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ORATIONS OF DIVERS SORTS, Accommodated to DIVERS PLACES. Written by the
thrice Noble, Illustrious and excellent Princess, the Lady Marchioness OF
NEWCASTLE.
LONDON, Printed Anno Doom. 1662.
TO THE LADY MARCHIONESS OF NEWCASTLE On her Book of Orations.
VVEreall the Grecian Oratorsalive,
And swarms of Latines, that did daily strive
With their perfumed and oily tongues to draw
The deceived people to their Will and Law,
Each word so soft and gentle, every piece
As it were spun still from the Golden fleece,
How short would all this be, did you but look
On this admired Ladies witty Book!
All Europ's Universities, no doubt,
Will study English now, the rest put out.
W. Newcastle.
TO HIS EXCELLENCY THE LORD MARQUIS OF NEWCASTLE.
MY LORD,
I Have mentioned in my other Books, that I think it not fit I Should Dedicate
unto your Lordship the Single parts of my Works, before I dedicate all the
parts in the Whole; yet I cannot choose but declare to the World how happy I and
my works are in your Approvement, which makes the pastime of my Writing very
Delightful; besides, it makes me confident and resolute to put them to the
Press, and so to the Publik view, in despite of these Critical times and
Censorious age, which is apt to find fault with every Action, let it be never
so innocent or harmless, or with any Work although good and profitable, yet
they will sting spiteful Aspersions on them: But I have heard your Lordship
say, that most men Believe themselves not Wise if they find no Fault with their
Neighbours Actions, and that it is as Easy to find Fault, as it is Hard to do
Well; It seems such men have more Evil in their Natures, than fustice in their
Censures; but your Lordship, who is full of Truth and Generosity, Reason and
Knowledge, will give your Opinion Clearly and Uprightly, and my Works having
your Approbation, I regard not the Dislike of other men, for I have Dedicated
my Self and all my Actions to your Lordship, as becomes
Your Lordships honest Wife and humble Servant M. Newcastle.
TO THE READERS OF MY WORKS.
I Know not how to Please All, that are pleased to Read my Works; for do what I
can, Some will find Fault; and the worst is, that those Faults or
Imperfections, I accuse my-self of in my Praefatory Epistles, they fling back
with a double strength against my poor harmless Works, which shows their
Malice and my Truth: And as for my Plays, which they say are not made up so
exactly as they should be, as having no Plots, Designs, Catastrophes and such
like I know not what, I expressed in the Epistles praefixed before my Plays,
that I had not Skill nor Art to Form them, as they should be, for that Work was
like a Taylors Work to make Clothes: But many that find such Faults, are not so
good as a Taylor, but meet Botchers or Brokers, to Patch and Set several Old
and New Pieces together to make up a Play, which I never did, for I thank my
Fates, all is not only New, but my Own, what I have Presented to the World; But
this Age is so Censorious, that the Best Poets are found Fault with, wherefore
it is an Honour to my Writings, which are so much Inferior to theirs; Neither
can their Dislikes Deter me from Writing, for I Write to Please my Self,
rather than to Please such Crabbed Readers. Yet all my Readers have not been so
Cross nor Cruel, for there are Many, to whom my Endeavours and Works are
Acceptable, and the more Honour it is to my Works, as being Approved and Known
by Worthy and Judicious Men, and Noble Persons; But many Men have more Ill
Natures to Find Faults with their Neighbours, than Virtue to Mend Faults in
Themselves; also they are apt to Censure Other men's Wit, and yet have None of
their Own; the truth is, they are a sort of Persons that in Plays prefer
Plots before Wit, and Scenes before Humours; in Poems, Rime before Similizing,
and Numbers before Distinguishing; in Theology, Faction before Faith, and
Sophistry before Truth; in Philosophy, Old Authors before New Truths, and
Opinions before Reason; And in Orations, they prefer Artificial Connexions,
before Natural Eloquence: All which makes them Foolish, Censorious, and Unjust
Judges. Wherefore, I desire, these my Orations may not be Read by such Humoured
men, but by the Just and Wife, which will be a Satisfaction to me.
'Tis Probable, had I been a Learned Scholar, I might have Written my Orations
more Short than I have done, but yet some of them are so short, that had they
been shorter, they would not have been of Force to Persuade, whereas the
Intention of an Orator, or Use of Orations, is to Persuade the Auditors to be
of the Orators Opinion or Belief, and it is not Probable, that Forcible
Arguments or Persuasions can be Contained in two or three Lines of Words; Also
had I been a Learned Scholar, I might have Written them more Compendiously, and
not so Loose, but I affect Freedom and Ease, even in my Works, of Writings;
Besides, I have Observed, that whatsoever is Bound or Knit Close, is difficult
to Disclose, and for Writings, whatsoever is very Compendious, requires some
Study to Conceive and Understand the Sense and Design of the Authors Meaning:
But I hope that Defect or want of Learning, will not Blemish my Work, nor
Obstruct the Sense of my Orations, nor Puzzle the Understanding of the Reader.
Only one thing more I desire my Noble Readers, as to Observe that most of my
Orations are General Orations, viz. such as may be spoken in any Kingdom or
Government, for I suppose, that in All, at least in Most Kingdoms and
Governments there are Soldiers, Magistrates, Privy-Counsellours, Lawyers,
Preachers, and University Scholars.
We have, its true, gotten a Foolish Custom both in our Writing and Speaking,
to Endeavour more to Match or Marry Words together, than to Match and Marry
Sense: and Reason together, which is strange, we should Prefer Shadows before
Substances, or the Spig or Tap before the Liquor, for Words are but to
Conveigh the Sense of an Cration to the Ears, and so into the Understanding of
the Hearers, like as Spouts do Wine into Bottels; and who, that is Wise, will
Regard what the Vessel is, so it be VVholsome and Clean? for should not we
believe those to be Fools, that had rather have Foul Water out of a Golden
Vessel, than Pure Wine out of Earthen or VVoodden Vessels? the like may be
said for Words and Sense, for who, that is Wise, would Choose Choice Words
before Profitable Reasons? Wherefore, Noble Readers, let me Advise you to
Leave this Custom in Writing and Speaking, or rather be Silently Wife, than
Foolish in Rhetoric.
I have Endeavoured in this Book to Express Perfect Orators, that Speak Perfect
Orations, as to Cause their Auditors to Act, or Believe, according to the
Orators Opinion, Judgement, Design, or Desire; But before I did put this my
Book forth, Know, Noble Readers, I did Inquire, to find whether any Person had
Composed and Put out a Whole Book of Pure and Perfect Orations, but I could
neither hear of, nor see any such Works of any Person that Composed and Set
forth to the Public View, a Book of Pure Orations, Composed out of One Orators
Own Fancy, Wit, and Eloquence. 'Tis true, I have heard of Single Orations, made
by Single Persons, in Single Parts; Also I have seen Orations mixed with
History, wherein the Substance of the History is the Ground of their Orations;
Also I have seen two Translations called Orations, but they are rather Orations
in Name than in Reality, for their Nature is History, the One contains
Relations of several Countries, in the Other are Relations from several Princes
of their Actions, or Fortunes, or Both, Expressed in an Orators Style; yet those
are not Perfect or Right Orations, but Adulterated, or rather Hermophrodites.
But perchance my Readers will say, I Understand not True Orations; If I do not,
I am Sorry for, and ask their Pardon for Speaking what I Understand not. But I
desire, Noble Readers, you will not think or believe, I speak to Illustrate my
Own Works, and to Detract from the Works of Others, for upon my Conscience I
Speak and Write as I Believe, and if I Commit an Error in this Belief, I ask
your Pardon, and if you Excuse me, I shall take it for a Favour and Obligation.
I have Written Orations and Speeches of all Sorts, and in all Places sit for
Orations, Speeches, or particular Discourses; and first imagining my Self and
You to be in a Metropolitan City, I invite you into the Chief Market-place, as
the most Populous place, where usually Orations are Spoken, at least they were
so in Older times, and there you shall hear Crations Concerning Peace and War;
but the Generality of the People being more apt to make War, than to keep
Peace, I desire you to Arm your Selves, supposing you to be of the Masculine
Sex, and of Valiant Heroical Natures, to enter into the Field of War; and
fince Wars bring Ruin and Destruction to One or Some Parties, if not to All,
and Loss causes men to Desire Peace, out of War I bring you into great
Disorders, caused by the Ruins Wars have made, which I am Sorry for, yet it
Must be so, the Fates have Decreed it; and Misery causing men to be Prudent and
Industrious, by which they come to Flourish again, at least their Successors,
and to show you their Industry, I bring you out of the Field of War into a
New-built City, where you must stay the Building of it, for it will be Built
Soon, having Many Labourers, and after it is Built, there being a Large
Market-place, you may stand or sit with Ease and hear the Orations that are
there Spoken; and by Reason, there are some Causes or Cases to be Pleaded, I
shall endeavour to Persuade you, after some time of Refreshment, at your own
Homes, to go into the Courts or Halls of Judicature; after these Causes are
Judged or at least Pleaded, I shall desire you, to Adorn your Selves fit for
the Court, then to Wait upon the Kings Majesty, and if you be
Privy-Counsellours, or have any Business or Petitions at the Council-Table, by
the Kings Permission you may Enter into the CouncilChamber; but great Monarchs
having Many Subjects, whereof some are more Active than Wise, and more apt to
Complain than to Obey, you may hear the Petitions of the Subjects, and the
Speeches or Orations of the Sovereign, and after a good Agreement, Unity, and
Love, you may Rest your Selves in Peace, until such time as your Charity calls
you forth to Visit the Sick, and when as Death hath Released those Sick Persons
of their Pains, Humanity will persuade you to wait on their Dead Corps to the
Grave, and after some Tears showered on their Graves, and having Dried your
Eyes, and Heard some Sermons of Reproof and Instructions, you will be Invited
as Bridal-Guests to see some Men and Women United in Holy Matrimony; after the
VVedding Ceremonies are ended, you may, as formerly you have done, go into the
Market-place again, and hear what Orations there are Spoken, wherein one short
Oration concerning the Liberty of Women hath so Angered that Sex, as after the
Men's Orations are ended, they Privately Assemble together, where three or four
take the place of an Orator, and Speak to the rest; the only Difficulty will
be, to get Undiscovered amongst them, to hear their Private Conventicles; but
if you regard not what Women say, you may Ride to a Country Market-Town, and
hear a Company of Gentlemen associate together their Discourse and Pastime; and
if you like not their Pastime, then you may Walk into the Fields of Peace, to
Receive the Sweet and Healthful Air, or to View the Curious and Various Works
of Nature, and for Variety of Pastime, you may stand or sit under a Spreading
Tree, and hear the Country Clowns or Peasants speak, concerning their own
Affairs and Course of Life; in which Shady place, Sweet Air, and Happiness of
Peace I leave you, unless you will Travel to see the Government or rather
Disorders in other States or Kingdoms, to which Observation I will Wait upon
you, and when all is in Peace, before we return Home, we will, if you Please,
enter some of their Colleges, and hear some School-Arguments, after which
return, I shall Kiss your Hands and take my Leave.
M. Newcastle.
A PRAEFACTORY ORATION.
Worthy Country-men,
YOu know, that there is difference between Orations of fancy, and Orations of
business, as also difference between Orations of public employments, and
private divertisements; The one sort requires Rational persuasions, the other
only Eloquent expressions: and as there are different Subjects of Orations, so
there are different Places for Orations; and the Subjects of my Orations being
of the most serious and most concernable actions and accidents amongst Mankind,
and the Places most common and public, it hath caused me to Write my Orations
rather to benefit my Auditors, than to delight them. But by reason I have not
been bred, being a Woman, to public Affairs, Associations, or Negotiations, it
is not to be expected I should speak or write wisely., the truth is, it were
more easy and more proper for one of my Sex, to speak or write wittily than
wisely; but 'tis probable, my Auditors will think or judge, that I have done
neither. Yet I can assure you, Noble Auditors, I have done my endeavour, and my
desire was and is, that every several Oration may be acceptable to your Minds,
profitable to your Lives, and delightful to your Hearing.
ORATIONS To CITIZENS in a chief City concerning Peace and War.
PART I.
An Oration for War.
BE not Offended, Noble Citizens, if I labour to persuade my Country, to make
Heroic Wars, since it is neither safe, profitable, nor honourable for it, to
live in sluggish Peace: for in Peace you become ignorant of the Arts in War,
and living sluggishly, you lose the courage of men, and become Effeminate, and
having neither skill nor courage, you cannot expect safety: for should you
chance to have Enemies, you would not have abilities to help your selves,
having neither Experience by practice, nor Courage by use and custom; for
custom and use work much upon the natures of men. And as for Arms, in times of
Peace they lie like Garments out of fashion, never worn, but despised and
laughed at as ridiculous things, and men of action like as arms, they jear and
make a mock of. Thus Martial men and arms in time of Peace are scorned,
although in time of Wars they only are a Kingdoms safety, to guard it from
their Enemies. Indeed, Peace spoils both youth and age, it makes the one sort
Covetous, the other Wanton: for aged men study only to get Wealth; the young
men how to spend it. Besides, it makes the Poor men Richmen's Asses, and Rich
men Poor men's Burdens. Also peace makes old men Fools, and young men Cowards:
for in long times of Peace grave Counsels are mere gossiping meetings, rather
idly to talk, than wisely to advise, they propound many things, but resolve
not any, debate not, but conclude, and sometimes find faults, but never help to
mend them. The truth is, for the most part, they rather make errors, than help
to rectify defects, and in Wars they had rather suffer calamity, than stir
for necessity; Neither will they believe they are in danger, until their
Enemies be at their Gates. And as for youth, Peace quenches out their Heroic
spirits and noble ambitions: for their only ambition is their Mistresses
favours, and they will go to no other Wars, but Venus, where Cupid is General,
where they only make Love-skirmishes, and are shot through their hearts with
glances from their Mistresses eyes. Thus Peace makes men like Beasts: for in
peace they feed like Swine, sport like Apes, live like Goats, and may be
brought to the Shambles like silly Sheep. Nay, it makes men not only Live, but
Die like Beasts, having neither spirits, skill nor conduct to defend themselves,
or fight an Enemy. And how should it be otherwise, when as the young men are
only armed with Vanity, march with Pride, entrench with Luxury, fight with
Bacchus, and are overcome by Venus? Thus we may observe, that all which causes
Peace, and takes away the courage of young Vigorous men, rots their Bodies with
excess, and corrupts their Blood with idleness, by which their Spirits are
quenched, their Strengths weakened, their Minds softened, and their Natures
become effeminate, which makes their Lives vacant, and when they die, they are
buried in Oblivion: for Fame lives in Heroic actions. And surely it is better
for Noble men, to have Fame than Wealth, and for young Gallants to have Honour
than gay Clothes, and more honour to have Scars, than black Patches, to fight
with an Enemy, than to dance with a Lady, to march to a Battle, than to tread a
Measure. And for the meaner sort, it is better for them to wear honourable
Arms, than to bear slavish Burdens; and how happy is that man, that can raise
himself from a low Birth, to a glorious Renown? Thus from the Noblest to the
meanest, War is the way to advance them to honour, if the common Soldiers
fight with courage, and the Nobles command and direct with skill, for which
their Posterity will glory in their Valours, Poets will sing their Praises,
Historians write their Acts, and Fame keep their Records, that after ages may
know, what Heroic men they were; and as for Kingdoms, those are safest that
are protected by Mars.
An Oration for Peace.
Noble Citizens.
THe Oration that was last spoken unto you, hath stirred your spirits and
encumbered your thoughts with Wars, and your desire for War is such, that you
will not only seek for Enemies, but make Enemies to fight with, which is
neither Heroic nor Just, to fight with those that have done you no injury or
wrong; and what can be a more unworthy Act, than to assault peaceable
Neighbours? it cannot be called an honourable War, but a base Outrage; like as
Pirats at Sea, so you will be Robbers at Land, taking that from others, which
you have no right to. But say you have some slight injuries done you, If you
were wise, you had better wink at small faults than make Wars, which will
exhaust your Treasures, wast your Strength, depopulate your Nation, and leave
your Lands unmanured. Besides, Wars corrupt all good manners, nay, even good
natures, making the one rude, and the other cruel; and though long Wars may
make men Martial, Skilful, and may heighten their courage, yet neither skill nor
courage can always bear away Victory, especially from a powerful Enemy,
unless Fortune be on their side. The truth is, Fortune is the chief Actor and
decider in Wars; and who that are wise, will trust their Goods, Lives and
Liberties to Fortunes disposal, if they may choose? Wherefore they are either
fools or mad, that will make War, when they may live in Peace. And give me
leave to tell you, that it is not the way to keep our Country safe, to make
Wars abroad, but to make our Country strong with Forts on the Frontiers, and
Ships on the Seas that beat on our shores, and to practise our men with
training, not fighting; and it is easier to keep out an Enemy, than to Conquer
an enemies Kingdom: for at home we have all Provisions needful and near at
hand, when in a foreign Country we shall be to seek. But say, good fortune may
enrich us, yet ill fortune will absolutely ruin us: I answer, War enriches
few, for it makes spoil of all; the truth is, War is a great devourer, for it
consumes almost all that is consumable, wheresoever it comes, and is like a
Glutton, that eats much, and yet is very lean; for most commonly the under
Soldiers are very poor, and the Commanders only rich in fame, yet not, unless
they have good fortune, otherwise if they have ill fortune, they are usually
scorned, at least but pitied, but never praised. Wherefore it is neither
Courage nor Conduct, that gets fame in the Wars, but Fortune that gives it,
and she many times gives glorious fame to Cowards and Fools, and blemishes, at
least obscures the worth and merit of Wise and Valiant men. Wherefore, let me
persuade you not to follow unjust and inconstant Fortune to the Wars, but to
live at home in Peace with Minerva and Pallas, the one will defend you, the
other will employ you, and both will make you happy in present Life, and will
give you Fame and Renown according to your desert, that your memory may live in
after-ages.
An Oration against War.
Dear Country-men.
I Perceive, all this Nation, or the most part, their minds are hot, and their
spirits inflamed through an over-earnest desire to be in War, which expresses
you have surfeited with the delicious fruits of Peace, which hath made your
reason, judgement and understanding sick and faint, so that it desires a
change, as from rest to trouble, from plenty to scarcity, from palaces to
tents, from safety to danger, from gay apparel to bloody wounds, from freedom
to slavery, all which War will bring upon you. The truth is, War is more
likely to kill you, than cure your surfeit: for War is a dangerous Physic,
and the more dangerous, by reason your Enemies must be your Physicians. But let
me advise you, to cure your selves with Temperance and Prudence, by which you
will flourish with Wealth, and grow strong with Wisdom: for wealth and wisdom
is the health and strength of a Common-wealth, which will preserve it from
destruction, For what is the strength of a Kingdom, but Riches and wise
Government? and what exhausts the one, and confounds the other more than War?
which for the most part is in Fortune's power, to order as she pleases, and
Fortune in VVarrs hath power to puzzle the wise, and impoverish the rich.
Wherefore, Noble Country-men, do not make your selves beggars and fools in
VVarring actions, and ruin not your Country through the ambition of
pre-eminence or applause, or through the ill nature of Revenge; But be wise and
rich with Peace, by which you will become impregnable against your Enemies, and
happy amongst your selves; for certainly VVarr is better to hear of, than to
feel; for though in VVarrs you may Cover much, yet in the end In joy but
little, you may have high Designs, but you are not sure to have prosperous
Success, and instead of being Conquerors, be Conquered, instead of being
Masters, become Slaves. But to conclude, it were more happy to lie Peaceable in
the Grave with our Fore-fathers, than to live in the turmoils of VVarr with our
Enemies.
An Oration persuading to the breach of Peace with their Neighbour-Nation.
Dear Country-men,
OUr Neighbours, the U. G. have done us many injuries contrary to the Articles
of Agreement made betwixt our Nation, by which they have broken the Peace; but
yet we, out of Laziness or Fearful natures, suffer them to make Riots, and
never stir against them, when we are so far from being Abusers, as we suffer
our selves to be Abused. 'Tis true, the first shows us to be Honest Men, but
the last proves us to be Fools, if not Cowards, which, if our Enemies know,
(for now they are but a proving, making a trial of us,) they will overcome us
without Resistance, and will enslave us in our own Territories, so that we
shall labour for our Enemies, and have no Profit our selves. Thus whilst we sit
still, we shall have a Yoke cast on us, we shall be bound in Fetters, and they
enjoy their own and our Liberties, which rather than suffer or yield to, were a
thousand times better to Dye; Wherefore, bethink yourselves, and consider the
danger, be not so surprised, as not to be able to help your selves; and if you
be Wise and Valiant, as I hope you are, you will be Watchful and Active; let
not your Enemies tread you into the Earth, like dull Worms, or drive you into
Bondage, like silly Sheep into a Pinfold, but rather be as the subtle Serpents,
and dreadful Lions, to take your advantages, and make them your prey; Suffer
them not to be your Vultures, but be their Eagles, let them not feed on our
ruins, but be you their Emperors to Command them, make them march under your
Banners, and suffer them not to lead you as Slaves.
An Oration against the breaking of Peace, with their Neighbour-Nation.
Dear Country-men,
I Perceive, you desire, or rather are resolved, to be no longer in Peace, but
to make War on the U. G. for some slight injuries, which perchance could not
be avioded: for there is no Friendship between Man and Man, or the dearest
natural affections betwixt Brethren, or Parents and Children, or Husbands and
VVives, but will give some occasions, either by Words or Actions, or both, to
take exceptions, and to be angry with each other; and should they for some
small Offences, or indiscreet Actions, break off all Bonds of Friendship or
Natural affection, Or should they endeavour to destroy each others Lives, this
would be Inhumane, Unnatural, Uncharitable, Unjust, and Irreligious; and if
near and dear Friends cannot live without Exceptions and Faults, much less can
two several Nations under two several Governments. And give me leave to tell
you, that if it be not Wicked, yet it will be very Unwise to hazard your Lives,
Liberties, Possessions, and Habitations, in War, only to be revenged for some
few abuses or faults, that should rather be winked at, than taken notice of;
But should you be Victorious, though it is probable you may be Overcome, yet
you will be in the end of the War but like Chemists, who to make some grains
of Gold spend many thousand, or at least hundred pounds, and ruin their
Estates and Posterity through Covetousness; so will you through Anger, and
desire of Revenge, lose many thousand Lives, and impoverish the State; but
Experience will tell you, that Anger and Rashness for the most part cause
Repentance, whereas Patience and Discretion many times bring men out of great
Evils; and though Wars begin Flantingly and Boastingly, yet commonly they end
Miserably and Dejectedly, at least of one side, if not on both, and the
Soldiers are more certain to have Wounds or Death, than Victory and Spoils:
and though Covetousness and Revenge is their hire, yet Loss and Slavery is many
times their reward; they advance with Hopes, but draw back with Doubts, and are
oppressed with Fears. But you imagine, you shall be Victorious, otherwise you
would not make War, for Imagination can easily and suddenly Conquer all the
World; yet you will find it not so in action as in thought, it is one thing to
fight a Battle in the Brain, and an other thing to fight a Battle in the Field:
and if I might advise you, you should fight only with Thoughts and not with
Arms, with Supposed, not with Real Enemies. But to conclude, this Warlike
Preparation or Resolution is not only inconsiderable and Foolish, but Mad, as
to leave and forsake your delicious Pleasures, sweet Delights, happy Contents,
dear Friends, and safe Habitations, which you enjoy in Peace, to put your
selves into many Inconveniences, much Troubles, great Hazards, dangerous
Adventures, and uncertain Successes in Wars.
An Oration to prevent Civil War.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
GIve me leave to tell you, I do fore-see a Civil War, if not timely hindered
or prevented; the chief signs of this War are Vanity, Pride, Luxury, Ambition,
Corruption, Extorsion, Envy, Faction and Poverty. As for Vanity, Pride, and
Luxury, they are amongst our young Nobles; Envy, Ambition, and Faction, amongst
our States-men; Corruption and Extorsion, amongst our Magistrates and Officers,
and Poverty is amongst our Commons, as also in our Common and Public Treasury;
All which will bring our City and Kingdom to ruin, if the Disorders and
Grievances be not timely rectified. Wherefore Noble Citizens, and Dear
Country-men, prevent your own ruin, by reforming your own State both of
public and private Mis-demeanors; but the chief Rectifiers must be the
States-men, Magistrates, and Officers; for wise States-men and good Magistrates
will not only endeavour to abolish Vanity and Luxury by their frugal Examples,
but by their wise and severe Laws; for without strict and severe Laws, wise
Government cannot be; also wise States-men and honest Magistrates will
endeavour to fill the public Treasury by just and regular means, and not their
private Purses by Extorsion and Corruption, for the one relieves the Poor, the
other starves them, and not only relieves the Poor, but is a means to supply
the public Wants, to guard the public State, and to keep the public Peace;
all which makes wise and honest States-men and Magistrates to be provident to
Enrich, and sparing to Spend the public Treasure, that the public State may
have Means and Wealth for necessary occasions. Also wise States-men and
Magistrates will employ the Common people to keep them from Want and Idleness,
which will keep them in Order and Peace; But the greatest good, and greatest
scarcity in a Common-wealth, is wise States-men and just Magistrates, which are
free from private Interest and ambition of particular Power, not making their
self designs the general ruin: but such men, if any such there be, ought to be
chosen out from the rest of the People, to Govern and Rule so, that Prudence,
Fortitude, Justice and Temperance, as also Charity, Love, and Unity, may be the
Bond and Security of the public Weal, which I pray the Gods to give you, and
bless you with Peace, Plenty, and Tranquillity.
An Oration to send out Colonies.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
GIve me leave to tell you, that both the Young and Aged Men in this Nation
spend their times idly; the one sort Sleeps away their time, the other Plays
it away. But it may be said, that Rest is proper for Aged men, and Pleasure for
Young men; I answer, Rest to the bodies of Aged men doth well, and Action for
Young men; but Aged men might employ their Brains in Counsels, and Young men
their Arms in Wars; for aged Brains are wisest, and Young men's Bodies
strongest, and both may be employed in the Service of this Nation. But this
Nation is like a man that increases his Issue, and doth not increase his
Estate: for this Nation grows Populous, but the Men not Industrious to enlarge
it. The truth is, we have more Men, than Means to maintain them, or Business to
employ them, which makes them Idle, having nothing to Husband or Manage, and
Idleness will in time make them Evil; Wherefore, if some of the wise Aged men,
send not some of the Young strong men, to make Wars abroad, to employ or
enrich them, or to destroy them, they will make Wars at home, and destroy
themselves and others for want of wealth and employment: for this Nation is
like a Body over-grown, or rather full of Humours, which requires Evacuation.
Wherefore, send some to Sea, others to march by Land, to seek new Habitations,
and to Conquer Nations; and men of Fortune will be more willing to go, than you
to send them, if you help them with necessaries to begin the War; and they
having nothing to lose, nor nothing to live on, will Fight without Fear, and
therefore probably destroy their Enemies without Favour, that they may come to
be absolute Conquerors.
An Oration concerning Shipping.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
YOu know, that this Country is an Island, and therefore it is well to put you
in mind of the Proverb, which says, Take care of your Ships, and look well to
your Tacklings, otherwise you can have no safety: for the strength of an Island
are Ships, which are the guard to defend it, not empty unrigged Ships in your
Havens, but good strong Ships well Manned on the Seas; for to have Ships only
in your Havens will be no security; besides, it spoils both Ships and Mariners
for want of use and practice. Thus the close Havens destroy more Ships and
Mariners, than the open Seas: for that which makes good Mariners is Navigation,
and the more Stroms they have been in, the more Experience they have gained. It
is true, 'tis a laborious and dangerous Profession, but yet it is Expedient,
both for security and profit, to those that inhabit an Island; for Islands
commonly have more Men than Land, and therefore require Provisions from abroad,
besides many things for Pleasure and Delight. But though Islands be not so
Spacious as Continents, yet they are for the most part Richer, for Shipping of
Burdens is profitable, although Shipping of War is chargeable; and perchance
you will say, that the Charge of the one sort eats out the Profit of the other,
unless you can make them serve for both, as for Traffic, and for War, which
in my opinion cannot well be done; for Ships for War will be too heavy and
unwieldy for Burden, and too big for Speed, as also too slow for Flight; for
Merchants do seldom Fight, if they can possibly Fly, not only that their
Wealth makes them fearful, but their Rich fraights would be spoiled, although
they should not be taken from them. But howsoever, Safety is to be preferred
before Wealth, wherefore Ships of War are to be considered before Ships of
Burdens, and that there be good Mariners and Ship-masters for both; and not
only to repair Ships, but to build Ships yearly, that you may be so strong, as
to be Masters of the Seas; also to pay well your poor laborions Mariners, and
careful and skifull Ship-masters, who keep you in Safety, and bring you Riches
and foreign Rarities and Curiosities for Pleasure and Delight; although they be
but Poor themselves, and have less or as little Pleasure as Riches, being for
the most part accompanied with Dangers and Fears, as much as with Want and
Necessity; the truth is, they oftentimes endure great Extremities; for in a
Strom they fight for Life, and in a Calm they starve for Want; for they fight
not like those that fight at Land, as Men with Men, but they fight with the
blustering VVinds and raging Waives, where, although they get the Victory, yet
they are sure to be Losers, their Ships being Wounded, and their Tacklings
tattered and torn, and every thing out of Order; besides, their Spirits are
spent, and their Limbs sore, and their whole Bodies wearied and tired with
Labour, having nothing to Refresh them, but Joy that they were not Drowned.
Wherefore, Mariners deserve more pay and thanks, than Land-Souldiers, who
fight with Men equal to them, not with the Elements above and beneath them, as
Wind and Water, which are strong, fierce, and devouring: Besides, when Land
Soldiers get a Victory, they are Enriched with the spoil, refreshing themselves
with Luxurious Pleasures, Sporting and Feasting; whereas poor Mariners and
Sea-men are forced to Fast rather than to Feast, having never much Plenty, but
after a Storm more Scarcity, their Provision being spoiled by their Enemies,
the Elements. But to conclude, the Sea-men want pay, and their Ships repairing,
for which you must disburse a sufficient sum of Money to mend the one, and to
relieve the other, who deserve not only Pay, but Reward to encourage them.
An Oration for Contribution.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
IT seems you are Covetous, but not Prudent, that you are so loath to raise,
and so slow to pay Contribution-Money towards the maintenance of the Army,
which is to fight not only for your Lives and Liberties, but to protect your
Goods, and that every man may without Disturbance enjoy his own: but you are so
Covetous, that rather than you would part with Some, you will endanger the
Whole; and as you are Covetous, so you are Fearful, for you will neither
maintain poor Soldiers, that are willing to fight for you, nor yet go to the
VVarrs, to fight for your selves; you Fear your Enemies, and yet will take no
care to Overcome them. And give me leave to tell you, that your Covetousness
and Fear doth make you Treacherous; for if you will neither help with your
Purse, nor your Person, you betray your Country to the Enemies power, also your
old Parents, tender VVives, and young Children, that cannot help themselves,
all which you betray to Slavery, leaving them for a prey to the Enemy; and not
only your fertile Country, and shiftless Friends, and near Allies, but your own
Lives; for it seems by your Covetousness and Cowardliness, that you had rather
have your Throats cut, than part with your Money, or fight in your own Defence,
which is a strange Madness, as to be afraid to Dye, and yet to take no care, to
provide for your Safety, nor to have Courage to fight for your Lives. The best
that can be said or thought of you, is, that you rely upon base hopes, as that
the Enemy may spare your Lives to enslave your Persons: But I can only say
this, that either you must Fight your selves, or Maintain others, or else
others will take what you have, to maintain themselves, to defend their
Country.
