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<title>Orations of divers sorts accommodated to divers places written by the Lady Marchioness of Newcastle.</title>
<author>Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of, 1624?-1674.</author>
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<front>
<div type="title_page">
<pb facs="tcp:44350:1"/>
<p>ORATIONS
OF
DIVERS SORTS,
Accommodated to
DIVERS PLACES.
VVritten by the thrice Noble,
Illustrious and excellent Princess,
the Lady Marchioness
OF
<hi>NEWCASTLE.</hi>
</p>
<p>LONDON,
<hi>Printed</hi> Anno Dom. <hi>1662.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div type="to_the_author">
<pb facs="tcp:44350:2"/>
<pb facs="tcp:44350:2"/>
<head>TO THE LADY
MARCHIONESS
OF
NEWCASTLE
On her Book of Orations.</head>
<l>VVEreall the Graecian Oratorsalive,</l>
<l>And swarms of Latines, that did daily strive</l>
<l>With their perfum'd and oily tongues to draw</l>
<l>The deceiv'd people to their Will and Law,</l>
<l>Each word so soft and gentle, every peece</l>
<l>As it were spun still from the Golden fleece,</l>
<l>How short would all this be, did you but look</l>
<l>On this admired Ladies witty Book !</l>
<l>All Europ's Universities, no doubt,</l>
<l>Will study English now, the rest put out.</l>
<signed>W. Newcastle.</signed>
</div>
<div type="dedication">
<pb facs="tcp:44350:3"/>
<pb facs="tcp:44350:3"/>
<head>TO HIS
EXCELLENCIE
THE LORD
MARQUIS
OF
NEWCASTLE.</head>
<opener>
<salute>MY LORD,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Have mentioned in my other Books,
that I think it not fit I Should Dedi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cate
unto your Lordship the Single
parts of my Works, before I de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dicate
all the parts in the Whole;
yet I cannot chuse but declare to the World how
happy I and my works are in your Approvement,
which makes the pastime of my Writing very
Delightfull; besides, it makes me confident and
resolute to put them to the Press, and so to the
Publik view, in despite of these Critical times
and Censorious age, which is apt to find fault
with every Action, let it be never so innocent or
harmlesse, or with any Work although good and
<pb facs="tcp:44350:4"/>
profitable, yet they will sting spiteful Aspersions
on them: But I have heard your Lordship say,
that most men Believe themselves not Wise if
they find no Fault with their Neighbours Acti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons,
and that it is as Easie to find Fault, as it is
Hard to do Well; It seems such men have more
Evil in their Natures, than fustice in their
Censures; but your Lordship, who is full of
Truth and Generosity, Reason and Knowledge,
will give your Opinion Clearly and Uprightly,
and my Works having your Approbation, I re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gard
not the Dislike of other men, for I have
Dedicated my Self and all my Actions to your
Lordship, as becomes</p>
<closer>
<signed>Your Lordships
honest Wife and
humble Servant
<hi>M. Newcastle.</hi>
</signed>
</closer>
</div>
<div type="to_the_reader">
<pb facs="tcp:44350:4"/>
<head>TO THE
READERS
OF MY VVORKS.</head>
<p>I Know not how to Please All, that are pleased to
Read my Works; for do what I can, Some will
find Fault; and the worst is, that those Faults or
Imperfections, I accuse my-self of in my Praefa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tory
Epistles, they fling back with a double
strength against my poor harmless Works, which shewes their
Malice and my Truth: And as for my Playes, which they say
are not made up so exactly as they should be, as having no Plots,
Designs, Catastrophes and such like I know not what, I ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pressed
in the Epistles praefixed before my Playes, that I had
not Skil nor Art to Form them, as they should be, for that
Work was like a Taylors Work to make Cloaths: But many
that find such Faults, are not so good as a Taylor, but meet
Botchers or Brokers, to Patch and Set several Old and New
Pieces together to make up a Play, which I never did, for I
thank my Fates, all is not only New, but my Own, what I have
Presented to the World; But this Age is so Censorious, that
the Best Poets are found Fault with, wherefore it is an Honour
to my Writings, which are so much Inferiour to theirs; Nei<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther
can their Dislikes Deterr me from Writing, for I Write to
Please my Self, rather than to Please such Crabbed Readers.
Yet all my Readers have not been so Cross nor Cruel, for
there are Many, to whom my Endeavours and Works are Ac<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ceptable,
and the more Honour it is to my Works, as being
Approved and Known by Worthy and Judicious Men, and
Noble Persons; But many Men have more Ill Natures to Find
<pb facs="tcp:44350:5"/>
Faults with their Neighbours, than Virtue to Mend Faults in
Themselves; also they are apt to Censure Other mens Wit,
and yet have None of their Own; the truth is, they are a sort
of Persons that in Playes preferr Plots before Wit, and Scenes
before Humours; in Poëms, Rime before Similizing, and Num<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bers
before Distinguishing; in Theology, Faction before Faith,
and Sophistry before Truth; in Philosophy, Old Authors be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fore
New Truths, and Opinions before Reason; And in Ora<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions,
they preferr Artificial Connexions, before Natural
Eloquence: All which makes them Foolish, Censorious, and
Unjust Judges. Wherefore, I desire, these my Orations may
not be Read by such Humour'd men, but by the Just and VVife,
which will be a Satisfaction to me.</p>
<p>'Tis Probable, had I been a Learned Scholar, I might have
Written my Orations more Short than I have done, but yet
some of them are so short, that had they been shorter, they
would not have been of Force to Perswade, whereas the In<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tention
of an Orator, or Use of Orations, is to Perswade the
Auditors to be of the Orators Opinion or Belief, and it is not
Probable, that Forcible Arguments or Perswasions can be Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tain'd
in two or three Lines of VVords; Also had I been a
Learned Scholar, I might have Written them more Compen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>diously,
and not so Loose, but I affect Freedome and Ease, even
in my Works, of VVritings; Besides, I have Observ'd, that
whatsoever is Bound or Knit Close, is difficult to Disclose, and
for VVritings, whatsoever is very Compendious, requires some
Study to Conceive and Understand the Sense and Defign of
the Authors Meaning: But I hope that Defect or want of Lear<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning,
will not Blemish my VVork, nor Obstruct the Sense of
my Orations, nor Puzzle the Understanding of the Reader.
Only one thing more I desire my Noble Readers, as to Observe
that most of my Orations are General Orations, <hi>viz.</hi> such as
may be spoken in any Kingdome or Government, for I suppose,
that in All, at least in Most Kingdomes and Governments there
are Souldiers, Magistrates, Privy-Counsellours, Lawyers, Prea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>chers,
and University Scholars.</p>
<p>VVe have, its true, gotten a Foolish Custom both in our
VVriting and Speaking, to Indeavour more to Match or Marry
VVords together, than to Match and Marry Sense: and Reason
<pb facs="tcp:44350:5"/>
together, which is strange, we should Preferr Shaddows before
Substances, or the Spig or Tap before the Liquor, for VVords
are but to Conveigh the Sense of an Cration to the Ears, and
so into the Understanding of the Hearers, like as Spouts do
VVine into Bottels; and who, that is VVise, will Regard what
the Vessel is, so it be VVholsome and Clean? for should not we
believe those to be Fools, that had rather have Foul VVater
out of a Golden Vessel, than Pure VVine out of Earthen or
VVoodden Vessels? the like may be said for VVords and Sense,
for who, that is VVise, would Choose Choice VVords before
Profitable Reasons? VVherefore, Noble Readers, let me Ad<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vise
you to Leave this Custom in VVriting and Speaking, or
rather be Silently Wife, than Foolish in Rhetorick.</p>
<p>I have Indeavoured in this Book to Express Perfect Orators,
that Speak Perfect Orations, as to Cause their Auditors to Act,
or Believe, according to the Orators Opinion, Judgement,
Design, or Desire; But before I did put this my Book forth,
Know, Noble Readers, I did Inquire, to find whether any
Person had Composed and Put out a Whole Book of Pure and
Perfect Orations, but I could neither hear of, nor see any such
Works of any Person that Composed and Set forth to the
Publick View, a Book of Pure Orations, Composed out of One
Orators Own Fancy, Wit, and Eloquence. 'Tis true, I have
heard of Single Orations, made by Single Persons, in Single
Parts; Also I have seen Orations mixt with History, wherein
the Substance of the History is the Ground of their Orations;
Also I have seen two Translations call'd Orations, but they
are rather Orations in Name than in Reality, for their Nature
is History, the One contains Relations of several Countries,
in the Other are Relations from several Princes of their Acti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons,
or Fortunes, or Both, Exprest in an Orators Style; yet
those are not Perfect or Right Orations, but Adulterated, or
rather Hermophrodites. But perchance my Readers will say,
I Understand not True Orations; If I do not, I am Sorry for,
and ask their Pardon for Speaking what I Understand not. But
I desire, Noble Readers, you will not think or believe, I speak
to Illustrate my Own VVorks, and to Detract from the VVorks
of Others, for upon my Conscience I Speak and VVrite as I
Believe, and if I Commit an Error in this Belief, I ask your
<pb facs="tcp:44350:6"/>
Pardon, and if you Excuse me, I shall take it for a Favour and
Obligation.</p>
<p>I have Written Orations and Speeches of all Sorts, and in
all Places sit for Orations, Speeches, or particular Discourses;
and first imagining my Self and You to be in a Metropolitan
City, I invite you into the Chief Market-place, as the most
Populous place, where usually Orations are Spoken, at least
they were so in Older times, and there you shall hear Crations
Concerning Peace and Warr; but the Generality of the People
being more apt to make Warr, than to keep Peace, I desire
you to Arm your Selves, supposing you to be of the Masculine
Sex, and of Valiant Heroical Natures, to enter into the Field
of Warr; and fince Warrs bring Ruine and Destruction to
One or Some Parties, if not to All, and Loss causes men to De<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sire
Peace, out of Warr I bring you into great Disorders,
caused by the Ruins Warrs have made, which I am Sorry for,
yet it Must be so, the Fates have Decreed it; and Misery cau<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sing
men to be Prudent and Industrious, by which they come
to Flourish again, at least their Successors, and to shew you
their Industry, I bring you out of the Field of Warr into a
New-built City, where you must stay the Building of it, for it
will be Built Soon, having Many Labourers, and after it is Built,
there being a Large Market-place, you may stand or sit with
Ease and hear the Orations that are there Spoken; and by
Reason, there are some Causes or Cases to be Pleaded, I shall
indeavour to Perswade you, after some time of Refreshment, at
your own Homes, to go into the Courts or Halls of Judica<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture;
after these Causes are Judged or at least Pleaded, I shall
desire you, to Adorn your Selves fit for the Court, then to
Wait upon the Kings Majesty, and if you be Privy-Counsel<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lours,
or have any Business or Petitions at the Council-Table,
by the Kings Permission you may Enter into the Council<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>Chamber;
but great Monarchs having Many Subjects, whereof
some are more Active than Wise, and more apt to Complain
than to Obey, you may hear the Petitions of the Subjects, and
the Speeches or Orations of the Soveraign, and after a good
Agreement, Unity, and Love, you may Rest your Selves in
Peace, untill such time as your Charity calls you forth to Visit
the Sick, and when as Death hath Releas'd those Sick Persons
<pb facs="tcp:44350:6"/>
of their Pains, Humanity will perswade you to wait on their
Dead Corps to the Grave, and after some Tears showred on
their Graves, and having Dried your Eyes, and Heard some Ser<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mons
of Reproof and Instructions, you will be Invited as
Bridal-Guests to see some Men and VVomen United in Holy
Matrimony; after the VVedding Ceremonies are ended, you
may, as formerly you have done, go into the Market-place
again, and hear what Orations there are Spoken, wherein one
short Oration concerning the Liberty of Women hath so An<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ger'd
that Sex, as after the Mens Orations are ended, they
Privately Assemble together, where three or four take the
place of an Orator, and Speak to the rest; the only Difficulty
will be, to get Undiscovered amongst them, to hear their Pri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vate
Conventicles; but if you regard not what Women say,
you may Ride to a Country Market-Town, and hear a Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pany
of Gentlemen associate together their Discourse and
Pastime; and if you like not their Pastime, then you may
Walk into the Fields of Peace, to Receive the Sweet and
Healthfull Air, or to View the Curious and Various VVorks of
Nature, and for Variety of Pastime, you may stand or sit under
a Spreading Tree, and hear the Country Clowns or Peasants
speak, concerning their own Affairs and Course of Life; in
which Shady place, Sweet Air, and Happiness of Peace I leave
you, unless you will Travel to see the Government or rather
Disorders in other States or Kingdomes, to which Observation
I will VVait upon you, and when all is in Peace, before we re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>turn
Home, we will, if you Please, enter some of their Colle<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ges,
and hear some School-Arguments, after which return, I
shall Kiss your Hands and take my Leave.</p>
<signed>M. Newcastle.</signed>
</div>
<div type="preface">
<pb facs="tcp:44350:7"/>
<pb facs="tcp:44350:7"/>
<head>A
PRAEFACTORY
ORATION.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Worthy Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu know, that there is difference be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tween
Orations of fancy, and Orations
of business, as also difference between
Orations of publick imployments, and
private divertisements; The one sort
requires Rational perswasions, the other only Elo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>quent
expressions: and as there are different
Subjects of Orations, so there are different Places
for Orations; and the Subjects of my Orations be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing
of the most serious and most concernable actions
and accidents amongst Mankind, and the Places
most common and publick, it hath caused me to
Write my Orations rather to benefit my Auditors,
than to delight them. But by reason I have not
been bred, being a Woman, to publick Affairs,
Associations, or Negotiations, it is not to be ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pected
I should speak or write wisely., the truth
is, it were more easie and more proper for one of my
<pb facs="tcp:44350:8"/>
Sex, to speak or write wittily than wisely; but 'tis
probable, my Auditors will think or judge, that
I have done neither. Yet I can assure you, Noble
Auditors, I have done my indeavour, and my
desire was and is, that every several Oration may
be acceptable to your Minds, profitable to your
Lives, and delightful to your Hearing.</p>
</div>
</front>
<body>
<div n="1" type="part">
<pb n="1" facs="tcp:44350:8"/>
<head>ORATIONS
To CITIZENS in a chief City concerning
Peace and Warr.</head>
<head>PART I.</head>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration for Warr.</head>
<p>BE not Offended, <hi>Noble Citizens,</hi> if
I labour to perswade my Country,
to make Heroick Warrs, since it is
neither safe, profitable, nor honou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rable
for it, to live in sluggish Peace:
for in Peace you become ignorant of the Arts in
War, and living sluggishly, you lose the cou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rage
of men, and become Effeminate, and having
neither skil nor courage, you cannot expect safe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty:
for should you chance to have Enemies, you
would not have abilities to help your selves,
having neither Experience by practice, nor Cou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rage
by use and custom; for custom and use work
much upon the natures of men. And as for Arms,
in times of Peace they lie like Garments out of
fashion, never worn, but despised and laught at
as ridiculous things, and men of action like as
arms, they jear and make a mock of. Thus
<pb n="2" facs="tcp:44350:9"/>
Martial men and arms in time of Peace are scor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ned,
although in time of Warrs they only are a
Kingdomes safety, to guard it from their Ene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mies.
