are
uneven, ruff, or rugged, and more dense. Indeed, there is as much difference
between Light and Darkness, as between Earth and Water; or rather, between
Water and Fire; because each is an Enemy to other; and, being opposite, they
endeavour to out-power each other. But this is to be noted, That Darkness is as
visible to Human Perception, as Light; although the Nature of Darkness is, To
obscure all other Objects besides it self: but, if Darkness could not be
perceived, the Optic Perception could not know when it is dark; nay,
particular dark Figurative Motions, are as visible in a general Light, as any
other Object; which could not be, if Darkness was only a privation of Light, as
the Opinions of many Learned Men are: but, as I said before, Darkness is of a
quite different Figurative Motion, from Light; so different, that it is just
opposite: for, as the property of Light is to divulge Objects; so, the property
of Darkness is to obscure them: but, mistake me not; I mean, that Light and
Darkness have such properties to our Perception: but, whether it is so to all
Perceptions, is more than I know, or is, as I believe, known to any other Human
AS for Colour, it is the same with Body: for surely, there is no such thing in
Nature, as a Colourless Body, were it as small as an Atom; nor no such thing as
a Figureless Body; or such a thing as a Placeless Body: so that Matter, Colour,
Figure, and Place, is but one thing, as one and the same Body: but Matter,
being self-moving, causes varieties of Figurative Actions, by various changes.
As for Colours, they are only several Corporeal Figurative Motions; and as
there are several sorts of Creatures, so there are several sorts of Colours:
but, as there are those, Man names Artificial Creatures; so there are
Artificial Colours. But, though to describe the several Species of all the
several sorts of Colours, be impossible; yet we may observe, that there is more
variety of Colours amongst Vegetables and Animals, than amongst Minerals and
Elements: for, though the Rain-bow is of many fine Colours; yet, the Rain-bow
hath not so much Variety, as many particular Vegetables, or Animals have; but
every several Colour, is a several Figurative Motion; and the Brighter the
Colours are, the Smoother and Evener are the Figurative Motions. And as for
Shadows of Colours, they are caused when one sort of Figurative Motions is as
the Foundation: for example, If the Fundamental Figurative Motion, be a deep
Blew, or Red, or the like, then all the variations of other Colours have a
tincture. But, in short, all Shadows have a ground of some sort of dark
Figurative Motions. But, the Opinions of many Learned Men, are, That all
Colours are made by the several Positions of Light, and are not inherent in any
Creature; of which Opinion I am not: For, if that were so, every Creature would
be of many several Colours; neither would any Creature produce after their own
Species: for, a Parrot would not produce so fine a Bird as her self; neither
would any Creature appear of one and the same Colour, but their Colour would
change according to the Positions of Light; and in a dark day, in my opinion,
all fine coloured Birds, would appear like Crows; and fine coloured Flowers,
appear like the Herb named Night-shade; which is not so. I do not say, That
several Positions of Light may not cause Colours; but I say, The Position of
Light is not the Maker of all Colours; for, Dyers cannot cause several Colours
by the Positions of Light.
CHAP. XXX. Of the Exterior Motions of the Planets.
BY the Exterior Motions of the Planets, we may believe their Exterior Shape is
Spherical: for, it is to be observed, That all Exterior Actions are according
to their Exterior Shape: but, by reason Vegetables and Minerals have not such
sorts of Exterior Motions or Actions, as Animals; some Men are of opinion, they
have not Sensitive Life; which opinion proceeds from a shallow consideration:
neither do they believe the Elements are sensible, although they visibly
perceive their Progressive Motions; and yet believe all sorts of Animals to
have sense, only because they have Progressive Motions.
CHAP. XXXI. Of the Sun, and Planets, and Seasons.
THE Sun, Moon, Planets, and all those glittering Stars we see, are several
sorts of that Man names Elemental Creatures: but Man, having not an infinite
Perception, cannot have an infinite perceptive knowledge: for, though the
Rational Perception is more subtle than the Sensitive; yet, the particular
Parts cannot perceive much further than the Exterior Parts of Objects: but,
Human Sense and Reason cannot perceive what the Sun, Moon, and Stars are; as,
whether solid, or rare; or, whether the Sun be a Body of Fire; or the Moon, a
Body of Water, or Earth; or, whether the Fixed Stars be all several Suns; or,
whether they be other kinds or sorts of Worlds. But certainly, all Creatures do
subsist by each other, because Nature seems to be an Infinite united Body,
without Vacuum. As for the several Seasons of the Year, they are divided into
Four Parts: but the several Changes and Tempers of the Four Seasons, are so
various, altering every moment, as it would be an endless work, nay,
impossible, for one Creature to perform: for, though the Almanack-makers
pretend to fore-know all the variations of the Elements; yet, they can tell no
more than just what is the constant and set-motions; but not the variations of
every Hour, or Minute; neither can they tell any thing, more than their
Exterior Motions.
CHAP. XXXII. Of Air corrupting Dead Bodies.
SOME are of opinion, That Air is a Corrupter, and so a Dissolver of all dead
Creatures, and yet is the Preserver of all living Creatures. If so, Air hath an
Infinite Power: but, all the reason I can perceive for this Opinion, is, That
Man perceives, that when any Raw (or that we name Dead) Flesh, is kept from the
air, it will not stink, or corrupt, so soon as when it is in the air: but yet
it is well known, that extreme cold air will keep Flesh from corrupting.
Another Reason is, That a Fly entombed in Amber, being kept from air, the
Fly remains in her Exterior Shape as perfectly as if she were alive.
I answer, The cause of that may be, that the Figurative Motions of Amber, may
sympathize with the Exterior consistent Motions of the Fly, which may cause the
Exterior Shape of the Fly to continue, although the Innate Nature be altered.
But Air is, as all other Creatures are, both Beneficial, and Hurtful to each
other; for Nature is poised with Opposites: for we may perceive, that several
Creatures are both Beneficial and Hurtful to each other: as for example, A Bear
kills a Man; and, on the other side, a Bear's Skin will cure a Man of some
Disease. Also, a Wild-Boar will kill a Man; and the Boar's Flesh will nourish a
Man. Fire will burn a Man, and preserve a Man; and Millions of such Examples
may be proposed. The same may be said of Air, which may occasion Good or Evil
to other Creatures; as, the Amber may occasion the death of a Fly; and, on the
other side, may occasion the Preservation, or Continuation of the Fly's