An Oration to persuade a City, not to yield to their Enemies.
Worthy Citizens,
I Do not doubt your Courage in Resisting and Fighting your Enemies, nor your
Patience in Sufferance, nor your Care in Watching, nor your Industry in
Labouring, nor your Prudence in Ordering, and all for the defence of your City,
which is besieged by your Enemies, which you endeavour to keep out by all
possible means, sparing neither your Limbs nor your Lives; nor do I fear the
power of your Enemies, for, whilst your Courages, Strengths, Patience and
Industries be united together, it is more probable, you will raise the Siege,
than the Enemies take this City; for though your Victuals be scarce, and your
Ammunition wasted, yet your Temperance doth supply the scarcity of the one, and
your Courage the want of the other; Only that I fear will make you yield upon
any conditions, is the Love to your Wives, Daughters, Mothers, Kinswomen, and
female Friends, and not so much their safety, for so long as your Lives last,
you will defend them, but if you yield to your Enemies, by yielding to the
Women's Effeminate fears, if your Enemies do not say or think you base Cowards,
they will say or think you facil Fools. For give me leave to tell you, that,
though men of Honour, as Valiant men, will Fight for the safety and protection
of Women, not only for those that are near Allied to them, but for those that
are neither of their Country nor Kinn; Yet no man that would keep the
Reputation of Valour, will quit that Honour for a Woman's sake, no, although it
be to save his Daughter, Wife, or Mother from their Enemies: for a Gallant man
dreads more the name of a Coward than any thing in the world; and it is no
dishonour to a Man, to have his Wife taken and abused by his Enemy, when he
could not Honourably help her; for Force is no Dishonour, but a Base free Act;
for a man cannot be forced to be a Coward, nor a chaste Woman to be a Whore,
they may both have Misfortunes, Injuries, and Hateful abuses done to them, but
not Wicked, Base, or Ignoble minds. Wherefore, let me persuade you for your
own Honour's sake, not to yield through the Women's desires; let not their
tears move you, nor their entreaties persuade you; for if you yield, though
upon the assurance of your Lives and Liberties, where will you wander to seek
an Habitation? for if you could not keep your own City and Wealth, it is not
likely you will get the like from other men; alas your Neighbours will shut
their Gates and Doors against you, for Poverty and Misfortune hath not many
Friends or Hosts, for few are so Hospitable as to entertain either; and you
will not only find Charity cold, but those that have envied you in your
Prosperity, will despise you in your Adversity, and what Masculine spirits can
bear such misery, as Neglect, Want, and Scorn, and the Infamy of yielding
Courages? Wherefore, it is better to Dye in the Defence of your own City, and
be Renowned for your Valour and Constancy in after-ages, wherein your Lives,
Acts and Deaths will be mentioned to your Honour and Renown.
An Oration for those, that are slain in the Wars, and brought home to be
Buried.
Worthy Citizens,
YOu lament over the Corps of your Friends, slain in the Wars, shedding your
tears and breathing your sighs on their Hearses. 'Tis true, they are natural
Showers and Zephyrus's airs of loving Affections and passionate Hearts; yet
give me leave to tell you, you have more cause to Rejoice than Grieve: First,
that their Death begets their Renowns, and is an Honour to their Memory to Dye
in the Service of their Country; for all men, that have Worth and Merit, would
willingly, nay, gladly Dye, to save their Country, or for the Honour of their
Country, and all Wise men will gladly quit a present, frail and uncertain Life,
to live Eternally in the memory of the present and future Ages, in whose
memories their Actions live like Glorified bodies, and Purified souls; for thus
they become from Terrestrial to be Celestial. The next cause you have to
Rejoice, is, that their Bodies are brought home as a witness of their Victory,
and their Deaths are their Triumphs, which are adorned and set out with
numerous and glorious Praises; besides, they have the happiness to be inurned
with their Fore-fathers, where by a natural Instinct or Sympathy, they may
mutually intermix and perchance transmigrate together; and since they Fought
Valiantly, and Died Honourably, they shall be buried Happily, and will be
remembered Eternally, and have an everlasting Fame, rejoice with Music, Bells
and Bonfires, and offer unto the Gods Oblations of Thanksgiving.
ORATIONS IN THE FIELD OF WAR.
PART II.
An Oration from a Besieged City, ready to yield, or else to be taken.
I Am come here to entreat you, that are our Over-powerfull Enemies, to be our
Merciful Saviours, that though you are determined, to destroy our City, and
possess our Goods, yet you would be pleased to spare the Lives of the
Inhabitants; for what profit will it be, to destroy numbers of defenceless and
powerless Persons, only to satisfy your fury, which will be satisfied with
Time better than with Blood? for though our blood may quench your present Rage,
yet it may afterwards clog your Consciences, and cause a sorrowful Repentance,
which may disturb the Peace of your Minds, wherein your thoughts will be in a
perpetual War: for to Kill us after our Submission, and when we have made a
Satisfaction for our faults, in yielding up our City and Goods without any
further resistance, our Deaths will be but Murders; so that you will blemish
your Conquest, from being Noble and Generous Conquerors, to be Cruel and
Inhumane Murderers; whereas the sparing of our Lives will be acceptable to God,
Nature, and Mankind, and the Trumpet of your Fame will sound sweetly and
harmoniously in the Ears of After-ages, where you will get as much love and
praises for your Clemency and Mercy, as admiration and renown for your Valours
and Conducts; whereas your Cruelty will sound so harshly with such discords, as
it will beget dislike, and so much hate, as to bury all your Valour and Wisdom
in Fortunes partial and unjust favours, ascribing that to her, She had no right
to Challenge.
A Common Soldiers Oration, to take the City by Force.
Fellow Soldiers,
WE have been long at the Siege of this City, where we have not only been
obedient to our Commanders, careful, watchful, and laborious, as also Valiant
in assaulting, regarding not our Limbs, nor Lives, but we have patiently
endured want of Victuals, and yet for all this, the Town being ready to be
taken, our Commanders intend to rob us of the Spoils, which by the Law of Arms
ought to be ours, as a Reward; for those that Venture most, ought to have the
Greatest shares in the Conquest, and the Common Soldiers venturing more than
the Commanders, ought to have the Spoil: For though they Direct, yet it is we
that Fight, and win the Victory. Wherefore, let us not suffer them to make a
Composition, but enter the Town by Force, and plunder it, otherwise the
Commanders or rather the General alone will be the only gainer, and all the
rest losers; and shall one man go away with the Wealth, when as the poor Common
Soldiers are naked and almost starved for Want? Shall our sick and wounded
friends, that cannot remove, or be removed, nor help themselves, be left as a
prey to those, which they have helped to Conquer with the loss of their Blood
and Limbs? For no doubt, but those new-made Friends will be their deadly
Enemies, and cut their Throats when we are gone and left them. Thus we shall
betray our friends, and lose our shares, if they make Peace and enter not the
Town by assault: for to take a Town by Force, is a gain to the common
Soldiers, but little or none to the General or great Commanders; but to take a
Town by Composition, is a gain to the General and chief Commanders, but not to
the Common Soldiers; for we shall lye without the Gates, whilst they are
received in Triumph, where they will Feast, whilst we do Fast, and will be
enriched with Treasures, but we remain in Want.
An Oration to those Soldiers that are against an Agreement with the Citizens.
Fellow Soldiers,
LEt me tell you, that you speak against your own Profit, when you speak
against compounding and agreeing with the Besieged Citizens: for it is not only
Human and Charitable, Generous and Noble, to spare the Lives of Yielding and
conquered Enemies, but Profitable; for their Lives will serve you, and their
Industry maintain you; wherefore it is better, to spare their Lives, and make
Peace with them, also to take their Money, and spare their cumbersome and
combustible Goods, which will trouble your carriage, and hinder your march;
Neither can you make so much profit of them, as they will give you for them.
And as for their City, and Lives, it were a great folly, to Kill and Destroy
them to no purpose, unless to satisfy your Bloody minds, and furious Rage; for
Death and Destruction will bring you not any Profit; but if you give them their
Lives, and let their City stand, they will give you a constant and settled
Contribution towards your maintenance, also they will be Surgeons, Physicians,
and Nurses to our sick and wounded Soldiers, by which means they may recover
their former health and strength again, and be able to do their Country more
Service; but if they be left behind us, and none to take care of them, nor Men
to help them, nor Houses to lodge in, they must of necessity perish in great
misery; and we have no reason to fear they will be Cruel to them, because they
know we shall Return to revenge their Cruelty: Besides, they will be very
careful of them, and kind and helpful to them, to keep Peace, and to Merit
our favours; for Conquerors are always flattered, obeyed, and served with
ceremony, industry, and fidelity, so long as Fortune favours them. Thus you
know by what I have spoken, that it is the best for the Common Soldiers and
Commanders to spare the City and Citizens. And now give me leave to tell you,
that you are Unjust Judges of me, your Generals actions, and evil Censurers and
malicious Accusers, to accuse my Prudence for my Soldiers, of Covetousness for
my self, and my careful love for my Sick and wounded Soldiers, of an
insensible and cruel Neglect, whereas you might more truly accuse me for using
too much Clemency to my Mutinous and Rebellious Soldiers, winking at their
faults, and pardoning their crimes, when they ought to have been severely
punished, by which they would have been better taught, and I obeyed: for Severe
Generals make Humble, Obedient, Industrious, Laborious, Patient, and Courageous
Soldiers, whereas a Compliant General quite spoils them; But I have showed
Mercy to offenders, Love and Care to the wounded, sick, tyred, and weary, and I
have been Bountiful to the well-deservers; all which I am forced to remember
you of, because you have forgotten, at least are unwilling to take any notice
thereof; Yet I perceive it is the nature of most of Mankind, especially Mean
births, Low fortunes, and Brute breedings, to be Ungrateful, Malicious,
Revengeful, and Inhumane.
An Oration to Soldiers, after the Loss of a Battle.
Fellow Soldiers,
I Perceive you are dejected at your ill fortune, for Fortune is a Thief,
robbing some to give partially to others; wherefore we Soldiers, whom She
busies her self most with, to show her power and agility, ought to be so
careful and watchful, as to lock and barricade out Fortunes malice, giving
her no advantage, if you can possibly hinder her from taking any. Yet was it
neither for want of Conduct or Valour, that we won not the Victory, but Heaven
and Earth was against us: for the Sun, Wind and Dust beat on our faces; for you
endeavouring to get the side of the Wind, went against the Sunbeams, so that
with the Sun-beams and the glittering Dust, that flew up by the motion of the
Wind, we could not see, neither to assault our Enemies, nor to defend our
selves, nay, we were so blinded, as to mistake our friends for our foes, and
our foes for our friends; which tempestuous wind, had it been before we begun
to fight, we might have prevented the mischief, it did us, some way or other;
but the wind did rise, when we were so engaged, as we could not help our
selves; the truth was, it blew so fully against the main part of our Battalion,
and with that violent force, as it pressed the former ranks so much back, that
they did disturb the hinder ranks, and so disordered them, till at last it blew
them quite away; for they were forced to turn their backs and to fly for their
Lives, and when that part of the Army fled, others had no hearts to stay; but
do not mistake so, as to believe, that the Divine power was against us, but
only the Elements, and they were against us more by chance than malice.
Wherefore take courage again, and rouse up your dejected Spirits, and repine
not for that we could not fore-see to avoid: for I make no doubt, but the next
time we encounter our Enemies, we shall not only get the reputation you think
you have lost, but we shall add to what we formerly had, and pull down the
haughty pride of our Enemies, that now seem to insult on our Misfortunes.
An Oration to Soldiers in necessity.
My good Soldiers,
I Cannot much blame your murmuring and complaining words and speeches, by
reason our Camp is vexed and tormented with scarcity, sickness, and
inconveniences; and although we cannot tell how to mend or help our selves in
these Extremities, yet it troubles our Patience, and somewhat alters your
Natures, at least divulges them more, making you Froward, Testy, Choleric; and
froward minds, and testy thoughts are apt to send forth out of the mouth
lamenting words and complaining speeches. Yet give me leave to tell you, it
expresses, you have partaken too much of your Mothers natures, which is not so
well for Soldiers, who should be no ways Effeminate; for Women naturally are
impatient, fretting, chafing and complaining without cause. I do not deny but
you at this present have great cause, and therefore some reason for what you
speak: yet I hope, though you speak like your Mothers, you will act like your
Fathers. Wherefore give me leave to remember you of Caesar' Soldiers, for
surely you could not choose but hear of them, their Fame being so great, and
sounding so loud, for their Patience, Sufferance, Hardiness, Industry,
Carefulness, Watchfulness, Valours and Victories, yet were they no more than
men, and I hope you are not less than men; But there are two sorts of Courages,
and they, as the Story says, had them both, as Fortitude in Suffering, and
Valour in Acting, which made them so fortunate in overcoming, as to Conquer the
most part of the World; and though I cannot hope you will Conquer All the
World, yet I hope you will have Victory over your Enemies, so shall you be
Masters and not Slaves.
An Encouraging Oration to Fearful Soldiers.
Fellow Soldiers, and Dear Country-men,
I Perceive by your Dejected countenances, and Drooping spirits, you are afraid
of your Enemies; but I am more afraid of your Fears, than of the Enemies Power;
for fear makes powerful Armies powerless, and a Little Body with a Great
Spirit is stronger and more vigorous than a Great Body and a Little Spirit, so
a Little Army with Great Courages is more forcible, than a Great or Numerous
Army full of Faint hearts and Cowardly fears. Wherefore consider, there are but
three ways, the one is to Run away, but remember you cannot run from Shame or
Disgrace, though you may run from your Enemy; An other way is, you may Yield up
your selves to the Enemy, but then you must yield up your Liberties with your
Persons, and become their Slaves, in which slavery you live in Scorn, are used
as Beasts, and die as Cowards; The third and last way, which is the best, is to
Fight your Enemy, which if you Overcome, you will have the honour of Victory,
and the profit of the Spoils, and if you be Killed, you dye Unconquered; for
Courage is never Overcome, nor Gallant Heroic Actions never Dye, and their
Fames will be their perpetual Triumphs, which may last Eternally. Wherefore, my
good Soldiers, fight Valiantly for Life, Victory, and Glory.
An Oration to Soldiers, that fled from their Enemies.
what shall I call you? for I cannot call you Fellow soldiers, because you
have degraded your selves of that Honourable title, by Running away, which
shows, you have but Effeminate Spirits or Souls, though Masculine Bodies; Nor
can I call your Dear Countrymen; for you have Unnaturaliz'd your selves, by
Betraying your Country, with your Cowardly fears, to the power of their
Enemies; Nor can I call you my good Friends, for you did forsake me in Danger,
and left me to Death, had not Fortune rescued me; So that you cannot challenge,
nor I cannot give you, any other names, but base Cowards and Traitors, which
words cannot but sound grievously, sadly, and scornfully to your Own, your
Friends, and Enemies hearing: And that which will heighten your Reproach, is
that you were not forced nor necessitated to Fly, as being Overcome, or
Overpowered; for you fled not only before you had tried your Enemies force, but
when in all probability you should have had the Victory, having all the
advantages of your side, and against your Enemies, that could be, as Ground,
Place, Wind, Sun, Form, Order, and Number of men, and yet to run away; O horrid
shame to all Posterity! The truth is, I am so out of Countenance in your
behalf, and so Sorrowful for you, as I cannot choose but Blush for shame, and
Weep for grief, when I look upon you, to see so many Able and Strong, yet
Heartless men, that have soiled your bright Arms with Disgrace, instead of the
Blood of your Enemies. Wherefore, you may now pull off your Arms, since you
have Coats of Dishonour to wear, and break your Swords, for the Tongues of
Reproach are unsheathed against you, which will wound your Reputations, and
kill your Renowns, and your Infamy will live in after-ages Eternally.
An Oration to Run-away Soldiers, who repent their fault.
Sorrowful Penitents, (for so you seem by your Countenances and your Words,
the one being sad, the other full of promises,) I must confess, it becomes you
well, for you have been great Cowards, and fearful Run-aways, which are Faults
that cannot be enough lamented, but your Actions may be amended, and so you may
have a Pardon, and your Disgrace taken off with some Valiant and Courageous
exploits against your Enemies, where I, your General, who am one of Mars' s
high Priests, shall guide and direct you the way; and you may rely upon me;
for I am well Learned and Practised in the mystery of War. But pray be not as
flock of Sheep, making me as a ParishPriest, as only to Talk, and you to Run
away; for then I shall Curse you, instead of Blessing you; and though it be
requisite you should be as meek Sheep in Ioves' s Temple, yet you must be as
raging Lions in Mars' s Field, and the Prayers you make to Mars, must be for
Victory and Fame; but let me tell you, you must implore Pallas' s help, and
Fortune' s favour; and therefore, fight Valiantly and Fiercely, and take your
advantages Prudently, stick Closely, and fight Orderly, and leave the rest to
Fortune; which if you do thus, as I advise you, your Actions will wipe out all
former Faults, and take away all your Reproach or Disgrace so clean, as if they
had never been, especially if you have the Victory.
A Mutinous Oration to Common Soldiers, by a Common Soldier.
Fellow Soldiers,
GIve me leave to tell you, that although you have proved your Valours in the
Battles you have fought, and the Assaults you have made, yet you have not
proved your selves Wise, to leave your Native Country, and Peaceable
Habitations, only to fight with Foreigners, who are as Industrious, Valiant, and
Active to overcome and kill you, as you to overcome and kill them; and what do
we fight and hazard our Lives for? not for Riches; for what we get, we are
subject to lose again, and should we get Riches, we should soon consume them,
having no settled abiding to thrive upon the Stock, or to get out use of the
Principal, nor to have any returns by Traffic or Commerce, but those spoils we
can get, are only Cumbersome Goods, which we are forced to fling away in times
or places of Danger, or when we make sudden or long Marches; and albeit we
could easily and safely carry them along with us, yet we should make but Small
Profit of them, and get Little ready Money for them, although they were not
spoiled in the Carriage. By this we may know, the Wars will not Enrich us; and
as for Fame, Common Soldiers are never mentioned, although they are the only
Fighters, but thousands sands of them, when Killed, are buried in Oblivions
grave, and no other Burial they have; for their slain Bodies for the most part
lie and rot above ground, or are devoured by Carrion-birds or Ravenous Beasts;
but the Fame or Renown is given to the General alone, some Under-Commanders may
chance to be Slightly mentioned, but not Gloriously famed; And if you can
neither get Wealth nor Honour, in or by the Wars, why-Should you be Soldiers?
Wherefore, let us return home, and rather be Ploughmen in our Own Country, than
Soldiers in a Foreign Nation, rather feed with our own Labours, than starve at
our Generals Command, and rather choose to die Peaceably, than to live in the
War, wherein is nothing to be gotten, but Scars and Wounds; where we may lose
our Limbs and Lives, but not make our Fortunes.
An Oration to stay the Soldiers from a Mutinous return from the Wars.
Fellow Soldiers, and Dear Country-men,
THe Soldier that spake to persuade you to mutiny, as to leave the Wars
dishonourably, by his speech, any man of Courage would believe he were a Coward:
for no man of Courage would leave an Enemy in the Field, for that would be as
bad as Running away; and will you, who have gotten Honourable Renown by the
Wars, quit that Renown for Disgrace? Shall the speech of a Cowardly, Idle,
Base man persuade you more than your Reputations? can any man Live, Act, or Dye
more honestly than in the Service of his Country? besides, it will not only be
a Disgrace to You, and also a Disgrace to your Country, to leave the Wars, but
you will endanger your Country; for no question, but your Enemies will follow
you at the heels, so that instead of carrying home Victory and Spoils, you will
carry home Danger, and perchance Ruin, betraying your Country by Faction,
Mutiny, or Cowardly fears. Thus, although you came out of your Country
Soldiers, you will return Traitors. But should they not Follow you, they would
Scorn you, and your Friends would Despise you at your return, and what is worse
than to be Scorned and Despised of Enemies and Friends? when as by your Gallant
actions the one would be Afraid, the other Proud of you. And let me tell you,
to be a Soldier, is the noblest Profession; for it makes Mean men as Princes,
and those Princes that are not Soldiers, are as Mean men; and though Fame doth
not mention every particular Soldier, but generally all together, yet the
memory of every particular Soldier and their particular Actions never die, as
long as their Successors live; for their Children mention their Fore-fathers
Valiant Actions with Pride, Pleasure, and Delight, and Glory that they
descended from such worthy Ancestors; and as for Scars gotten in the Wars,
they are such Graces and becoming Marks, as they Woo and Win a Mistress, and
gain her Favour, sooner than Wealth, Title, or Beauty doth. But I hope you will
neither show your selves Cowards, nor prove your selves Traitors, by leaving
the War when you ought to follow it.
A Generals Oration to his Mutinous Soldiers.
Fellow Soldiers,
I Hear you Murmur, Complain, and Speak against me, forgetting your Respects,
Obedience, Duty, and Fidelity to me your General; for which I am sorry, not for
my Self, but for my Soldiers; for I am never the worse for my Soldiers being
evil; but I am sorry, my Soldiers are not what they ought to be; and though I
do not wonder at the Disobedience of my Common Soldiers, yet I cannot but
wonder at the Baseness of my Officers and Under-Commanders; for though
Inferior Men have inferior Minds, rude and wild Natures, and barbarous
Manners, yet Men of quality usually have Generous, and noble Minds, gentle
Natures, and civil Manners, and of all men, Gallant Soldiers have the noblest
Minds, and ought to have the reformedst Manners; for though Heroic men fight
in Blood to kill their Enemies, yet they will spill their Blood, and sacrifice
their Lives for their Friends, Country, or Countrymen, as also for Honour,
Generosity, and Fame, and they will rather choose to endure all kind or manner
of Torments, and to die a thousand, nay, millions of Deaths if it could be,
than to do one act of Dishonour, or that is not fit for a man of Honour to do;
Indeed Heroic and Honourable men are petty Gods, whereas other men are Beasts,
the one having Celestial natures, the other Terrestrial. But by your mutinous
speeches, I perceive, I have not those Gallant, Noble, Generous, and Valiant
Soldiers, as I thought I had in this my Army, which I am sorry for especially
that there is none like my Self; for I utterly Renounce all Actions or Thoughts
that ought not be to be done by Worthy men, or to be inherent in Worthy men; I
hate Treachery, as I hate Cowardliness, and I hate Cowardliness, as I hate
Disgrace, or Infamy, and I hate Infamy worse than Oblivion; for Oblivion is the
Hell of Meritorious and Gallant men; and as I prefer after-Memory, which is
Fame, before present Life, which Fame is the Heaven wherein Worthy and
Honourable men and actions are Glorified, and live to all Eternity, so would I
have my Soldiers there to Live, and be Glorified; which Desire expresses, that
I love my Soldiers equal with my Self; and as I do prefer Honour and Fame
before sensual Pleasures or Life, so I have always preferred my Soldiers
Lives before my Own; for I never endeavoured to save my own Life, when my
Soldiers Lives were in Danger, but have put my person in the same danger they
were in, nay, I have ventured One more danger than they have done; for I have
led them Singly to the face and front of their Enemies; neither have I been
Idle, when as my Soldiers have taken pains, but to the contrary I have taken
pains, when as they have been Idle; for my Person hath not only been employed
in Ordering, Appointing, and Directing of every particular, but I have marched
on Foot with the Infantery, whilst the Cavallry hath Rid easily on Horses, or
the chief Commanders have rid lasily in their Waggons; as also I have taken
pains in Teaching, Ordering, and Marshalling my Soldiers, as well as time,
place, and opportunity would give me leave; and my Body hath not only laboured,
but my Mind and Thoughts were always and at all times busily employed for the
affairs of the Army, and for my Soldiers Advantage, contriving the Best, as
how to prevent the Worst. Thus my thoughts have Laboured for you continually,
Keeping me waking, whilst you have slept and rested in ease. Neither did I ever
rob my Soldiers of their Spoils, but was pleased to distribute my Share
amongst them; nor did I ever make a Scarcity of your Victuals through my
Luxury; nor have I ever brought my Soldiers into Want through my Imprudence;
for whatsoever Want or Loss you have had, it came merely from Fortune, whose
power the Wisest and Valiantest cannot always and at all times withstand. But
yet the Common Soldiers and Under-Commanders for the most part Accuse their
Generals, laying the Disfavour of Fortune to their Generals charge, although it
is not in any Man's power to avoid Fortune's malice, unless men could Divine
what would fall out against all Reason or Probability; and though Wise men may
imagine such chances, yet they will never order their Affairs, or Designs, or
any Action against Reason, Sense, and Probability; besides, Foolery and Knavery
cause loss and misery without Fortune's help, making more Disorder and
Confusion, than the Wisest men can rectify. But I will not trouble you with
many more Words nor Reproofs; for neither Words, Reproofs, nor Persuasions will
do any good on a Mutinous and Rebellious Army, who hath more Strength to do
Evil, than Honesty to do Good; more Fury to mutine, than Courage to fight; more
Envy to their Leaders, than Love to their own Honours. I add only this, your
Baseness I abhor, your Rudeness I scorn, your Malice I despise, your Designs I
slight, and your intended Cruelty I fear not.
A Commanders refusing Speech to Mutinous Soldiers, who Deposed their General,
and would Choose him in his place.
Fellow Soldiers,
YOu have Forcibly against my will Proclaimed me your General, and because I
sent you word, I would not Command you, you sent me a Threatening message, that
although you at first chose me through your Love and Kindness, yet now, whereas
I did slight your Love, you would Force me to take that Charge upon me; but let
me tell you, I care not for your Favour, nor I fear not your Anger, as being
neither a Knave, nor a Coward; for to be a Friend to Mutinous Soldiers, is to
be a Knave, to Fear them, is to be a Coward, and to be chosen General to a
Rebellious Army, is a Dishonour; Wherefore I, preferring Honour before Life,
will rather Die, than be your General. But who gave you Authority to Depose
your General, and to make an other? Or what right have you to Take away, and
Give Commissions? You will answer, by Force of Arms, or rather force of Rebels;
for Arms are, or ought to be, for Justice, Right, Truth, or Honour, not for
Injustice, Wrong, Injury, Falsehood, and Dishonour; and strong Arms and
courageous Hearts, do not agree with mad Heads, and wild Passions; But you, by
your Disobedience seem to be Cowards; for Valour is Obedient, nay, Valiant men
will obey Unreasonable Commands, rather than Oppose their commanders, and
choose rather to Die obediently, than to Live disobediently; But your Actions
have showed you to be Rebellious Cowards; for which I am not only Ashamed, that
you are my Country-men, or Fellow Soldiers, but Hate you as Enemies to Honour
and honesty; and therefore, if it lay in my Power, I would Destroy you, as
being Unworthy to Live.
A Generals Oration to his Evil-designing Soldiers.
Fellow Soldiers,
I Have not called you together, to persuade you to Fight your Enemies, for I
perceive you are turned Cowards, and Cowards are deaf to all persuasions of
Adventures: Nor do I go about, to persuade you to Patience, although it be the
part of good Soldiers to suffer Patiently, as well as to fight Vigorously,
also to be patient with painful Labours; but I perceive, Patience and
Industry, that accompany Valour, have also forsaken you. Nor shall I persuade
you to stick close to me, as to defend my Life from the Enemies, although I
have been more careful to defend your Lives with Skill and Knowledge in War
and Arms, than you have been to defend my Life with your Strength and Courages.
And give me leave to tell you, that the Renown you have gotten in the Wars,
hath been gained as much by my Conduct, as your Valours. Thus I neither
persuade you to Fight, to Suffer, nor to Help me in time of need; but my Desire
is to persuade you, not to Bury the Renown you have gotten in these Wars, in
the Grave of Treachery, nor to cast down your Glorious Acts from the Palace of
Fame, into the Pit of Infamy, which you will do, if you put your Evil Designs
into Acts: for I perceive well by your Secret Meetings and Gatherings in
companies together without Order, and by your Whisperings into each others
Ears, as also by your Murmurings, Complaints, and Exclamations, you intend some
Evil, but in what manner you will execute your Evil Designs, I cannot tell; I
suppose it is, either that you will Desert me, or Make Peace with the Enemy
without me, on Dishonourableterms, or that you will Betray me to the Enemy, and
Deliver me into their hands; or else it is, that you have conspired to Murder
me with your own hands, either of which will be unworthy for good Soldiers to
do. Wherefore I would, if I could, dissuade you for your own sakes, and not for
mine, not to do such Acts, as to cause Honest men to Hate you, Valiant men to
Despise you, Wise men not to Trust you, your Enemies to Scorn you, your Country
to Exclame against you, your Acquaintance to shun you, your Friends to Grieve
for you, your Posterity to be Ashamed of you, and Disgraced by you; for when
After-ages shall mention you, your Posterity, if they have any Worth or Merit,
will hang down their heads for shame, to hear of your Evil Deeds; all which
will be, if you be Mutinous Conspirers, Traitors, or Cowards; but if neither
Honour, Honesty, Fidelity nor Love can dissuade you from your Base,
Treacherous, and Wicked designs, or that your Design is against Me, here I
offer my Self to you, to dispose of my Person and Life as you please; for I am
neither ashamed to Suffer, nor afraid to Dye, knowing I have not done any thing
that a man of Honour ought not to do; and as Fear hath no power over my Mind,
so Force hath no power over my Will, for I shall willingly Dye.
An Oration to Soldiers, who have killed their General.
BArbarous Soldiers, or rather Cruel Murderers, you that have inhumanely
Killed your General, your Careful, Painful, Prudent, Valiant, Loving and Kind
General, ought to be generally Killed; but Death would be too great a Mercy and
Happiness for such Wretches as you are, for you deserve such Torments and
Afflictions, as are above all expressions, and your Bloody Action hath made you
appear to me so Horrid, that me thinks Life is Terrible, because you Live, and
Death is Amable, since our General is Dead, and Honour lives in the Grave with
him, and Baseness lives in the World with you, Devils possess your Souls in
your living Bodies, when as Angels have born away his Soul from his liveless
Corps, to be Crowned with Everlasting Glory. You shall not need to Fear your
Enemies now, for surely they will Fly you, not for fear you should Kill them,
but for fear you should Infect them, they fear not your Courage, but your
Wickedness; neither shall you fear Oblivion, for you will be Infamous, and the
very report of your Murdering act will cause a trembling of Limbs and chillness
of Spirit to all the hearers, and you will not only be Scorned, Hated, and
Cursed, but Prayers will be offered against you, and Men will Bless themselves
from you, as from a Plague or Evil Spirit. Thus your Enemies will despise you,
your Friends renounce you, Honest men exclame against you, men of Honour shun
you, good Fortune forsake you, Heaven shut all mercy from you, your Conscience
torment you, insomuch that you will be ashamed to Live and afraid to Dye.
An Oration to Soldiers, which repent the Death of their General.
PEnitent Soldiers, (for so you seem by your Tears, Sighs, Groans, and
sorrowful Complaints,) I cannot forbid you to Weep, for your Fault requires
great and many showers of Tears to wash away your Crime; indeed there is no
other way to purge your Souls and to cleanse your Consciences from the stains
of your Generals Blood, but by Penitent Tears. Wherefore let me advise you, to
go to his Urn, and there humbly on your Knees lamenting your Sorrow, pray to
Heaven for Pardon; then make him a Statue, and carry his Image in your Ensigns,
and set his Statue under your Banner; Thus make him, that was your General,
your Saint, and let his Memory be famous by your Valour, that his Enemies may
know, the power of his Name is able to Destroy them, so will you make him
Victorious in his Grave, and appease his Angry Ghost.
An Oration to Distressed Soldiers.