Indeed, Peace spoils both youth and age,
it makes the one sort Covetous, the other Wan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ton:
for aged men study only to get Wealth;
the young men how to spend it. Besides, it
makes the Poor men Richmen's Asses, and Rich
men Poor men's Burdens. Also peace makes old
men Fools, and young men Cowards: for in long
times of Peace grave Counsels are meer gossi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ping
meetings, rather idely to talk, than wisely
to advise, they propound many things, but re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>solve
not any, debate not, but conclude, and
sometimes find faults, but never help to mend
them. The truth is, for the most part, they ra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther
make errors, than help to rectifie defects,
and in Warrs they had rather suffer calamity,
than stir for necessity; Neither will they be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lieve
they are in danger, untill their Enemies
be at their Gates. And as for youth, Peace
quenches out their Heroick spirits and noble
ambitions: for their only ambition is their Mi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stresses
favours, and they will go to no other
Warrs, but <hi>Venus,</hi> where <hi>Cupid</hi> is General,
where they only make Love-skirmishes, and are
shot through their hearts with glances from their
Mistresses eyes. Thus Peace makes men like
Beasts: for in peace they feed like Swine, sport
like Apes, live like Goats, and may be brought
to the Shambles like silly Sheep. Nay, it makes
men not only Live, but Die like Beasts, having
<pb n="3" facs="tcp:44350:9"/>
neither spirits, skil nor conduct to defend them<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>selves,
or fight an Enemy. And how should it
be otherwise, when as the young men are only
armed with Vanity, march with Pride, intrench
with Luxury, fight with <hi>Bacchus,</hi> and are over<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>come
by <hi>Venus?</hi> Thus we may observe, that all
which causes Peace, and takes away the courage
of young Vigorous men, rots their Bodies with
excess, and corrupts their Blood with idleness,
by which their Spirits are quenched, their
Strengths weakned, their Minds softned, and
their Natures become effeminate, which makes
their Lives vacant, and when they die, they are
buried in Oblivion: for Fame lives in Heroick
actions. And surely it is better for Noble men,
to have Fame than Wealth, and for young Gal<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lants
to have Honour than gay Cloaths, and
more honour to have Scarrs, than black Patches,
to fight with an Enemy, than to dance with a
Lady, to march to a Battel, than to tread a Mea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sure.
And for the meaner sort, it is better for
them to wear honourable Arms, than to bear
slavish Burdens; and how happy is that man,
that can raise himself from a low Birth, to a glo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rious
Renown? Thus from the Noblest to the
meanest, Warr is the way to advance them to
honour, if the common Souldiers fight with
courage, and the Nobles command and direct
with skil, for which their Posterity will glory
in their Valours, Poets will sing their Praises,
Historians write their Acts, and Fame keep their
Records, that after ages may know, what He<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>roick
<pb n="4" facs="tcp:44350:10"/>
men they were; and as for Kingdomes,
those are safest that are protected by <hi>Mars.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration for Peace.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens.</salute>
</opener>
<p>THe Oration that was last spoken unto you,
hath stirr'd your spirits and incumber'd
your thoughts with Warrs, and your desire for
Warr is such, that you will not only seek for
Enemies, but make Enemies to fight with,
which is neither Heroick nor Just, to fight with
those that have done you no injury or wrong;
and what can be a more unworthy Act, than to
assault peaceable Neighbours? it cannot be call'd
an honourable Warr, but a base Outrage; like as
Pirats at Sea, so you will be Robbers at Land,
taking that from others, which you have no right
to. But say you have some slight injuries done
you, If you were wise, you had better wink at
small faults than make Warrs, which will ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>haust
your Treasures, wast your Strength, de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>populate
your Nation, and leave your Lands un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>manured.
Besides, Warrs corrupt all good
manners, nay, even good natures, making the
one rude, and the other cruel; and though long
Warrs may make men Martial, Skilfull, and
may highten their courage, yet neither skil nor
courage can alwayes bear away Victory, espe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cially
from a powerfull Enemy, unless Fortune
be on their side. The truth is, Fortune is the
<pb n="5" facs="tcp:44350:10"/>
chief Actor and decider in Warrs; and who
that are wise, will trust their Goods, Lives and
Liberties to Fortunes disposal, if they may
choose? Wherefore they are either fools or
mad, that will make Warr, when they may live
in Peace. And give me leave to tell you, that
it is not the way to keep our Country safe, to
make Warrs abroad, but to make our Country
strong with Forts on the Frontiers, and Ships on
the Seas that beat on our shores, and to practise
our men with training, not fighting; and it is
easier to keep out an Enemy, than to Conquer
an enemies Kingdome: for at home we have all
Provisions needfull and near at hand, when in a
forein Country we shall be to seek. But say,
good fortune may inrich us, yet ill fortune will
absolutely ruine us: I answer, Warr inriches
few, for it makes spoil of all; the truth is, War
is a great devourer, for it consumes almost all
that is consumable, wheresoever it comes, and is
like a Glutton, that eats much, and yet is very
lean; for most commonly the under Souldiers
are very poor, and the Commanders only rich
in fame, yet not, unless they have good fortune,
otherwise if they have ill fortune, they are usu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ally
scorn'd, at least but pittied, but never praised.
Wherefore it is neither Courage nor Conduct,
that gets fame in the Warrs, but Fortune that
gives it, and she many times gives glorious fame
to Cowards and Fools, and blemishes, at least
obscures the worth and merit of Wise and Vali<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ant
men. Wherefore, let me perswade you not
<pb n="6" facs="tcp:44350:11"/>
to follow unjust and inconstant Fortune to the
Warrs, but to live at home in Peace with <hi>Mi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nerva</hi>
and <hi>Pallas,</hi> the one will defend you, the
other will imploy you, and both will make you
happy in present Life, and will give you Fame
and Renown according to your desert, that your
memory may live in after-ages.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration against Warr.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Dear Country-men.</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Perceive, all this Nation, or the most part,
their minds are hot, and their spirits inflam'd
through an over-earnest desire to be in Warr,
which expresses you have surfeited with the de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>licious
fruits of Peace, which hath made your
reason, judgement and understanding sick and
faint, so that it desires a change, as from rest to
trouble, from plenty to scarcity, from palaces to
tents, from safety to danger, from gay apparel
to bloody wounds, from freedom to slavery, all
which Warr will bring upon you. The truth
is, Warr is more likely to kill you, than cure
your surfeit: for Warr is a dangerous Physick,
and the more dangerous, by reason your Ene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mies
must be your Physicians. But let me ad<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vise
you, to cure your selves with Temperance
and Prudence, by which you will flourish with
Wealth, and grow strong with Wisdom: for
wealth and wisdome is the health and strength
of a Common-wealth, which will preserve it
<pb n="7" facs="tcp:44350:11"/>
from destruction, For what is the strength of a
Kingdome, but Riches and wise Government?
and what exhausts the one, and confounds the
other more than Warr? which for the most
part is in Fortune's power, to order as she pleases,
and Fortune in VVarrs hath power to puzzle
the wise, and impoverish the rich. Where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fore,
<hi>Noble Country-men,</hi> do not make your
selves beggers and fools in VVarring actions,
and ruine not your Country through the ambi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion
of pre-eminence or applause, or through the
ill nature of Revenge; But be wise and rich with
Peace, by which you will become impregnable
against your Enemies, and happy amongst your
selves; for certainly VVarr is better to hear of,
than to feel; for though in VVarrs you may
Cover much, yet in the end In joy but little, you
may have high Designs, but you are not sure to
have prosperous Success, and instead of being
Conquerers, be Conquered, instead of being
Masters, become Slaves. But to conclude, it
were more happy to lie Peaceable in the Grave
with our Fore-fathers, than to live in the tur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>moils
of VVarr with our Enemies.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration perswading to the breach of Peace
with their Neighbour-Nation.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>OUr Neighbours, the <hi>U. G.</hi> have done us
many injuries contrary to the Articles of
<pb n="8" facs="tcp:44350:12"/>
Agreement made betwixt our Nation, by which
they have broken the Peace; but yet we, out
of Laziness or Fearfull natures, suffer them to
make Riots, and never stirr against them,
when we are so far from being Abusers, as we
suffer our selves to be Abused. 'Tis true, the
first shews us to be Honest Men, but the last
proves us to be Fools, if not Cowards, which,
if our Enemies know, (for now they are but a
proving, making a trial of us,) they will over<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>come
us without Resistance, and will in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>slave
us in our own Territories, so that we shall
labour for our Enemies, and have no Profit our
selves. Thus whilst we sit still, we shall have a
Yoak cast on us, we shall be bound in Fetters, and
they injoy their own and our Liberties, which
rather than suffer or yield to, were a thousand
times better to Dye; Wherefore, bethink your<g ref="char:EOLunhyphen"/>selves,
and consider the danger, be not so sur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>prised,
as not to be able to help your selves; and
if you be Wise and Valiant, as I hope you are,
you will be VVatchful and Active; let not your
Enemies tread you into the Earth, like dull
Worms, or drive you into Bondage, like silly
Sheep into a Pinfold, but rather be as the subtil
Serpents, and dreadfull Lions, to take your ad<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vantages,
and make them your prey; Suffer
them not to be your Vulturs, but be their Ea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gles,
let them not feed on our ruins, but be you
their Emperours to Command them, make them
march under your Banners, and suffer them not
to lead you as Slaves.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="9" facs="tcp:44350:12"/>
<head>An Oration against the breaking of Peace,
with their Neighbour-Nation.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Perceive, you desire, or rather are resolved, to
be no longer in Peace, but to make Warr on
the <hi>U. G.</hi> for some slight injuries, which per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>chance
could not be avioded: for there is no
Friendship between Man and Man, or the dea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rest
natural affections betwixt Brethren, or Pa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rents
and Children, or Husbands and VVives,
but will give some occasions, either by VVords
or Actions, or both, to take exceptions, and to be
angry with each other; and should they for
some small Offences, or indiscreet Actions,
break off all Bonds of Friendship or Natural af<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fection,
Or should they indeavour to destroy
each others Lives, this would be Inhumane,
Unnatural, Uncharitable, Unjust, and Irreligi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ous;
and if neer and dear Friends cannot live
without Exceptions and Faults, much less can
two several Nations under two several Govern<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments.