Dear Country-men,
YOu know, we are a people that have been Conquered, and made Slaves to our
Enemies, which Slavery we did Patiently endure a long time, but at last we had
an Impatient desire of Liberty, and had our Prudence been according to our
Desires, no doubt but we should have Gained it, but our Over-hasty Desires have
put us into a greater Misery; for now we are not only like to Lose our
Liberties again, but our Lives, or to Live in worse Bondage than we did before,
which we had better Dye than Endure: but since we were not so Wise for our
selves to Prevent our Danger, as we were Just to our selves to Endeavour our
Liberty, yet we must not leave Endeavouring our own Good, so long as Life
lasts; Wherefore, we must consider, what is best to be done in this Extremity.
First, we have of our selves a Great Body, though not so well Armed as I wish
we were, yet so, as we are not left Naked to our Enemies; but though we have a
great Number, yet our Enemies have a greater Number, and though we be Armed,
yet our Enemies are Better Armed, the worst of all is, that we are in a place
of such Disadvantage, as either we must Starve, or Yield our selves, or Fight
it out at all Hazards; As for Starving, it is a lingering and painful Death,
and to Yield, will be a miserable and painful Life, wherefore to Fight it out
at all Hazards, will be best for us to choose; for Death is the End of Misery,
and Pain is not felt in a Raging or Acting Fury; and if we Resolve, let the
worst come to the worst, we can but Dye, and that we must do in time, had we no
other Enemies than what are Natural, as Sickness and Age; and these Hopes we
have, that Desperate Men in Desperate Adventures, have many times Good Fortune,
and those that are Desperate, want no Courage, but they are apt to be Careless
of Conduct; Wherefore let me advise you, to Listen to Direction, and be
careful to Obey your Instructions; for if we should Overcome our Enemies, we
should not only save our Lives, which we give for lost, but we should have our
Liberties, and also Honour, Power, and Wealth too, whereas our Enemies only
venture their Lives to keep us in Subjection, which will cause them to Fight
but Faintly; for where there is neither Profit, nor Honour to be gained, they
will sooner Run away, than Venture their Lives in the Battle, so that our
Poverty will Defend us, and our Necessity help to Fight for us; Prudence shall
Guide us, and then perchance Fortune may Favour us. Wherefore, let us Assault
our Enemies before they Expect us, and endeavour to Overcome them before they
are ready to Fight with us; for if we take them Unprepared, we shall find them
without Defence, and in such Disorder, as we shall Destroy them without Hazard.
ORATIONS TO CITIZENS IN THE MARKET PLACE.
PART III.
An Oration to a dejected People, ruined by War.
Unfortunate Citizens, and Country-men,
YOu now seem to be as much cast down and dejected in your Misery, as you were
puffed up with Pride in your Prosperity, in which Prosperity you were so
Confident, and so Careless of your Security, as you would neither believe your
Danger, nor provide for your Safety, insomuch that you Murmured and Mutined
against all Assessments and Payments, although it were to keep the Kingdom in
Peace, and to strengthen it against Foreign force; but now you do not Murmur at
small Taxes, but Mourn for your great Losses, not for your Security, but your
Ruin; your Vanity is vanished, your Pride humbled, and Plenty and Prosperity
fled from you; Where are your brave Furnishings your gay Adornings? your
far-fetch'd Curiosities, and your curious Rarities? your Numerous Varieties,
and Rich Treasures? all plundered and gone. Where are your Chargeable
Buildings, your Stately Palaces, your Delightful Theatres, your Pleasant
Bowers? all Burnt to ashes. Where are your Races of Hearses, you Fleecy Flocks,
your Lowing Herds, your Feathered Poultry, and your full-stored Barns? all
Ruined and gone. Where are your Rich Merchandises, and your Thriving Trades?
all Spoiled. Where are your Wife Laws? all Broken; your Sporting Recreations?
all Ceased; your Ancestors Monuments? all Pulled down and your Fathers Bones
and Ashes dispersed. Where are your Camerads, Companions, and Acquaintance?
most of them Killed; where are your Beautiful Wives, Daughters, Sisters, and
Mistresses? the Enemy injoyes them, and your Country is Desolate, Ruined, and
Forlorn; and you that are left, are Miserable; but what was the cause of your
Misery? your Pride, Envy Factions, Luxury, Vanity, Vice, and VVickedness; for
you would neither be Instructed, Advised, Persuaded, nor Ruled; you Neglected
the Service of the Gods, Disobeyed the Orders of your Governors, Trampled down
the Laws of the Nation, and Despised your Magistrates, and did all what you
would; which brought this Confusion, and so a Destruction, in which Destruction
you must have patience, for Patience will Mediate and Qualify your Misery.
A Conforting Oration to a dejected People, ruined by War.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
I Confess, our Condition is miserable, and our Lives unhappy, in that we are
so unfortunate, as to be Overcome by our Enemies, and Impoverished by our
Losses; but yet it was Uncharitable, nay, Inhumane, for the former Orator to
open our Wounded thoughts, with Repetition of our Losses, and to rub our sore
Minds with bitter and salt Reproaches; for if we have Committed faults, I am
sure we have been sufficiently Punished for them, and if the Gods be Just, as
we believe they are, our Loss and Misery hath made them a Satisfaction, for
which I hope they are Pacified; and though we ought to Repent of our past
Disobedience to the Divine and National Laws, yet we have no reason to Repent
of our past Lawful Pleasure; for who, that is Wise, will not make use of his
Riches, and Liberties, whilst he hath them? for were it not a madness for fear
of a Dearth to Starve our selves Slaves in Plenty? for fear of an Enemy, to
make our selves Slaves in Prosperity? this were as much as if we should take
away our own Lives before their Natural time, because we know we shall Dye; No,
Dear Country-men it is soon enough to quit Pleasure, Liberty, and Life, when we
can Enjoy them no longer; and since our Fortune is bad, we must endeavour with
Industry to amend it, and if we cannot, we must Suffer Patiently, and please
ourselves with Hopes; for Hope is a Food the Mind delights to feed on, and
entertains it self with Pleasing Imaginations: and those are Fools, that will
trouble their Minds for that, which cannot be helped; for shall we have not
only Enemies without us, but also within us? shall we Torture our Minds with
Grief, Sorrow, Fear, an Despair, for our misfortunes? No, Dear Country-men, let
us wipe the Tears from our Eyes, and defy Fortune's malice, and when she knows
we regard not her Frowns, She may chance to Favour us, for she is of the Female
gender, whose Nature is such, as the more they are Neglect or Despised, the
Kinder they are.
An Oration for Rebuilding a City ruined by Wars.
UNfortunate Citizens; for so I may call you having been ruined by Wars, and
spoiled by our Enemies; for our City is not only Burnt to the ground, and all
our Goods Plundered, but many of our Citizens and Country-men Killed, and we
that remain, are preparing with our Wives and Children to seek new Habitations
and Acquaintance in Foreign Countries, from which I would, if I could, dissuade
you, since our Enemies are Gone, and not like to Return; for though they had
the Victory, and won our City, yet it was with such Loss to them, as will force
them to keep Peace for a long time, not being able to make Wars any longer;
for their Valiant'st and most Experienced Soldiers are Killed, and most of the
Flour of their Youth; besides, they have spoiled and lost many of their Horses,
and have wasted and spent abundance of Ammunition and Arms; all which
considered, they have not Gained much by this War; Indeed, War makes more
Spoil than Profit; for though we are Ruined, yet our Enemies are not much
Enriched; but leaving them, let us Consider, what is the best for our selves in
these our Misfortunes, and to be Industrious to Repair our Losses; my Advice
is, not to Separate, but to keep in an United Body together, and to Rebuild our
City: for shall we be worse Citizens than the Ants or Pismires? which will
Rebuild their Hill or Mount over their Heads, whenever it is pulled down,
either by Beast, Men, or Birds, and though it be often pulled down, and the Dust
dispersed, yet they will bring new Earth, or gather up the Relics of the
former Farth, to Rebuild, and will never leave Rebuilding so long as they Live;
and certainly, they are very wise in so doing. The like for Men; for it is
better, as the wisest way, to Unite in a Common-wealth, than to live Dispersed,
and to Wander about like Vagabonds, or to live with Strangers in Foreign Lands,
or to be Governed by Unknown or new Laws, or to Marry with Strangers, that mix
or corrupt their Generations; for those Men are happiest, that Live in their
Native Countries, with their Natural Friends, are Governed by their Ancient
Laws, Marry into their own Tribes or Natives, increase their own Breed,
continue their own Races, uphold their own Families, and are Buried with or by
their Forefathers. Wherefore, Good Citizens, be Industrious to Rebuild your
City, whereby and wherein, you may be as Happy and Flourishing, as formerly you
were; but if through a dejected Discontent, you leave your City in its Ruins,
'tis probable you will Live unhappy, and in Slavery all your Lives, as also
your Posterity after you.
An Oration for Building a Church.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
YOu have Built many Streets of Houses, but never a Church, which shows, you
think more of the World, than you do of Heaven, you take more care for your
Bodies, than your Souls; for you build Stately Palaces to Live in, but not a
Church to Pray in, Rooms to Feast in, not Churches to Fast in, to Unite in
Riot, not to Unite in Religion, to Talk Extravagantly, not to Pray Piously, to
Rejoice in Evil, not to Rejoice in Thanksgiving. But the Nature of Mankind is
such, that they Spend Foolishly, and Spare Foolishly, they will Spend to their
own Hurt, and Spare to their own Hurt, they fear Evil, but never endeavour to
avoid Punishment, they Repent what is Past, but never take Warning for what is
to Come; As for Spending their Means, they will spend so much as to make
themselves Sick and Poor, with Surfeiting, Feasting, Drunken Drinking, Pocky
whoring, Covetous Gaming, Vain Shows, Idle Sports, and the like; and when they
Spare, they are so miserable as not to allow themselves Necessaries, so that
they make themselves Unhappy through Want, and yet have more than enough to
Spend; also they fear Pain, and Sickness, but will not endeavour to Avoid
either; for men Drink so much as they are sure to be so sick as to Vomit, and
will Eat such Meat, or Drink such Drinks, as they are sure to have painful
fits of the Gout after them. But it may be said, that the enticing Appetite is
so Persuading, and Over-ruling, as they cannot Forbear; but some men will Drink
when they are not Dry, and Eat when they are nor Hungry, or have any desire
thereto, but will Drink merely for Company, or being persuaded by Others, or
out of a Humour, and so for Eating; Which is strange, that men should be
persuaded to suffer and endure great pain for the sake of idle Company, or
through the persuasion of Fools, or out of a foolish or mad Humour. Likewise
all men are loath to Dye, and yet most Men will Venture their Lives
unnecessarily, or for very small occasions; and all men are Afraid of
Damnation, and yet they will not Endeavour Salvation, nay, they will venture
Damnation for a trifle, yea, for nothing: as for Example, they will Lie, Swear,
and Forswear, when they are not Provoked or have any occasion to Swear, Lie,
and Forswear; and for Worldly Riches, men are so Covetous and Greedy, as they
will Extort, Cousin, Steal, Murder, and venture Soul, Body, and Life for it,
yet when they Have it, they Spend it, as if they did not Care for it, nay, as
if they did Hate such Riches; and not any man would willingly be Poor, yet they
will spend their Wealth so Foolishly, as neither to have Pleasure, Thanks, nor
Fame for it. The truth is, that by men's Actions it could not be believed, that
Mankind had Rational Souls; for though many men will Speak Wisely, yet most Act
Foolishly or rather Madly, so that men's Rational Souls Live more in their Words
than in their Deeds. But if you have Rational Souls, and a Saving Belief, you
ought to Build a Church, wherein you may Gather together, to Repent your Sins,
to Pray for Forgiveness, to Promise Amendment, and to Reform your Lives, also
to Hear Instructions, and to give good Examples to each other, and to accustom
your selves to Devotion; so shall you become Holy men. Besides, Churches ought
to be Built not only for the Souls of the Living, but for the Bodies of the
Dead, wherein they may be inurned Decently, Humanly, and Religiously.
An Oration persuading the Citizens, to erect a Statue in Honour of a Dead
Magistrate.
Noble Citizens,
N. N. who is now Dead, was the Wisest, Justest, and Honestest Magistrate, that
a Common-wealth could Desire or Have; and as he Served the Common-wealth
Justly, so he ought to be Rewarded Honourably, for he did well Deserve it; But
his Death must not be an Excuse for Ungratefulness, for Honours are given to
the Dead, as well as to the Living; for men's Good Works Live after them,
although their Bodies Dye, and Living men are Benefitted thereby; but should
the Benefit cease with their Death, yet men ought not to Forget the Good they
have Received; for those are very Unthankful, Unworthy, and Base men, that
will not acknowledge what they Have had, but only respect the Present good;
indeed such men are worse than Beasts, and ought to live and dye like Beasts,
as to live in Slavery, and to dye in Oblivion, whereas Virtuous, Worthy,
Honourable, and Noble men ought to live Free, and be Remembered after their
Lives, and those that have done Wise, or Ingenious, or Good, or Profitable, or
Valiant, or Great Works, Deeds, or Acts, ought to be remembered in the Minds of
men, mentioned by the Tongues of men, and figured by the hands of Art, so as to
Live in the Minds, Ears, and Eyes of Living men; as for their Merits to be
Praised, their Acts Recorded, and their Bodies figured to the Life, not only
Pencilled, but Carved, or cast in Moulds, as Carved in stone, or cast in Metal,
that all Ages may not only hear of their Name, read of their Acts, but see
their Figures, all which are due Rights and right Honours to the Memory of
Worthy deceased men; Wherefore, this Worthy Deceased man, who was a Wife and
Just Magistrate, ought at the Common-wealth's charge to have his Statue in
Stone or Metal, and to be set up in the most Public place in the City, that
every Particular Person may think of Him, and remember his Acts, when they see
his Figure, which will not only be a due Honour to him that is Dead, but an
Encouragement to those that Live after him, to imitate and follow his Example,
and that such Magistrates and Ministers of State, that are employed after him,
may do as he hath done, as to be Just, Prudent, Careful, and Industrious,
which the Gods grant for the sake of the Common-wealth.
An Accusing Oration for Refusing the Office of a Magistrate, and so Neglecting
the Service of the Common-wealth.
Noble Citizens,
I Have assembled you at this time, to make a Complaint against D. D. who being
chosen a Magistrate, as believing him to be one of the Ablest men for his.
Wisdom amongst us, and so Fittest to be employed in the Service and Affairs of
the Common-wealth, hath refused the Office and Employment, choosing rather to
live Idly, than to take Pains and Labour to do Good, for which he ought to be
Punished either in Body or Estate; for it is not only an Obstruction to the
affairs of the Common-wealth, but a Dangerous Example; for if all the Wisest
men should refuse the Employment and Management of State-affaris, leaving the
Government only to Fools, the Common-wealth would be quickly brought to Ruin,
in which Ruin the Wise men would suffer as much as other men; Wherefore, for
their Own sakes, as well as for the sake of their Country, they ought to employ
their Bodies and Minds in the Service of the Common-wealth, otherwise Foolish
Statesmen and Magistrates will make such Disorder, as no particular family or
Man could live Safely, much less Plentifully, for Peace and Plenty would be
utterly destroyed with Civil War, were there no Foreign Enemies; whereas, Wise
men can keep Peace, and make a Commonwealth or Kingdom Flourish: for it is as
difficult and hard to keep a Common-wealth in Peace and Order, as it is easy
to cause Wars and Ruin, and more difficult to make Peace, when War is begun.
Wherefore, the best way to keep a Common-wealth in Order, Peace, when War is
begun. Wherefore, the best way to keep a Common-wealth in Order, Peace, and
Plenty, is, to choose Wise and Able Magistrates, and not to let the Wise men
follow their own Pleasures and Delights, but to employ them in the Service of
the Commonwealth.
An Excusing Oration in Answer to the former.
Noble Citizens,
I Am come here at this time to speak for mySelf, and to tell you, I deserve
not to be Punished either in my Estate or Person, for refusing a Charge and
Employment, I am not Capable or fit to be employed in; for I confess, I am
naturally Dull and Lasy, no ways Busy or Active, and therefore Unfit for
State-imployments; and since it is a Natural imperfection, I ought to be free
from Punishment, for the fault lies in Nature, not in Me, and it would be a
great Injustice to lay Nature's fault to My charge, and to punish me for that I
cannot help; but perchance you will say, this is only an Excuse, and I may help
this Defect; but put the Case it were so, and I could Help it, yet I do not
find in my Self such a Supreme Wit, Judgement, Understanding, Knowledge,
Contrivance, Prudence, Patience, Experience, and the like above other Men, but
that there be other men far Beyond me; for though the Orator that spake the
last Speech, said, I am a Wife Man, yet it is more than I know, and probable,
he says more than he believes; for it is the Nature of some men, to Praise
other men to their Ruin, and Praise in some Cases, and at some Times, and to
some Assemblies, or Persons, doth more Hurt to the Praised, than all the
Dispraises could have done, nay, some times Men receive a Benefit by being
Dispraised, where as Praises would utterly Ruin them. But as I said, put the
Cafe, I were a Wise man, and could Discharge the Office of a Magistrate, as a
Wife man should do, yet if a Company of Fools or Knaves join together to
oppose my Orders or Power, I can do little Good, nay, had I other Wise men
joined in Power and Authority with me, yet we should do little Good, for Fools
and Knaves are too strong for Honest and Wise men, because they are far more
in Number, and so much Odds there is, as there are thousands of Fools for one
Wise man; Wherefore it is Fortune, or Chance, or some particular Favour from
the Gods, that Govern Commonwealths, and not those they call Wife men; for
the Wisest men in the World cannot keep a People in Peace, if they be
resolved and set to Rebel; for when the Generalilty is up in Arms, it is a
Folly for Particular Persons to oppose them; and when the Generality will pull
down Particular Persons from their Power, Particular Persons can not stand; and
when the Generality will alter a particular Government, the Government must
change; Wherefore, the only and best means to keep up the Common-wealth, is to
Pray to the Gods for Peace, and to keep the People as niuch as may be to
Religious Ceremonies, that they may Fear the Gods, which Fear and Devotion will
make them Obey their Magistrates, which I wish, and leave them.
An Oration against some Historians, or Writers of State-affairs, or Policy.
Fellow Citizens,
WE have some Men amongst us, that seem to desire to be States-men, and
because they are not States-men in Practice, they are States-men in Books,
Writing of State affairs; but how do they Write? not like Wife, but like
Learned men; not to Teach men what is Best to be done, but what Evil hath been
done, which is a Relation of Past, not an Instruction to Future Actions. The
truth is, they make an Hash of many several Authors, taken out of several
Pieces, to make up a Dish to present to their Readers, in Hope they may Enrich
their Host, if not with Preferment, yet with Praise; But surely those are
Hungry, Half Starved Guest, that can Feed with a Gusto on such Broken Meat,
although Skilfully Dressed; and these Cooks of Other men's Meat, which are Writers
out of Other men's Works, are not only Unprofitable, but Cumbersome in the State
or Common-wealth, filling our Libraries and Heads with Repetition of old
Authors in new Styles, yet were they the Authors or first Writers of such
Books, as treat of State-affairs, they would do more Hurt than Good, and rather
make Division than Unity, War than Peace; for instead of Declaring the Policy
of State, they Teach men to be Politic against the State; and it is to be
Observed, that much Writing of that Nature makes much Trouble, wherein the Pen
doth more mischief than the Sword, witness Controversies, that make Atheism;
for the more Ignorant a people are, the more Devout and Obedient they are to
God and his Deputies, which are Magistrates; Wherefore it were very Requisite,
that all such Books should be Burnt, and all such Writers Silenced, or at
least none should write of States-affairs, but those the State allows or
Authorises.
An Oration Concurring with the former.
Fellow Citizens,
I Am of the former Orators opinion, that all Books of Politics,
State-affairs, or National Histories should be Burnt, and none suffered to
Write any more Books of that Nature; otherwise, not only every Writer, but
every Reader will pretend to be States-men, which will bring an infallible
Ruin to the Common-wealth, having more Politicians than Business, which will
produce more Faction than Reformation. The truth is, many Politicians will be
apter to Dissolve, than agree to make Good Laws, and will sooner cause a
Destruction, then Govern a Common-wealth; for every several Politician would
have a several Policy; but could or would they all Agree in their Opinions, yet
if every Man were a States-man, all Particular Affairs would be laid aside,
which Particular Industries make up a General Commerce, Trade and Traffic in
the Common-wealth: Wherefore, take the former Orators advice, for the Peace and
Preservation of this State, and suffer none to Write or Read any Books, but
what Recreates the Mind, as Poems, what Increases their Stores, as Husbandry,
what Restores Health, as Medicines, what Exercises the Body, as Arts, and what
Improves the Understanding, as Sciences; all which may be allow'd without
Danger; but for Divinity and State, let those be Particular and not General,
and rather be in the Breast or Brain of some, than in the Books or Studies of
many, and let them continue in Tradition, but not in Print. So will the People
Obey and not Dispute, they will be Practisers and not Preachers, and will be
content to be Subjects, and not endeavour to be Sovereigns.
An Oration somewhat different from the former.
Fellow Citizens,
I Confess, it is Dangerous in a State, when as Some men think they are Wiser
than really they are, but More dangerous, when as Every man thinks himself
Wiser than his Neighbour, for those thoughts make them Proud, Ambitious, and
Factious, and in the end Mutinous and Rebellious, and of all Self-conceited
Persons, the Self-conceited States-men are the most Dangerous, and oftentimes
the most Foolish; the greatest Danger is, that there are more Fools than Wise
men, through which General defect, a Self-conceited States-man may be the Head
of Fools, although but the Tail of Wise men, and Head to Tail is
Disproportionable; but it may be that this Disproportion may make them
Unactive, by which they become less Dangerous; Wherefore, I am not of the
former Orators opinion, as to have all such Books as treat of State-affairs
Burnt, for the Burning of such Books may advance their Authors Fame, but not
advance the Public Good; neither do such Books Public Hurt, by reason none,
but some few Private Persons read them, for the Generality delights not in such
Studies; so as they will partly Dye in Oblivion, especially if you take no
notice of them.
An Oration against those that lay an Aspersion upon the Retirement of Noble
men.
Noble Citizens,
WE have some Ill-natured people amongst us, that endeavour to turn all other
men's Actions, but their own, to the worst Sense or Construction; as for
Example, some of our Nobles retire to their Country Habitations, for which
those Ill-natured or Foolish persons Exclame against them, both in Books and
Speeches, as that they Retire through Pride, Ambition, and Revenge, being
Discontented they are not the Chief Ministers of State, Rulers in Government,
or Counsellers for Advices; also they would make their harmless Country
Recreations, as Hunting, Hawking, Racing, and the like Sports, as also
Hospitality, Dangerous Designs, which is unjustly Censured, and wickedly
Wrested, to pull out the Right and Truth, to place Falsehood, when as it may be
easily known, that most of our Nobles, which Retire out of this Metropolitan
City to their Country Houses, Retire either for Pleasure, Profit, Quiet, or
Health, or all; for it is manifest, that in a very Great and Populous City,
there is nothing but Trouble, Expenses, Noise, and oftentimes Malignant
Diseases, all which some Ill-natured men and Pretending Politicians would have
theem suffer rather than to avoid. But those men that are so Wise, to choose
the Best, are not Afraid of a Bawling Pen or Tongue, and seldom Consider or
Regard what they Write or Speak, and if they do, they only give such
Find-faults Pity or a Scorn. But put the Case, Noble Citizens, that some Noble
men did Retire out of some just Discontent, as for Example, imagine this
Kingdom or Monarchy had been in a long Civil War, and some Noble men had not
only been so Loyal, as never to Adhere to the Rebels, but had Served their
Prince to the last of their Power, Ventured their Lives, Lost their Estates,
and had Endured great misery in a long Banishment, and after an Agreement of
Peace, and the Proof of their Honesty and Loyalty, should be Neglected or
Affronted, instead of Reward and Favour; if these Forsaken and Ruined, although
Honest Persons, should Retire from Court and City into the Country, to bewail
their Misfortunes in solitary Groans, or to pick up their scattered Goods,
broken Inheritance, and tattered States, or to restore their Halfdying
Posterity to some time of Life, should they be Railed and Exclamed against? can
Heaven Bless a State or Kingdom, that will suffer such Uncharitableness and
Inhumanity? or can Nature suffer her most Noble-minded Creatures to stay in the
presence of Public Affronts, Disgraces, and Neglects, and not humbly turn
their Faces from them, or Honestly endeavour not to Trouble those, that have a
desire to Please? and if by their Wise Prudence, those Retired Persons can
afford themselves some Harmless Recreations to mix and temper their
Over-carefull and Industrious Labours, they ought not to be Condemned for it;
for God and Nature mixes Good and Evil, and the greatest Grief hath some
Refreshment of Ease, and the hardest Labours some Rest, but only these
Find-faults are Restless, through Envy and Ambition, hoping by their Busy
Heads, Restless Pens, and Abusive Exclamations, to rise to Promotion and
Preferment, and though they pretend to Discover Seditions, they are the only
Authors of Factions and Seditions. Wherefore it would be very fit, Noble
Citizens, that our Ministers of State and Magistrates should Silence such bold
Persons, that dare Censure our Nobles private and particular Actions; for if
they should have that Liberty, they would in time Censure this Government and
our Governors of State and Common-wealth, and who can fore-see, but that the
Common Rout or People might take their Factions or Ill-natured or Meddling
Dispositions for Wisdom?
An Oration for Liberty of Conscience.
Fellow Citizens,
IT is very probable, we shall fall into a Civil War, through the Divers
Opinions in One and the same Religion; for what hath been the cause of this
Hash in Religion, but the Suffering of Theological Disputations in Schools,
Colleges, Churches, and Chambers, as also Books of Controversies? all which
ought not to have been Suffered, but Prohibited, by making Laws of Restraint;
but since that Freedom hath been given, the Inconveniency cannot be Avoided,
unless the Magistrates will give, or at least not oppose a Free Liberty to all;
for if the People of this Nation is so Foolish, or Wilful, or Factious, or
Irreligious, as not to Agree in One Opinion, and to Unite in One Religion, but
will be of Divers Opinions, if not of Divers Religions, the Governors must
Yield, or they will Consume the Civil Government with the Fire of their Zeal;
indeed they will Consume themselves at last in their own Confusion. Wherefore,
the best remedy to prevent their Own ruin, with the ruin of the
Common-wealth, is, to let them have Liberty of Conscience, Conditionally, that
they do not meddle with Civil Government or Governors; and for Security that
they Shall not, there must be a Law made and Inacted, that, whosoever doth
Preach, Dispute, or Talk against the Government or Governors, not only in
This, but of any Other Nation, shall be Punished either with Death, Banishment,
or Fine; also for the quiet and Peace of this Kingdom, there ought to be a
strict Law, that no Governor or Magistrate shall in any kind Infringe our Just
Rights, our Civil or Common Laws, nor our Ancient Customs; for if the One Law
should be made, and not the Other, the People would be Slaves, and the
Governors their Tyrants.
An Oration against Liberty of Conscience.
Fellow Citizens,
I Am not of the former Orators opinion; for if you give Liberty in the Church,
you must give Liberty in the State, and so let every one do what they will,
which will be a Strange Government, or rather I may say, no Government: for if
there be no Rules, their can be no Laws, and if there be no Laws, there can be
no Justice, and if no Justice, no Safety, and if no Safety, no Propriety,
neither of Goods, Wives, Children, nor Lives, and if there be no Propriety,
there will be no Husbandry, and the Lands will lye Unmanured, also there will
be neither Trade nor Traffic, all which will cause Famine, War, and Ruin,
and such a Confusion, as the Kingdom will be like a Chaos, which the Gods keep
us from.
An Oration proposing a Mean betwixt the two former Opinions.
Fellow Citizens,
I Am not of the two former Orators opinions, neither for an Absolute Liberty,
nor a Forced Unity, but Between both, as neither to give them such Liberty, as
for Several Opinions, to gather into Several Congregations, nor to force them
to such Ceremonies, as Agree not with their Consciences; and if those Sects or
Separatists Disturb not the Canon, Common, or Civil Laws, not to Disturb their
Bodies, Minds, or Estates: for if they Disturb not the Public Weal, why should
you Disturb their Private Devotions? Wherefore, give them leave to follow their
Several Opinions, in their Particular Families, otherwise if you Force them,
you will make them Furious, and if you give them an Absolute Liberty, you will
make them Factious.
An Oration Reproving Vices.
Noble Citizens,
BEing a fellow Citizen with you, I ought not to forbear from persuading you to
Reform the Disorders of this City, as not to Suffer Loose and Idle persons to
Live without Employment, or to pass by their Abuses without Punishment; also to
Reform the Excess of Vanity, Luxury, Drunkenness, and Adultery, of which the
Chiefest are most Guilty; for the Poor and Inferior sort hath not Means to
maintain those Vices, although they endeavour to the utmost of their Abilities;
and as they have not Means, so they have not that Courage or rather Impudence
to Act Vices so Publicly, as the Richer sort doth; for Poverty is Humble,
which makes it Modest, when as Riches is Proud and Bold; the truth is, this
City is like a Surfeited Body, full of Diseases, and I fear, easy Remedies,
which are Persuasions, will not Cure you, except Wars, Plagues or Famine come
amongst you, or be Applied to you, for they may Cure some, although they will
Kill most: But one thing I Wonder most at, that you send your Children to
School, to be Instructed in Divinity and Morality, which is to Teach them to
Pray and to Fast, to be Humble and Charitable, to be Prudent and Temperate, yet
at Home they have Leave and Liberty to be Vain, Idle, and Expensive, to Feed
Luxuriously, to Play Wantonly, and to Live Riotously, so that what good their
Tutors teach them by Reading and Preaching, their Fathers corrupt them by
Example and Precepts; they go forth to be Schooled, and come home to be Fooled.
Wherefore, I cannot imagine, why you should put your selves to that Charge, to
have your Children Taught and Instructed to that which is Good, and yet suffer
them to do what is Bad, unless you desire to fee whether God or the Devil be
Strongest in them; But if you cannot Live more Soberly, Moderately, Orderly,
and Honestly, the best way were to send your Children so far from you, as not
to hear of you, until you Dye, so that the next Generation may be Better,
unless by Nature you leave your Sons to Inherit your Vices, as they do your
Goods by Birth, and then there is no Hopes of Amendment. It is likely you will
say, Why I stand here Talking to you, and Exhorting you? I answer, that Saint
Paul fayeth, by the Foolishness of Preaching men may be Saved: so I hope my
Words may Work upon your Hearts, as to persuade you, not to Spend your Wealth,
to Wast your Time, to End your Lives so Unprofitably, as neither to Serve your
God, your Country, nor your Friends.
An Oration concerning the Foreign Travels of Young Gentlemen.
Noble Citizens,
YOu think your Sons not well Bred, unless you send them to Travel into Foreign
Nations, to see and understand Fashions, Customs, and Manners of the World, by
which they may Learn the better to Know themselves, and to Judge of others; but
though you send your Sons abroad, in Hope they will Profit by their Travels,
yet you are for the most part Deceived in your Hopes and Expectations: for our
Young men in this Age get nothing by their Travels, but Vanity and Vice, which
makes them Fools; for they gain not any Profitable Understanding, or Knowledge,
to make them Wise men; the truth is, they go forth of their Own Country, Civil
Men, but return Brute Beasts, as Apes, Goats, and Swine, and some few return
Foxes, so that their Travels Metamorphose them from Men to Beasts; and as for
their Learning of several Languages, give me leave to tell you, that they Learn
more Words than Wit, which makes them speak Much, but not Well. But to come to
the Drist of my Speech, since our Travelling Gallants being home only Vanity
and Vice, as more Prodigality than Frugality, more Luxury than Temperance, more
Diseases than Health, more Extravagancy than Discretion, more Folly than
Experience, and more Vice than Virtue, it were better they should stay at Home,
than Travel as they do; for their Travels are not only Unprofitable to
Themselves, and their Country, but Destructive; for their Vices and Vanity,
doth not only Corrupt their own Natures and civil Manners, and wast their
Bodies and Estates, but it Corrupts all good Government in the Weal Public;
for which Reason, I think it most requisite and fit, that none should Travel
without Leave of the State or Public Counsel, and at their Return should be
Accountable to the State and Public Counsel of their Travels, and the
Advantages they have made. Thus their Travels would be Profitable both to
Themselves, and to their Country; for they would be as a Nursery and School to
breed up Youth to be Wise men.
An Oration concerning Plays, and Players.
Noble Citizens,
HEre is a Company of Players, which are for Pleasure and Pastime to those that
have Nothing to do, and Money to Spend; but give me leave to tell you,
youMis-spend your Time, and also your Money, unless the Players were better
Actors, and their Plays better Plays; for as their Plays have no Wit in
them, so the Actors have no Grace, nor Becoming Behaviour in their Actions; for
what is Constraint, is Misbecoming, as being not Natural, and whatsoever is
Unnatural, is Deformed: but pray, Mistake me not, as believing, I am an Enemy
to Plays or Players, for I am an Enemy only to Foolish Plays, and Ill Actors,
but for Good Plays well Acted, I am so far from being an Enemy to them, as I
think there is nothing so Profitable for Youth, both to Increase their
Understanding, and to Fashion their Behaviour; and for those that have Spare
time, they cannot pass it more Pleasingly; therefore let me Advise you, that
are Magistrates of this City, to set up a Company of Players at the Common
charge, and to Maintain some Excellent Poet, to make Good Plays, and certainly
you will be no Losers in so doing, but Gainers, being the Best and Readiest way
of Education for your Children: for the Poet will inform them both of the
World, and the Natures and Humours of Mankind, an Easier and Delightfuller way,
than the School-men; and the Actors will show them to Behave themselves more
Gracefully and Becomingly, than their Dancing-Masters. Thus they will Learn
more both for their Bodies and Minds of the Poet and Players, than of their
Tutors and Governors, or by Studying or Travelling, which is Expensive,
Laborious, and Dangerous, whereas the other is Easy, Delightful, Safe, and
Profitable. Also one thing more I must advise you, that you provide a Practick
Judicious man, to Instruct the Players to Act well; for as they must have a
Poet, to make their Plays, so they must have a Tutor to teach them to Act
those Plays, unless the Poet will take the pains to teach them himself, as to
Humour the Passions, and to Express the Humours Naturally, and not to Act after
the French Fashion, with High strained Voices, Constrained Motions, Violent
Actions, and such Transportation, as is neither Graceful, Becoming, nor
Natural; but they must make Love Soberly, Implore Favour Humbly, Complain
Seriously, Lament Sadly, and not Affectedly, Fantastically, Constraintly,
Ragingly, Furiously, and the like; all which in my Opinion they do Senselesly,
Foolishly, and Madly; for all Feignings must be done as Naturally as may be,
that they may seem as Real Truths.
SEVERAL CAUSES PLEADED IN SEVERAL COURTS OF JUDICATURE.
PART IV.
Accusing and Pleading at the Barr before the Judges, for and against a Woman
that hath killed her Husband.
Most Reverend Judges,
The Plaintiff THis Woman, who is Accused, not only for Killing a Man, but her
Husband, we have for this Grievous and Horrid Fact brought before your Honours,
to be Judged according to the Laws, delivering her to your Justice and
Judgement.
Defendant. Most Reverend, and Just Judges, 'T is true, that this Unhappy Woman
hath unfortunately Killed her Husband, but Heaven knows, it was Against her
Will, and as I may say Against her Knowledge: for her Husband and She being
Lovingly together, not Mistrusting any Danger, on a sudden came a Man, who as
it seems, was her Husbands Enemy, for he assaulted her Husband with a drawn
Sword; this Woman seeing her Husband in Danger, as being Unarmed and
Defenceless, was so affrighted as she knew not what she did; Wherefore, she
having got a Dagger, which lay in the Room they were in, and thinking to thrust
it into her Husbands Enemy, Unawares thrust it into her Husbands Body,
wherewith he fell down, and immediately Died, which when she saw and perceived
the mistake, she was as Distracted, and at last fell into a Trance, but being
Recovered out of that faint Fit, she hath since remained a most Sorrowful and
Lamenting Widow; I Express her Sorrow, to prove her Innocence from all Evil
Constructions; for the Death of her Husband was not Designed or Intended by
her, but by Fate and Fortune; and it is the Duty of a Loving Wife, to defend
her Husbands Honour, Person, and Life, with all her Endeavours, and if the
success of her Honest, Loyal, and Loving endeavours falls out unfortunately,
She ought not to be Punished for her Misfortune; for Misfortune is no Crime,
but rather to be Pitied and Comforted, either can Justice make Misfortune a Law
to Condemn to Dye; and shall Duty and Loyalty be made Traitors? shall Honest
Love be Punished with Torments and Death? No, Most Reverend Judges, Love and
Loyalty ought to be Honoured with Praise and Respect, and not with Torments and
Death, and the Death of this Woman's Husband was caused by a maskered Fear,
proceeding from an Extraordinary Love. Thus his Death was a Chance, not an
Intended Murder.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, there can be no Witness of the Intention, but
her own Knowledge and Conscience, which are Invisible and not Proveable, and
therefore Insufficient to Acquit Her; but that which is a Sufficient Witness
against her Intention, and may lawfully Condemn her, is her endeavour to Resist
the Judgement and Sentence of Death; for all Good, Loyal, and Loving VVives
ought, nay, desire to Live and Dye with their Husbands, when as they be free
from all Suspect, wherefore much more ought they to accompany their Husbands in
Death, who are liable to be Judged and Condemned for Treason and Murder; for as
it is Unlawful and Irreligious for to Act her own Death, so it is
Dishonourable and Impious to Endeavour to resist the Judgement of Death by
Lawful Authority, Pleading by her Lawyers most shamefully for Life.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, It is not that she Desires to Live, but not
to Dye Infamously, as to Dye as a Murderer of her Husband; for though her
Husband was Killed by her Hand, yet he was not Killed by her Intention, but by
Chance, which misfortune makes her Life a Torment to her, for being so unhappy
as Unwittingly to Destroy him, which her Life did most Delight with; but yet
she would, if she could, rather Live Miserably, than Dye Dishonourably; for in
her Dishonourable Death, both She and her Husband doth doubly Dye.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, It were better Two Persons should Dye Four
times over, than such a Crime should be Once Pardoned; for the Example will be
more Dangerous, than to have an Innocent Condemned would be Grievous: But it is
most probable, She is Guilty.
A Cause of Adultery Pleaded at the Barr before Judges.
Most Reverend Judges,
Plaintiff. HEre is a Man and a Woman, that were Taken in Adultery, and brought
hither to be judged, that they may Suffer according to the Law, which is Death.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, This Adulteress, and Adulterer, (for so in
truth they are) although the Woman is ashamed to confess in Words, only in
silent Tears, yet the man confesses his fault publicly, and asks pardon, only
he says, it is a Natural fault: for the desire of Procreation is Born and Bred
in all Nature's Animal Creatures; it is an Orginal Appetite, but whether it be
an Original Sin, he says, he doth not know; yet if it be, it may more justly be
Pardoned, than Gluttony, which was the cause of Mans Fall, witness Eve, and the
forbidden Fruit; and that Damnable Sin, Gluttony, that destroys many Lives
through Surfeits, the Law takes no notice of, but Procreation that begets and
makes Life, is Punished by the Law, which seems strange to Reason, that Cursed
Gluttony should be Advanced, and Loving Adultery Hanged. Indeed, it is a great
Injustice, at least a grievous Law; and surely our Forefathers, that made that
Law, were Defective either in Bodies or Minds, or at least in Judgement; and
though I confess it is not fit, we should break or dissolve those Laws,
howsoever Erroneous they are, that our Predecessors made; yet we, their
Posterities and Successors may Sweeten or Qualify the Extreme Rigour of their
Laws, as in this Case of Adultery, to Punish the Bodies, but to Spare their
Lives; or to Fine their Estates, and Spare their Bodies; for if the Rigour of
the Law should be put in Execution in all Cases, and to all Persons, there
would no man be Free, either in his Estate, Person, or Life; but howsoever,
this Male-offender, my Client, says, that if he must Dye, yet he shall not Dye
Basely or Dishonourably, by reason he shall Dye Loves Martyr; As for the Female
offender, She says, that she was seduced by Nature, as Eve by the Devil, and
Women being of Soft and Tender Dispositions, do easily yield to an Enticing
Appetite; besides, men being Eloquent in Persuading, Prevalent in Flattering,
Free in Protesting, and Earnest in Vows and Promises, all which hath such force
with Females, who are Credulous and Believing Creatures, as she had no Power to
deny him his Desire. But both these Lovers desire these Most Noble and Just
Judges to Consider, their Crime is not caused through Spite, Envy, Malice,
Revenge, Scorn, Pride, Hate, or the like Sins, but through Love, Kindness,
Friendship, Charity, Generosity, Humility, and such like Virtues, which caused
this Crime, namely Adultery, so that it is the only Sin, that is Built upon
Virtues: besides, this Sin, namely Adultery, hath a Well-pleased Countenance, a
Courtly Behaviour, and an Eloquent Speech, which is the cause, most Men and
Women are in Love with this Sin, the Gods forgive them for it; for this Sin
doth not appear with Terrible and Horrid Aspect as Murder, as to cause the very
Soul as much as the Senses to be Maskered with Fear; not it doth not appear of
so Foul an Aspect as Gluttony and Drunkenness, as to cause Hate or Aversion,
but it hath so Amiable an Aspect as to cause Love, and so Fruitful an Effect
as to cause Life and Living Creatures. They implore Mercy, and beg your
Favourable Sentence, and since it is a Natural effect for Males and Females to
be Adulterers, at least Lovers, you may as soon destroy all Animal Creatures as
this Sin, if it be one; and if there be some Men and Women purely chaste, those
are of Divine Compositions, and not Perfect Naturals, their Souls and Bodies
having more of the Purity of the Gods, than the gross Corporality of Nature;
but these two Offendants confess, they have proved themselves Nature's
Creatures, and the Woman says she is Eve's Daughter, but if you will Spare her
Life, she hopes to be as great a Saint as Mary Magdalen; for she will beg
Pardon by Repentance, and wash out her Sin with her Tears.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, This Pleader ought to be Condemned, not only
for a Corrupt Lawyer, but a Wicked Man, and may very well be believed to be
Guilty of the same Crime, he Pleads so well for; for if he were not Guilty of
the Crime, he would not Plead for a Pardon.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, I am no more Guilty of the Sin, than the
Interceding Saints in Heaven for Sinners on Earth; but if the Pleader should be
Condemned for the Cause of his Client, neither Truth would be Heard, nor Right
Decided, so that all Justice would be Overthrown with Malicious Accusers, and
False Witnesses. But howsoever, Most Reverend Judges, I am not to Decide the
Cause, though I Plead in the behalf of my Clients, and it is the Profession of
a Lawyer, to speak for his Clients, and not Against them, whatsoever their
Cause be; for this is the part of their Opposites, and I am not to fling the
first Stone.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, Howsoever he be Affected, whether evil or
not, yet the Cause he Pleads, is a Wicked Cause, and the Offenders ought to be
severely Punished, according to the Punishing Laws for such Offences and
Offenders; and if Adultery should be suffered, Propriety and the Right of
Inheritance would be lost in the Obscurity of hidden Adultery, or in the
Uncertainty of the Right Children or Fathers.
A Cause Pleaded at the Barr before Judges, concerning Theft.
Most Reverend, and Just Judges,
Plaintiff. HEre is a man, which is Accused for Stealing privately, and Robbing
openly, against all Law and Right, the Goods of his Neighbours, for which we
have brought him before your Honours, appealing to the Laws for satisfaction of
the Injuries, Wrongs, and Loffes, leaving him to your Justice and Judgement.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, I am come here to Plead for this poor man, my
Client, who is Accused for Stealing, which is a silent obscure way of taking
the Goods of other men, for his own use; also this Poor man, (for so I may say
he is, having nothing of his own to Live on, but what he is Necessitated to
take from other men) is accused for Robbery, which is to take away the Goods of
other men in a Visible way and Forcible manner; All which he confesses, as
that the Accusation against him is true; for he did both Steal and Rob for his
own Livelihood, and Maintenance of his Old ^ Past Labouring, and for his Young
Children, ^ are not Able to help themselves, and for his Weak; Sick Wife, that
Labours in Child Birth; For which he appeals to Nature, who made all things in
Common, She made not some men to be Rich, and other men Poor, some to Surfeit
with overmuch Plenty, and others to be Starved for Want: for when she made the
World and the Creatures in it, She did not divide the Earth, nor the rest of
the Elements, but gave the use generally amongst them all. But when
Governmental Laws were devised by some Usurping Men, who were the greatest
Thieves and Robbers, (for they Robbed the rest of Mankind of their Natural
Liberties and Inheritances, which is to be Equal Possessors of the World;)
these Grand and Original Thieves and Robbers, which are called Moral
Philosophers, or Common-wealth makers, were not only Thieves and Tyrants to the
Generality of Mankind, but they were Rebels against Nature, Imprisoning Nature
within the Jail of Restraint, Keeping her to the spare Diet of Temperance,
Binding her with Laws, and Inslaving her with Propriety, whereas all is in
Common with Nature. Wherefore, being against Nature's Laws for any man to
Possess more of the World or the Goods of the World than an other man, those
that have more Wealth or Power than other men, ought to be Punished as Usurpers
and Robbers, and not those that are Poor and Powerless. Therefore, if you be
Just Judges of Nature, and not of Art, Judges for Right, and not for Wrong, if
you be Judges of the most Ancient Laws, and not Usurping Tyrants, you will not
only quit this Poor man, and set him free from his Accusers, which are His and
such Poor men's Abusers, but you will cause his Accusers, who are Rich, to
Divide their Wealth Equally with Him and all his Family; for which Judgement
you will gain Natures favour, which is the Empress of Mankind, Her Government
is the Ancientest, Noblest, Generousest, Heroickest, and Royalest, and her Laws
are not only the Ancientest, (for there are no Records before Nature's Laws, so
that they are the Fundamental Laws of the Universe, and the most Common Laws
extending to all Creatures,) but they are the Wisest Laws, and yet the Freest;
also Nature is the most Justest Judge, both for Rewards and Punishments; for
She Rewards her Creatures, that Observe her Laws as they ought to do, with
Delight and Pleasure, but those that Break or abuse her Laws, as in destroying
their fellow Creatures by untimely Deaths, or unnatural Torments, or do Riot
and oppress her with Excess, She Punishes them with Grief, Pains, and
Sicknesses, and if you will avoid the Punishment of Remorse, Grief, and
Repentance, Save this Poor necessitated man from Violence, and the Cruelty of
these Inhuman, Unnatural, Destroying Laws.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, This man, who is Nature's Lawyer and Pleader,
ought to be Banished from this Place, and his Profession of Pleading out of all
Civilest Governments; for he Talks he knows not what of Nature's Laws, whereas
there is no Law in Nature, for Nature is Lawless, and hath made all her
Creatures so, as to be Wild and Ravenous, to be Unsatiable and Injurious, to be
Unjust, Cruel, Destructive, and so Disorderous, that, if it were not for Civil
Government, Ordained from an Higher Power, as from the Creator of Nature her
self, all her Works would be in a Confusion, and so their own Destruction. But
man is not all of Nature's Work, but only in his Outward Frame, having an
Inward Celestial and Divine Composition, and a Supreme Power given him by the
Gods to Rule and Govern Nature; So that if your Honours submit to the Plea of
this Babbler, you will make the Rulers and Governors of Nature, the Slaves of
Nature; Wherefore, if you be Celestial and not Natural Judges, and will give
Divine Judgement, and not Judge according to Brutal Senses, you will Condemn
this Notorious Thief and Wild Robber to the Gallows, that his Life may be the
Satisfaction for the Wrongs, and his Death an Example for a Warning to Prevent
the like Crimes.
A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt two Bastards.
Most Reverend Judges,
Plaintiff THere be Two Laws in this Kingdom, which seem to be very Unjust; the
One is, that if a Woman be Got / with Child by One Man, and Marries an Other
before her Child is Born, that Child must Inherit her Husbands Estate, if it be
a Son, so that One mans Son comes to be an Other mans Heir by the Law. The
Other is, that if a man Begets a Son before Marriage, and he Marries not the
Woman till After his Son is Born, and though the Marriage cancels the Fault of
Adultery, and is an Atonement for the Sin or Crime, both to God and the Law,
yet the Innocent Child, that was in No Fault, is put by the Inheritance by the
Law; indeed, the Son so Born, Inherits only the Disgrace of a Bastard, but not
his Fathers Estate; and thus if the Woman be Incontinent, a mans Own begotten
Son shall not Inherit, and an Other mans Bastard be his Heir. The same Case is
brought to be Pleaded before your Honours, for two Sons of One Woman, but not
of One Father, the Eldest being her Husbands, Begotten and Born before
Marriage, the other Begotten by an Other man, but Born a month after her
Marriage with the first Sons Father. The Son born after Marriage claims his
Mothers Husbands Estate as Inheritance by Law, the Other claims the Estate as a
Natural Right.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, The Son born to Inherit, claims the Estate by
the Right of Birth, and hopes your Honours will not suffer his Birth-right to
be taken from him.
Plaintiff Most Reverend Judges, The Right Begotten Son doth not Challenge his
Fathers Estate, as his Right by Birth, but as his Right by Gift; for his Father
by Deed gave him that which the Law took from him; for his Estate being not
Entailed, he might Give it to whom he would, and he could not Give it more
Justly, Honestly, and Lovingly, than to his Own Son; but had he not a Child of
his Own to have given it to, yet surely he would never have Left it, if he had
Power to Dispose of it, to a Son of his Inconstant Wife, or Friend, which bore
him to his Shame and Dishonour; but the Case is so clear for his true-Begotten
Son, as it needs no more Pleading.
A Cause Pleaded before the Judges between an Husband and his Wife.
Most Reverend Judges,
Plaintiff. HEre is a Woman Born of good Parents, brought a great Portion, and
makes a chaste Wife, yet her Husband is so Unkind, and so Cruel, as he doth not
only Beat her often, but so Grievously and Sorely, as she is weary of her Life,
and therefore she beseeches your Honours to take so much Commiseration of her
Cause, as to Bind her Husband to a good Behaviour, or to Grant her a Bill of
Divorce, and some Allowance from him, that she may Live Absent in Peace.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, A Husband Anger, nor yet his Corrections, is
not a sufficient Plea for a Wife to Part from her Husband; for a Woman when she
Marries, makes a Promise before God and his Divine Minister in the Sacred
Temple, that she takes her Husband to Have and to Hold, for Better for Worse,
and that she will be Dutiful and Obedient, as also Constant to him so long as
Life lasts, and so plights her troth; Wherefore, it is against the Laws of God
and his Church, to sue for a Divorce; also it is against her Duty to Complain;
Wherefore, she ought by the Laws of God, and consequently by all Other Laws, to
suffer Patiently, did she give her Husband No cause to use her so Severely.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, A Wife is not bound by any Laws but Religion,
to Hazard her Life, and she fears he will Kill her in his Fury, and therefore
for the Safety of her Life, she desires your Honours will quit her of the
Danger.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, A Wife is bound both by the Law of Nature,
and God, to Hazard her Life, not only for her Husbands Safety, Honour, and
Pleasure, but for his Humour; for a Wife is bound to Leave her Parents,
Country, and what else soever, to go with her Husband, wheresoever he goes, and
will have her go with him, were it on the Dangerous Seas, or into Barren
Deserts, or Perpetual Banishments, or Bloody VVarrs, besides Child-birth; all
which is more Dangerous and Painful than blows; but howsoever, it is as
Lawful for an Husband to Govern, Rule, and Correct his Wife, as for Parents
to Rule, Govern, and Correct their Children, or for Masters to Rule, Govern,
and Correct their Servants or Slaves.
Plaintiff. But Parents ought not Strike or Cruelly use their Children, nor
Masters their Servants or Slaves, without Faults committed.
Defendant Parents, Masters, and Husbands in the Case of Ruling, Governing,
Correcting, Punishing or using their Children, Servants, Slaves, and VVives,
ought to be their Own Judges, and no other. But, Most Reverend Judges, She is
not free from Fault, for though she be Chaste, yet she is a Scold, she gives her
Husband more unkind Words, than he gives her unkind Blows, and her Tongue
provokes his Hand to strike her; but as she is Lavish of her Words, so she is
of his Estate, not so much with what she Spends, as with that she Spoils, and
though he can keep her from the One, he cannot hinder her from the Other; for
she is not only Unhuswifely, and Careless of the main Stock, but she Breaks,
Rends, and Spoils all his Goods out of a Malicious Revenge, and Evil Nature;
Yet howsoever, were she the Best Wife that could be, and he the Worst Husband,
the Law hath no Power to Mend him, and Help her, for the Law ought not to
intermeddle in their Quarrel, as having no more Power to take away the
Prerogative of a Husband, than the Prerogative of Parents and Masters; for
whenever the Law takes the part of a Servant against his Master, a Subject
against his Prince, a Child against his Parents, or a Wife against her Husband,
the Law doth unjustly Usurp on their Rights and Privileges, which Rights and
Privileges they received from Nature, God and Morality.
A Widows Cause Pleaded before Judges in the Court of Equity.
Most Reverend Judges,
Plaintiff. HEre is a Poor Widow of a Rich Husband, who in his Life-time did
allow her Little, and at his Death left her Less; for he only left her a small
Annuity during her Life, which is so Small, as cannot Maintain her, neither
Like his Widow, nor indeed in any Decent Fashion; for she having no Jointure,
he to Bar her of her Widows share, gave her this small Annuity, knowing that
otherwise she should have had the Third part of his Estate during Life, but he
by a Deed and Gift of a Little hath cast out her Claim from the Common Law,
wherefore she doth Appeal to this Court of Equity and Conscience, hoping to
have Justice accordingly.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, There is no Reason, Equity, nor Conscience,
that the VViddow should carry away During her Life so Great a Part of her
Husbands Estate, as to Impoverish his Children, and Ruin his Family; besides,
it hinders the Paying of Debts, and there be very few Families, that have not
Debts as well as Children, which Creditors ought to be Paid as well, as
Children to have Portions: and were there no Debts, yet many Childrens
Portions, although but Small, would shrink a Great Estate almost into Nothing;
but if a VViddow carries out the Third Part, there will be little left for
after Posterity, when every Child hath had their Portion, indeed so Little, as
after Posterity will have Nothing to Live on, nor to be Bred up with, which is
the Cause there are so many Noble, Honourable, and Right VVorshipfull Beggars;
nay, it makes them not only Beggars, but Base and Wicked, for having not Means
according to their Births, nor Minds according to their Means, Despising their
Fortunes, they take Desperate Courses, or else their Minds are so Dejected, as
they Degenerate from their Births, and do Base Actions.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, It is against Conscience and Equity, that the
Mother, that Bred and Bore her Children, with Fear, Sorrow, Pain, and Danger of
her Life, should be left Poorer than the Children that were Born from her.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, It is against all Reason, Equity, and
Conscience, that Parents should Get and Bring forth Children, and not Provide
for those Children; for if they give them no Means to Live, as neither by
Education to Get Means, nor some Allowance or Means to Live, their Children
will have Small Reason to Thank their Parents, or Natural Affection to be
Dutiful to them, for giving them a Miserable Life, which Deserves no Thanks,
nor can Challenge a Duty; for as Children are Bound by the Laws of Nature to
Assist their Parents, so Parents are Bound by the Laws of Nature, to Provide
for their Childrens Subsistence, and when the Bonds are Broken of one Part, the
other Part is Free. But, Most Reverend Judges, I do not Plead against the
Mothers or Wife's Livelihood; for it is not, that Mothers and Wives ought not
to be Provided for, for a Man ought to be a Kind Husband, as well as a Loving
Father, but a Wife ought not to be the Ruin either of her Own, or her Husbands
Children, and if she be a Natural Mother, she ought to Spare for her Children,
and not to Spend what her Children should have, but most Women do not only
Spend what their Children should have, but Give it away to a Second Husband, to
the Ruin of the First Husbands Children and Family; for this Reason, Wise men
that are Husbands, not knowing what their Wives will do, when they are Dead,
leave them as Little as they can, Securing their own Estates and Families as
much as they possibly can from the Spoils and Ruins, which Strangers, as Second
Husbands make; for it were more Conscionable not to leave a Wife any
Maintenance, than Too much, and better, One should Suffer, than Many Perish, at
least it is better that a Widow should live Poorly all her Life, than that an
Honourable Family should be Poor to all Succession: Wherefore, this Widow in
Conscience ought to have no more out of her Dead Husbands Estate, than what he
hath Left her, which is enough for Necessity, though not for Vanity, enoough to
Live a Solitary Widow, as she ought to do, although not enough to Enrich a
Second Husband, which a hundred to one, but she would do, if she had it; but
her Husband was a Wise Man, a Careful Father, and a Prudent Husband in not
giving his Wife the Liberty to play the Fool.
A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt a Master and his Servant.
Most Reverend Judges,
Plaintiff. HEre is a Poor Servant, which Served his Master Honestly, and his
Master hath turned him out of his Service without his VVages, which are due
unto him by Right of Bargain and Agreement made betwixt them, which Bargain and
Agreement he hath broken, and unjustly Detains his VVages.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, This Servant Accuses his Master Falsely, and
Challenges that which he ought not to have, as so much for his Wages, for the
Bargain was, that his Master would give him so much Wages to do so much Work,
he did not Hire him to be Idle, so that a Master is not bound to keep a Lasy
Servant, nor to Pay him his VVages, unless he had Done the Work he was Hired to
do, and not only to Do it, but to do according to his Masters Will and Good
Liking.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, If a Masters finding Fault shall be
sufficient to Barr a Servant of his VVages, no Servants could Live by their
Labours, for Masters would find Faults a purpose to Save their Hire.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, If Servants should live Idly, or
Disorderly, or Disobediently, or make Wast and Spoil of their Masters Goods
and Estate, and be maintained with Meat, Drink, Lodging, and VVages, their
Masters would become Poorer than their Servants, and Live in more Subjection,
rather than so, the Masters would Serve themselves, and keep no Servants; for
surely, men will rather be their Own Servants, than to be Servants, or rather
Slaves to their Servants, so that Servants would not only want VVages, but
Food, and Starve for want; for if they gain Nothing by their Labour, and have
no Means of their Own, they must upon necessity Perish; and for Examples sake,
as well as Justice, this Servant ought not to be Paid his Wages, for he doth
not Deserve it, and therefore 'tis not his Right nor Due to Have it.
Two Lawyers Plead before Judges, a Cause betwixt a Father and his Son.
Most Reverend Judges,
Plaintiff against the Father. HEre is the Son which ought to be his Fathers
Heir, whom for Marryig against his Fathers Consent, his Father hath
Dis-inherited, which is against all Law or Right, both of God, Nature, and Man.
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, Disobedient Children ought to have no Part
nor Parcel of their Parents Estate, as Lands, Goods, or whatsoever; for it the
Parents have no Duty, nor Obedience from their Child, their Child can challenge
no Part of their Parents Estate, and since he hath Married Disobediently, he
ought to Live Poorly, or to get his Living by his Own Labour or Industry.
Plaintiff. Most Reverend Judges, There is no Reason, nor Law, that if one man
Commit a Fault to an other, that man should Commit an other to be quit with
him; and put the Case the Son were unnaturally Disobedient, must the Father be
unnaturally Cruel to be Revenged of him?
Defendant. Most Reverend Judges, Parents are the Fittest Judges of their
Childrens Faults and Crimes committed against them. But howsoever, Parents
cannot be thought Cruel or Unnatural to Punish the Crimes of their Children, no
more than God can be said to be Cruel or Unjust to Punish Sinners; for God who
Made Creatures, may do what he Pleases with them; for being his own Work, he
may Dispose or Order them as he Thinks best, or as he Pleases: So Parents that
Begot their Children, may do the like in things concerning themselves.
Plaintiff. But God is Merciful, wherefore Parents ought to be Natural.
Defendant. God is Just, and therefore Children ought to be Dutiful.
Plaintiff. But if God Should Punish his Creatures according to their Desert,
no man would be Saved.
Defendant. And if Children should do what they List, there would be no
Government; for Parents would be made Slaves, and their Children Masters: so if
God should not Punish Some of his Creatures, All would be Damned, and to make
up the Fulness of their Sins, they would Despise his Love, and not Fear his
Power, and so they would neither Love nor Fear God; so Children would have
neither Duty nor Obedience to their Parents: But to prove it a Clear cause, his
Estate is free from all Entails, and wholly in his own Power, to Dispose of it
as he Pleases, and to Give it to whom he will, and therefore his Son can
Challenge nothing by Law or Right.
SPEECHES TO The KING in Council.
PART V.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to His Sovereign.
Dread Sovereign,
HEre are many of your Noble Subjects chosen out to be, I can not say
PrivyCounsellours, by reason there be too many to keep Secrets of State, which
shows we are rather Counsellours for Form, than for Business, Counsellours in
Name, rather than Counsellours in Nature; Wherefore, we shall not need to
trouble your Majesty or our Selves, the one to Hear, the other to Speak long
Orations, or tedious Speeches; for should we Speak, we should rather speak like
Fools than Wise men, by reason we are not acquainted with your Majesties
Cabinet Designs, or Intrigues; and so being your Majesties General, and not
Particular Counsellours, must needs speak at Random: Wherefore, we beseech
your Majesty, not to Censure our Judgements, but our Ignorances in not knowing
your Majesties most Private, as Cabinet Desires, Designs, and Intrigues.
A Petition and Plea at the Council-Table, before the King and his Council,
concerning two Brothers Condemned by the Laws to Dye.
May it Please your Most Sacred Majesty,
I Am come here to your Majesties CouncilTable, to Plead the Cause of two
Brothers, whose Cause hath been Heard, Judged, Cast, and Condemned by the
Judges of the Laws of this Land, and must suffer Death, unless your Majesty
acquit or Pardon them; Indeed their cause is Hard, for they were Forced either
to Offend the Laws of Government, or the Laws of Honour, the Laws of Government
threatened Bodily Death, the Laws of Honour threatened Infamy, and being Worthy
Persons, they chose rather to Venture Life, than to Live Dishonourably; But
their Crime, or (it may rather be called) their Justice, which the Laws of the
Land have Condemned them for, is for Killing, or rather Punishing their Sister
for the Impurity, Immodesty, Dishonesty, and Dishonour of Inchastity, which was
an Offence to the Gods, a Reproach to her Life, a Disgrace to her Race, a
Dishonour to her Kindred, and an Infamy to her Family; As for the Sin, they
past that by, to be Judged of by the Gods, her own Reproach they regarded not,
the Disgrace of her Race they endeavoured to obscure; But as for the Dishonour
to her Kindred, and Infamy to her Family, her Brothers were resolved to Wash
off the Dishonour with her Blood, and to Rub out the Black spot of Infamy with
her Death, which Resolution they put in Execution, forcing a Surgeon to open an
Artery Vein; through which she Bled to Death. Besides, had they let her have
Lived, the Laws of the Land would have Punished her, which would have been a
Double Dishonour, and a Recorded Infamy, receiving as much Dishonour by her
Public Punishment, as her Private Crime. Wherefore, to prevent as well, as to
take off all Disgrace, they were her Executioners, by forcing the Surgeon to
strike an Artery, a very Easy Death for so Great an Offender: but the Natural
Affections from Brothers to a Sister, did desire she might Dye with as Little
Pain as might be: Now Dead she is, and they Condemned to Dye for her Death,
unless your Majesty will Pardon them, and it will be a Gracious Act, to pardon
Worthy Men, such men as preferred Honour before Life.