And give me leave to tell you, that if it
be not Wicked, yet it will be very Unwise to ha<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>zard
your Lives, Liberties, Possessions, and Ha<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bitations,
in Warr, only to be revenged for some
few abuses or faults, that should rather be wink<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ed
at, than taken notice of; But should you be
Victorious, though it is probable you may be
Overcome, yet you will be in the end of the
<pb n="10" facs="tcp:44350:13"/>
Warr but like Chymists, who to make some
grains of Gold spend many thousand, or at least
hundred pounds, and ruine their Estates and
Posterity through Covetousness; so will you
through Anger, and desire of Revenge, lose ma<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ny
thousand Lives, and impoverish the State;
but Experience will tell you, that Anger and
Rashness for the most part cause Repentance,
whereas Patience and Discretion many times
bring men out of great Evils; and though
Warrs begin Flantingly and Boastingly, yet
commonly they end Miserably and Dejectedly,
at least of one side, if not on both, and the Soul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>diers
are more certain to have Wounds or
Death, than Victory and Spoils: and though
Covetousness and Revenge is their hire, yet
Loss and Slavery is many times their reward;
they advance with Hopes, but draw back with
Doubts, and are oppress'd with Fears. But you
imagine, you shall be Victorious, otherwise you
would not make Warr, for Imagination can
easily and suddenly Conquer all the World;
yet you will find it not so in action as in thought,
it is one thing to fight a Battel in the Brain, and
an other thing to fight a Battel in the Field: and
if I might advise you, you should fight only
with Thoughts and not with Arms, with Sup<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>posed,
not with Real Enemies. But to conclude,
this Warlike Preparation or Resolution is not
only inconsiderable and Foolish, but Mad, as to
leave and forsake your delicious Pleasures, sweet
Delights, happy Contents, dear Friends, and
<pb n="11" facs="tcp:44350:13"/>
safe Habitations, which you injoy in Peace, to
put your selves into many Inconveniences, much
Troubles, great Hazards, dangerous Adven<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures,
and uncertain Successes in Warrs.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to prevent Civil Warr.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>GIve me leave to tell you, I do fore-see a Ci<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vil
Warr, if not timely hindred or preven<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted;
the chief signs of this Warr are Vanity,
Pride, Luxury, Ambition, Corruption, Extor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sion,
Envy, Faction and Poverty. As for Vani<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty,
Pride, and Luxury, they are amongst our
young Nobles; Envy, Ambition, and Faction,
amongst our States-men; Corruption and Extor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sion,
amongst our Magistrates and Officers, and
Poverty is amongst our Commons, as also in
our Common and Publick Treasury; All which
will bring our City and Kingdome to ruine, if
the Disorders and Grievances be not timely re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ctified.
Wherefore <hi>Noble Citizens,</hi> and <hi>Dear
Country-men,</hi> prevent your own ruine, by refor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ming
your own State both of publick and pri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vate
Mis-demeanors; but the chief Rectifiers
must be the States-men, Magistrates, and Offi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cers;
for wise States-men and good Magistrates
will not only indeavour to abolish Vanity and
Luxury by their frugal Examples, but by their
wise and severe Laws; for without strict and
severe Laws, wise Government cannot be; also
<pb n="12" facs="tcp:44350:14"/>
wise States-men and honest Magistrates will in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>deavour
to fill the publick Treasury by just and
regular means, and not their private Purses by
Extorsion and Corruption, for the one relieves
the Poor, the other starves them, and not only
relieves the Poor, but is a means to supply the
publick Wants, to guard the publick State, and
to keep the publick Peace; all which makes
wise and honest States-men and Magistrates to
be provident to Inrich, and sparing to Spend the
publick Treasure, that the publick State may
have Means and Wealth for necessary occasi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons.
Also wise States-men and Magistrates
will imploy the Common people to keep them
from Want and Idleness, which will keep them
in Order and Peace; But the greatest good, and
greatest scarcity in a Common-wealth, is wise
States-men and just Magistrates, which are free
from private Interest and ambition of particular
Power, not making their self designs the gene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral
ruine: but such men, if any such there be,
ought to be chosen out from the rest of the Peo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ple,
to Govern and Rule so, that Prudence,
Fortitude, Justice and Temperance, as also Cha<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rity,
Love, and Unity, may be the Bond and Se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>curity
of the publick Weal, which I pray the
Gods to give you, and bless you with Peace,
Plenty, and Tranquillity.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="13" facs="tcp:44350:14"/>
<head>An Oration to send out Colonies.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>GIve me leave to tell you, that both the
Young and Aged Men in this Nation spend
their times idlely; the one sort Sleeps away their
time, the other Playes it away. But it may be
said, that Rest is proper for Aged men, and Plea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sure
for Young men; I answer, Rest to the
bodies of Aged men doth well, and Action for
Young men; but Aged men might imploy their
Brains in Counsels, and Young men their Arms
in Warrs; for aged Brains are wisest, and Young
mens Bodies strongest, and both may be im<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ployed
in the Service of this Nation. But this
Nation is like a man that increases his Issue, and
doth not increase his Estate: for this Nation
grows Populous, but the Men not Industrious to
inlarge it. The truth is, we have more Men,
than Means to maintain them, or Business to
imploy them, which makes them Idle, having
nothing to Husband or Manage, and Idleness will
in time make them Evil; Wherefore, if some of
the wise Aged men, send not some of the Young
strong men, to make Warrs abroad, to imploy
or inrich them, or to destroy them, they will
make Warrs at home, and destroy themselves
and others for want of wealth and imployment:
for this Nation is like a Body over-grown, or
rather full of Humours, which requires Evacu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ation.
<pb n="14" facs="tcp:44350:15"/>
Wherefore, send some to Sea, others to
march by Land, to seek new Habitations, and to
Conquer Nations; and men of Fortune will be
more willing to go, than you to send them, if
you help them with necessaries to begin the
Warr; and they having nothing to lose, nor
nothing to live on, will Fight without Fear, and
therefore probably destroy their Enemies with<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>out
Favour, that they may come to be absolute
Conquerers.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration concerning Shipping.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu know, that this Country is an Island, and
therefore it is well to put you in mind of
the Proverb, which saies, Take care of your
Ships, and look well to your Tacklings, other<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wise
you can have no safety: for the strength of
an Island are Ships, which are the guard to de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fend
it, not empty unrigged Ships in your Ha<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vens,
but good strong Ships well Mann'd on the
Seas; for to have Ships only in your Havens will
be no security; besides, it spoils both Ships and
Mariners for want of use and practice. Thus
the close Havens destroy more Ships and Mari<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ners,
than the open Seas: for that which makes
good Mariners is Navigation, and the more
Stroms they have been in, the more Experience
they have gained. It is true, 'tis a laborious and
dangerous Profession, but yet it is Expedient,
<pb n="15" facs="tcp:44350:15"/>
both for security and profit, to those that inha<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bit
an Island; for Islands commonly have more
Men than Land, and therefore require Provi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sions
from abroad, besides many things for Plea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sure
and Delight. But though Islands be not so
Spacious as Continents, yet they are for the most
part Richer, for Shipping of Burdens is profita<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble,
although Shipping of Warr is chargeable;
and perchance you will say, that the Charge of
the one sort eats out the Profit of the other, un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>less
you can make them serve for both, as for
Traffick, and for Warr, which in my opinion
cannot well be done; for Ships for Warr will be
too heavy and unwieldy for Burden, and too
bigg for Speed, as also too slow for Flight; for
Merchants do seldome Fight, if they can possibly
Flye, not only that their Wealth makes them
fearful, but their Rich fraights would be spoiled,
although they should not be taken from them.
But howsoever, Safety is to be preferr'd before
Wealth, wherefore Ships of Warr are to be
considered before Ships of Burdens, and that
there be good Mariners and Ship-masters for
both; and not only to repair Ships, but to build
Ships yearly, that you may be so strong, as to be
Masters of the Seas; also to pay well your poor
laborions Mariners, and carefull and skifull
Ship-masters, who keep you in Safety, and bring
you Riches and forein Rarities and Curiosities
for Pleasure and Delight; although they be but
Poor themselves, and have less or as little Plea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sure
as Riches, being for the most part accompa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nied
<pb n="16" facs="tcp:44350:16"/>
with Dangers and Fears, as much as with
Want and Necessity; the truth is, they often<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>times
indure great Extremities; for in a Strom
they fight for Life, and in a Calm they starve
for Want; for they fight not like those that
fight at Land, as Men with Men, but they fight
with the blustring VVinds and raging VVaves,
where, although they get the Victory, yet they
are sure to be Losers, their Ships being VVoun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ded,
and their Tacklings tatter'd and torn, and
every thing out of Order; besides, their Spirits
are spent, and their Limbs sore, and their whole
Bodies wearied and tyr'd with Labour, having
nothing to Refresh them, but Joy that they were
not Drown'd. VVherefore, Mariners deserve
more pay and thanks, than Land-Souldiers, who
fight with Men equall to them, not with the
Elements above and beneath them, as VVind
and VVater, which are strong, fierce, and de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vouring:
Besides, when Land Soldiers get a
Victory, they are Inriched with the spoil, re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>freshing
themselves with Luxurious Pleasures,
Sporting and Feasting; whereas poor Mariners
and Sea-men are forc'd to Fast rather than to
Feast, having never much Plenty, but after a
Storm more Scarcity, their Provision being
spoiled by their Enemies, the Elements. But to
conclude, the Sea-men want pay, and their Ships
repairing, for which you must disburse a suffici<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ent
summ of Money to mend the one, and to
relieve the other, who deserve not only Pay,
but Reward to encourage them.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="17" facs="tcp:44350:16"/>
<head>An Oration for Contribution.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>IT seems you are Covetous, but not Prudent,
that you are so loath to raise, and so slow to
pay Contribution-Money towards the main<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tenance
of the Army, which is to fight not only
for your Lives and Liberties, but to protect
your Goods, and that every man may without
Disturbance injoy his own: but you are so Co<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vetous,
that rather than you would part with
Some, you will endanger the Whole; and as you
are Covetous, so you are Fearfull, for you will
neither maintain poor Souldiers, that are wil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ling
to fight for you, nor yet go to the VVarrs,
to fight for your selves; you Fear your Enemies,
and yet will take no care to Overcome them.