A Speech of one of the Privy-Counsellours, which is an Answer to the former
Plea and Petition.
May it Please your Majesty
TO give me leave as One of your Council to Answer this man. As for Parents to
Kill their Children, for Children to Kill their Parents, for Brethren to Kill
each other, and Sisters their Brothers, or Brothers their Sisters, or Nieces or
Nephews their Uncles or Aunts, or Uncles and Aunts to Kill their Nephews or
Nieces, or Cousin Germans, is Unnatural, or to be the Cause of their Death is
Unnatural, I may say a Great Sin in Nature; Wherefore these two Brothers, that
were the Cause, indeed the Actors in effect of their Sisters Death, have Sinned
against the Gods, Nature, and the Laws of good Government, for which they
Deserve Punishment, both in this World, and in the World after this Life; And
as for that which is called Honour, it is but the Opinion of some men, a mere
Fancy, not any Real Good, only a Name to persuade men to do Evil Actions, as to
Fight Duels, to make VVarrs, to Murder Friends, nay, to Murder Themselves; all
which is against Gods, Men's, and Natures Laws, which is Inhuman, Uncharitable,
Unnatural, and Impious.
The Petitioners Reply.
Most Dread Sovereign,
SInce your Majesty is pleased to hear the Suits of Humble Petitioners, and the
Causes of Pleaders, and the Defences of Condemned Persons, as your Condemned
Subjects, at your Council-bord, their last Refuge in Extremity, appealing to
your Majesties Self, where your Majesty sits in Person, to Hear not only
Counsels, but Complaints, I shall answer this PrivyCounsellour, whose Judgement
is more Severe, than I hope your Majesty will be in your Sentence; He says, it
is Inhuman, Uncharitable, Unnatural, and Impious for near Allies to Kill each
other; but neither your Majesty, nor your most Loyal Subjects, should nor would
think, nor believe so, if your Majesty had a Civil Rebellious War, which I
Pray the Gods to keep you from, yet in all Civil Wars near Allies Fight
against one an other, and Kill one another, believing they do not only their
King but God Good Service in so doing; for what Pious Men or Loyal Subjects
would not Kill their Fathers, or their Sons, that Fight against their King, or
do but Oppose his Will and Pleasure? nay, those that Speak against it, ought to
be accounted Traitors; and as for Honour, which is said only to be an Opinion
and Fancy of some men, yet it is such an Opinion and Fancy that without it men
would neither be Generous, nor Valiant, Just, nor Grateful, Faithful, nor
Trusty, but all men would be Sordid, Covetous, Cowards, False Cheats,
Unthankful, and Treacherous; besides, Wit and Learning would be quite
Abolished or Buried in Oblivion, and if men care not for Esteem, Respect, and
Praise, men would not care to do that which is Good, but on the contrary would
do all the Hurt and Evil they could; for Praise keeps men from Evil, more than
Laws or Punishment, and Praise is more Powerful to Persuade and to Allure men
to good, than Strength or Authority hath Power to Enforce men to good, and
Honour Lives in Praise, and Praise Lives in Worthy Acts, which Worthy Acts Fame
Records, that After-ages may know, what Just, Valiant, Generous, Wise, Learned,
Witty, Ingenious, Industrious, Pious, Faithful, and Virtuous men Lived in
Former times, which Knowledge will make Posterity Desirous and Industrious to
do as their Fore-fathers have done. Thus do Good and Honourable Acts beget
their like in Afterages, which is a Race of Worthy Deeds. Wherefore, your
Majesty for the Good of the Present and Future times, will Favour these men
that Love Honour more than Life, and Fear Disgrace more than Death, which is
the Cause of the two Brothers, for whom I Plead and Beg your Majesties Pardon.
The KINGS Answer.
I Neither ought to Approve the Act of those two Brothers, concerning the Death
of their Sister, nor to Obstruct or Oppose my Laws in their Condemnment: Yet
since their Act was to Take away Disgrace, and not out of Malice, and through a
Hate to the Crime, not to the Person, I am not willing to leave them to the
Punishment, and the Laws being Satisfied by their Arraignment, Judgement, and
Condemnment, I will give them their Lives, Lands, Goods, and Liberties, which
the Laws took from them, and so leave them to Gods Mercy for Grace, to Repent
their Sin.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech at the Councilbord to His Sovereign.
Most Gracious Sovereign,
THis your City, wherein your Majesty doth chiefly Reside, grows Too big for
the rest of your Kingdom, indeed So big as it will be too Unruly and Unwieldy
to be Governed, and being fully Populated, it will not only be apt to Corrupt
the Air, and so cause Often and Great Plagues, which may Infect the whole
Kingdom; for where Many People are, there is much Dung and Filth, both within
the Streets and Houses, as also Foul Bodies and Corrupt Humours, which of
Necessity must be very Unwholesome; but it will Devour the rest of the
Kingdom, for it is the Mouth and Belly that Devours the Fruitful Increase of
the Land, yet Labours not to Husband the Ground: Besides, the Richest and
Noblest of your Subjects Residing for the most part in the City, as being the
Chief City, Rob the Country, and Enrich the City; for what they Receive in the
Country, they Spend in the City, so that they Feed on the Labours of the Poor
Country-men, and are Enriched by the Vanities of the Nobles. Thus they Thrive
by Vanity, and Live by Spoils, Wasting the Plenty, Beggering the Gentry, and
Ruining the Country, and so the Kingdom. Also too Great and Populous a City is
not only a Head too Great for the Body of the Commonwealth, but like a Head
that is full of Gross Humours, indeed a Great City is a Head filled with Evil
Designs, and not only a Head with Evil Designs, but it is the Tongue of
Detraction, the Heart of Civil War, the Magazine of Warring Arms, and the
Treasury to maintain Rebellious Armies; for though they are more apt to Mutin
than to Fight, and more apt to Rise in Tumults than in Arms, yet more apt to
Take up Arms, than to Keep Peace; and though they have neither Conduct nor
Courage, yet they will Destroy with Force and Fury, whosoever will offer to
Oppose them; and their great Plenty will make them more apt to Rebel, than if
they were Pinched with Necessity; for their Wealth makes them Proud, their
Pride makes them Ambitious, their Ambition makes them Envious, their Envy makes
them Factious, their Faction makes them Mutinous, and in a Tumultuous Mutiny
they will endeavour to pull your Majesty from your Throne, break your Laws, and
make Havoc and Spoil of all the Goods and Lives of your Loyalst Ministers of
State, and Noblest Persons about you, and for the most part, the most Honest
and Worthiest Persons they can come to, they will Destroy. Thus a great City is
too Rich to be Obedient, too Proud to be Governed, too Populous to be Quiet,
and too Factious to Live Peaceably.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Sovereign, concerning Trade.
Dread Sovereign,
I Think it my Duty to inform your Majesty, that Trade is so Decayed, as it
will in a short time Ruin your Kingdom, if not Timely Repaired; for this
Kingdom being an Island, Trade is the Foundation to Uphold it, without which
Foundation it will fall to Ruin; and the Chief Persons of and for Trading in
an Island are Merchants Adventurers, which are both Foreign and Home
Traffickers. These Merchants, your Majesty should Assist and Defend to the
Utmost of your Power. As for the Advancing of Trade, there be Three things, the
First is Easy Taxes for Customs; the Second is, to Secure them from Enemies at
Sea; the Third is, Not to Suffer your Neighbour-Nations to Encroach upon their
Privileges, or to Take the Trading from them: As for the first, to Lessen your
Customs, will Lessen your Revenue, and that ought not to be, by Reason your
Revenue is not so Great, as to admit of any Diminution, your Charge being
Extraordinary Great, but your Majesty may Secure them at Sea by your Shipping,
and Maintain their Privileges abroad and at home by your Power, which Actions
will not only cause your Neighbours to Fear you, but your Subjects to Love you,
the One for your Force, the Other for your Favour. And give me leave, Dread
Sovereign, to inform you, that the more Merchants Adventurers you have, the
more Power and Strength at Sea you have; for Shipping increases with their
Trade, in so much, as your Merchants Adventurers will both increase your Power
and Wealth; for if they be Rich, the Kingdom cannot be Poor, and if the
Kingdom be Rich, your Majesty cannot be Poor; besides, their Ships of Burden
are an Assistance to your Ships of War, both which I beseech the Gods to
increase for your Majesties, and your Subjects Security.
An Oration to his Majesty, for Preventing Imminent Dangers.
Dread Sovereign,
I Think it my Duty, being one of your PrivyCounsellours, to give your Majesty
Advice, lest Sudden Dangers may Surprise you, or at least great Disorders may
give you great Troubles; for certainly, if your Majesty take not a speedy
Course to Rectify some Errors, you will soon have a Civil War, which I pray
the Gods to Avert: The first Error is, that Justice is Corrupted; the second,
that Vanity is Excessive; the third and worst, that your Treasury is Empty: To
Rectify Injustice, is, to suffer no Offices to be sold, nor Bribes to be
taken; To Rectify the Excess of Vanity, is, to see that a Law be made, that
every Degree or Quality is to be Known or Distinguished by their Habits, and to
set a Stint or Proportion in Feasting, as that the Greatest Feast shall not
Exceed such a Price or Charge, as your Majesty and your Great Council shall
think fit; And to Rectify your Empty Treasury, is, to provide that first your
Majesties Expenses must not be above your Revenue; also to take great care,
that your Officers and Receivers do not Cousin your Majesty; for if your
Expenses be above your Revenue, and that your Officers and Receivers Deceive
you, your Majesty must be Necessitated to Tax your People, which will so much
Discontent your Subjects in General, as will cause them to Murmur, and make
them apt to Rebel, and if they should Rebel, your Majesty for want of Money,
would not be able to Resist them, or to Help your Self; also for want of Money,
your Majesties Magazins are as Empty, as your Treasury. Wherefore, your Majesty
must be Industrious to Fill the One, and to Store the Other, that your Majesty
may have Arms and Ammunition for your use, if need Require.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to the King, at the Council-bord.
May it Please your Majesty,
THere are some Needy, or rather Spending, or Wasting Unthrifts, that have got
from your Majesty leave for Monopolies, not caring what Harm they do your
Majesty, so they may Reap a Profit to Themselves; but were they as Meritorious
Subjects, as any your Majesty hath, yet they cannot be so Deserving, as to
Displease many Thousands of your other Subjects, to Favour and Reward some Few
particular Persons, and for the Advancing and Enriching of those Persons, many
Hundreds, nay Thousands are Ruined, at least Impoverished; but if your Majesty
were any ways the Better, or received any Profit, either by Increasing and
Enriching your Treasures, or for the Service of your Wars, or that it were any
ways Beneficial for your Government, or that you did Receive any Pleasure or
Delight thereby, Monopolies ought not to be Spoken against, but it is so far
from that, as it Impoverishes your Majesties Store, by Impoverishing your
Subjects, by their Engrossing, and then Inhansing particular Commodities, and
when the Generality of your Subjects are Poor, your Majesty cannot be Rich; for
your Revenue comes or is drawn from the Generality throughout your whole
Kingdom, and not from some Particular Persons; for though particular Persons
may make your Majesty Poor, by receiving from your Majesty Great Gifts, yet
particular Persons cannot make your Majesty Rich, with particular Presents or
Assessments. Thus particular Persons may Drain your Treasury, but not Fill it.
Neither can Monopolies nor Monopolizers serve you in your Wars; for though
Monopolies and Monopolizers may be the Cause of Civil Wars, by Discontenting
the People, yet they cannot Maintain your Wars, nor Defend your Person, nor
Pacify the People, unless by the Sacrifices of their Lives, and those will not
always Satisfy them; for whenever a Rebellion is Raised, and Civil Wars
begun, it is a long time, before there can be Peace again. Neither can
Monopolies be Beneficial to the Commonwealth, for the Common-wealth thrives in
Equal Distributions, whereas Incrochments, Ingrossings, and Hordings of several
and particular Commodities, Impoverish the Commonwealth, like as when some men
Hord up Corn, it causes a Dearth, Inhansing the Price so High as the Poorer
People are not able to Buy it, or at least not so much as daily to Feed them;
the like for Money; when Rich Miserable men Hord up Money, it makes such a
Scarcity of it, that the Poor People, although they Labour Painfully, yet
cannot get enough to Maintain Themselves, their Wives, and Children; for the
Scarcer Money is, the Cheaper is their Work, in so much as Poor Labouring men
cannot get Half the Worth of their Labour: Neither doth your Majesty receive
any Pleasure or Delight by Granting Monopolies or Monopolizers; for what
Pleasure can it be to hear the Murmurs and Complaints of your Poor Subjects?
what Pleasure can it be for your Majesty to have Monopolizers, to Spend what
they get by their Monopolies, on Mistresses, Luxury, and Vanity? they are not
to Entertain your Majesty with Masks, Plays, Shows, Sports and Pastimes, for
you pay Dear for those Delights without their Assistance. The truth is, that
those Monopolizers get more, than they ought to do that way, and yet not so
much as the People loses; Like as those that Plunder a City, the City loses
more than the Soldiers get by their Plunder, for they can make little Profit
of those Commodities, that the Citizens grew Rich by, and the Soldiers do not
only Take the Goods, but Spoil the Trade; The like do Monopolizers; indeed they
are Devouring Worms in a Common-wealth, Eating out the very Bowels, which is
Trade, for without Trade a Commonwealth cannot well Subsist; for how should men
Live by one an other, but by Trading? But we are sure, that your Gracious
Majesty did not know or think what a Mischief Monopolies are in a
Common-wealth, otherwise we your Majesties Counsellours know, your Majesty
would never have Granted or Suffered such Sores upon your Loyal Subjects.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-bord.
May it Please your Sacred Majesty,
THese Petitioners, that Petition for Reformations of Government, and Complain
for the Breach of their Privileges, and Exclame against their Magistrates, and
your Majesties Ministers of State, are to be considered as Dangerous Persons,
for their Petitions are Fore-runners of Civil Wars, if not Timely prevented;
for though they Cloak their Treacherous Designs under Fair and Humble Words at
the first, yet no doubt, but they will persist and go on in a Rough and Rude
manner; for what they call in their Petition, their Humble Complaints, are
Factious and Seditious Murmurings, and what they name their Humble Desires of
Redress, are Presumptuous Demands, and the Number of the Petitioners are a
Rebellious Insurrection, for which they ought to be Severely Punished, some of
them with Imprisonment, and some with the Loss of their Goods, others to be
Punished with Death, and others with Banishment, and their Privileges ought
utterly to be Taken from them, as that they have Forfeited them to your
Majesty. Thus shall you raise Money from Mollits, Strength from Traitors, and
Peace from War.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-Table.
May it Please your Majesty,
THat I say I am of the opinion, that the Counsel of the Lord N. N. is too
Severe, and that it is Dangerous to Inveterate a Discontented People, but
rather they should be Palleated and Qualified with some Condescence, as also to
put out some Declarations in their Favour, which will be a means to Pacify
them, and to Allay their Discontents, and Hinder their Evil Designs; For if you
Rub a Sore, it will Fester, and may make it Gangrene, and cause a Part to fall
from the Whole: So, to Enrage a People may make them Rebel, and Fall from
their Allegiance, which otherwise it may be they would not do, and he is an Ill
Surgeon, that will Make a Wound, instead of Healing a Wound; So it were not
well to Make Traitors, that would be Loyal Subjects, or to make Wars instead
of keeping Peace, and when War is begun, it is not likely there will be any
good Agreement, until most of the Kingdom is Ruined, in which Ruin your
Majesty will be a Loser; for he is the Greatest King that hath the most
Flourishing and Populous Kingdom, and he is the Happiest King, that hath the
most Peaceable Subjects.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-bord.
May it Please your Majesty,
THat I say I am neither of the Lord N. N. Opinion, as to put your Justice
against your Offending Subjects presently in Execution, nor of the Lord S. Y.
Opinion, to let your Offending Subjects go Unpunished, and Worse to Flatter
them, for that will make them Proud, and Pride will make them stand upon High
Terms, nay, it will make them Insult so Imperiously, as not any Condescence
will Satisfy them; for when as the People perceives their Sovereign is Afraid
of them, they become Unruly, but when they Fear their Sovereign, they are
Obedient; for it is impossible to Work upon their Good Nature, as to make them
Obey through Love and Good Will, because they have no Good Natures to Work on;
wherefore, there is none other way but Force, to make them Loyal, and to keep
them to their Allegiance; and my Advice is to your Majesty, to make your self
Strong, before you appear either to Favour them, or Disfavour them, but to be
so Long in your Results, as your Majesty hath Gathered up your Strength, and
Settled your Power, and Secured your Person; otherwise you may Declare what you
will, but you shall have but Few Partakers, whilst you are Weak and Powerless;
for men Listen not so much to Words, as they are Afraid of what they See; for
Power Increases Power, whereas Words do but Multiply Words, and Lessen Power;
but when your Majesty hath got a Sufficient Power to Oppose them, or to Command
them, then Declare your Will and Pleasure, and put your Justice in Execution.
Wherefore it is Requisite, that your Majesty should Store your Magazins, Man
your Forts, make Garrisons, Rigg your Navy, and Get what Money you can, to
Raise an Army if need require; also your Majesty must take great Care, that you
Employ and Entrust Honest Men and Loyal Subjects, such as have been always
Obedient, otherwise you will be Betrayed, and your own Designs will be turned
against you; for your Majesties Affairs require now rather Honest than Subtle
men, and Wise rather than Crafty men.
ORATIONS IN Courts of MAJESTY, FROM Subjects to their KING, AND From the King
to his Subjects.
PART VI.
Complaints of the Subjects to their Sovereign.
Most Gracious Sovereign,
WE are come here not as Mutinous Rebels, but Humble Petitioners to implore
your Favour, as to redress our Grievances, and to take off our Heavy
Oppressions; for all the Profit of our Labours, which should maintain our
Lives, Wives and Children, is Forcibly Taken from us, and we do not only Pay
Taxes, but Intolerable Prices for all Commodities and Necessaries, occasioned
by Monopolies and Projects, which engross all Particular Commodities, so that
we are Forced to Buy our Liberties to Sell, and Sell our Liberties to Buy; But
if your Majesty were a Gainer by our Loss, and were Enriched by our Poverty, we
could be well contented to be Miserable for your Majesties Sake, either for
your Profit or Pleasure, but your Majesty injoyes it not, but Other men which
are called Courtiers, Promotors, Promooters, and Projectors, spend it Idly,
Vainly, Riotously, and we fear Wickedly; So that what we get with Labour, they
spend with Idleness, what we get with Care, they spend with Carelessness; the
truth of it is, they Wear our Lives upon their Backs, and Feed upon our Bowels;
but the worst is, that if we be Poor Half Starved, we shall neither be able to
Serve your Gracious Majesty either in Peace or War, and therefore we beseech
your Majesty for your Own sake as well as for Ours, you would be pleased to
Redress our Grievances.
The Subjects Complaint to their Sovereign, of the Abuses of their Magistrates.
Most Gracious Sovereign,
AS all Creatures make their Complaints to God, as the Highest and most
Powerful in Heaven: So we your Humble and Obedient Subjects make our
Complaints to your Majesty, as the Highest and most Powerful, being Gods
Vice-regent, on Earth; But though your Majesty is Loving and Careful of your
Poor Subjects, making Judges, Magistrates, and Officers, to keep Order, to do
Justice, to give Right, to rectify Errors, and to punish Crimes, that your
Subjects might Flourish in Peace and Plenty, yet they are so far from doing
Justice, as they make Wrongs, and do Injuries, and instead of Giving every one
their Right, they Take away our Rights from us, and instead of Order, they
commit Disorder, and instead of rectifying Errors, they make Errors, and
instead of punishing Crimes, they are the greatest Criminals themselves, and
those that are the most Honest and Peaceable of your Subjects, are most sure to
be Worst used by them, because they have not that Profit by Them, as by those
that are Disturbers, Destroyers, or Deceivers, for when They have committed
Faults, they get money for their Pardons, whereas those that commit no Fault,
need no Pardon: And as for Justice, or rather Injustice, it is sold at the Bar
or on the Bench; for Causes or Cases are not Pleaded or Decided for Truth or
Right, but for Bribes or Favour; also the Magistrate doth not set the Poor
a-Work, but takes away the Poors Work, I mean not their Labour, but their
Getting, as the Profit, and so leaves them not any thing to Live on; Also they
do Rob the Subjects in General, and your Majesty in Particular; for though they
take away Much from Us, yet they pay your Majesty but Little in Comparison of
what they take, and they Use or rather Abuse your Majesties Name, to the Ruin
of your Subjects; for they Extort by your Majesties Name, and when we hear your
Majesties Name, we humbly Submit and Yield to all they Demand; for not only
your Person, but your Name is Sacred to us: But give us leave to tell your
Majesty, that they are so Unsatiably Covetous, as all the Wealth of your other
Subjects will not Satisfy them, and their Covetousness makes them so
Unbelieving, and Hardhearted, as when they have taken All from us, they put us
in Prison, because we have Nothing left to Give them, and if we be not put in
Prison, we are put to Slavery, and many times our VVives and our Children are
Abused; And this is the Lamentable Condition of your Poor Subjects; for which
we implore your Majesties Redress, knowing it is not your Majesties Pleasure we
should suffer so miserably.
A Kings Speech to his Rebellious rout.
Beloved Subjects,
what is the Reason or Cause you gather together in such Rebellious Tumults?
Is it for fear of your Lives or Liberties? which you have no cause to Fear, for
I am not your Enemy, but your Gracious King; or is it that you are my Enemies,
and throng to Dethrone me? or is it that you would have the Absolute Power
amongst you? which Absolute Power cannot be Divided amongst Many; for if every
one hath Liberty to do what he list, not any man will have Power to do what he
would; for Liberty will be lost, if every man will take upon him to Rule, and
Confusion will take place of Government. Thus striving for Liberty, you will
thrust your selves into Slavery, and out of Ambition to Rule, you will lose all
Government, and out of Covetousness to be Rich, you'll make your selves
Miserably Poor; for if there be no Government, there can be no Order, if there
be no Order, there can be no Justice, and if no Justice, there can be no
Safety, if no Safety, no Peace, if no Peace, no Trade, and if no Trade, there
will be no Riches. Wherefore your best way is, to Submit and Obey, to be
Content, to be Ruled, and not seek to Govern, to enjoy your Rights, and to
revenge your VVrongs by Law and Justice, and not to make VVarr and Confusion to
destroy your selves.
A Kings Speech to Rebellious Subjects.
I May call you Well-beloved Subjects, but I cannot call you Loving Subjects;
for although I have been Careful, Watchful, Prudent, and Just for your
Safeties, Peace, Prosperities, and Rights, yet you regard not my Safety. my
Peace, nor my Rights; Neither can I call you Good, for you are Factious,
Complaining, and full of Malice; nay, it may be a question whether I may call
you Subjects, for you Disobey all Authority, Resist the Laws, and will Obey no
Command, unless you be Forced; and though you have not Actually Rebelled, yet
you are in the Way to it, for you Dispute my Power, and would if you could,
take away my Prerogatives, but will not quit any of your Privileges, which
shows your Unconscionableness, Ungratefulness, and Unkindness to me, your
Sovereign; Besides, you are so Unreasonable, and so Evil, as you murmur at my
Harmless and Lawful Pleasures, but will abate none of your own Vanities,
Vices, and Wickednesses. The truth of it is. I have done like an Over-fond
Father, who through extreme Love and Tenderness to his Children, hath given
them their Wills and Liberties So much, as they forget their Duties, and become
Disobedient through VVantonness; but had I used Severity instead of Clemency,
and had Rigorously kept you in Fear, and had Exacted More from you, and had
Yielded Less to you, and had I Curbed your Liberties, you had been more
Obedient, which would have been more Happy both for Me and for You; for then
you would have been Governed Easily, and Obeyed Willingly, by which we should
have Lived Peaceably, whereas now we are like to Ruin each other with Civil
VVarrs, unless Heaven open your Eyes of Understanding, to see your Faults,
Errors, and Dangers, you are like to fall into; but I hope Heaven will give you
Grace to Reform your Lives, and Conform your Manners to Live Peaceably.
A Kings Speech to Discontented Subjects.
Beloved Subjects,
I Perceive Frowning Countenances amongst my people, which doth portend a
Storm, but let me advise you from raising a Storm, lest you Ship-wrack the
whole Kingdom, and be Drowned your selves in the Waives of Rebellion; The
truth of it is, Raging Men are worse than Raging Billows, and worse, more
Devouring than the Sea. Yet if you are resolve'd to make VVarr, rather make
VVarr in Foreign Nations, than in your Own Country, and on Strangers, rather
than on your Friends; for to make VVarr on Me, your King, and your Sovereign,
is against the Laws of God; to make VVarr on the Protector of your Liberties,
and Father of your Country, is Unnatural; to spill your Friends Blood, is
Ungrateful and Inhuman; to Ruin your Native Country, is Barbarous; by which
Actions you will become worse than Beasts, and as bad as Devils; but if you be
so possessed with Fury, as no Entreaties will dispossess you, you must be
Scourged with Misery: the truth is, you seem by your Rebellious Actions to be
Mad, and then there is no Cure for you, but to be Let Blood in the Discontented
Veins, and I will be your Surgeon, on whom I'll try my Skill and Power, to bring
you into a Perfect Obedience; besides, I will Bind you with Bonds of Slavery,
and Whip you with Rods of Afflictions, unless you presently Conform your selves
to Peace, Law, and Government, and humbly crave Pardon for your Faults.
A Kings Speech to his Rebellious Subjects.
PRoud, Presumptuous Subjects, for so you are, that Dare bring your Sovereigns
Prerogatives in question, and to Dispute his Power; but who Gave you that
Authority? not my Ancestors, nor your Own; for my Ancestors Conquered your
Ancestors, and made them Slaves, in which Slavery you ought to have been Kept,
and not to have such Liberty as now you have, in so much as to come so Near and
so High in your Demands, as to Justle me in my Throne; only you cast a Veil of
Pretence over your Wicked Designs, the Pretence is your Rights and Privileges;
but what Rights had you, when you were Conquered? and what Privileges have you,
but what the Conqueror gave? he gave you not the Privilege to Dispute my
Power, or to Bring my Prerogatives in Question; neither have you Privilege to
Disobey my Command, to Resist my Authority, or to Break my Laws; and know,
rather than I will quit my Rights, my Birth, or my Power, I will Die first; but
my Death will not serve your turn, for I have Successors; and though your Idle
thoughts and Vain hopes persuade you you shall get more Liberty by Rebellious
Actions, yet you may be Deceived, and in the end thrust your selves in Absolute
Slavery; but it seems you had rather be Base Slaves, than Loyal Subjects, or
else you would not be so apt to Mutiny as you are, yet if you once Rebel; I
will endeavour to Destroy Every man that Opposes me, or Stands Neuter, and if I
cannot Destroy you with that Power I have, I will call in Foreign Nations that
shall Devour you; for believe, I will not be Ruined Alone, but the Ruin of the
whole Kingdom shall Accompany me.
A Recantation of the Poor Petitioning Subjects.
Most Dread Sovereign,
YOur most Sorrowful and poor Petitioning Subjects, hearing your Majesty was
Displeased at their Complaints, and Angry with them, for coming in a Company
together, imploring your Majesties Favour and Redress of their Poor Condition,
not imagining that their Complaints would be taken as Factious and Seditious
Murmurings, or their Desires of Redress as Presumptuous Demands, or that their
Petitioning in a Company together would be taken for a Rebellious Insurrection,
they have sent Me a Poor man, not daring to Come Together as they did, to let
your Majesty know, how much Afflicted they are for your Displeasure, which
Displeasure they are more Grieved for, than for any other Affliction, that
could come either upon their Lives, Bodies, Goods, Wives, or Children; for they
do Assure your Majesty, and call Heaven to Witness for them, that they came not
for any Evil design to your Majesty, nor your Majesties Government, but only
out of a Good Intent, believing your Majesty did not Know what they did Suffer;
but if they had Known, or but Imagined, it had been your Majesties Will and
Pleasure they should Suffer, they would never have Complained, and rather have
Starved or Endured any Torment, than Opposed your Majesty in any thing: and if
your Majesty thinks their Ignorant Fault is beyond a Pardon, they are ready and
willing to Endure any Punishment, or to Dye at your Majesties Command.
Repenting Subjects to their Sovereign.
Most Gracious Sovereign,
WE your most Penitent Subjects crave Pardon for our Faults, not only with
Tears in our Eyes, but Sorrow in our Hearts, for our Murmuring Speeches and
Rebellious Actions, for which we confess we Deserve to Die, or worse, as to
endure great and grievous Torments; but if your Majesties Clemency Spare our
Bodies from Pain, and our Lives from Death, we are doubly, nay trebly bound to
your Majesty, first by our Duties, next for your Mercy, and last for our
Pardon, to be not only your Majesties Loyal Subjects, but Loyal Slaves; And
since there is no man so Perfect, but is Subject to Offend, and not in Light or
Small Offences, but Great and Grievous, as not only against Man and man, or
against Nature, but against God himself; We hope your Majesty will Consider our
Frail Natures, and will rather blame Nature for Making us so, than Us for Being
so. But since Repentance is the way to Forgiveness, and Absolution follows
Contrition, we with Contrite Hearts and Humble Spirits crave your Mercy.
A Kings Speech to his Good Subjects.
MY Beloved, and most Loving Subjects, (for so you are) I have required your
Assembling together, that I may see You, and you Me; for I do not Love to be as
a Stranger to my Subjects, nor I would not have my Subjects as Strangers to me;
and if it were possible, I would be acquainted with their Faces, Degrees,
Qualities, and Professions, and not only be their King, but their Friend, not
to Govern them in General, but to Counsel and Advise in Particulars. Indeed, I
have Reason to give you often Public Visits, as also Public Thanks for your
Loyalty and Love; for your Obedience seems such, as you seem to Watch for my
Commands, and your Love is such, as you seem to prefer my Safety before your
Own Lives, and my Pleasures before your Own Profits, in so much as you seem you
did Desire only to Live to Serve me; for which I Thank the Gods for making me
so Happy to be a King of such Subjects, whose only Strife is for my Favour, who
are Ambitious only for my Fame, and take a Pride in my Glory, whose Valours
Enlarge my Dominions, whose Industries Enrich my Treasuries, whose Delights are
my Pleasures, whose Love Protects my Person, and whose Prayers are for my
Health and Long Life; I can only say, that your Loyalty, Obedience, and Love,
is not to a King, that doth not Regard it, nor to a Tyrant, that had rather be
Feared than Loved; but assure your selves, my Affection to my People is such,
as a Fond Fathers to his Only Son, who had rather Die for his Sons Good, than
Live to his Own Pleasure, and that all the Endeavours of his Life are for his
Sake, as to make his Son Rich, Noble, and Powerful, that he may have Respect,
Renown, and Fame amongst Strangers; The like do I for my Subjects. Indeed a
King is the Common Father of his People, and I Rejoice to See you as a Loving
Father doth his Children, and so I Pray the Gods to Bless you.
SPEECHES OF Dying Persons.
PART VII.
A Kings Dying Speech to his Noble Subjects.
Faithful Counsellours, Just Magistrates, Loving Friends, Noble Men, and Loyal
Subjects, you see me here Death's Prisoner; yet though I must part with my
Subjects, they shall not part with their Sovereign, for I shall leave them a
King, though I Die. I have been your Crowned King this Thirty Years, a Heavy
Weight, and a Long time of Trouble; But a King hath more Title than Power, and
more Power than Pleasure: for were all his Subjects Slaves, and all did Obey
his Will, yet to Order and Govern them to his Will, requires Pains, Care, and
Study; but my Desire and Will was to make my Subjects Happy, to which end I
bent all my Industry, the which I wish, my Successor may do the like, for good
Subjects deserve a good Sovereign; Indeed, all good Subjects have not at all
times good Sovereigns, nor all good Sovereigns good Subjects, for all
Sovereigns are not Wise, nor all Subjects Loyal; for though good men make good
Subjects, yet good men do not always make good Sovereigns, as being not Piety,
nor Moral Honesty, that makes good Kings, but Industry, Observation,
Understanding, Judgement, Wit, Prudence, and Courage, that makes Kings Wise
Rulers; also Counsels, Experience, and Practice, which makes an Old King a
Better Governor than a Young King, and yet all Subjects for the most part grow
weary with their Sovereigns Age, and so consequently with their own Happiness;
but their Folly and Ingratitude is often Punished in having their Desires.
Indeed, most of mankind through Ignorance and Inconstancy desire their own
Hurt, which when they Feel, they are Displeased with the Gods for Granting that
they were Earnest with the Gods to Give them, so that they are seldom
Contented: But I wish they may have good Desires, contented Minds, and happy
Lives, and I pray the Gods, they may Flourish with my Successors in Peace and
Plenty, as they have done with Me, to whom I leave You, and Him to you:
Farewell.
A Daughters Dying Speech to her Father.
FAther, Farewell! and may that Life that Issues from My young and tender
Years, be added to Your Age! may all your Grief be Buried in my Grave, and may
the Joys, Pleasures and Delights, that did attend my Life, be Servants unto
Yours! may Comfort Dry your Eyes, God Cease your Sorrows, that, though I Die,
you may Live Happily. Why do you mourn that Death must be your Son-in-Law?
since he is a Better Husband, than any you could Choose me, or I could Choose
my Self, it is a Match that Nature and the Fates have made; Wherefore be
Content, for it is not in your Power to alter the Decrees of Fate, for Destiny
cannot be Opposed, but if you could, you would Rob me of the Happiness the Gods
intend me; for though my Body shall dwell with Death, my Soul shall dwell in
Heaven, and Holy Angels that are my Marriage Guests, will Conduct it to that
Glory, for which you have cause to Joy, and not to Grieve, for all Creatures
Live but to Die, but those that are Blessed Die to Live, and so do I. Farewell.
A Soldiers Dying Speech to his Friends.
Dear Friends,
YOu are come to see me Die, but I am sorry you shall see me Die in the Bed of
Sloth, and not in the Field of Action; for now I shall Die like a Coward,
whereas had I Died in the Field of War, I should have Died as a Valiant man;
indeed the Field of War is the Bed of Honour, wherein all Valiant and Gallant
men should Die; but Fortune hath denied me that Honour, she hath spared my Life
to my Loss, for those that Die in the Wars, have Greater Renowns and
Gloriouser Fame, than those that Die in Chambers of Peace; for whatsoever
Heroic Acts men have done, for the most part Die, if they Out-live them; for
such Actions Live by the Deaths of the Actors, I do not say Always, but for
the Most part, which makes me fear the Service I have done my King and Country,
will Die with me, and be Buried in Oblivions Grave, yet should the Service I
have done, be quite Forgotten, I should not Repent my Actions; for Honourable
persons and Gallant men should do what they Ought to do, although they were
certain Never to be Rewarded; for though few men are Rewarded according to
their Merits, and many have Favour, that did Never Merit a Reward, (so Unjust
is the World, Fortune, and Fame) yet their Injustice must not make men
Unworthy; but I have done my Part, and Death will do His. Farewell.
A Dying Speech of a Loving Mistress to her Beloved Servant.
SErvant, This day I should have been your Wife, and so Your Servant, as you
have been Mine, but Death hath Robbed Hymen of his Rights, and now he Fights
with Life, which he will Overcome; for Death is Conqueror of All, and Triumphs
in his Spoils: Yet Death by taking my Life Prisoner, will set your Person Free
to choose an other Mistress to make a Wife, in whose Embraces I shall be Buried
and utterly Forgotten. I speak not this in Envy to Her Happiness, nor Yours,
for Envy dwells with Life, and not with Death; nor am I Loath to Die, nor Grieve
to be Forgotten, no, not by those that I Loved most and equal with my Soul; for
those I Love, I would not have them Mourn in Melancholy thoughts and Sad
remembrance of my Death, I only wish, that She that you Love next, may return
Love again, with as much Truth, Constancy, and Purity, as I have Loved you, and
may she be the Glory of her Sex, and Honour of her Husband, and may you Live to
Love each Other, and Love to Live for One an others Sake; may Nature, Time,
Fortune, Fate, and the Gods join in your Happiness. Farewell.
A Foreign Travellers Dying Speech.
Dear Friends,
I Have Travelled Far, and have seen Much of the World, and have gone Round
about the World, but now I shall Travel Out of the World, from which I shall
bring no News, I shall not come back to Relate my Journies, or to tell you what
Strange Creatures there are in the Other World, or what Dangers I escaped, or
what Adventures I have made, or what several Countries there are, and which is
good for Plantation, or what Commodities there are, or what Traffic there is
or may be; for though all Creatures are Transported, yet no Returns are Sent
back in Lieu of them, unless we believe New-born Creatures are sent out of the
Other World into This, but that is not Probable, because they are Made in this
World, and of the same Substances of the World: But howsoever, those that are
Sent thither, as by Sickness, Casualties, Fortune, and Age, Return no more;
wherefore, I must take my Last leave of you; for though I have been at the
Confines of Death, and am Returned to my Friends again, yet I never was in the
Region of Death, a place I never was Ambitious or Desirous to go to; for though
I had the Curiosity to see the several Countries, Kingdoms, and Places in the
several parts of the World, yet I never had the Curiosity to Travel into
Death's Kingdom, no nor to see the Mansions of the Gods, which may be
Accounted a Sin. Indeed Travellers are accounted Atheistical, but if they were,
yet when they come to Die, they would change those Atheistical Opinions: and as
Bad as they are thought to be, yet they are not Afraid of Death; for then they
would not Venture their Lives so Often as they do; indeed Travellers have as
Great Courage as Soldiers have, and 'tis believed as Little Religion, but not
so much Hate, Envy, Malice, Revenge, nor Covetousness, unless they be
Merchants; nor they are not Robbers and Murderers, they do not Take away men's
Lives, nor Goods, as Soldiers do; but of all men, Travellers have most reason
to Adore and Worship God Best, for they see Most of his Wonderful works, which
show his Power, Might, Wisdom, and Majesty, the which makes his Creatures
Admire him, Praise him, Fear him, Love him, and Pray to him as the Great,
Omnipotent, Infinite, Eternal, Incomprehensible, and Everlasting God, to whom I
Resign my Soul, and Leave my Body to Death. Farewell.
A Lovers Dying Speech to his Beloved Mistress.
Dear Mistress,
THough I must Die, I leave my Life to Live with You, for You are the Life of
my Love, and the Love of my Life; you are the Palace of my Soul, wherein it
Lives, and will Remain, though Death doth take my Body hence; for Souls Live,
though Bodies Die; yet do not Drown my Soul in Tears, nor Cloud it with your
Sorrows, but give it Light of Joy, and Please it with your Kind remembrance.
But O my Jealous thoughts do Torture more my Mind, than Pains of Death do
Torture my Weak Body, lest you should Banish the Love of Me, to Entertain a
Stranger, which if you do, the Gods will Punish you for your Inconstancy; But
pardon this my Jealousy, for Doubts proceed from Love, and your Virtue is the
Anchor of my Hopes, and Haven of Security, in which my Love lives safe,
Farewell.
A Sons Dying Speech to his Father.
FAther, I have been an Unprofitable Son, for I shall Die a Bachelor, and so
leave you no Posterity to keep alive your Name and Family, which is a Double
Grief, both to your Self and Me, indeed to Me it is a Treble Grief, because the
Fault is only Mine, loving Vain Pleasures and Liberty so much, as made me
unwilling to be Bound in Wedlock Bonds, believing that a Wife would be a
Hinderance to those Delights that Pleased me; besides, I trusted to my Youth
and Health, thinking I had time Enough to Marry and Increase; also I thought
that very Young men's Children would prove but Weak and Sickly in Body and
Mind; thus did I bring many Arguments to Live a Bachelor, until such time as
I had more Maturity of Years, and then I did intend to Choose a Wife with your
Consent, or else Consent to Marry whom you Pleased; but Death will alter that
Design, and you and I must both Submit to Heavens Decree. Yet have I this to
Comfort me, that you did never Command me to Marry, wherefore my Fault was not
a Fault of Disobedience, for I never Disobeyed you all my Life, which makes me
Die in Peace. Farewell.
A Young Virgins Dying Speech.
Dear Friends,
I Do Perceive, that Holy Angels hover about my Soul, to Bear it to the Gods,
when parted from my Body, a Virgin's Soul it is, Clothed with white Innocence,
and so fitter for their Company, as also for the Robe of Glory, which the Gods
will give me. As for my Body, though it be Young, yet is it only fit for Death,
as being Due to him, for that was made of Earth, and Death is Lord of all the
Earth doth Form, Breed, and Bring forth; but Souls being of an other Nature,
those that are Celestial, Proceeding from the Gods, do to the Gods Return;
whereas Wicked Souls, that are Damned, and Proceed not from the Gods, but from
the Damned Spirits, Return to the Damned crew again: for all is Good, that doth
Proceed from God, and though the Best of Souls doth Sin, yet God doth give them
Purging Grace, that Cleanses them from Evil, which Grace hath Purified my Soul,
and made it Fit for Heaven, where I do wish all Souls may come. Farewell.
A Husbands Dying Speech to his Wife.
wife, Farewell; for Death will Break our Marriage knot, and will Divorce our
Persons, but not Dissolve our Love, unless you be Inconstant; for Death hath
not that Power to Disunite our Souls, for they may Live and Love Eternally; but
if you Marry a Second Husband, you separate our Loves, as Death will separate
our Bodies, for in that Marriage-bed you will Bury all Remembrance of me; and
so shall I doubly Die, and doubly be Buried; for your second Husband will be my
second Death; but if you Live a Widow, you will keep me still Alive, both in
your Name and Memory, where I desire to Live, until your Body Dies, and then
our Souls will meet with Joy, Delight, and Happiness; till then Farewell.
A common Courtesans Dying Speech.
KInd Friends, and Wanton Lovers, when I was in Health, you came to view my
Beauty, to hear my Voice, and to Enjoy my Person in Amorous Embraces, and all
for your own Pleasures and Delights, but I did Entertain such Visitors more for
the Lucre of Profit, than for the Pleasures of Love, more for your Presents,
than your Persons; the truth is, I was more Covetous of Wealth than Amorously
Affected; not, but that I took Pleasure in seeing my Beauty Admired, and
hearing my Wit Praised, and took delight to ensnare men's Affections with my
Attractive Graces, and was Proud of the Power I had by Nature's Favour, yet
that Power I only employed to Enrich my Self, that I might Live Bravely and
Luxuriously, or to Hord up to maintain me when I was Old. But O those Covetous
desires and Vain delights have Ruined both my Body and Soul, in Grievous Pains
I Live, and should Despairing Die, but that the Gods are Merciful, and Pardon
Penitent Sinners, for if I were to Live, I would not Live that Life I have
done, not only for my Souls sake, but for my Bodies; for had I thought of
Death, or could imagine the Pains that now I feel, the Pocky rotting Pains that
Torture my weak Body, I should have been less Covetous of Wealth, and more
Careful of Health, I should not have made my Beauty, Wit, and becoming Graces
and Adornments to entice Customers to buy Sinful Pleasures; or had I thought
of the Joys in Heaven, I should have Despised all worldly Delights; or had I
feared the Torments of Hell, I should have Spent my time in Prayers, and not in
Courtships: But Life is almost Past with me, for Death hath stricken me with
his VVand so, that I cannot Live to Mend, but Die to be Forgiven, for I do
truly and unfeignedly Repent. Farewell.
A Vain young Ladies Dying Speech.
Dear Friends,
YOu are Charitable in Visiting the Sick, a Charity that I did seldom
Practise, for when I was in Health, I was so taken up with Vanities and worldly
Pleasures, as I could never Spare so much time as to Visit a sick Friend;
neither was I Charitable to the Poor, as to help to Relieve their Wants, for I
spent so much on my Braveries, as I left not any thing to give unto the Poor;
indeed, I did shun Visiting the Sick, because they put thoughts of Death in my
Mind, which thoughts did disturb my Mind, and obstruct my Delights; but if I
had thought of Death more, and had Visited the Sick oftner, I had never Lived
so Idly, nor Spent my time so Unprofitably, nor had been so Foolishly Vain,
as I have been; for I regarded nothing but Beauty, Fashions, Dressing, Dancing,
Feasting, Courtships, and Bravery, I never thought of Heaven, nor Read holy
Books of Divinity, but only lying Romances, and my Contemplation was all of
Wanton Love. 'Tis true, I went Often to Church, but not to Pray, but to be
Prayed to, not as a Saint, but as a Mistress, I may say as a Sinner; for I went
not to Church for Instruction, but for Destruction, more for to Show my Beauty,
than to Reform my Life, more to get Wanton Lovers, than to get Saving Grace; I
listened not to what the Preachers taught, but looked which of the Gallants eyed
me. Thus did I increase and multiply Sins under the Veil of Devotion, for which
I deserve great and grievous Punishments; but the Gods are merciful, and will
Forgive me, for now I do more Hate Vanities, than ever I did Love them, and all
my Evil thoughts are Banished from my mind; indeed Death hath frighted all such
thoughts away, and Pious thoughts do take their place, and as the Gods come
near, the World shrinks from me, as Guilty of these Sins, and millions of
other Sins besides: but Death will stay no longer, for Blessed Angels bear away
my Soul. Farewell.
A Fathers Speech to his Son on his DeathBed.
Son,
I Have Lived a Long time, so Long, that, were not you a Good Son, you would
have Wished my Death, before Nature had Ordained me to Die; but as Heaven hath
blessed me with Long Life, so with a Good, Loving, and Dutiful Son, which hath
been a Help and Comfort to my Old Age; and as Heaven hath given you Grace, and
Nature a Good Disposition to Love and Obey your Father, so Heaven and Nature
hath given you Health and Ability to beget Posterity, in which I shall Live in
Name and Fame, though I Die in Body. But Son, as you have been a Helpful and
Dutiful Son, so I have been a Loving and Careful Father; for I have been more
Prudent for my Sons Good, than Vain for my Own Pleasure; I have been more
Industrions to Advance and Enrich my Son, than to Please or Delight my Self,
and I have thought my Self Happier in my Sons Life, than I have done in my Own.
Thus, Son, I have, and do Love You better than my Self, and all the Desire and
Request I have to you, is, that as I have been a Father to You, so you to be a
Father to Yours, and so I Pray the Gods to Bless you, Fortune to Favour you,
Wisdom to Help you, Nature to Strengthen you, Time to Prolong you, and when
your Time comes to Die, that we may meet in the other World with Joy and
Happiness; The Gods have Mercy of Me, and Bless You. Farewell.
FUNERAL ORATIONS.
PART VIII.
An Oration to the People concerning the Death of their Sovereign.
Dear Country-men, and Loyal Mourners,
WE may see our Loss by our Love, and our Love by our Grief, and our Grief by
our Tears; but we have reason for our General Mourning and Sorrow in every
Heart, that our Dread Sovereign is Taken from us. He was our Earthly God, as
our Protector, Defender, Assister, Subsister, Ruler, and Governor; he
Protected us with his Justice, Defended us with his Arms, Assisted us with his
Prudence, Subsisted us with his Love, Ruled us with his Power, and Governed us
by his Laws; and such a Prince he was, as he was Dreadful to his Enemies,
Helpful to his Friends, and Careful of his Subjects; he hath Enlarged his
Dominions with the Sword, and Enriched his People with the Spoils, and hath
Increased his Power both by Sea and Land, and so Strengthened and Fortified his
Kingdoms, as his Subjects have no cause to Fear any Foreign Invasion, but may
safely sit with Pleasure under their own Vines: And so Wise and Good a Prince
he was, that, though he be Gone, yet he hath left Peace and Plenty amongst his
People, and Power, Dominion, and Strength to his Successors, with which Heaven
grant they may Inherit his Wisdom, Moral Virtues, Divine Graces, Heroic
Spirit, Good Fortunes, and Great Fame, that though our Old Sovereign is gone to
the Gods above, yet our New Sovereign may be as a God to us here; for which let
us pray to our Sovereign Saint, to intercede for us to the Gods on High, to
endue their Deputy on Earth with Divine Influences, and Humane Wisdom, to
Govern and Rule us as he did.
A young Noble man's Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are met together as Funeral Guests to a Dead man, who died in the Flower
of his Age, and whilst he Lived, was Favoured of Nature, Birth, Breeding, and
Fortune; for he was Handsome of Body, Understanding in Mind, Noble of Birth,
Knowing in Learning, and Rich in Wealth. He was Generous, Valiant, and Courtly;
he had a Pleasant Speech, and a Graceful Behaviour; He was Beloved of the
Muses, Admired by the Sciences, and Attended by the Arts; he was Entertained
with the Pleasures of the World, and Feasted with the Varieties of Pleasures;
yet all could not Save him from Death. Indeed Death appears more Cruel to Youth
than to Age, because it takes Youth from the most Flourishing time of their
Life, although Youth Fears Death less than Age, not that Youth hath more
Courage, but Youth doth not Think of Death so often as Age doth, for if Youth
had Death in their Mind, they would Fear Death more than Age doth, by so much
more as they are Younger, and know the World less; but Youth thinks Death a
Long time off from them, although to many he is so Near, as ready to Seize on
them; Wherefore if those that are Young, did think they should Die Soon, they
would not be so Eager and Fond of the World as they are, nor be so Vain and
Intemperate as many Young Persons be; the brave Gallants would take little
Pleasure in New Modes, Gay Clothes, and Fair Mistresses; a Young Gallant would
be but a Dull Courtier, a Melancholy Lover, not Melancholy for his Mistress
disfavour, but at Death's approach, not for Love, but for Life; neither would
he take Pleasure in Music or Dancing, for the thoughts of Death would make him
Dance false, and put his Hearing out of Tune, and the Music would Sound to his
Ears as his Passing Bell; neither would he Eye Beauty, but if he did, the
Freshest Beauty would appear Faded; In truth all his Senses would be as Rough
and troubled VVaters, disturbed by the Storms of Fear, raised in his Mind; for
the most Valiant minds are somewhat Disturbed with the thoughts of Death, by
reason the Terrors of Death are Natural to all mankind, not so much to Feel, as
to Think of, not only for the Parting of Soul and Body, and the dark Oblivion
in Death, but for the Uncertain condition after Death; for though Death is not
Sensible of Life, yet Life is Sensible of Death; so that it is the Thoughts of
Death that are Fearful, and not Death it self that is so Terrible, as being
neither Painful to Feel, nor Dreadful to Behold, because Invisible and
Insensible, having neither Shape, Sound, Sent, Taste, nor Touch; But this Noble
Person is past Thinking, and therefore past Fearing, also past Wishing; for he
doth not Desire to live in this World again, he Thinks not of the World, or of
any thing in the World, he is free from all Trouble of Mind or Body; in which
Happiness let us lay him in the Tomb with his Forefathers, there to rest in
Peace and Ease.
A Generals Funeral Oration.
Beloved Friends,
THis Noble Person that lies here Dead, was once our General; a Valiant man he
was, a Skilful Soldier, a Wise Commander, and a Generous Giver; he Loved his
Soldiers more than Spoil, and Fame more than Life, he was full of Clemency and
Mercy, he would give his Enemies their Lives Freely, when he had Overcome them
Valiantly, and he was so Careful of his Own Soldiers Lives, as he would never
Adventure or put them to the Hazard, but when he saw great Probability of
Victory; Yet this Gallant man, this Excellent Soldier, whom his Enemies could
never Overcome, Death hath Taken Prisoner, with whom he shall have but a dark
Lodging, and cold Entertainment. Thus Death is the most Absolute Conqueror
that is, for no Creature is able to Resist or defend themselves from Death,
whose Uncontroling Power makes him Dreadful, even to the most Valiant men, not
that they fear Death's Dart, but Death's Oblivion; for Valiant men love Life,
and fear Death more than Cowards, or else they would not Venture their Bodies
so often, were it not out of Love to Life, and Fear of Death; Yet is it not
that Life, which Cowards are so Fond of, nor that Death which they are so
Afraid of, but 'tis the Life of their Fame, and Death of their Name, that
Honourable and Valiant men so much Love and Fear, insomuch, that to gain the
One, and to shun the Other, they will Sacrifice their Bodily Life, and Embrace
their Bodily Death, with more Delight and Pleasure, than the Beautiful'st Woman
that ever Nature made; and they are to be Commended for it; for it is Life,
that the Gods themselves take delight in; for the Gods are pleased to Live in
the Minds of their Creatures, and are Angry if their Creatures Think or Speak
not Of them, as well as to Them: So all Worthy men Desire and Endeavour to Live
in the Minds of their own Kind, and to be Praised, at least Spoken of; for they
Desire and Endeavour to Live both in the Thoughts and Words of men, in all
Ages, and in all Nations, and by all Men, if it were possible; it being as
Natural for Worthy men to desire to be Remembered, as for all men to desire to
Live, and as Natural for men to desire to Live, as to Love themselves. But some
say, it doth a man no Good to be Remembered when he is Dead: It may be answered,
that then it doth a man no Good, to be Remembered whilst he Lives, for
Remembrance Lives in the Absent, and Absence is a kind of Death, but he is as
Evil a Natured man, that cares not to be Remembered by his Friends, as those
that never Remember their Friends; also he is Unnatural to his Kind, and it may
be said, that such men are Ungrateful Monsters, or Monstrous Unnatural: But
this Noble Person was Remembered and and Spoken often of by his Absent Friends,
and did Remember, and Spoke often of his Friends in their Absence, whilst he
was Living, and his Worthy and Valiant Actions will be Remembered and Spoken of
now he is Dead, in which Remembrance and Words he may Live so long as the
World lasts, as being the only Reward, this World can give to Worth and Merit,
as Piety, Moral Virtue, Valour and Generosity, Wit and Learning; for there is
no other Reward in this World, but Remembrance and Praise, which Remembrance
and Praise all Good men will give him as his due. Thus will the Tongues and
Minds of Living men Build him a Monument of Fame, wherein all his Worthy Acts
will be kept in Remembrance, though his Body be Dead, and Buried in Earth, in
which let us put it with devout Ceremony.
A judges Funeral Oration.
Dear Friends,
WE are met together to see Judge N. N's Body laid into the Grave, who in his
Life-time was an Upright Judge, for he Judged according to Truth and Right, and
not for Fear nor Favour; he was free from Covetousness, or corrupting Bribes,
he was both a Good and a Wise Judge, for he would never Judge Over-hastily any
Cause for or against, until he had Heard all Sides; neither would he Retard or
Delay Suits Over-long, but in All Causes he was very Attentive, and in
Doubtful Causes very Cautious how to Judge, and in all Criminal Causes, or on
Life and Death, he would be very Inquisitive to Know the Truth, for he would
not Judge Rashly, as to Judge Before he had Examined strictly, and had
sufficient Proofs and Witnesses, or at least very Great Probabilities of the
Truth; Also he was neither a Temerarious nor an Over-bold Judge, neither Cruel
nor Foolishly Pitiful; for as he would not Pardon so Much nor so Many, as to
Encourage men to Offend or Commit Crimes, so he would not Condemn so Much nor
so Many, as to make a kind of a Massacre of Lives; all which made him Live with
a Good Conscience, and Die with a Good Courage, not Fearing a Condemnation,
neither in This World, nor the Next, but Desired to be Summoned to Gods
Tribunal, there to be Tried and Judged of the Course of his Life in This World,
to which Divine Judge we leave him, bearing his Body to the Grave, there to
leave that, but not to leave the Remembrance of Him, nor the due Praise his
Memory deserves.
A Sergeants or Barresters Funeral Oration.
Dear Friends,
YOu see the Body of Sergeant N. N. lies Dead, ready to be put into the Grave,
which shows, that he would not Plead for Life, or else Death had no Ears to
Hear his Suit; but if he Pleads as well for Himself at Gods Tribunal, as he did
for his Clients at the Barr, he will get Judgement on his side; the truth is,
Nature as well as Education made him a Pleader; for Naturally he had a Flowing
Speech, and a Fluent Wit, to Turn, Wind, and Form any Cause as he Liked best;
for his Wit and Eloquence was such, as to make a Doubtful Cause seem Clear,
and had he not Known by Learning the Laws so Well as he did, yet his Wit and
Eloquence would have Covered his Ignorance, and Supplied the Defect of his
Learning, but he was as Good and Learned a Lawyer, as an Excellent Pleader, and
as Honest a man as Either, for he took more Pains to Plead his Clients Cause,
than Pleasure to Take from his Clients Fees; neither would he Prolong his
Clients Suit to Drain their Purses, nor yet make his Clients Cause more
Doubtful than it was, to make them more Fearful of the Success of their
Suits, than they had Reason to fear, and all this to get More Fees; for Fears
and Desires are Prodigal Givers, as well as Promisers; But rather he Pleaded
Gratis for his Poor Clients, wherein he showed more Charity to the Poor, than
Covetousness to the Rich. Thus he was a Good and Generous Lawyer, a Witty,
Ingenious, Eloquent Pleader; the truth is, he did not only take Pains for his
Clients, but Pleasure in his Own Wit, for he had more Delight, than Profit by
his Pleading, and yet he did not take so much Pleasure in his Own Wit and
Eloquency, as Others did which Heard him, insomuch, as more went to Hear him
Plead, than those that had Causes to be Pleaded; he Reproached not any man, nor
used Railing Speeches, or Violent Actions in his Pleading, as Many, nay Most
Pleaders do, but his Behaviour was Civil, his Wit Sweet, and his Speech Gentle;
for though his Wit was Quick, Ready, and Free, yet it was neither Salt, Sour,
nor Bitter; and though his Speech was Flowing, yet it was not Rough, for it ran
in a Smooth though Full Stream; and his Behaviour or Demeanour was so Graceful
and Becoming, as the One Delighted the Eyes of the Beholders, as much as the
Other the Ears of the Hearers; but though his Body be Dead, yet his Wit,
Eloquency, Elegancy, Honesty, and Abilities, are Living in the Memory of Living
men, which will Live by Tradition as Long as there are Men to Remember or
Speak: Wherefore let us Keep his Living parts in our Minds, and Bury his Dead
parts, as his Body, in the Grave, there to remain in Peace, as the other in
Fame.
A Magistrates Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are met here together to Mourn for our Loss; for the Death of This man is
not only a Loss to every Particular man, but to the whole Common-wealth; for he
was a Wise man, and an Upright and Just Magistrate, he did not Serve the
Common-wealth to Enrich Himself, as most Magistrates do, but took Pains to
Enrich the Common-wealth; nor did he Sell Justice for Bribes, but Punished
Bribe-takers; neither was he Partial, either to the Rich or Poor, but Judged
according to Right and Truth, at least to Great Probability: also he kept the
Rich from Riot, and the Poor from Idleness, and he took away Superfluities to
help Necessities, not that he Troubled any man for Living to their Degree and
Quality, but he would not Suffer any man to Live Above their Degree and
Quality; neither would he hinder men from their Lawful Pleasures and Delights,
but he would not Connive at their Disorders and Misrules, neither would he
Pardon their Wickednesses: He Regarded not the Slanders of his Enemies, nor was
he Revengeful, for he Suffered not his Enemies to be Injured, but gave them
all the Justice he could; neither was he Unjust to his Foes, nor Ungrateful to
his Friends, he had a tender Regard to the Old, Sick, Poor, and Shiftless;
Indeed he was such a Magistrate, as he was a Father, a Husband, a Brother, a
Friend, a Master, a Servant, a Slave for the Common-wealth, all which adds to
our Loss and Grief, but not to his Happiness; for his Happiness admits of no
Addition, he being as Happy as can be, in which Happiness let us leave him,
after we have Interred him with his Forefathers.
A Funeral Oration of a Student.
Fellow Students,
WE are met together to Wait upon the Dead Body of our Worthy Brother in
Learning, to be laid in Peace into the Bed of Earth, whose Life was so
Studious, as we may say, he was Partly Dead, whilst he Lived, for the most of
his Conversation was with Dead Authors, and his Study was as his Grave, so that
our Learned Brother hath only Changed his Habitation and Lanlord, as from his
Study to the Earth, from his Bodily Life to Death; I confess, his Lanlord,
Death, is Covetous, for Death Exacts or Extorts the Flesh from the Bones as his
due, yet the Body is more Happy, dwelling more Peaceably with Death, than with
Life; and as his Body hath made a Happy Change, so hath his Soul, but his Soul
dwells not now with his Body, for the Soul is an Fnemy to Death, and Flies from
it, neither can the Soul live in the Body, when as the Body is turned into
Insipid Earth, for the Soul being of a Celestial Nature, cannot Live in a
Terrestrial place, but when Separated, being Pure in it Self, it is Light, and
being Free, as having Liberty, it is Agil, through which Propriety it Ascends
unto the Gods on High, and Lives with them Eternally. Thus our Learned Brothers
Body Resting Peaceably, and his Soul Living Blessedly, both shall meet
Gloriously, and so Let's lay his Corps into the Grave Humbly, Ceremoniously,
and Piously.
A Funeral Oration of a Divine.
Beloved Brethren,
THis our Dead Brother was an Holy man, both in Profession, and Life; as for
his Profession, he was a Divine, and his Practice was as Pious as his
Profession was Pure; he was Blessed of the Gods, for they Endued him with
Spiritual Graces, Inspired him with Spiritual Knowledge, and Enabled him with
Spiritual Eloquence, to Inform, Reform, and Perform the Church of God,
according to the Word of God, amongst men; but though his time of Life is
Expired, yet his true Doctrine will remain for the Satisfaction, Comfort, and
Salvation of the Souls in Living Bodies. Wherefore, let us lay his Body into
the Grave, and leave it to the time of Glorification.
A Funeral Oration of a Poet.
Beloved Brethren,
OUr Brother, whose Body is Dead, and is brought to this place to be Inurned,
was the most Fearful man that ever Nature made, not to Die, but to be
Forgotten; also he was the most Ambitious man, not for Wealth, Title, or Power,
but for Fame; In truth, he was so Ambitious, as his Body and Mind was Restless,
endeavouring to Live, like as Nature, or the Gods of Nature, which Live, and
are partly Known In their Works, and By their Works, which are their
Creatures, especially the Chief of their Creatures, which are Mankind; for we
cannot Perceive, but that the Chief Habitations of the Gods are in the Minds of
men, with which Habitations they are so Pleased and Delighted, as they Punish
those men that Neglect or Forget them; nay, the Gods Made Men, or such kind of
Creatures, to Remember them, as to Speak of them, Think of them, and to Admire
them in their Praises, Contemplations, and Adorations; also to have Visible
Worship to their Invisible Deities, as to have Altars, Priests, and
Sacrifices, to Offer Praise, Prayers, and Thanksgiving: So that the Gods are
not Satisfied to Live only To or In Themselves, but in their Creatures;
Wherefore, those men Resemble the Gods most, that desire Fame, which Fame is
to be Remembered and Praised by All Men in All Ages throughout the World;
whereas on the Contrary, those that Slight, Neglect, or Speak against Fame, as
being a Foolish Vain-Glory, in that it doth a man No Good, to be Remembered and
Praised after the Bodily Life, are Irreligious, Ungrateful, and Unnatural:
Irreligious, not Desirous to Imitate the Gods; Ungrateful, not Divulging.