And give me leave to tell you, that your Cove<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tousness
and Fear doth make you Treacherous;
for if you will neither help with your Purse, nor
your Person, you betray your Country to the
Enemies power, also your old Parents, tender
VVives, and young Children, that cannot help
themselves, all which you betray to Slavery,
leaving them for a prey to the Enemy; and not
only your fertil Country, and shiftless Friends,
and neer Allies, but your own Lives; for it
seems by your Covetousness and Cowardliness,
that you had rather have your Throats cut, than
part with your Money, or fight in your own De<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fence,
<pb n="18" facs="tcp:44350:17"/>
which is a strange Madness, as to be afraid
to Dye, and yet to take no care, to provide for
your Safety, nor to have Courage to fight for
your Lives. The best that can be said or
thought of you, is, that you relie upon base
hopes, as that the Enemy may spare your Lives
to inslave your Persons: But I can only say this,
that either you must Fight your selves, or Main<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tain
others, or else others will take what you
have, to maintain themselves, to defend their
Country.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to perswade a City, not to yield
to their Enemies.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Worthy Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Do not doubt your Courage in Resisting and
Fighting your Enemies, nor your Patience in
Sufferance, nor your Care in Watching, nor your
Industry in Labouring, nor your Prudence in
Ordering, and all for the defence of your City,
which is besieged by your Enemies, which you
indeavour to keep out by all possible means, spa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ring
neither your Limbs nor your Lives; nor
do I fear the power of your Enemies, for,
whilst your Courages, Strengths, Patience and
Industries be united together, it is more proba<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble,
you will raise the Siege, than the Enemies
take this City; for though your Victuals be
scarce, and your Ammunition wasted, yet your
Temperance doth supply the scarcity of the one,
<pb n="19" facs="tcp:44350:17"/>
and your Courage the want of the other; Only
that I fear will make you yield upon any con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ditions,
is the Love to your Wives, Daughters,
Mothers, Kinswomen, and femal Friends, and
not so much their safety, for so long as your
Lives last, you will defend them, but if you
yield to your Enemies, by yielding to the Wo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mens
Effeminate fears, if your Enemies do not
say or think you base Cowards, they will say
or think you facil Fools. For give me leave to
tell you, that, though men of Honour, as Va<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>liant
men, will Fight for the safety and protecti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on
of Women, not only for those that are neer
Allied to them, but for those that are neither
of their Country nor Kinn; Yet no man that
would keep the Reputation of Valour, will quit
that Honour for a Womans sake, no, although
it be to save his Daughter, Wife, or Mother
from their Enemies: for a Gallant man dreads
more the name of a Coward than any thing in
the world; and it is no dishonour to a Man, to
have his Wife taken and abused by his Enemy,
when he could not Honourably help her; for
Force is no Dishonour, but a Base free Act; for a
man cannot be forced to be a Coward, nor a chast
Woman to be a Whore, they may both have
Misfortunes, Injuries, and Hatefull abuses done
to them, but not Wicked, Base, or Ignoble
minds. VVherefore, let me perswade you for
your own Honour's sake, not to yield through
the VVomens desires; let not their tears move
you, nor their intreaties perswade you; for if
<pb n="20" facs="tcp:44350:18"/>
you yield, though upon the assurance of your
Lives and Liberties, where will you wander to
seek an Habitation? for if you could not keep
your own City and Wealth, it is not likely you
will get the like from other men; alas your
Neighbours will shut their Gates and Doors a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst
you, for Poverty and Misfortune hath not
many Friends or Hosts, for few are so Hospita<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble
as to entertain either; and you will not only
find Charity cold, but those that have envied
you in your Prosperity, will despise you in your
Adversity, and what Masculine spirits can bear
such misery, as Neglect, Want, and Scorn, and
the Infamy of yielding Courages? Wherefore,
it is better to Dye in the Defence of your own
City, and be Renowned for your Valour and
Constancy in after-ages, wherein your Lives,
Acts and Deaths will be mentioned to your Ho<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nour
and Renown.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration for those, that are slain in the Warrs,
and brought home to be Buried.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Worthy Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu lament over the Corps of your Friends,
slain in the Warrs, shedding your tears and
breathing your sighs on their Hearses. 'Tis true,
they are natural Showers and Zephyrus's airs of
loving Affections and passionate Hearts; yet give
me leave to tell you, you have more cause to Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>joyce
than Grieve: First, that their Death begets
<pb n="21" facs="tcp:44350:18"/>
their Renowns, and is an Honour to their Me<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mory
to Dye in the Service of their Country;
for all men, that have Worth and Merit, would
willingly, nay, gladly Dye, to save their Coun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>try,
or for the Honour of their Country, and all
Wise men will gladly quit a present, frail and
uncertain Life, to live Eternally in the memory
of the present and future Ages, in whose me<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mories
their Actions live like Glorified bodies,
and Purified souls; for thus they become from
Terrestrial to be Celestial. The next cause you
have to Rejoyce, is, that their Bodies are
brought home as a witness of their Victory, and
their Deaths are their Triumphs, which are a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dorned
and set out with numerous and glorious
Praises; besides, they have the happiness to be
inurned with their Fore-fathers, where by a na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tural
Instinct or Sympathy, they may mutually
intermix and perchance transmigrate together;
and since they Fought Valiantly, and Died
Honourably, they shall be buried Happily, and
will be remembred Eternally, and have an ever<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lasting
Fame, rejoyce with Musick, Bells and
Bonfires, and offer unto the Gods Oblations of
Thanksgiving.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div n="2" type="part">
<pb n="22" facs="tcp:44350:19"/>
<head>ORATIONS IN THE FIELD OF WARR.</head>
<head>PART II.</head>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration from a Besieged City, ready to
yield, or else to be taken.</head>
<p>I Am come here to intreat you, that
are our Over-powerfull Enemies, to
be our Mercifull Saviours, that
though you are determined, to de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stroy
our City, and possess our
Goods, yet you would be pleased to spare the
Lives of the Inhabitants; for what profit will
it be, to destroy numbers of defenceless and
powerless Persons, only to satisfie your fury,
which will be satisfied with Time better than
with Blood? for though our blood may quench
your present Rage, yet it may afterwards clog
your Consciences, and cause a sorrowfull Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pentance,
which may disturb the Peace of your
<pb n="23" facs="tcp:44350:19"/>
Minds, wherein your thoughts will be in a per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>petual
Warr: for to Kill us after our Submission,
and when we have made a Satisfaction for our
faults, in yielding up our City and Goods with<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>out
any further resistance, our Deaths will be
but Murders; so that you will blemish your
Conquest, from being Noble and Generous Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>querers,
to be Cruel and Inhumane Murderers;
whereas the sparing of our Lives will be accep<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>table
to God, Nature, and Mankind, and the
Trumpet of your Fame will sound sweetly and
harmoniously in the Ears of After-ages, where
you will get as much love and praises for your
Clemency and Mercy, as admiration and re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nown
for your Valours and Conducts; where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>as
your Cruelty will sound so harshly with
such discords, as it will beget dislike, and so
much hate, as to bury all your Valour and Wis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dome
in Fortunes partial and unjust favours,
ascribing that to her, She had no right to Chal<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lenge.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Common Souldiers Oration, to take the
City by Force.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>VVE have been long at the Siege of this
City, where we have not only been
obedient to our Commanders, carefull, watch<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>full,
and laborious, as also Valiant in assaulting,
regarding not our Limbs, nor Lives, but we have
<pb n="24" facs="tcp:44350:20"/>
patiently indured want of Victuals, and yet for
all this, the Town being ready to be taken, our
Commanders intend to rob us of the Spoils,
which by the Law of Arms ought to be ours, as
a Reward; for those that Venture most, ought to
have the Greatest shares in the Conquest, and the
Common Souldiers venturing more than the
Commanders, ought to have the Spoil: For
though they Direct, yet it is we that Fight, and
win the Victory. Wherefore, let us not suffer
them to make a Composition, but enter the Town
by Force, and plunder it, otherwise the Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>manders
or rather the General alone will be the
only gainer, and all the rest losers; and shall one
man go away with the Wealth, when as the
poor Common Souldiers are naked and almost
starved for Want? Shall our sick and wounded
friends, that cannot remove, or be removed, nor
help themselves, be left as a prey to those, which
they have holpen to Conquer with the loss of
their Blood and Limbs? For no doubt, but those
new-made Friends will be their deadly Ene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mies,
and cut their Throats when we are gone
and left them. Thus we shall betray our friends,
and lose our shares, if they make Peace and enter
not the Town by assault: for to take a Town
by Force, is a gain to the common Souldiers, but
little or none to the General or great Comman<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ders;
but to take a Town by Composition, is a
gain to the General and chief Commanders, but
not to the Common Souldiers; for we shall lye
without the Gates, whilst they are receiv'd in
<pb n="25" facs="tcp:44350:20"/>
Triumph, where they will Feast, whilst we do
Fast, and will be inriched with Treasures, but
we remain in Want.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to those Souldiers that are against
an Agreement with the Citizens.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>LEt me tell you, that you speak against your
own Profit, when you speak against com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pounding
and agreeing with the Besieged Citi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>zens:
for it is not only Human and Charitable,
Generous and Noble, to spare the Lives of
Yielding and conquered Enemies, but Profita<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble;
for their Lives will serve you, and their
Industry maintain you; wherefore it is better,
to spare their Lives, and make Peace with them,
also to take their Money, and spare their cum<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bersome
and combustible Goods, which will
trouble your carriage, and hinder your march;
Neither can you make so much profit of them,
as they will give you for them. And as for
their City, and Lives, it were a great folly, to
Kill and Destroy them to no purpose, unless to
satisfie your Bloody minds, and furious Rage;
for Death and Destruction will bring you not
any Profit; but if you give them their Lives,
and let their City stand, they will give you a con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stant
and setled Contribution towards your
maintenance, also they will be Surgeons, Phy<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sicians,
and Nurses to our sick and wounded
<pb n="26" facs="tcp:44350:21"/>
Souldiers, by which means they may recover
their former health and strength again, and be
able to do their Country more Service; but if
they be left behind us, and none to take care of
them, nor Men to help them, nor Houses to
lodge in, they must of necessity perish in great
misery; and we have no reason to fear they
will be Cruel to them, because they know we
shall Return to revenge their Cruelty: Besides,
they will be very carefull of them, and kind and
helpfull to them, to keep Peace, and to Merit
our favours; for Conquerers are alwayes flat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tered,
obeyed, and served with ceremony, in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dustry,
and fidelity, so long as Fortune favours
them. Thus you know by what I have spoken,
that it is the best for the Common Souldiers and
Commanders to spare the City and Citizens.
And now give me leave to tell you, that you are
Unjust Judges of me, your Generals actions, and
evil Censurers and malicious Accusers, to accuse
my Prudence for my Souldiers, of Covetous<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ness
for my self, and my carefull love for my Sick
and wounded Souldiers, of an insensible and
cruel Neglect, whereas you might more truly
accuse me for using too much Clemency to my
Mutinous and Rebellious Souldiers, wincking
at their faults, and pardoning their crimes, when
they ought to have been severely punished, by
which they would have been better taught, and
I obeyed: for Severe Generals make Humble,
Obedient, Industrious, Laborious, Patient, and
Couragious Souldiers, whereas a Compliant
<pb n="27" facs="tcp:44350:21"/>
General quite spoils them; But I have shewed
Mercy to offenders, Love and Care to the
wounded, sick, tyred, and weary, and I have
been Bountifull to the well-deservers; all which
I am forced to remember you of, because you
have forgotten, at least are unwilling to take any
notice thereof; Yet I perceive it is the na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture
of most of Mankind, especially Mean
births, Low fortunes, and Brute breedings, to
be Ungratefull, Malicious, Revengefull, and
Inhumane.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to Souldiers, after the Loss of a
Battel.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Perceive you are dejected at your ill fortune,
for Fortune is a Thief, robbing some to give
partially to others; wherefore we Souldiers,
whom She busies her self most with, to shew
her power and agility, ought to be so carefull
and watchfull, as to lock and barricado out For<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tunes
malice, giving her no advantage, if you can
possibly hinder her from taking any. Yet was
it neither for want of Conduct or Valour, that
we wonn not the Victory, but Heaven and Earth
was against us: for the Sun, Wind and Dust
beat on our faces; for you indeavouring to get
the side of the Wind, went against the Sun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>beams,
so that with the Sun-beams and the glit<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tering
Dust, that flew up by the motion of the
<pb n="28" facs="tcp:44350:22"/>
Wind, we could not see, neither to assault our
Enemies, nor to defend our selves, nay, we were
so blinded, as to mistake our friends for our foes,
and our foes for our friends; which tempestu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ous
wind, had it been before we begun to fight,
we might have prevented the mischief, it did us,
some way or other; but the wind did rise,
when we were so ingaged, as we could not help
our selves; the truth was, it blew so fully a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst
the main part of our Battalio, and with
that violent force, as it press'd the former ranks
so much back, that they did disturb the hinder
ranks, and so disorder'd them, till at last it blew
them quite away; for they were forced to turn
their backs and to flye for their Lives, and when
that part of the Army fled, others had no hearts
to stay; but do not mistake so, as to believe, that
the Divine power was against us, but only the
Elements, and they were against us more by
chance than malice. Wherefore take courage
again, and rowse up your dejected Spirits, and
repine not for that we could not fore-see to a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>void:
for I make no doubt, but the next time
we encounter our Enemies, we shall not only get
the reputation you think you have lost, but we
shall add to what we formerly had, and pull
down the haughty pride of our Enemies, that
now seem to insult on our Misfortunes.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="29" facs="tcp:44350:22"/>
<head>An Oration to Souldiers in necessity.</head>
<opener>
<salute>My good Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Cannot much blame your murmuring and
complaining words and speeches, by reason
our Camp is vexed and tormented with scarcity,
sickness, and inconveniences; and although we
cannot tell how to mend or help our selves in
these Extremities, yet it troubles our Patience,
and somewhat alters your Natures, at least di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vulges
them more, making you Froward, Testy,
Cholerick; and froward minds, and testy
thoughts are apt to send forth out of the mouth
lamenting words and complaining speeches.