Natures Gifts; and Unnatural, caring not for the Memory of their Own Kind, as
not caring to Live with Them, which is to Live in their Minds: Also they are
Unjust to Themselves, not desiring their Own Good, as their Perpetual Name,
Memory, and Fame. But this our Brother was not of that sort of Mankind, as to
be Contented to be Buried in a Terrestrial Oblivion, but would have a Celestial
Remembrance, which the Gods Perpetuate for a Reward to his Merit. So let us lay
his Body in the Grave, and let his Praise Ring out his Peal.
A Funeral Oration of a Philosopher.
Beloved Brethren,
THis our Dead Brother, when he had Bodily Life, he was a Close Student, and
had a Great Library, wherein were more Works than he had Time to Learn, and
they were of more Several Languages, than he was Capable to Understand; but he
Endeavoured, and was Advanced far in Knowledge; his Study was Natural and Moral
Philosophy, his Library the Universe, and his Several Books the Several
Creatures therein. As for Moral Philosophy, he knew well how to Compose
Commonwealths, and to Settle and Govern them; also he knew well the Natures,
Humours, Passions, and Appetites amongst Mankind, as also to Divide and
Distinguish them, and to Order, Form, and Reform them. As for Natural
Philosophy, he did not only Study the Outward Forms of several Creatures, but
their Inward Natures. In truth, his Conception was so Subtle and Piercing, his
Observation so Dilative, his Reason so Strong, his Wit so Agil, his Judgement
so Solid, his Understanding so Clear, and his Thoughts so Industrious, as they
went to the First Cause of several Effects, and he did not only Converse with
the Body, but the Soul of Nature, indeed he was Nature's Platonic Lover, and
She rewarded him in Discovering to him her most Hidden and Obscure Secrets, by
which he begot Great Wisdom and Everlasting Fame; for though his Body be Dead,
yet his Good Laws, Wise Sciences, Profitable Arts, Witty Experiences, Graces,
Virtues, and Eloquence, will Live for the Benefit and Delight of Living men, in
all Nations and Ages; and though we have great reason to Mourn for his Bodily
Death, yet we have more reason to Rejoice for his Glorious Fame; but leaving
his Merits to Life, and his Body to Death, let us lay him into the Grave, to
Transmigrate as Nature pleases.
A Funeral Oration of a Dead Lady, Spoken by a Living Lady.
Dearly Beloved Sisters in God,
WE are met as Sorrowful Mourners, to attend this Dead Ladies Corps to the
Grave; She was in her Life the Rule of our Actions, and will be in her Fame the
Honour of our Sex; She was Favoured of Nature, the Gods, and Fortune; Nature
gave her Wit and Beauty, the Gods gave her Piety and Charity, and Fortune gave
her Wealth and Education; She was Adorned by the Graces, Beloved by the Muses,
and Attended by the Arts; She was Sociable in her Conversation, Just in her
Promises, and Generous in her Gifts; She was Industrious in all Good Actions,
Helpful to all Distressed Persons, and Grateful for all sorts of Courtesies;
She was Humble in her Own Prosperities, and full of Magnanimity in her Own
Adversities; her Mind had no Passage for any Evil, nor no Obstruction against
any Good; But to repeat or sum up the Number of this Ladies Merits, is beyond
my Rhetoric or Arithmetic; for certainly she was Composed of the Purest
Effence of Nature, and the Divinest Spirits of Heaven; She had the Piety of
Saints, the Chastity of Angels, and the Love of the Gods, in which Love let us
leave her Soul, and lay her Body in the Grave, till the time of Glorification.
A Foreigners or Strangers Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
YOu show your Charity and Humanity, and that they are not Bound up to
Particulars, or to your Friends, and Country-men, but that they Extend to
Strangers, in coming to see this Stranger, who Died out of his Native Country,
Decently to be Buried in a Foreign Land, I mean Foreign, as from his Native
Country, although the truth is, that all the World is Common to Mankind, for
Nature hath not assigned Men to any Particular place, or Part of the World, but
hath given All the World freely to them, as if she made the World and all other
Creatures only for Man's sake; for all other Creatures are not so generally
Dispersed, or rather so Spreading and Branching throughout the World as Mankind
is, by reason they Belong, Breed, Prosper or Increase in Particular Climates,
as some in Cold, and others in Hot, and some in one Part of the World, and some
in Another, for some Creatures will be so far from Increasing in some
Particular Climates, as they cannot Live in them, but in all Parts of the World
that are Habitable, there be Men. 'Tis true, Different Climates may cause men
to be of Different Complexions, but what Complexions soever they have, they are
all of the same kind as Mankind, and of the same sort of Animals; for though
all Beasts are of Beast-kind, yet a Fox and an Ass is not one and the same sort
or kind of Beast; but there is no such different sort amongst Mankind, for
there is no difference of men in their Natural Shapes, Proprieties, Qualities,
Abilities, Capacities, Entities, or the like, unless some Defects to some
Particulars, which is nothing to the Generality, for all the kind of Mandkind
is all alike both in Body and Mind, as in their Shapes, Senses, Appetites,
Speech, Frowning, Laughing, Weeping, and the like, as also alike in their
Rational Parts, as Judging, Understanding, Conceiving, Remembering,
Apprehending, Considering, Imagining, Desiring, Joying, Grieving, Loving,
Hating, Fearing, Doubting, Hoping, Believing, and the like; And therefore,
since not any man can be accounted as a Stranger in any Part of the World,
because he hath by Nature a Right as a Natural Inheritance, to Inhabit what
part or place of the World he will; But all Mankind are as Brethren, not only
by Kind, but by Inheritance, as being General Sharers and Possessors of the
World, so this Dead man ought not to be accounted as a Stranger, but a Brother;
Wherefore let us Mourn as we ought to do for a Dead Brother, and Accompany his
Hearse to the Grave with Religious Ceremony, there leaving it in Rest and
Peace.
A Post-Riders Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
YOu have Expressed your Humanity and Charity in coming to this Poor, Unfortunate
man's Burial, which though he was a Poor man, yet he was an Honest man, and
therefore is much the more Worthy to be Praised; for Poverty and Necessity is a
great Temptation to Knavery, as much as Riches is a Temptation to Foolery,
which is Vanity, nay, Riches is not only Guilty of Vanity, but Vice, as Luxnry,
Pride, and Wantonness, whereas Knavery is Cheating, Coosening, Stealing, and
the like, of all which this Poor man was Free; And as he was an Honest man, so
he was a Laborious man, for his Profession of Life was a Post-Rider, an
Unfortunate Profession for him, for he Riding fast upon a Stumbling Jade, fell
down and Broke his Neck. Thus we see that Misfortunes as well as Sicknesses
bring many to their Lives ends, and many times to a Miserable end, for
Misfortunes take Life away Unawares, and sometimes Unprepared to Dye; so this
man did not Think, when he got on the Horses back, he should Ride Post to
Death, for had he thought so, he would have Chosen to Run afoot, a Safer,
though a Slower pace: But could his Soul Ride Post on Death to Heaven, as his
Body Rid Post on a Horse to Death, he might Out-strip many a Soul that is gone
before him; for though his Soul, as all Souls are Light, and of no Weight, yet
Death is no nimble Runner, being Cold and Numb, and nothing but Bare Bones, a
Hard Seat for a Tender Soul: Besides, the way to Heaven is so Narrow and Steep,
as Death cannot Get up, for should he Venture, his Soul would be in Danger to
be Overthrown, and cast into Hell, which is a Deep, Dark, Terrible, and
Dreadful Pit, wherein is no Hope of Getting out: The truth is, Death carries
many Evil Souls down into Hell, but Good Souls he leaves at the Bottom of the
Hill, that leads up to Heaven, from which those Souls Climb and Clamber up with
great Difficulty; for whatsoever is Excellent, is Hard to Get or Come to,
whereas that which is Bad, is Easy to be Had. But howsoever, this Poor man is
Dead, and we shall see him Buried, leaving his Soul in its Journey, and his
Body in the Grave.
A young Virgins Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren, and Sisters in God,
WE here meet, not only as Funeral Mourners, but as Marriage Guests, to Attend
and Wait upon a Young Virgin, to see her Laid into her Nuptial-bed, which is
the Grave; 'Tis true, her Husband, Death, is a Cold Bed-fellow, but yet he
makes a Good Husband, for he will never Cross, Oppose, nor Anger her, nor give
her Cause of Grief or Sorrow, neither in his Rude Behaviour, Inconstant
Appetite, nor Lewd Life, which, had she Married any other Husband, might have
made very Unhappy, whereas now she will know no Sorrow; for there is no
Whoring, Gaming, Drinking, Quarrelling, nor Prodigal Spending in the Grave, for
Death Banishes all Riot and Disorder out of his Habitations; there is no Noise
nor Disturbance in his Palace; Indeed Death's Palace is a place of Peace, Rest,
Quiet, and Silence, and therefore all are Happy that Dwell there, for there is
no Envy, Malice, Slander, nor Treachery; there Men are not Tempted with Beauty,
nor Women Flattered into Wantonness, they are Free from all Tentation or
Defamation, neither are they Troubled or Tormented with Pain or Sickness, for
Death hath a Remedy for all Diseases, which is Insensibility; the truth is,
Death is not only Charitable to Help all Creatures out of Misery, but Generous,
as to be so Hopitable, that he sets Open his Gates for all Comers, insomuch, as
the Meanest Creatures that are, have a Free Entrance, and the Same
Entertainment with the Noblest, for there are no Ceremonies of State, All is in
Common; there is no Pride, nor Ambition, no Scorn, nor Disgrace; and Death's
Palace is so Spacious, as it is beyond all Measure or Circumference, being
sufficient to Receive all the Creatures Nature makes; and since there is such
Store of Company in Death, and Death so Generous and Hospitable, why should we
Fear, or be Loath to Dye? nay, why should not we Desire to Dye, and Rejoice for
those Friends that are Dead, especially Considering the Unhappiness of Life,
wherein Man is most Miserable, because he is most Sensible and Apprehensive of
what he Suffers, or what he may Suffer? But this Young Virgin is Happier by
Death than many Others are, because she hath not Lived so Long to Suffer so
Much as those, that are Older, Have done, or as those that Live to be Old, Will
do. Wherefore, let us Rejoice for her Happiness, and put her into the Grave,
the Bed of Rest, there to Sleep Quietly.
A Young New-Married Wif's Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are met together at this time, to see a New-Married Wife, which is here
Dead, to be Buried; She hath made an unequal Change from a Lively Hot Husband,
to a Deadly Cold Lover, yet will she be more Happy with her Dull, Dumb, Deaf,
Blind, Numb Lover, than with her Lively, Talking, Listening, Eyeing, Active
Husband, were he the Best Husband that could be; for Death is far the Happier
Condition than Marriage; and although Marriage at first is Pleasing, yet after
a time it is Displeasing, like Meat which is Sweet in the Mouth, but proves
Bitter in the Stomach; Indeed, the Stomach of Marriage is full of Evil Humours,
as Choler, and Melancholy; and of very Evil Digestion, for it cannot Digest
Neglects, Disrespects, Absence, Dissembling, Adultery, Jealousy, Vain
Expenses, Waste, Spoil, Idle Time, Laziness, Examinations, Cross Answers,
Peevishness, Frowardness, Frowns, and many the like Meats, that Marriage Feeds
on: As for Pains, Sicknesses, Cares, Fears, and other Troubles in Marriage,
they are Accounted as wholesome Physic, which the Gods give them; for the Gods
are the Best Physicians, and Death is a very Good Surgeon, Curing his Patients
without Pain, for what Part soever he Touches is Insensible. Death is only
Cruel in Parting Friends from each other, for though they are Happy, whom he
Takes away, yet those that are Left behind, are Unhappy, Living in Sorrow for
their Loss; so that this Young New-Married Wife, that is Dead, is Happy, but
her Husband is a Sorrowful Widower; But leaving Her to her Happiness, and Him
to be Comforted, let us put her into the Grave, there to Remain until the day
of Judgement, which Day will Embody her Soul with Everlasting Glory.
A Widows Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
THis Widow, at whose Funeral we are met, Lived a very Intemperate and
Irregular Life all the time of her Widdow-hood, for which not only Nature, but
the Gods might be Angry with her; for though She did not Surfeit with Feasting,
yet She Starved her self with Fasting, and though She did not Drink her self
Drunken, as many Women in this Age will do, yet She did Weep her self Dry; She
grew not Fat and Lasy with overmuch Sleeping, but became Lean and Sick with
overmuch Watching; She VVatch'd not to Dance and Play, but to Mourn and Pray,
nor did She waste her Wealth in Vanities, but She did waste her Life in Sorrow;
She Sate not on the Knees of Amorous Lovers, but Kneeled on her Knees to God;
Her Cheeks were not Red with Paint, but Pale with Grief; She did not wear Black
Patches on her Face, but Black Mourning on her Body; She was Adorned with no
other Jewels than her Tears; She had no Diamond Pendents in her Ears, but
Transparent Tears in her Eyes, no Oriental Pearls about her Neck, but Drops of
Tears lay on her Breast; Thus was She Dressed in Tears. She suffered not Painters
to Draw the Picture of her Face, but her Thoughts did Form her Husbands Figure
in her Mind; She hung not her Chamber with Black, but her Mind with Melancholy;
She Banished all Stately Ceremonies, and Ceremonies of State, and set her self
Humbly on the Ground; She past not her time with Entertaining Visitors, but
Entertained her Self with the Remembrance of her Husband; She did not Speak
much, but Think much. In short, She was so Intemperate in her Grief, as her
Grief Killed her, it may be said she was Murdered with Grief, and no kind or
manner of Murder is Acceptable either to Nature or the Gods, but some sorts of
Murders are Hateful to both. Yet this Widow, howsoever she Offended in her
Over-much Grieving, She had Pardon for her Praying, and to prove the Gods did
Pardon her, they Granted her Request, which was, to take her out of this World
without Painful Sickness, and so they did; for She was so free from Pains, as
She parted with Life with a Smiling Countenance, and lay as Still as if She lay
to Sleep, She breathed out her last Breath so softly, as those that stood Close
by her Bed, could not hear her Sigh, and when She was Dead, her Beauty, that
all the time of her Mourning was Obscured in her Sorrows, Appeared in her
Death, only the Gloss of her Eyes were Covered with their Lids, for Death had
Shut her Eye-lids down, and Sealed up her Lips, which Lips seemed, as if they
had been Sealed with Red Coloured Wax, although Death had Kissed them Cold; for
now Death is her Lover, not an Amorous, but a Deadly Lover, to whose Embraces
we must leave her Body, after we have laid it in the Bed of Earth.
An other Widdow's Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are met as Funeral or rather Marriage Guests of a Dead Widow, who is now
Re-married to her Husband in Death, and no question, but their Souls will Joy
in the Knowledge of each other; for though Bodies Dye, yet Souls do not, but
Live for ever, Death having Power only over the Sensitive, not over the
Rational Life; for Knowledge Lives, though Senses Dye; and if the Soul Lives,
no question, but all that is Inherent in the Soul Lives, as all the Passions,
Affections, Thoughts, Memory, Understanding, Judgement, Conceptions,
Speculations, Fancy, Knowledge, and the like, which are the Parts and
Ingrediences with which the Soul is Composed, Formed, and Made; Thus the Soul
being made of such Thin, Fine, Pure, and Rare Matter, Death can take no hold of
it, for Death's Power is only on Gross Corporeal Substances or Matter, not on
Celestial Bodies, but Terrestrial; but this Widows Soul was Purer than other
Souls usually are, (for there are Degrees of Purity in Souls, as well as
Degrees of Grossness in Bodies.) The truth might easily be Perceived in her
Life, for there was as much Difference between her Soul and Other Souls, as
between Souls and Bodies, at least as much Difference as between a Glorified
Soul, and a Soul Imbodied; Nay, her Soul was so Pure, as it did Purify her
Body, for it did Resin the Appetites, which Cleared the Senses; besides, her
Soul did Instruct the Senses, which made them More Sensible, so that they were
kept Clean, Clear, and Healthful by Temperance, and made Apt, Quick, and Ready
by Reason, insomuch, as Time had but a Little Power to Hurt them, and was not
Able to Destroy them without the Help of Death, had she Lived Long, but Death
to show his Power, destroyed her Body without the Help of Time, for she Lived
not to be so Old as for Time to make a Trial; yet her Body Lived Longer than
she was willing it should have done, desiring it might have Died when her
Husband Died, but the Gods Forbad it; for though any Creature, especially Man,
may Call Death when he Will, and Force him to take his Bodily Life away, yet
the Gods are Angry, if any man will not stay whilst Death comes of Himself
without Enforcement. Nevertheless, Death did Favour this Widow; for though he
did not take her so Soon as she would have Died, yet he suffered her not Long
to Live a weary Life, for which Favour she received Death with Joy, and a
Smiling Countenance, whereas Death for the most part is received with Fear and
Sadness; and since she Rejoiced at her Death, we have no Reason to Mourn now
she is Dead, especially in that she Lived and Died Virtuously, and Piously, for
which the Gods will Advance her to Everlasting Glory; For this Glory let us
Praise the Gods, and Bury her Body in her Husbands Tomb or Grave, that their
Dust or Ashes may lye together.
A Young Child's Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are the Funeral Guests to a Young Male Child, an Infant, who Died soon
after it was Born, and though all Men are Born to Live, and Live to Dye, yet
this Child was Born to Dye, Before it had Lived, I mean in Comparison of the
Age of men; Thus this Child was Born, Cried, and Died, a happy Conclusion for
the Child, that he had Finished what he was made for, in so Short a time, for
he could not have had less Pain, less Trouble, nor less Desires, to have left
the World, had he Lived longer, for Life is Restless with Desires, Sickly and
Painful with Diseases, Troublesome with Cares, Laborious with Labour, Grievous
with Losses, Fearful with Dangers, and Miserable in all; which Misery this
Child hath Escaped, but had he Lived, he could not have Avoided it: besides, he
is not Guilty of Selfacting Sins, and so Deserves no Punishment, for neither
Commission nor Omission can be laid to his Charge, having no time for Either,
so that he is Free from Both, as also from Suffering, either in this World, or
the Next, unless there be such a severe Decree, as the Child shall Suffer for
his Parents faults, which Faults he could neither Hinder nor Annul, neither did
he Approve, nor Allow them, nor Assist them in Evil; But it is not probable, he
shall Suffer, being Innocent; and Death, that is Accounted the Wages of Sin,
may rather be taken as a Gift of Mercy; also Death might be said to be a
Purifier from Sin, as well as a Punisher of Sin; Wherefore, this Child is past
the Purgatory of Death, and is in the Heaven of Peace, Rest, Ease, and
Happiness, in which let us leave him, after we have Covered his Corps with
Earth.
An Old Ladies Funeral Oration.
THis Old Lady was Favoured by Nature, Fortune, and Time, Nature in her Youth
gave her Beauty, Fortune gave her Wealth, and Time and Nature gave her long
Life; She was Courted in her Youth for the Pleasures of her Beauty, and
Flattered in her Age for the Profit of her Wealth, but being Chaste and Wise,
She was neither Corrupted with the One, nor Deluded with the Other, not Tempted
with Courtship, nor Coosen'd with Flattery; and as She was Chaste and Wise, so
She was Pious, for the Gods gave her Grace, to bestow her Wealth to Charitable
uses; Thus what she Got by Fortune, she Gave to Heaven, indeed she Bought
Heaven with Fortune's Gifts, for none can get into Heaven but by Faith and Good
Deeds, and her Faith did Believe, that her Good Works would be as an Advocate
to Plead for her, and no question, but they have gotten her Suit, and her
Charity will Live here on Earth, though she be Dead, and those she Relieved
will make her their Saint; Thus she will be Sainted both on Earth and in
Heaven, which is as Great an Honour, and a more Blessed Condition, than the
Emperors had with all their Conquefts, Power, Pride, and Vanity, for the
height of their Ambition was to be Deified on Earth, and to be Sainted in as
much; They were Worshipped for Fear, She Prayed to for Love; They had
Idolatrous Worshippers, She Sanctified Petitioners; Their Idols lasted but a
time, She shall be Blessed for Evermore.
An Ancient Man's Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
AGe hath Ushered our Friend to Death, and we are here met to attend him to the
Grave; it is an Human, Charitable, and Pious Service, to see the Dead laid
Decently and Ceremoniously into the Earth, and it is an Happiness for the Dead,
to be Inurned with their Fore-fathers; for who knows to the Contrary, but that
there may be a Natural Sympathetical Intermixing with their Dust, and an
Earthly Pleasure in their Mixture? for certainly there is a mutual Society In
the Earth, as well as On the Earth, and why may not the Earth have a
Sympathetical Intermixing and Conjunction as well as the other Elements? I
Perceive no Reason against it; but whether there be an Incorporating,
Associating, and Friendship, as Dust with Dust, I know not, surely there is a
Peaceable Abiding, having not a Sensible Feeling or Knowledge, whereas Life,
wherein Sense and Knowledge Dwells, is Restless, full of Troubles, Misfortunes,
Pains, and Sicknesses to the Body, and Perturbations in the Mind, so that the
Body is Seldom at Ease, or the Mind at Quiet; But Life hath tried the
Patience, and Death the Courage of our Friend, for he was neither Impatient
with Life, nor Fearful of Death, he had such Great Experience living so Long,
as to Know, there is neither Constancy, Certainty, nor Felicity, amongst or
with the Creatures in this World, and Time had made him so Wise a man, as he
knew by Himself, that there was no man Perfect, nor truly Happy, for Happiness
and Imperfection cannot Associate together: yet by his Wisdom, he did Inform,
Reform, Rule and Govern himself as well, as Nature and the World would give
way or leave to; for he would never Command any, but those that were Willing to
Obey, and he did Obey those, he Could not Command, he would never make a
fruitless Opposition, but was free from Faction and Sedition, Ambition and
Covetousness, for he knew, there is not any Worldly thing worth an
over-earnest Desire, nor any thing so Permanent, as could be kept Long; he
would Temperately make use of what he Had, and what he Wanted for his Use, he
did Honestly Endeavour for it, and what he could not have Easily and Freely, he
was Content to be without; Moreover, he was so Moderate in his Desires, as he
did Scarcely desire what was Necessary, and oftentimes he would Part from his
Own Maintenance to Relieve the Distresses of Others, believing he could Suffer
want more Patiently; indeed he had such a Power and Command of Himself, as the
Appetites of his Body, and Passions of his Mind, were as Obedient to his Will,
as Saints on Earth, or Angels in Heaven are to the Gods; and this Wise
Government of Himself, made him fit for the Company of the Gods, with whom we
Leave his Soul, and will Inter his Body as we ought.
An Old Begger-Womans Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
THis Woman, that is here to be Buried, was Old when she Died, very Old, and
as Poor as Old, and though she was Old, yet she had Longer Acquaintance with
her Poverty than Age, being always Poor from her Youth, indeed so Poor, as she
was Forced to Beg for her Livelihood: Thus she was a Double Beggar; but now she
is gone to Beg at Heavens Gate, both for Food and Raiment, where, if Heavens
Porter lets her In, she will be Fed with Beatifical Food, and Clothed with
Celestial Glory, a great and good Change, for here she was Fed with nothing but
Scraps, and Clothed with Rags, and much ado to Get them, not without long Stay
and earnest Entreaties; so Hard are men's Hearts and Cold are men's Charities;
the truth is, men in Prosperity feel not the Misery of Adversity, and being not
Sensible of their Want, are not Ready in their Relief: besides, they think all
that is given from their Vanities and Luxuries' is a Prodigal waste, and it is
to be Observed, that those that are Richest, are the most Uncharitable, whereas
those that have but Little, yet will give to those that have Nothing to Live
on, feeling in some sort what Want is; And to show the Hard Hearts of Mankind
to their own Kind, this Woman, although she had Begged almost Fourscore Years,
yet she got so Little, as she had nothing to Leave, not so much as to Bury her.
But as she Lived on Cold Charity, so now she Lies with Cold Death, a Cold
Condition, both Alive and Dead; the first Cold she Felt to her Grief, this last
Cold she is Insensible of to her Happiness, in which Happiness we will leave
her, and put her into the Grave of Peace.
A Young Brides Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
THis Young Virgin, that lies here Dead, ready to be Buried, this very day had
she Lived, she had been Married, for so her Lover and She had Designed, at
which designed time she little thought Death should have been her Bridegroom,
and that her Winding sheet should be her Wedding Smock, and her Grave her
Bride-Bed, there to lye with Death, but doubtless Death was as far from her
Thoughts, as her Lover near to her Heart: for had she Believed she should have
Died so soon, or but Feared it, she would not have made such Preparations, as
usually Young Maids do for their Wedding days; indeed Young Maids have Reason
enough to Esteem much of That day, for it is the only Happy day of their Life,
it is a day which is wholly Consecrated to Love, Joy, Pleasure, Bravery,
Feasting, Dancing, Mirth and Music, on that day their Hearts are Merry, and
their Heels are Light, but after their Bridal Shoos are off, their Dancing
days are done, I mean they are done in respect of Happiness; for though
Married Wives keep more Company, and Dance and Feast oftner than Maids, having
more Liberty, yet they are not so Merry at the Heart, nor have they so Lively
Countenances, nor are so Galliard after they have been Married some time, as
they were Before they were Married, or as they were on their VVedding day, for
their Mirth is Forced, and their Actions more Constrained, though not so much
Restrained; whereas Maids and Brides, their very Thoughts as well as their
Persons Dance, Sport, and Play in their Minds: But this Young Virgin, and Dead
Bride, can neither Dance nor be Merry, neither hath she Cause to Weep or be
Sad, nor she hath no Amorous Thoughts towards her Bridegroom, she takes no
Notice of him, his kind Embraces do not make her Blush, neither doth she Hate
or Fear him; she Grieves not for the Change, nor Thinks she of her Living
Lover, that should have been her Living Husband, but is now her Living Mourner,
whose Tears like Raining Showers have all Bedewed her Hearse; and though she
was not led with Bridesmaids to the Church, yet she is brought by Virgins to the
Grave, her Hearse is Crowned, though not her Head, and Covered with white
Satin, like as a Marriage Gown, and all her Tomb is Strewed with Flowers sweet,
like to a Bridal-Bed, in which Tomb let us lay her, and then Sing Anthems
instead of Epithalamiums, and so leave her to her Rest.
A Child-Bed Woman's Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are met together to see a Young Dead Woman, who Died in ChildBed, to be
laid into the Bed of Earth, a Cold Bed, but yet she will not take any Harm
there, nor we shall not fear she will Catch her Death, for Death hath Caught
her; the truth is, that although all Women are Tender Creatures, yet they
Endure more than Men, and do oftner Venture and Endanger their Lives than Men,
and their Lives are more Profitable than men's Lives are, for they Increase
Life, when Men for the most part Destroy Life, as witness Wars, wherein
Thousands of Lives are Destroyed, Men Fighting and Killing each other, and yet
Men think all Women mere Cowards, although they do not only Venture and
Endanger their Lives more than they do, but endure greater Pains with greater
Patience than Men usually do: Nay, Women do not only endure the Extremity of
Pain in Child-birth, but in Breeding, the Child being for the most part Sick,
and seldom at Ease; Indeed, Nature seems both Unjust and Cruel to her Female
Creatures, especially Women, making them to endure all the Pain and Sickness in
Breeding and Bringing forth of their Young Children, and the Males to bear no
part of their Pain or Danger; the truth is, Nature hath made her Male
Creatures, especially Mankind, only for Pleasure, and her Female Creatures for
Misery; Men are made for Liberty, and Women for Slavery, and not only Slaves to
Sickness, Pains, and Troubles, in Breeding, Bearing, and Bringing up their
Children, but they are Slaves to Men's Humours, nay, to their Vices and
Wickednesses, so that they are more Enslaved than any other Female Creatures,
for other Female Creatures are not so Enslaved as they; Wherefore, those Women
are most Happy that Never Marry, or Dye whilst they be Young, so that this
Young Woman that Died in Child-Bed is Happy, in that she Lives not to Endure
more Pain or Slavery, in which Happiness let us leave her, after we have laid
her Corps to Rest in the Grave.
A Soldiers Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren,
THis Dead man, whom you attend to the Grave, was, whilst he Lived, a Valiant,
Gallant man, and an Excellent Soldier, for that was his Profession in times of
VVarr, a Noble Profession, for all Valiant Soldiers are Honour's Sons, Death's
Friends, and Life's Enemies, for a Soldiers Profession is to Destroy Lives to
get Honour and Fame, by which Destruction Death is a Gainer; In truth, Death is
a Soldiers Companion, Camerade, and Familiar Acquaintance, but not a Soldiers
Friend, though Soldiers be Death's Friends; he is no Stranger to Soldiers,
for they see him in all Shapes, Postures, and Humours; yet the most Terrible
Aspects of Death could not Affright nor Terrify this Soldier, nor cause him
to Remove an Inch back, for he would Venture to the very Jaws of Death. Thus
Bold, Adventurous Soldiers do more Affright Death, than Death doth Affright
them, insomuch that Death for the most part Runs away from Valiant men, and
Seizes on Cowards, and daring not Assault Valiant men in the Fore-front, he
Steals upon them as it were Unawares, for he comes Behind Valiant men, when he
takes hold of them, or else he Seizes on them by Treachery, or Weakens their
Bodies so much by Sickness, as they are Forced to Yield; Indeed there was no
other way for Death to take this Valiant Soldier but by Sickness, for he could
never take him in the Field; But Death is of the Nature of Ungrateful men, who
Endeavour to do those most. Mischief, that have been most Bountiful to them,
and are Ready to take the Lives of those they were most Obliged to; for Valiant
men give Death Thousands of Lives to Feed on, yet he is like some Gluttons, the
more they Eat, the Leaner they are, nay, Death is so Lean, as to be only Bare
Bones, and by his Empty Skull he may be thought a Fool, having no Brains, though
he be rather a Knave than a Fool, for the Deceives or Robs Nature and Time of
many Lives, taking them away before Nature and Time had Ordained them to Dye;
But leaving Death to Ingratitude, Cheats, and Robberies, we must also leave him
this Dead Soldiers Body for to Feed upon, for all Heroic men are Death's most
Nourishing food, they make him Strong and Lusty; and since there is no Remedy,
let us place this Dead Heroes on Deaths Table, which is to put him into the
Grave, and there leave him.
An Oration concerning the Joys of Heaven, and Torments of Hell.