Yet give me leave to tell you, it expresseth, you
have partaken too much of your Mothers na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures,
which is not so well for Souldiers, who
should be no wayes Effeminate; for Women
naturally are impatient, fretting, chafing and
complaining without cause. I do not deny but
you at this present have great cause, and there<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fore
some reason for what you speak: yet I
hope, though you speak like your Mothers, you
will act like your Fathers. Wherefore give me
leave to remember you of <hi>Caesar'</hi> Souldiers, for
surely you could not choose but hear of them,
their Fame being so great, and sounding so loud,
for their Patience, Sufferance, Hardiness, Indu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stry,
Carefulness, Watchfulness, Valours and
Victories, yet were they no more than men, and
<pb n="30" facs="tcp:44350:23"/>
I hope you are not less than men; But there are
two sorts of Courages, and they, as the Story
says, had them both, as Fortitude in Suffering,
and Valour in Acting, which made them so for<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tunate
in overcoming, as to Conquer the most
part of the World; and though I cannot hope
you will Conquer All the World, yet I hope
you will have Victory over your Enemies, so
shall you be Masters and not Slaves.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Encouraging Oration to Fearfull
Souldiers.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Perceive by your Dejected countenances, and
Drooping spirits, you are afraid of your Ene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mies;
but I am more afraid of your Fears, than
of the Enemies Power; for fear makes powerfull
Armies powerless, and a Little Body with a
Great Spirit is stronger and more vigorous than a
Great Body and a Little Spirit, so a Little Army
with Great Courages is more forcible, than a
Great or Numerous Army full of Faint hearts
and Cowardly fears. Wherefore consider,
there are but three wayes, the one is to Run a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>way,
but remember you cannot run from
Shame or Disgrace, though you may run from
your Enemy; An other way is, you may Yield
up your selves to the Enemy, but then you must
yield up your Liberties with your Persons, and
become their Slaves, in which slavery you live
<pb n="31" facs="tcp:44350:23"/>
in Scorn, are used as Beasts, and die as Cowards;
The third and last way, which is the best, is to
Fight your Enemy, which if you Overcome,
you will have the honour of Victory, and the
profit of the Spoils, and if you be Kill'd, you dye
Unconquer'd; for Courage is never Overcome,
nor Gallant Heroick Actions never Dye, and
their Fames will be their perpetual Triumphs,
which may last Eternally. Wherefore, my good
Souldiers, fight Valiantly for Life, Victory, and
Glory.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to Souldiers, that fled from their
Enemies.</head>
<p>VVHat shall I call you? for I cannot call
you Fellow souldiers, because you
have degraded your selves of that Honourable
title, by Running away, which shews, you have but
Effeminate Spirits or Souls, though Masculine
Bodies; Nor can I call your Dear Country<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>men;
for you have Unnaturaliz'd your selves,
by Betraying your Country, with your Coward<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly
fears, to the power of their Enemies; Nor
can I call you my good Friends, for you did for<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sake
me in Danger, and left me to Death, had
not Fortune rescued me; So that you cannot
challenge, nor I cannot give you, any other
names, but base Cowards and Traitors, which
words cannot but sound grievously, sadly, and
scornfully to your Own, your Friends, and E<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nemies
<pb n="32" facs="tcp:44350:24"/>
hearing: And that which will highten
your Reproach, is that you were not forced nor
necessitated to Flye, as being Overcome, or
Overpower'd; for you fled not only before you
had tried your Enemies force, but when in all
probability you should have had the Victory,
having all the advantages of your side, and against
your Enemies, that could be, as Ground, Place,
Wind, Sun, Form, Order, and Number of men,
and yet to run away; O horrid shame to all
Posterity! The truth is, I am so out of Coun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tenance
in your behalf, and so Sorrowfull for
you, as I cannot choose but Blush for shame, and
Weep for grief, when I look upon you, to see
so many Able and Strong, yet Heartless men,
that have soiled your bright Arms with Dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grace,
instead of the Blood of your Enemies.
Wherefore, you may now pull off your Arms,
since you have Coats of Dishonour to wear, and
break your Swords, for the Tongues of Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>proach
are unsheathed against you, which will
wound your Reputations, and kill your Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nowns,
and your Infamy will live in after-ages
Eternally.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to Run-away Souldiers, who
repent their fault.</head>
<p>SOrrowfull Penitents, (for so you seem by
your Countenances and your Words, the
one being sad, the other full of promises,) I
<pb n="33" facs="tcp:44350:24"/>
must confess, it becomes you well, for you have
been great Cowards, and fearfull Run-aways,
which are Faults that cannot be enough lamen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted,
but your Actions may be amended, and so
you may have a Pardon, and your Disgrace ta<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ken
off with some Valiant and Couragious ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ploits
against your Enemies, where I, your
General, who am one of <hi>Mars'</hi> s high Priests,
shall guide and direct you the way; and you
may relie upon me; for I am well Learned and
Practised in the mystery of Warr. But pray be
not as flock of Sheep, making me as a Parish<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>Priest,
as only to Talk, and you to Run away;
for then I shall Curse you, instead of Blessing
you; and though it be requisite you should be
as meek Sheep in <hi>Ioves'</hi> s Temple, yet you must
be as raging Lions in <hi>Mars'</hi> s Field, and the
Prayers you make to <hi>Mars,</hi> must be for Victory
and Fame; but let me tell you, you must im<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>plore
<hi>Pallas'</hi> s help, and <hi>Fortune'</hi> s favour; and
therefore, fight Valiantly and Fiercely, and take
your advantages Prudently, stick Closely, and
fight Orderly, and leave the rest to Fortune;
which if you do thus, as I advise you, your
Actions will wipe out all former Faults, and take
away all your Reproach or Disgrace so clean, as
if they had never been, especially if you have
the Victory.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="34" facs="tcp:44350:25"/>
<head>A Mutinous Oration to Common Souldiers, by
a Common Souldier.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>GIve me leave to tell you, that although you
have proved your Valours in the Battels
you have fought, and the Assaults you have
made, yet you have not proved your selves Wise,
to leave your Native Country, and Peaceable
Habitations, only to fight with Foreiners, who
are as Industrious, Valiant, and Active to over<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>come
and kill you, as you to overcome and kill
them; and what do we fight and hazard our
Lives for? not for Riches; for what we get, we
are subject to lose again, and should we get
Riches, we should soon consume them, having
no setled abiding to thrive upon the Stock, or to
get out use of the Principal, nor to have any re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>turns
by Traffick or Commerce, but those spoils
we can get, are only Cumbersome Goods, which
we are forc'd to fling away in times or places of
Danger, or when we make sudden or long
Marches; and albeit we could easily and safely
carry them along with us, yet we should make
but Small Profit of them, and get Little ready
Money for them, although they were not spoil'd
in the Carriage. By this we may know, the
Warrs will not Inrich us; and as for Fame,
Common Souldiers are never mentioned, al<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>though
they are the only Fighters, but thou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sands
<pb n="35" facs="tcp:44350:25"/>
sands of them, when Kill'd, are buried in Obli<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vions
grave, and no other Burial they have; for
their slain Bodies for the most part lie and rot
above ground, or are devoured by Carrion-birds
or Ravenous Beasts; but the Fame or Renown is
given to the General alone, some Under-Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>manders
may chance to be Slightly mentioned,
but not Gloriously famed; And if you can nei<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther
get Wealth nor Honour, in or by the
Warrs, why-Should you be Souldiers? Where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fore,
let us return home, and rather be Plow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>men
in our Own Country, than Souldiers in a
Forein Nation, rather feed with our own La<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bours,
than starve at our Generals Command,
and rather choose to die Peaceably, than to live
in the Warr, wherein is nothing to be gotten,
but Scarrs and Wounds; where we may lose
our Limbs and Lives, but not make our For<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tunes.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to stay the Souldiers from a Mu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tinous
return from the Warrs.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>THe Souldier that spake to perswade you to
mutiny, as to leave the Warrs dishonora<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bly,
by his speech, any man of Courage would
believe he were a Coward: for no man of Cou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rage
would leave an Enemy in the Field, for
that would be as bad as Running away; and
will you, who have gotten Honourable Renown
<pb n="36" facs="tcp:44350:26"/>
by the Warrs, quit that Renown for Disgrace?
Shall the speech of a Cowardly, Idle, Base man
perswade you more than your Reputations? can
any man Live, Act, or Dye more honestly than
in the Service of his Country? besides, it will
not only be a Disgrace to You, and also a Dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grace
to your Country, to leave the Warrs, but
you will indanger your Country; for no que<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stion,
but your Enemies will follow you at the
heels, so that instead of carrying home Victory
and Spoils, you will carry home Danger, and
perchance Ruine, betraying your Country by
Faction, Mutiny, or Cowardly fears. Thus,
although you came out of your Country Soul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>diers,
you will return Traitors. But should they
not Follow you, they would Scorn you, and your
Friends would Despise you at your return, and
what is worse than to be Scorn'd and Despised of
Enemies and Friends? when as by your Gallant
actions the one would be Afraid, the other Proud
of you. And let me tell you, to be a Souldier,
is the noblest Profession; for it makes Mean men
as Princes, and those Princes that are not Soul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>diers,
are as Mean men; and though Fame doth
not mention every particular Souldier, but ge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nerally
all together, yet the memory of every
particular Souldier and their particular Actions
never die, as long as their Successors live; for
their Children mention their Fore-fathers Va<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>liant
Actions with Pride, Pleasure, and Delight,
and Glory that they descended from such wor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thy
Ancestors; and as for Scarrs gotten in the
<pb n="37" facs="tcp:44350:26"/>
Warrs, they are such Graces and becoming
Marks, as they Woo and Win a Mistress, and
gain her Favour, sooner than Wealth, Title, or
Beauty doth. But I hope you will neither shew
your selves Cowards, nor prove your selves
Traitors, by leaving the Warr when you ought
to follow it.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Generals Oration to his Mutinous
Souldiers.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Hear you Murmur, Complain, and Speak a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst
me, forgetting your Respects, Obedi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ence,
Duty, and Fidelity to me your General;
for which I am sorry, not for my Self, but for
my Souldiers; for I am never the worse for
my Souldiers being evil; but I am sorry, my
Souldiers are not what they ought to be; and
though I do not wonder at the Disobedience of
my Common Souldiers, yet I cannot but wonder
at the Baseness of my Officers and Under-Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>manders;
for though Inferiour Men have infe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>riour
Minds, rude and wild Natures, and barba<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rous
Manners, yet Men of quality usually have
Generous, and noble Minds, gentle Natures,
and civil Manners, and of all men, Gallant Soul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>diers
have the noblest Minds, and ought to have
the reformedst Manners; for though Heroick
men fight in Blood to kill their Enemies, yet
they will spill their Blood, and sacrifize their
<pb n="38" facs="tcp:44350:27"/>
Lives for their Friends, Country, or Country<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>men,
as also for Honour, Generosity, and Fame,
and they will rather choose to indure all kind or
manner of Torments, and to die a thousand, nay,
millions of Deaths if it could be, than to do one
act of Dishonour, or that is not fit for a man of
Honour to do; Indeed Heroick and Honoura<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble
men are petty Gods, whereas other men are
Beasts, the one having Celestial natures, the
other Terrestrial. But by your mutinous spee<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ches,
I perceive, I have not those Gallant, Noble,
Generous, and Valiant Souldiers, as I thought
I had in this my Army, which I am sorry for
especially that there is none like my Self; for I
utterly Renounce all Actions or Thoughts that
ought not be to be done by Worthy men, or to
be inherent in Worthy men; I hate Treachery,
as I hate Cowardliness, and I hate Cowardli<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ness,
as I hate Disgrace, or Infamy, and I hate
Infamy worse than Oblivion; for Oblivion is the
Hell of Meritorious and Gallant men; and as I
prefer after-Memory, which is Fame, before
present Life, which Fame is the Heaven where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>in
Worthy and Honourable men and actions are
Glorified, and live to all Eternity, so would I
have my Souldiers there to Live, and be Glo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rified;
which Desire expresses, that I love my
Souldiers equal with my Self; and as I do prefer
Honour and Fame before sensual Pleasures or
Life, so I have alwayes preferr'd my Souldiers
Lives before my Own; for I never indeavou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>red
to save my own Life, when my Souldiers
<pb n="39" facs="tcp:44350:27"/>
Lives were in Danger, but have put my person
in the same danger they were in, nay, I have
ventured One more danger than they have done;
for I have led them Singly to the face and front
of their Enemies; neither have I been Idle,
when as my Souldiers have taken pains, but to
the contrary I have taken pains, when as they
have been Idle; for my Person hath not only
been imployed in Ordering, Appointing, and
Directing of every particular, but I have
march'd on Foot with the Infantery, whilst the
Cavallry hath Rid easily on Horses, or the chief
Commanders have rid lasily in their Waggons;
as also I have taken pains in Teaching, Orde<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ring,
and Marshalling my Souldiers, as well as
time, place, and opportunity would give me
leave; and my Body hath not only labour'd, but
my Mind and Thoughts were alwayes and at
all times busily imployed for the affairs of the
Army, and for my Souldiers Advantage, con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>triving
the Best, as how to prevent the Worst.
Thus my thoughts have Labour'd for you con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tinually,
Keeping me waking, whilst you have
slept and rested in ease. Neither did I ever rob
my Souldiers of their Spoils, but was pleased to
distribute my Share amongst them; nor did I
ever make a Scarcity of your Victuals through
my Luxury; nor have I ever brought my Soul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>diers
into Want through my Imprudence; for
whatsoever Want or Loss you have had, it came
meerly from Fortune, whose power the Wisest
and Valiantest cannot alwaies and at all times
<pb n="40" facs="tcp:44350:28"/>
withstand. But yet the Common Souldiers and
Under-Commanders for the most part Accuse
their Generals, laying the Disfavour of Fortune
to their Generals charge, although it is not in
any Man's power to avoid Fortune's malice, un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>less
men could Divine what would fall out a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst
all Reason or Probability; and though
Wise men may imagine such chances, yet they
will never order their Affairs, or Designs, or any
Action against Reason, Sense, and Probability;
besides, Foolery and Knavery cause loss and mi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sery
without Fortune's help, making more Dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>order
and Confusion, than the Wisest men can
rectifie. But I will not trouble you with many
more Words nor Reproofs; for neither Words,
Reproofs, nor Perswasions will do any good on
a Mutinous and Rebellious Army, who hath
more Strength to do Evil, than Honesty to do
Good; more Fury to mutine, than Courage to
fight; more Envy to their Leaders, than Love to
their own Honours. I add only this, your Base<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ness
I abhorr, your Rudeness I scorn, your Ma<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lice
I despise, your Designs I slight, and your
intended Cruelty I fear not.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="41" facs="tcp:44350:28"/>
<head>A Commanders refusing Speech to Mutinous
Souldiers, who Depos'd their General,
and would Choose him in his place.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu have Forcibly against my will Procla<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>med
me your General, and because I sent
you word, I would not Command you, you sent
me a Threatning message, that although you at
first chose me through your Love and Kind<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ness,
yet now, whereas I did slight your Love,
you would Force me to take that Charge upon
me; but let me tell you, I care not for your Fa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vour,
nor I fear not your Anger, as being neither
a Knave, nor a Coward; for to be a Friend to
Mutinous Souldiers, is to be a Knave, to Fear
them, is to be a Coward, and to be chosen Ge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>neral
to a Rebellious Army, is a Dishonour;
Wherefore I, preferring Honour before Life,
will rather Die, than be your General. But who
gave you Authority to Depose your General, and
to make an other? Or what right have you to
Take away, and Give Commissions? You will
answer, by Force of Arms, or rather force of Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bels;
for Arms are, or ought to be, for Justice,
Right, Truth, or Honour, not for Injustice,
Wrong, Injury, Falshood, and Dishonour; and
strong Arms and couragious Hearts, do not agree
with mad Heads, and wild Passions; But you,
by your Disobedience seem to be Cowards;
<pb n="42" facs="tcp:44350:29"/>
for Valour is Obedient, nay, Valiant men will
obey Unreasonable Commands, rather than Op<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pose
their commanders, and choose rather to
Die obediently, than to Live disobediently; But
your Actions have shew'd you to be Rebellious
Cowards; for which I am not only Asham'd, that
you are my Country-men, or Fellow Souldiers,
but Hate you as Enemies to Honour and honesty;
and therefore, if it lay in my Power, I would
Destroy you, as being Unworthy to Live.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Generals Oration to his Evil-designing
Souldiers.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Souldiers,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Have not call'd you together, to perswade you
to Fight your Enemies, for I perceive you are
turned Cowards, and Cowards are deaf to all
perswasions of Adventures: Nor do I go about,
to perswade you to Patience, although it be the
part of good Souldiers to suffer Patiently, as well
as to fight Vigorously, also to be patient with
painfull Labours; but I perceive, Patience and
Industry, that accompany Valour, have also
forsaken you. Nor shall I perswade you to
stick close to me, as to defend my Life from the
Enemies, although I have been more carefull to
defend your Lives with Skill and Knowledge in
Warr and Arms, than you have been to defend
my Life with your Strength and Courages.
And give me leave to tell you, that the Renown
<pb n="43" facs="tcp:44350:29"/>
you have gotten in the Warrs, hath been gain'd
as much by my Conduct, as your Valours.
Thus I neither perswade you to Fight, to Suffer,
nor to Help me in time of need; but my Desire
is to perswade you, not to Bury the Renown
you have gotten in these Warrs, in the Grave
of Treachery, nor to cast down your Glorious
Acts from the Palace of Fame, into the Pit of
Infamy, which you will do, if you put your Evil
Designs into Acts: for I perceive well by your
Secret Meetings and Gatherings in companies
together without Order, and by your Whispe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rings
into each others Ears, as also by your Mur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>murings,
Complaints, and Exclamations, you
intend some Evil, but in what manner you will
execute your Evil Designs, I cannot tell; I sup<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pose
it is, either that you will Desert me, or
Make Peace with the Enemy without me, on
Dishonourableterms, or that you will Betray me
to the Enemy, and Deliver me into their hands;
or else it is, that you have conspir'd to Mur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>der
me with your own hands, either of which
will be unworthy for good Souldiers to do.
Wherefore I would, if I could, disswade you for
your own sakes, and not for mine, not to do such
Acts, as to cause Honest men to Hate you, Vali<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ant
men to Despise you, Wise men not to Trust
you, your Enemies to Scorn you, your Country
to Exclame against you, your Acquaintance to
shun you, your Friends to Grieve for you, your
Posterity to be Ashamed of you, and Disgraced
by you; for when After-ages shall mention you,
<pb n="44" facs="tcp:44350:30"/>
your Posterity, if they have any Worth or Me<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rit,
will hang down their heads for shame, to
hear of your Evil Deeds; all which will be, if
you be Mutinous Conspirers, Traitors, or
Cowards; but if neither Honour, Honesty, Fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>delity
nor Love can disswade you from your
Base, Treacherous, and Wicked designs, or that
your Design is against Me, here I offer my Self
to you, to dispose of my Person and Life as you
please; for I am neither asham'd to Suffer, nor
afraid to Dye, knowing I have not done any thing
that a man of Honour ought not to do; and as
Fear hath no power over my Mind, so Force
hath no power over my Will, for I shall wil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lingly
Dye.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to Souldiers, who have kill'd
their General.</head>
<p>BArbarous Souldiers, or rather Cruel Mur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>derers,
you that have inhumanely Kill'd
your General, your Carefull, Painfull, Prudent,
Valiant, Loving and Kind General, ought to be
generally Kill'd; but Death would be too great
a Mercy and Happiness for such Wretches as
you are, for you deserve such Torments and Af<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>flictions,
as are above all expressions, and your
Bloody Action hath made you appear to me so
Horrid, that me thinks Life is Terrible, because
you Live, and Death is Amable, since our Ge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>neral
is Dead, and Honour lives in the Grave
<pb n="45" facs="tcp:44350:30"/>
with him, and Baseness lives in the World with
you, Devils possess your Souls in your living
Bodies, when as Angels have born away his Soul
from his liveless Corps, to be Crown'd with
Everlasting Glory. You shall not need to Fear
your Enemies now, for surely they will Flye
you, not for fear you should Kill them, but for
fear you should Infect them, they fear not your
Courage, but your Wickedness; neither shall
you fear Oblivion, for you will be Infamous,
and the very report of your Murdering act will
cause a trembling of Limbs and chilness of Spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rit
to all the hearers, and you will not only be
Scorn'd, Hated, and Curs'd, but Prayers will be
offer'd against you, and Men will Bless them<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>selves
from you, as from a Plague or Evil Spirit.