Beloved Brethren,
YOu have heard of Heaven and Hell, Gods and Devils, Damnation and Salvation,
and that you shall have a Fulness of Bliss in Heaven, and be Everlastingly
Tormented in Hell; also you have heard Hell and Heaven described to you, as
that Heaven is Composed and Built all of Precious Stones, and Rich Metal, as
Gold, Diamonds, Rubies, Pearls, Saphyrs, and the like; as also what Degrees and
Powers there be; and for Hell, it is described, to be Dark as Night, and yet
great Elemental Fires, in which the Damned shall be Tormented, the like for
other Torments, that Devils use as their Rods and Scourges to Punish the
Damned; also that the Devils do Curse, and the Blessed Sing and Rejoice;
Moreover, you have heard by your Teacher, and seen Painted in Pictures, both
the Shapes of Devils and Angels, the Angels with Wings, and the Devils with
Horns and Cloven feet, like Beasts; all which may be True, for any thing we
sensibly know to the Contrary, and yet Perchance all these Relations may be
False, as the Relation of the Situation of Heaven and Hell, and the
Architecture of either, or the Shapes of Devils or Angels, or the manner and
ways of their Pleasures and Delights, and their Pains and Torments; all which
may not be so, as they are Usually Described to us, but made by men's Fancies,
for no Mortal man is come either from Heaven or Hell, to tell us Punctually of
every particular Truth. Yet a Heaven and Hell, Good and Bad Angels, Pains and
Torments, Joys and Pleasures there are, for both Reason and Faith informs us,
also God himself tells us in his Holy Writs, and by his Inspired Priests and
Prophets, that there is Reward for the Good in Heaven, and Punishment for the
Bad in Hell; but if we will give our Imaginations leave to Work upon that we
cannot Know, whilst we Live here in this World, let us Imagine what is most
Probable; and first for the Situation of Heaven and Hell, or the Architecture
of either, or the Shapes of Devils or Angels, it is beyond my Imagination; yet
some Imagination may beget a Belief, at least some Probability of the Joys in
Heaven, and the Torments in Hell; Wherefore, I'll begin with the Glorified
Bodies in Heaven, which Bodies in their Glorified Condition shall have their
Senses more Perfect, and their Appetites more Quick, the Body being Purified
into a Celestial Purity, than when their Bodies were Clogged with a Terrestrial
Grossness, which made their Senses Weak, and their Appetites Dull; these
Glorified Bodies shall have their Senses Filled, and their Appetites Satisfied
in a Spiritual manner, as thus: The Sight shall have the most Beautiful,
Splendorous, Pleasant, and Glorious Objects, not that those Objects are
Corporally Without them, but only in their Sight; and such Varieties of such
Sights, as they shall see each Sight Fully to Admire them, but not to Tire
them, and being Satisfied, they shall have New, and with every New Sight a New
Admiration, and after every Admiration a New Sight: The like for the Sense of
Hearing, which shall be Filled sometimes with Eloquent Language, Witty
Expressions, and Fancy, Expressed both in Verse and Prose, sometimes Rational
Discourses, Wise Sentences, Oratory Speeches, and Learned Arguments, also
Harmonious Music, Melodious Voices, and Pleasing Vocal Sounds, with such
Variety and Delight, as Art nor Nature never knew; yet nothing shall Come from
Without to the Ear, or be Conveyed into it, but be Within it: And as for the
Sense of Sent, such Sweet Perfumes, and Ravishing Sweets shall it Smell, as
every Sent shall breed a New Desire, and every Desire a New Sent, and have in
all a Satisfaction; yet nothing of these Various Sweets, or Sweet Perfumes,
shall enter from Without into the Nostrils, but be Within them: And as for
Taste, Deliciously and with Gusto shall it Feed and Satisfy the Stomach, not
with Food, but Taste, for Taste shall be the Food, and every Appetite shall
bring a New Taste, and every Taste a New Appetite, and every Appetite shall be
Satisfied, yet in the Mouth shall not any Meat be: The like for Touch, which is
a kind of Taste, there shall be a Feeling Pleasure, where every Touch shall be
a New Pleasure, and every Pleasure shall bring a New Touch, there shall Touch
feel a Comfortable Heat from a Freezing Cold, and a Refreshing Cold, upon great
Sultry Heats, and yet no Fire nor Frost shall Touch their Bodies; there shall
it feel a Scratching Pleasure, to take off Itching Pain, yet nothing Hurt the
Body; there shall it feel a Soft and Downy Touch, as from a Hard Rough Pain,
yet nothing Press the Body, and all the Body shall feel such Ease, as if it
came from Hard Labour, and such Rest, as from a Tedious Travelling, and
Infinite of other Pleasurable and Delightful Touches, as are not to be
Expressed. Thus every Sense shall be Satisfied in a Spiritual way, without a
Gross Corporeal Substance, and the Blessed Souls of these Glorified Bodies, and
Spiritual Satisfactions of Glorified Senses and Appetites, shall be filled with
all Perfection, as a Clear Understanding, a Perfect Knowledge, a Pure Wit, a
Sound Judgment, and a Free Will, and all the Passions Regulated and Governed,
as they ought to be, into Love and Hate, as Hate to the Wicked and Damned, and
Love to the Blessed and Glorified; and such Delights shall they have not only
in the Pleasures of their Glorified Bodies, but in Themselves, such as God
himself Enjoys; thus shall Souls and Bodies be Blessed and Glorified in Heaven.
And after the same manner and way, as Blessed Souls and Bodies have Delight and
Pleasure, and Fulness of Joy in Heaven, so shall the Souls and Bodies of the
Damned have Terror and Torments, and Fulness of Horror in Hell; for as the
Senses and Appetitces have Variety and Satisfaction of Pleasures in Heaven, so
shall the Senses and Appetites have Variety of Terror, Dread, and Horror, and
be Surfeited with Aversion, Loathing and Reluctance, and filled with Misery and
Evil: As for the Sense of Touch in Damned Bodies, it is not probable they are
Burnt with Elemental Fire, as many Think, but their Sense of Touch hath such a
Burning Feeling, as is so far beyond the Elemental Burning, as that Burning is
a Pleasure to it, and such Excessive Variety of Pains, it is probable they
have, as Art could never Invent, nor Nature make, nor Sense Feel in this World,
nor Thought of man Imagine: And for the Sense of Sent, it is not probable there
is the Smell of Brimstone and Sulphur, for that may be endured without a great
Dislike, but it is Probable and to be Believed, that their Sense of Sent smells
Varieties of filthy Stinks, yet not from Without them, as of the Devils making,
but Within themselves: And as for their Sense of Hearing, it is not probable,
that the Devils do Vocally Roar or Verbally Curse, but that the Damned have in
the Sense of Hearing, Infinite, Confused, Fearful, and Dreadful Noises,
Reproaching, Exclaming, and Cursing Words and Speeches: And as for the Sense of
Sight, it is not so much the Devils Ugly and Monstrous Shapes, which they see,
but their Sense of Sight is filled with Infinite Varieties of Ugly, Deformed,
Monstrous, and Terrible Sights. Thus it is probable the Damned are Tormented.
Also 'tis probable, that both the Damned and Blessed are Fixed to their Places;
for the Blessed having Fulness of Joy and a Fruition of Desire, have no
Occasion or Desire to VVander from Place to Place, for it is Restless Desire,
and Unsatisfied Appetite, that Moves and Removes, seeking for that they would
Have, and cannot Get, or for Something, they know not What, for which the
Damned may desire to Remove; but as the Blessed Saints are Fixed with a Fulness
of Joy and Admiration, not caring to Remove therefrom, so the Damned are so
Stricken with Fear and Terror, as they Dare not Remove, if they Could; and as
the Satisfaction, Variety, Pleasure, Delight and Joy of the Blessed, begins and
continues without End, so the Variety of Aversion, Terror, and Torments,
begins and continues for Ever; But the most Probable Opinion is, that the
Fulness of Joy is the Love of God, and the Fulness of Pleasure the Glory of
God, and the Horror and Torments of the Damned is the Want of that Love and
Glory.
An Oration to a Congregation.
Dearly Beloved Brethren,
MAn hath not only Vain or Erroneous Imaginations or Opinions, but Beliefs,
being without Ground or Foundation, which is without Sense and Reason; for what
Sense and Reason hath Man to Imagine or Believe, that Heaven, which is
Celestial, should be Composed of Terrestrial Materials, as of Pure Gold,
Crystal, and Precious Stones, and not rather Believe it to be only the
Beatifical Vision of God? and what Sense and Reason hath man to Believe that
Hell is Hell, for Want of the Presence of God, whereas the Omnipotent God must
Necessarily be all Fulfilling? and is it not a strange Contradicting Opinion or
Belief, that Hell is Dark, and yet that in Hell is Elemental Fire and
Terrestrial Brimstone? and what Sense and Reason hath Man to believe, that
Celestial Bodies have Terrestrial Shapes, whereas we may easily Perceive, that
all outward Shapes, Forms or Figures, are according to the Degrees of the
Purity or Grossness of the Substance or Matter they are Composed of? Wherefore,
Man hath not any Reason to Believe, that Angels, which are Celestial
Substances, can have Terrestrial Shapes; and what Reason hath Man to Believe,
that Angels in Heaven have the Shapes of Men on Earth; but if they should
believe they have Terrestrial Shapes, why should they believe them to have Men's
Shapes, and not the Shapes of other Creatures? it might be Answered, the Belief
Proceeds from the Son of God, who did Take upon Him the Shape of Man, but then
we may believe, that Angels are of the Shape of Doves, because the Holy Ghost,
which is Co-equal and Co-eternal with the Son, did Take upon Him the Shape of
that Bird. Also what Reason hath man to Believe, that the Devils Shapes are
partly of the Shape of Beasts, as to have Tails, Horns, Claws, and Cloven feet?
do they believe that the Shape of Beasts is a more Wicked or Cursed Shape than
any other Animal Shape? But these Opinions or Beliefs proceed from Gross
Conceptions, made by Irregular Motions, in Gross Terrestrial Bodies, or Brains
in Mankind, who make Hell and Heaven, God, Angels and Devils, according to
their Fancies, and not according to Truth, for Man cannot Know what is not in
his Portion of Reason and Sense to Know, and yet man will Judge and Believe
that, which he cannot possibly Know, which is Ridiculous even to Human Sense
and Reason. But to Conclude, Dearly Beloved, men's Thoughts are too Weak, their
Brains too Little, their Knowledge too Obscure, and their Understandings too
Cloudy to Conceive Gods Celestial Works or Workings, or his Will or Decrees,
Fates or Destinies; Wherefore, Pray without Forming, Obey without Censuring,
Fear his Power, Love his Goodness, and Hope in his Mercy, and the Blessing of
God be amongst you.
An Oration to a Sinful Congregation.
Beloved Brethren,
YOu Live so Lewdly, Riotously, and Wickedly, as if you did not Believe there
are Gods or Devils, Heaven or Hell, Punishment or Bliss, and as if there were
none other Life after this Life, but you will find you shall be so Punished for
your Wickedness, unless you Amend, as you will Curse your Birth, Life, and
Death; for so Bad and Wicked you are, that the Seven Deadly Sins are not sins
enough for you, but Daily, nay Hourly, you Study to make more Deadly sins, nay
you are so Ingenious in Devising Sin, as you are the most subtle Artisans
therein that ever were; you are a Vitruvius for Desigining Sins, a Pygmalion
for Carving out Sins, an Apelles for Painting out Sins, a Galileus for Espying
out Sins, an Euclid for Numbering and Multiplying Sins, so that your Sins are
now past all Account, an Archimedes for Inventing Sins, an Aristoteles to Find
out Sins, a Cicero in Pleading for Sins, an Alexander in Fighting for Sins, an
Homerus in Describing Sins, and your Lives and Actions are the Foundations, and
Materials, the Stones and Chisals of Sins, the Boards and Planks, the Light,
Shadows, and Colours of Sins, the Perspective Glasses of Sins, the Figures of
Sins, the Instruments and Engines of Sins, the Lines, Circles, and Squares of
Sins, the Bodies, Parts, and Lives of Sins, the Tongue and Speech of Sin, the
Arms of Sin, the Brains and Wit of Sin: Thus you are nothing but Sin Within and
Without, for Life, Soul, Thoughts, Bodies and Actions are all Sin; Indeed you
seem, as if you were neither Made by Nature nor God, but Begotten or Produced
from Devils; for Nature Exclames against you, and God Abhors you, the Devils
will Own you, but God of his Mercy give you Grace to Repent and Amend your
Lives, that what Sin is Past, may be Blotted out, and that your Lives, Thoughts
and Actions may be such, as may Gain upon Eternal Blessedness, and Everlasting
Glory, for which let us Pray.
An Oration, which is an Exhortation to a Pious Life.
Beloved Brethren,
YOu come here to be Instructed, but yet you do not Amend your Lives, for you
Live Idly and Wickedly, you make no Profit of your Instructions or
Exhortations, for it seems by you, that the more you are Taught, the more
Ignorant you are, like those that become Blind, or their Sight Dazzled with Too
much Light; Indeed you Live as if you had not Rational Souls, or that you
thought Souls Die as Bodies do, but you will find you have Souls that shall
Live to endure Torment, if you do not Reform your Lives: 'Tis true, many have
Strange, and some, Atheistical Opinions concerning the Soul, for Some have had
Opinions, that Man hath no other Soul, but such as Beasts have, and Others,
that the Souls of all Creatures Go out of one Body into an other, and that
Death doth but Change the Souls Lodging; and Some have had an Opinion, that
there is no such thing as a Soul, but that which is called a Soul, is only
Animal Life; and Others believe there be Souls, but they Die as Bodies do;
Others, that there is but One great Soul, which is the Soul of the World; but
the Right and Truth is, that men have Particular Souls, which not any other
Creature hath, which are called Rational Souls, and shall Live for Ever, either
in Torment or Bliss, according to their Merit; But the Best and Wisest men make
no question of the Rational Soul of Mankind, though many Learned men Trouble
their Heads to prove What the Soul is, for some believe the Soul is Corporeal,
others it is Incorporeal. Also many Trouble themselves to know, When the Souls
of Mankind Enter into their Bodies, some think Before the Body is Born; others
hold, it enters not Until the Body is Born; and some think, that the Body
receives the Soul so soon as it receives Life in the Womb; and some think
Before, as when it is newly Conceived: but those that are of an Opinion, that
Life and Soul enters into the Body together, believe their Departs together by
Death; and those that think the Soul enters not into the Body until it be
Born, believe the Soul is but a Weakling at first, and grows Stronger as the
Body grows Older. Thus they Trouble their Heads, and Exercise their Wits
concerning the Soul, to know What it is, and How it is, but never take Thought
as how it Will be when they Dye, like the Dog that left the Substance to seek
for the Shadow, so men leave the Salvation, and Dispute about the Creation:
But my Exhortation is, that you would Pray more, and Dispute less; for what
shall we need to Trouble our Minds, whether the Soul be Corporeal or
Incorporeal? or if Corporeal, of what Matter it is made of, so that it be
Capable of Glory? nor shall we need to Trouble our Minds, When it Enters the
Body, so it Enters Heaven. Wherefore those that are Truly Wise, and Wisely
Devout, will Endeavour with all their Power, Faith, and Industry of their
Minds, Thoughts, and Life, to Do such Charitable Deeds, and to Think such Pious
Thoughts in Holy Contemplations, and Pray with so much Zeal and Faith,
Penitence and Thanksgiving, as God may be so well Pleased with them, as to
Glorify their Souls in Heaven; where there is all Joy and Happiness, which Joy
and Happiness I Pray the Gods may give you.
MARRIAGE ORATIONS.
PART IX.
A Marriage-Oration to a Congregation, and a Young Bride and Bridegroom.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are met together as Bridal-Guests to see this Young Man and Woman Married,
who are to be Bound, Tied, and Manacled with Holy Ceremony, Vows and Promises,
yet all too little to Tie some Couples Fast, for many do not only Loosen those
Bonds with taking Unlawful Liberty, but quite Break them by Divorce, which
shows the Unruliness and Untowardness of Married People, or else it shows the
Unsufferable Condition of a Married Life, and yet for all the Proofs, Trials,
and Examples of the Evils that are in Marriage, Men and Women will take no
VVarning, for not only Maids and Batchelours, but VViddows and VViddowers run
Head-long into the Noose or Marriage Halter; I do not say this, to Discourage
this Young Couple, but to Advise them, when they are Married, to Live
Temperately, Prudently, Lovingly, and Peaceably, that they may not Surseit
their Fond and Eager Appetites, which Causes the Sickness of Aversion, and
Death of Affection, or Prodigally VVaste their Maintenance, or Idly Spend
their Time, for Poverty breaks Friendship, and turns near Friends to Foes; nor
Live Inconstantly, for that makes Jealousy, and Jealousy Hate; nor Live
Quarrelsome, for that makes Faction, Faction Division, and Division Divorce;
whereas Temperance makes Constancy, Prudence Plenty, Love keeps Peace, and
Peace makes Happiness, which Happiness I wish this Young Couple, and so I will
Join their Hands, Praying that God will Join their Hearts with an United Love
and Felicity.
A Marriage-Oration to a Congregation, and an Old Bride and Young Bridegroom.
Beloved Brethren,
WE are met together as MarriageGuests, to see this Couple Married together,
although it be an Unequal match, the Bride being Aged, and the Bridegroom
Young, She too Old for him, and He too Young for her; which shows, as if She
wanted Wit, and He Wealth; but I hope neither of them will want that Love,
which ought to be betwixt a Man and Wife: I say not this, to Hinder their
Marriage, for if They do Agree, every one ought to Approve it, and if they
should not Agree, None will Suffer but Themselves, either in the Opinion of
their Neighbours and Friends, or in their Own Discontents; for their Neighbours
will Censure Both, as if She was too Amorous for her Age, and He too Covetous
for his Youth, and that Time will Cool the One, and Riot Consume the Other;
which if it prove so, you will wish one another Dead, but not Love one another
Living; whereas when you Agree Kindly, and Live Orderly, you will be Praised.
Worthily, and so much the More, as being Unusual, and therefore not Expected:
for who would not believe, but that an Old Wife should be Jealous, and a Young
Husband Wanton? or who will believe an Old Wife to be Pleasing, and a Young
Husband Continent? But this true Pleasure and Constancy I wish you, and will
Join your Hands, Praying for your Happiness.
A Marriage-Oration to a Congregation, and a Young Bride and Aged Bridegroom.
Beloved Brethren,
HEre is a Loving Aged Man, and a Chaste Young Woman to be Joined in Holy
Matrimony, which shows the Man to have Courage, the Woman to be Prudent; for
surely it is very Dangerous for an Aged man to Marry a Young Woman, especially
an Handsome Young Woman, not only that Youth is apt to be Inconstant and Loves
Variety, but Youth and Beauty is a Temptation to Amorous Lovers, which will lay
Siege and make Assaults, endeavouring with all their Flattery, Bribes, Vanity,
and Prodigality, to Corrupt, Betray, and Win her; But she is Prudent to Choose
an Expericed man, Preferring Wisdom before Youth, Wit before Beauty, Love
before Courtship, and Temperance before Pleasure: all which Fore-shews, she
will make a Chaste Wife, which will keep her Husbands Love, and her Own
Reputation, which Love and Chastity will make them Happy, and both will make
them Honourable, to which Respect and Happiness I Join them inseparably.
A Marriage-Oration of two Poor Servants.
Beloved Brethren,
YOu have attended these two Poor Servants to the Church, as their
Bridal-Guests, to Witness their Lawful Marriage, by which you do them Honour,
and if you will also do them Good, you will bestow on them an Offering, for
though each Person should give but a Small Gift, yet in the whole Sum it will
be Great to them, so that it will not be Mist in your Purses, and yet be a
Benefit to their Lives, for it may make them Rich, and your selves not Poor;
but if you give them not Any, they may nevertheless by their Industry Thrive,
for as they have Wrought Honestly for their Master and Mistress, so they will
Labour Honestly for Themselves, and as their Master did Thrive by their
Service, so they Hope to Thrive in Serving themselves, and so in time they may
become Master and Mistress to Servants, as they were Servants to Master and
Mistress; for Prudent Industry and Thrifty Sparing makes the Poor Rich, and
Riches doth Advance them to Honour, whereas Carelessness, Riot, and Vain
Expenses make Rich men Poor, and Noble men Mean, so that in time Labouring
Peasants, and Thriving Citizens Posterities, come to be Rich Men and Great
Lords, when as the Posterity of Rich Men and Great Lords, through their
Prodigality comes to be Poor Labouring men and Slaves, for Heaven Blesses the
Industry of the Poor, but Punishes the Riot of the Rich; which Blessing be upon
This Couple, and so let us Join their Hands with Holy Ceremony, and Heaven Join
their Hearts with Love.
ORATIONS TO CITIZENS In the Market-Place.
PART X.
An Oration against Excess and Vanity.
Fellow Citizens,
I Observe great Excess in Stately and Chargeable Buildings, Rich and Costly
Furnishings, Vain Adornings, Wasteful Feasting, Idle Enter taining, and
Unprofitable Attendances, and the like Vanities. First for your Building, you
Build not only for Convenience and Decency, but for State and Magnificence, and
you Build not only Large and High, as if you would Spread to the Circumference
of the Earth, and Ascend to the Mansions of the Gods, but you Endeavour to Work
beyond Nature for Curiosities in Cutting, Carving, Ingraving, and Painting to
the Life; also you Dig to the Abyfs, as to the Centre of the Earth, for several
Materials, as Diverse sorts of Stones and Metalls, and Endeavour to make your
Palaces to Outshine the Sun with Gold, wherein you waste so much Gold and
Silver, in Vain and Improfitable Gilding and Interlaying, that there is not
Enough left to make Coin for Traffic; also your Stately Building doth not only
Ruin your Posterity, leaving them more Houses than Land, but you Ruin the
Poor, enclosing the Land with your Walls, and filling up Lands with Houses,
whereas Corn and Fruits should Grow; thus you Tread upon the Bellies, Backs,
and Heads of the Poor. And as for your Rich and Costly Furniture, it Cost much
and VVears out soon, yielding no Profit, for the Principal of so much Money is
VVasted, and no Use made thereof. Secondly, for your Feasting, wherewith you
Eat rather to be Sick, than to Prolong Life, you Spoil more than you Eat, and
Eat more than you have Appetite; you are like Misers in your Feeding, stuffing
your Stomachs with Meat, as they do their Trunks and Bags with Money, and the
Superfluity of meat Destroys the Gluttonous Eater with Surfeits. Thirdly, your
Adorning or rather Deforming your selves in Antic Fashions, and Toyish
Vanities, which shows your Heads to be Brainless, and sometimes your Purses
to be Moneyless, for Spending so much on your Backs, you cannot Keep any thing
in your Coffers, nor for your Necessary use. Fourthly, your Idle Visits and
Unprofitable Discourses, wherein is more Words than Wit, and more Time lost
than Knowledge gained, for you become more Ignorant with Talking, than Learned
with Contemplating, for Brains are not Manured with Foolish Discourses, but
Wise Considerations. Lastly, your Numerous Trains, which are Unprofitable
Servants, being maintained for Show, and not for Use, they Spending much, and
doing little Service, is the Cause not only of great Disorders, but the Ruin
of many Noble Families. The Short is, you Drink to be Drunk, Eat to be Sick,
Live to be Idle, Spend to be Poor, and Talk to be Fools: Thus you Lose Time,
Waste your Estate, Trouble your Minds, and Shorten your Lives, Living with more
Cost than Worship, and more Worship than Pleasure; for you are Stewards for
your Servants, Hosts for your Guests, and Slaves to your Vain Humours.
An Oration Contradicting the Former.
Noble Citizens,
THe Former Oration was against the Lawful Delights and Pleasures of our
Citizens, nay, of all Mankind, which Expresses the Orator either to be so Poor
of Means, as he Cannot Attain to such Delights and Pleasures; or that his
Senses are Imperfect, as not Capable to Receive them, or that he is of so Evil
a Disposition, as to Desire all men to be Miserable, or that he is a Fool, as
not Knowing how to Speak or Live wisely, whereas had he Spoken against Hurtful
and Destroying Vices, he had Spoken as a Good man ought to do, for Vices are
Vices, no otherwise but that they are Hurtful or Destructive to Mankind, which
makes them Vices, for the Gods Forbid them, because of the Evil Effects; as
Drunkenness, which Disorders the Reason, Distempers the Brain, and Obstructs
the Senses, making men Senseless, or to be as Mad, and causes oftentimes
Quarrels, Wounds, and Death, at least Breaks Peace, and makes Enemies of
Friends; besides, Drunkenness makes men Sick, and is apt to Shorten their
Lives, all which makes it a Vice, and so a Sin; But did Drunkenness cause no
Evil Effect, it ought not to be Forbidden, nor could it be accounted a Crime.
The like I may say for Gluttony, for would men Eat only to Please them, and not
so much as to Disease them, it would be no Fault to Eat well; or to Please
their Palate, but it is the Surfeits; Sickness, and oftentimes Untimely Death,
that makes Gluttony a Vice; and for Adultery, it would be so far from a Crime,
as it would be a Virtue in the Increase of Mankind, were it not for the Loss of
Propriety, in that no man would Know his Own Child, nor be sure to Enjoy his
Own Wife, or that Woman he makes Choice of. As for Theft and Murder, they are
not of that Sort to be named Vices only, but Damnable Sins, wherein can neither
be Society, Safety, nor Security of Life, for Thieves and Murderers endeavour
an Utter Destruction without Mercy or Remorse; Wherefore, since Vices and Sins
are Vices and Sins, for their Hurt and Evil Effects, those things that are
called Vanities, which produce Pleasure and Delight without Death and
Destruction, ought not to be Spoken against; for Vanities are Profitable to the
Poor, and not Hurtful to the Rich; But yet Moralists and Divines Plead,
Preach, and Write, Rail and Exclame against all Honest, Harmless Delights and
Pleasures, as if they were Sins to God and Nature, as if Nature and the God of
Nature should make Senses and Appetites in Vain, or only to the Hurt and
Dislike of the Creature, and not for their Good and Pleasure, as to make a Body
for Pain and Sickness, and not for Health and Ease, and to make a Mind for
Trouble and Discontent, and not for Peace and Tranqullity, to make Desires, but
not Fruitions: Indeed Nature and the God of Nature is more Just to Mankind; for
as they have made Eyes and Seeing, so they have made Light, Splendour, and
Beauty to be Seen; and as they have made Ears to Hear, so they have made
Harmony to be Heard; and as they have made Nostrils to Smell, so they have made
Perfumes to be Smelt; and as they have made Taste, so they have made Relishes;
and as they have made Hunger, so they have made Food; and as they have made
Appetites, so they have given Satisfaction or Satiety. Thus we may perceive,
that every Particular Sense is Fitted or Matched to Particular Pleasures; but
because Nature hath made some Aversion, therefore Moralists and Divines would
not have men Enjoy the Pleasure in Nature, whereas the most Rational men
perceive, that Aversions were only made to Heighten and Re-double the Pleasures
and Delights both of Body and Mind; but these Men are so Rigid in their
Doctrine, (I will not say, in their own particular Practice) as they would have
men Choose the Worst part, and Refuse the Better, and would have all Mankind
Struggle, Strive, and Oppose all Nature's Delights and Benefits; the truth is,
they seem to Desire a Perpetual War between the Senses and the Objects, as
also between the Mind and the Body, as between the Reason and Sense; but in my
opinion, their Doctrine hath neither Sense nor Reason, and their Authors would
have as Little, if they should Practise what they Preach. Wherefore, Noble
Citizens, my Advise is, that you Take your Pleasures, yet so, as you may Enjoy
them Long, as to Warm your Selves, not to Burn your Selves, to View the Light,
but not to Gaze out your Sight, to Bathe your Selves, but not to Drown your
Selves, to Please your Selves, but not to Destroy your Selves with Excess.
An Oration against Usurers, and MoneyHorders.
Noble Citizens,
WE have some Citizens amongst us, that are Rich, and yet Miserable, they
Covet Much, yet Enjoy but Little, for they Hord up their Wealth, and Starve
Themselves; and if they did Starve None but Themselves, it were no great
matter, being fitter for Death than Life, but their Hoards impoverish the
Common-wealth, and so Starve the Poor; for there cannot be a Greater Evil in a
Commonwealth, set aside War, than to have many Rich Usurers, as Covetous
Getters, and Spare Spenders; for their Great Wealth is like as a Great
Dunghill, which, whilst it lies on a Heap together, doth no Good, but Hurt,
whereas if it were Dispersed and Spread upon the Barren Lands, it would Enrich
much Ground, producing Increase and Plenty. The like should Money or such sort
of Riches be Spread equally, to make a Common-wealth Live Happily; Indeed, a
Prodigal is more Beneficial, and Profitable to a Common-wealth than a Usurer,
for a Prodigal makes only Himself Poor, and the Common-wealth Rich, whereas a
Miserable man makes only Himself Rich, and the Common-wealth Poor. 'Tis true,
Riches is accounted a great Blessing, and Surely it is so, but I take Riches to
be only a Blessing in the Use, and not Barely in the Possession, for Riches is
not what we Have, but what we Enjoy; for he that hath Delicious Fruits, and
will Eat Sour Crabs; hath Reviving Wines, and will Drink Insipid Water; hath
Stately Houses, and will Live in a Thatched Cottage; hath Store of Fuel, and
will Freeze with Cold; and hath great Sums of Money, but will Spend none,
those are Poorer than they that Have but a Little, and will Spend according to
their Estate; yet these Miserable men that Live Starvingly, Slovenly, and
Unwholesomely, are Commended by the Moralists, and Accounted Wise men, as not
taking Pleasure in that they call Vanities, which is to make Use of their
Riches, as to Live Plentifully; Pleasantly, Gloriously, and Magnificently, if
they have wherewithal to Live so, pleasing Themselves with what Good Fortune
hath given them. I for my part, I had rather Live Rich, and Dye Poor, than Dye
Rich, and Live Poor, and leave my Wealth to those, that will be so far from
Acknowledging my Gifts with Thanks, by Praising me for them, as it is likely
they would Rail on my Memory, so that my Wealth would only Build me a Tomb of
Reproaches, and a Monument of Infamy, which would be a Just Judgement for being
so Unnatural to my Self. But Miserable men believe, they are Masters to their
Wealth, because they have it in Keeping, when as they are Slaves, not Daring to
Use it, unless it be in getting Ten in the Hundred: I Confess, if such men had
Children, being for the most part Childless, there were some Excuse for them,
but yet Fathers should not make Themselves Miserable, to make their Sons
Prodigal, for a Rich Son of a Miserable Father is commonly a Spend-thrist; and
as Fathers are bound by Nature to Provide for their Children in a Wise
Proportion, so they are bound by Nature to Maintain Themselves so Plentifully,
as to Enjoy a Happy Life. But to Conclude, those that are Miserable Horders, or
Uncnscionable Usurers, are like as Weesels, or such like Vermin; for as these
Suck out the Meat of an Egg, so they Suck out Silver and Gold, and leave the
Common-wealth like as an Empty Egg-shell, which is a Penny-less Purse or
Treasury.
An Oration concerning the Education of Children.
Fellow Citizens,
I Commend your Love and Care, which you seem to have of your Sons, as to have
them Taught and Instructed in Arts and Sciences, as also when they are Grown up
towards Manhood, to send them abroad to see Foreign and several Nations, for to
be acquainted with their Fashions, Manners, and Behaviours, and to Learn their
several Languages, all which is Profitable, and will make them Worthy men if
they Profit; Yet though I Commend your Love, I cannot Commend your Judgements,
for putting your Sons to be Instructed by Young Pedants, and to be Guided by
Young Governors, which are but Boys themselves in Comparison of Experienced,
Understanding, Knowing, Wise men, that is Aged men, who have Seen, Heard, and
Learned Much, and so Know Much, whereas Young men have not had Time to Hear,
See, and Learn Much, and so cannot Understand, nor Know Much, but must of
Necessity be Ignorant. Wherefore, it is not to be Wondered at, that Fathers
Reap not the Profit, or have not the Return of their Care and Expenses in their
Sons Educations; for Youth breeding up Youth, makes many Men to be Boys all
their Life-time, and being not Instructed as they ought, become Wild, like
Plants that want Manuring, and Fathers mistaking the Cause through long Custom,
think it is the Incapacity of their Sons, and not the Insufficiency of their
Tutors and Governors, if they prove not according to their Hopes and
Expectations; But most Fathers being Bred as Ignorantly as their Sons, think
their Sons Completely bred, if they have been some time at the University, and
have made some short time of Travel, although without Profiting either in
Knowledge or Manners. Thus it may be Thought, that one Fool Begets an other;
but the truth is, that one Fool Breeds an other, for the Fault is not in
Nature, but in Education, at least not so Generally and Constantly, for Nature