Thus your Enemies will despise you, your
Friends renounce you, Honest men exclame a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst
you, men of Honour shun you, good For<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tune
forsake you, Heaven shut all mercy from
you, your Conscience torment you, insomuch
that you will be asham'd to Live and afraid to
Dye.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to Souldiers, which repent the
Death of their General.</head>
<p>PEnitent Souldiers, (for so you seem by your
Tears, Sighs, Groans, and sorrowfull Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>plaints,)
I cannot forbid you to Weep, for your
Fault requires great and many showers of Tears
<pb n="46" facs="tcp:44350:31"/>
to wash away your Crime; indeed there is no
other way to purge your Souls and to cleanse
your Consciences from the stains of your Ge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nerals
Blood, but by Penitent Tears. Where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fore
let me advise you, to go to his Urn, and
there humbly on your Knees lamenting your
Sorrow, pray to Heaven for Pardon; then make
him a Statue, and carry his Image in your En<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>signs,
and set his Statue under your Banner;
Thus make him, that was your General, your
Saint, and let his Memory be famous by your
Valour, that his Enemies may know, the power
of his Name is able to Destroy them, so will
you make him Victorious in his Grave, and ap<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pease
his Angry Ghost.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to Distressed Souldiers.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu know, we are a people that have been
Conquered, and made Slaves to our Ene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mies,
which Slavery we did Patiently indure a
long time, but at last we had an Impatient desire
of Liberty, and had our Prudence been accor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ding
to our Desires, no doubt but we should have
Gain'd it, but our Over-hasty Desires have put
us into a greater Misery; for now we are not
only like to Lose our Liberties again, but our
Lives, or to Live in worse Bondage than we did
before, which we had better Dye than Indure:
but since we were not so Wise for our selves to
<pb n="47" facs="tcp:44350:31"/>
Prevent our Danger, as we were Just to our selves
to Indeavour our Liberty, yet we must not leave
Indeavouring our own Good, so long as Life
lasts; Wherefore, we must consider, what is
best to be done in this Extremity. First, we
have of our selves a Great Body, though not so
well Armed as I wish we were, yet so, as we are
not left Naked to our Enemies; but though we
have a great Number, yet our Enemies have a
greater Number, and though we be Arm'd, yet
our Enemies are Better Armed, the worst of all
is, that we are in a place of such Disadvantage, as
either we must Starve, or Yield our selves, or
Fight it out at all Hazards; As for Starving, it
is a lingring and painfull Death, and to Yield,
will be a miserable and painfull Life, wherefore
to Fight it out at all Hazards, will be best for us
to choose; for Death is the End of Misery, and
Pain is not felt in a Raging or Acting Fury; and
if we Resolve, let the worst come to the worst,
we can but Dye, and that we must do in time,
had we no other Enemies than what are Natu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral,
as Sickness and Age; and these Hopes we
have, that Desperate Men in Desperate Adven<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures,
have many times Good Fortune, and those
that are Desperate, want no Courage, but they
are apt to be Careless of Conduct; Wherefore
let me advise you, to Listen to Direction, and be
carefull to Obey your Instructions; for if we
should Overcome our Enemies, we should not
only save our Lives, which we give for lost, but
we should have our Liberties, and also Honour,
<pb n="48" facs="tcp:44350:32"/>
Power, and Wealth too, whereas our Enemies
only venture their Lives to keep us in Sub<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>jection,
which will cause them to Fight but
Faintly; for where there is neither Profit, nor
Honour to be gain'd, they will sooner Run a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>way,
than Venture their Lives in the Battel, so
that our Poverty will Defend us, and our Ne<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cessity
help to Fight for us; Prudence shall
Guide us, and then perchance Fortune may Fa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vour
us. Wherefore, let us Assault our Enemies
before they Expect us, and indeavour to Over<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>come
them before they are ready to Fight with
us; for if we take them Unprepar'd, we shall find
them without Defence, and in such Disorder, as
we shall Destroy them without Hazard.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div n="3" type="part">
<pb n="49" facs="tcp:44350:32"/>
<head>ORATIONS
TO CITIZENS IN THE
MARKET PLACE.</head>
<head>PART III.</head>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration to a dejected People, ruined by
Warr.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Unfortunate Citizens, and Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu now seem to be as much cast down
and dejected in your Misery, as you
were puft up with Pride in your
Prosperity, in which Prosperity you
were so Confident, and so Careless
of your Security, as you would neither believe
your Danger, nor provide for your Safety, in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>somuch
that you Murmured and Mutined a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst
all Assessments and Payments, although
it were to keep the Kingdome in Peace, and to
strengthen it against Forein force; but now you
do not Murmur at small Taxes, but Mourn for
<pb n="50" facs="tcp:44350:33"/>
your great Losses, not for your Security, but
your Ruine; your Vanity is vanished, your
Pride humbled, and Plenty and Prosperity fled
from you; Where are your brave Furnishings
your gay Adornings? your far-fetch'd Curiosi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ties,
and your curious Rarities? your Numerous
Varieties, and Rich Treasures? all plunder'd
and gone. Where are your Chargeable Build<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ings,
your Stately Palaces, your Delightfull
Theatres, your Pleasant Bowers? all Burnt to
ashes. Where are your Races of Herses, you
Fleecy Flocks, your Lowing Herds, your Fea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther'd
Poultry, and your full-stored Barns?
all Ruined and gone. Where are your Rich
Merchandises, and your Thriving Trades? all
Spoiled. Where are your Wife Laws? all
Broken; your Sporting Recreations? all Ceased;
your Ancestors Monuments? all Pull'd down
and your Fathers Bones and Ashes dispersed.
Where are your Camerads, Companions, and
Acquaintance? most of them Kill'd; where are
your Beautifull Wives, Daughters, Sisters, and
Mistresses? the Enemy injoyes them, and your
Country is Desolate, Ruined, and Forlorn; and
you that are left, are Miserable; but what was
the cause of your Misery? your Pride, Envy
Factions, Luxury, Vanity, Vice, and VVicked<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ness;
for you would neither be Instructed, Ad<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vised,
Perswaded, nor Ruled; you Neglected
the Service of the Gods, Disobeyed the Orders
of your Governours, Trampled down the Laws
of the Nation, and Despised your Magistrates,
<pb n="51" facs="tcp:44350:33"/>
and did all what you would; which brought
this Confusion, and so a Destruction, in which
Destruction you must have patience, for Pati<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ence
will Mediate and Qualifie your Misery.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Conforting Oration to a dejected People,
ruined by Warr.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Confess, our Condition is miserable, and our
Lives unhappy, in that we are so unfortunate,
as to be Overcome by our Enemies, and Impo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>verished
by our Losses; but yet it was Uncha<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ritable,
nay, Inhumane, for the former Orator
to open our Wounded thoughts, with Repeti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion
of our Losses, and to rub our sore Minds
with bitter and salt Reproaches; for if we have
Committed faults, I am sure we have been suf<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ficiently
Punished for them, and if the Gods
be Just, as we believe they are, our Loss and
Misery hath made them a Satisfaction, for
which I hope they are Pacified; and though we
ought to Repent of our past Disobedience to the
Divine and National Laws, yet we have no rea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>son
to Repent of our past Lawfull Pleasure; for
who, that is Wise, will not make use of his
Riches, and Liberties, whilst he hath them?
for were it not a madness for fear of a Dearth to
Starve our selves Slaves in Plenty? for fear of an Enemy,
to make our selves Slaves in Prosperity? this
were as much as if we should take away our own
<pb n="52" facs="tcp:44350:34"/>
Lives before their Natural time, because we
know we shall Dye; No, <hi>Dear Country-men</hi>
it is soon enough to quit Pleasure, Liberty, and
Life, when we can Injoy them no longer; and
since our Fortune is bad, we must indeavour
with Industry to amend it, and if we cannot, we
must Suffer Patiently, and please ourselves with
Hopes; for Hope is a Food the Mind delights
to feed on, and entertains it self with Pleasing
Imaginations: and those are Fools, that will
trouble their Minds for that, which cannot be
help'd; for shall we have not only Enemies
without us, but also within us? shall we Tor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture
our Minds with Grief, Sorrow, Fear, an
Despair, for our misfortunes? No, <hi>Dear Coun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>try-men,</hi>
let us wipe the Tears from our Eyes,
and defie Fortune's malice, and when she knows
we regard not her Frowns, She may chance to
Favour us, for she is of the Femal gender, whose
Nature is such, as the more they are Neglecte
or Despised, the Kinder they are.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration for Rebuilding a City ruined
by Warrs.</head>
<p>
<hi>UNfortunate Citizens;</hi> for so I may call you
having been ruined by Warrs, and spoiled
by our Enemies; for our City is not only Burnt
to the ground, and all our Goods Plunder'd, but
many of our Citizens and Country-men Kill'd,
and we that remain, are preparing with our
<pb n="53" facs="tcp:44350:34"/>
Wives and Children to seek new Habitations
and Acquaintance in Forein Countries, from
which I would, if I could, disswade you, since
our Enemies are Gone, and not like to Return;
for though they had the Victory, and won our
City, yet it was with such Loss to them, as will
force them to keep Peace for a long time, not
being able to make Warrs any longer; for their
Valiant'st and most Experienc'd Souldiers are
Kill'd, and most of the Flour of their Youth;
besides, they have spoiled and lost many of their
Horses, and have wasted and spent abundance of
Ammunition and Arms; all which considered,
they have not Gain'd much by this Warr; In<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>deed,
Warr makes more Spoil than Profit; for
though we are Ruined, yet our Enemies are not
much Inriched; but leaving them, let us Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sider,
what is the best for our selves in these our
Misfortunes, and to be Industrious to Repair our
Losses; my Advice is, not to Separate, but to
keep in an United Body together, and to Rebuild
our City: for shall we be worse Citizens than
the Ants or Pismires? which will Rebuild their
Hill or Mount over their Heads, whensoever it
is pull'd down, either by Beast, Men, or Birds,
and though it be often pulld down, and the Dust
dispers'd, yet they will bring new Earth, or ga<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther
up the Relicks of the former Farth, to Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>build,
and will never leave Rebuilding so long
as they Live; and certainly, they are very wise
in so doing. The like for Men; for it is better,
as the wisest way, to Unite in a Common-wealth,
<pb n="54" facs="tcp:44350:35"/>
than to live Disperst, and to Wander about like
Vagabonds, or to live with Strangers in Forein
Lands, or to be Governed by Unknown or new
Laws, or to Marry with Strangers, that mix or
corrupt their Generations; for those Men are
happiest, that Live in their Native Countries,
with their Natural Friends, are Govern'd by
their Ancient Laws, Marry into their own
Tribes or Natives, increase their own Breed,
continue their own Races, uphold their own
Families, and are Buried with or by their Fore<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fathers.
Wherefore, <hi>Good Citizens,</hi> be Indu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>strious
to Rebuild your City, whereby and
wherein, you may be as Happy and Flourishing,
as formerly you were; but if through a de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>jected
Discontent, you leave your City in its
Ruins, 'tis probable you will Live unhappy, and
in Slavery all your Lives, as also your Posterity
after you.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration for Building a Church.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu have Built many Streets of Houses, but
never a Church, which shews, you think
more of the World, than you do of Heaven,
you take more care for your Bodies, than your
Souls; for you build Stately Palaces to Live in,
but not a Church to Pray in, Rooms to Feast in,
not Churches to Fast in, to Unite in Riot, not to
Unite in Religion, to Talk Extravagantly, not to
<pb n="55" facs="tcp:44350:35"/>
Pray Piously, to Rejoyce in Evil, not to Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>joyce
in Thanksgiving. But the Nature of
Mankind is such, that they Spend Foolishly, and
Spare Foolishly, they will Spend to their own
Hurt, and Spare to their own Hurt, they fear E<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vil,
but never indeavour to avoid Punishment,
they Repent what is Past, but never take War<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning
for what is to Come; As for Spending their
Means, they will spend so much as to make
themselves Sick and Poor, with Surfeiting, Fea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sting,
Drunken Drinking, Pocky whoring,
Covetous Gaming, Vain Shews, Idle Sports,
and the like; and when they Spare, they are so
miserable as not to allow themselves Necessaries,
so that they make themselves Unhappy through
Want, and yet have more than enough to Spend;
also they fear Pain, and Sickness, but will not
indeavour to Avoid either; for men Drink so
much as they are sure to be so sick as to Vomit,
and will Eat such Meat, or Drink such Drinks,
as they are sure to have painfull fits of the Gout
after them. But it may be said, that the inti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cing
Appetite is so Perswading, and Over-ruling,
as they cannot Forbear; but some men will Drink
when they are not Dry, and Eat when they are
nor Hungry, or have any desire thereto, but will
Drink meerly for Company, or being perswa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ded
by Others, or out of a Humour, and so for
Eating; Which is strange, that men should be
perswaded to suffer and indure great pain for
the sake of idle Company, or through the per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>swasion
of Fools, or out of a foolish or mad Hu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mour.
<pb n="56" facs="tcp:44350:36"/>
Likewise all men are loath to Dye, and
yet most Men will Venture their Lives unne<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cessarily,
or for very small occasions; and all men
are Afraid of Damnation, and yet they will not
Indeavour Salvation, nay, they will venture
Damnation for a trifle, yea, for nothing: as for
Example, they will Lie, Swear, and Forswear,
when they are not Provoked or have any occa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sion
to Swear, Lie, and Forswear; and for
Worldly Riches, men are so Covetous and
Greedy, as they will Extort, Coosen, Steal,
Murder, and venture Soul, Body, and Life for
it, yet when they Have it, they Spend it, as if
they did not Care for it, nay, as if they did Hate
such Riches; and not any man would willingly
be Poor, yet they will spend their Wealth so
Foolishly, as neither to have Pleasure, Thanks,
nor Fame for it. The truth is, that by mens
Actions it could not be believed, that Mankind
had Rational Souls; for though many men will
Speak Wisely, yet most Act Foolishly or rather
Madly, so that mens Rational Souls Live more
in their Words than in their Deeds. But if you
have Rational Souls, and a Saving Belief, you
ought to Build a Church, wherein you may Ga<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther
together, to Repent your Sins, to Pray for
Forgiveness, to Promise Amendment, and to
Reform your Lives, also to Hear Instructions,
and to give good Examples to each other, and to
accustom your selves to Devotion; so shall you
become Holy men. Besides, Churches ought
to be Built not only for the Souls of the Living,
<pb n="57" facs="tcp:44350:36"/>
but for the Bodies of the Dead, wherein they
may be inurned Decently, Humanly, and Reli<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>giously.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration perswading the Citizens, to erect
a Statue in Honour of a Dead Magi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>strate.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>N. N. who is now Dead, was the Wisest,
Justest, and Honestest Magistrate, that a
Common-wealth could Desire or Have; and as
he Served the Common-wealth Justly, so he
ought to be Rewarded Honourably, for he did
well Deserve it; But his Death must not be an
Excuse for Ungratefulness, for Honours are gi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ven
to the Dead, as well as to the Living; for
mens Good Works Live after them, although
their Bodies Dye, and Living men are Benefit<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted
thereby; but should the Benefit cease with
their Death, yet men ought not to Forget the
Good they have Received; for those are very
Unthankfull, Unworthy, and Base men, that
will not acknowledge what they Have had, but
only respect the Present good; indeed such men
are worse than Beasts, and ought to live and dye
like Beasts, as to live in Slavery, and to dye in
Oblivion, whereas Virtuous, Worthy, Honou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rable,
and Noble men ought to live Free, and
be Remembred after their Lives, and those that
have done Wise, or Ingenious, or Good, or
<pb n="58" facs="tcp:44350:37"/>
Profitable, or Valiant, or Great Works, Deeds,
or Acts, ought to be remembred in the Minds
of men, mentioned by the Tongues of men, and
figured by the hands of Art, so as to Live in the
Minds, Ears, and Eyes of Living men; as for
their Merits to be Praised, their Acts Recorded,
and their Bodies figured to the Life, not only
Pencilled, but Carved, or cast in Moulds, as
Carved in stone, or cast in Metal, that all Ages
may not only hear of their Name, read of their
Acts, but see their Figures, all which are due
Rights and right Honours to the Memory of
Worthy deceased men; Wherefore, this Wor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thy
Deceased man, who was a VVife and Just
Magistrate, ought at the Common-wealth's
charge to have his Statue in Stone or Metal, and
to be set up in the most Publick place in the
City, that every Particular Person may think of
Him, and remember his Acts, when they see his
Figure, which will not only be a due Honour to
him that is Dead, but an Incouragement to those
that Live after him, to imitate and follow his
Example, and that such Magistrates and Mini<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sters
of State, that are imployed after him, may
do as he hath done, as to be Just, Prudent, Care<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>full,
and Industrious, which the Gods grant for
the sake of the Common-wealth.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="59" facs="tcp:44350:37"/>
<head>An Accusing Oration for Refusing the Office
of a Magistrate, and so Neglecting the
Service of the Common-wealth.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Have assembled you at this time, to make a
Complaint against <hi>D. D.</hi> who being chosen
a Magistrate, as believing him to be one of the
Ablest men for his. Wisdome amongst us, and so
Fittest to be imployed in the Service and Affairs
of the Common-wealth, hath refused the Office
and Imployment, choosing rather to live Idlely,
than to take Pains and Labour to do Good, for
which he ought to be Punished either in Body
or Estate; for it is not only an Obstruction to
the affairs of the Common-wealth, but a Dan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gerous
Example; for if all the Wisest men
should refuse the Imployment and Management
of State-affaris, leaving the Government only
to Fools, the Common-wealth would be quick<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly
brought to Ruine, in which Ruine the Wise
men would suffer as much as other men;
Wherefore, for their Own sakes, as well as for
the sake of their Country, they ought to imploy
their Bodies and Minds in the Service of the
Common-wealth, otherwise Foolish States<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>men
and Magistrates will make such Disorder,
as no particular family or Man could live Safe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly,
much less Plentifully, for Peace and Plenty
would be utterly destroyed with Civil Warr,
<pb n="60" facs="tcp:44350:38"/>
were there no Forein Enemies; whereas, Wise
men can keep Peace, and make a Common<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wealth
or Kingdome Flourish: for it is as diffi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cult
and hard to keep a Common-wealth in
Peace and Order, as it is easie to cause Warrs
and Ruine, and more difficult to make Peace,
when Warr is begun. Wherefore, the best
way to keep a Common-wealth in Order, Peace,
when Warr is begun. Wherefore, the best
way to keep a Common-wealth in Order, Peace,
and Plenty, is, to choose Wise and Able Magi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>strates,
and not to let the VVise men follow
their own Pleasures and Delights, but to im<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ploy
them in the Service of the Common<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wealth.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Excusing Oration in Answer to the
former.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Am come here at this time to speak for my<g ref="char:EOLunhyphen"/>Self,
and to tell you, I deserve not to be Pu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nished
either in my Estate or Person, for refusing
a Charge and Imployment, I am not Capable or
fit to be imployed in; for I confess, I am natu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rally
Dull and Lasie, no wayes Busie or Active,
and therefore Unfit for State-imployments; and
since it is a Natural imperfection, I ought to be
free from Punishment, for the fault lies in Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture,
not in Me, and it would be a great Injustice
to lay Nature's fault to My charge, and to punish
me for that I cannot help; but perchance you
will say, this is only an Excuse, and I may help
<pb n="61" facs="tcp:44350:38"/>
this Defect; but put the Case it were so, and I
could Help it, yet I do not find in my Self such
a Supreme Wit, Judgement, Understanding,
Knowledge, Contrivance, Prudence, Patience,
Experience, and the like above other Men, but
that there be other men far Beyond me; for
though the Orator that spake the last Speech,
said, I am a VVife Man, yet it is more than I
know, and probable, he sayes more than he be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lieves;
for it is the Nature of some men, to
Praise other men to their Ruine, and Praise in
some Cases, and at some Times, and to fome
Assemblies, or Persons, doth more Hurt to the
Praised, than all the Dispraises could have done,
nay, some times Men receive a Benefit by being
Dispraised, where as Praises would utterly
Ruine them. But as I said, put the Cafe, I were
a Wise man, and could Discharge the Office of a
Magistrate, as a VVife man should do, yet if a
Company of Fools or Knaves joyn together to
oppose my Orders or Power, I can do little
Good, nay, had I other VVise men joyn'd in
Power and Authority with me, yet we should
do little Good, for Fools and Knaves are too
strong for Honest and VVise men, because they
are far more in Number, and so much Odds there
is, as there are thousands of Fools for one VVise
man; VVherefore it is Fortune, or Chance, or
some particular Favour from the Gods, that
Govern Common-wealths, and not those they
call VVife men; for the VVisest men in the
VVorld cannot keep a People in Peace, if they
<pb n="62" facs="tcp:44350:39"/>
be resolv'd and set to Rebell; for when the Ge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>neralilty
is up in Arms, it is a Folly for Particu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lar
Persons to oppose them; and when the Ge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nerality
will pull down Particular Persons from
their Power, Particular Persons can not stand;
and when the Generality will alter a particular
Government, the Government must change;
VVherefore, the only and best means to keep up
the Common-wealth, is to Pray to the Gods for
Peace, and to keep the People as niuch as may
be to Religious Ceremonies, that they may Fear
the Gods, which Fear and Devotion will make
them Obey their Magistrates, which I wish, and
leave them.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration against some Historians, or Wri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ters
of State-affairs, or Policy.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>VVE have some Men amongst us, that
seem to desire to be States-men, and
because they are not States-men in Practice,
they are States-men in Books, VVriting of State
affairs; but how do they VVrite? not like
VVife, but like Learned men; not to Teach
men what is Best to be done, but what Evil hath
been done, which is a Relation of Past, not an In<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>struction
to Future Actions. The truth is, they
make an Hash of many several Authors, taken
out of several Pieces, to make up a Dish to pre<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sent
to their Readers, in Hope they may Inrich
<pb n="63" facs="tcp:44350:39"/>
their Host, if not with Preferment, yet with
Praise; But surely those are Hungry, Half Star<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ved
Guest, that can Feed with a <hi>Gusto</hi> on such
Broken Meat, although Skilfully Drest; and
these Cooks of Other mens Meat, which are
Writers out of Other mens Works, are not only
Unprofitable, but Cumbersome in the State or
Common-wealth, filling our Libraries and
Heads with Repetition of old Authors in new
Styles, yet were they the Authors or first Wri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ters
of such Books, as treat of State-affairs, they
would do more Hurt than Good, and rather
make Division than Unity, Warr than Peace;
for instead of Declaring the Policy of State,
they Teach men to be Politick against the State;
and it is to be Observed, that much VVriting of
that Nature makes much Trouble, wherein the
Pen doth more mischief than the Sword, wit<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ness
Controversies, that make Atheism; for
the more Ignorant a people are, the more Devout
and Obedient they are to God and his Deputies,
which are Magistrates; VVherefore it were
very Requisite, that all such Books should be
Burnt, and all such VVriters Silenced, or at least
none should write of States-affairs, but those the
State allows or Authorises.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="64" facs="tcp:44350:40"/>
<head>An Oration Concurring with the former.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Am of the former Orators opinion, that all
Books of Politicks, State-affairs, or National
Histories should be Burnt, and none suffered to
Write any more Books of that Nature; other<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wise,
not only every Writer, but every Reader
will pretend to be States-men, which will bring
an infallible Ruine to the Common-wealth,
having more Politicians than Business, which will
produce more Faction than Reformation. The
truth is, many Politicians will be apter to Dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>solve,
than agree to make Good Laws, and will
sooner cause a Destruction, then Govern a Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mon-wealth;
for every several Politician would
have a several Policy; but could or would they
all Agree in their Opinions, yet if every Man
were a States-man, all Particular Affairs would
be laid aside, which Particular Industries make
up a General Commerce, Trade and Traffick in
the Common-wealth: Wherefore, take the
former Orators advice, for the Peace and Pre<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>servation
of this State, and suffer none to Write
or Read any Books, but what Recreates the
Mind, as Poems, what Increases their Stores, as
Husbandry, what Restores Health, as Medicines,
what Exercises the Body, as Arts, and what Im<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>proves
the Understanding, as Sciences; all
which may be allow'd without Danger; but for
<pb n="65" facs="tcp:44350:40"/>
Divinity and State, let those be Particular and
not General, and rather be in the Breast or Brain
of some, than in the Books or Studies of many,
and let them continue in Tradition, but not in
Print. So will the People Obey and not Dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pute,
they wil be Practisers and not Preachers,
and will be content to be Subjects, and not indea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vour
to be Soveraigns.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration somewhat different from the
former.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Confess, it is Dangerous in a State, when as
Some men think they are VViser than really
they are, but More dangerous, when as Every
man thinks himself VViser than his Neighbour,
for those thoughts make them Proud, Ambiti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ous,
and Factious, and in the end Mutinous and
Rebellious, and of all Self-conceited Persons,
the Self-conceited States-men are the most Dan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gerous,
and oftentimes the most Foolish; the
greatest Danger is, that there are more Fools
than VVise men, through which General de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fect,
a Self-conceited States-man may be the
Head of Fools, although but the Tail of VVise
men, and Head to Tail is Disproportionable;
but it may be that this Disproportion may make
them Unactive, by which they become less Dan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gerous;
VVherefore, I am not of the former
Orators opinion, as to have all such Books as
<pb n="66" facs="tcp:44350:41"/>
treat of State-affairs Burnt, for the Burning of
such Books may advance their Authors Fame,
but not advance the Publick Good; neither do
such Books Publick Hurt, by reason none, but
some few Private Persons read them, for the
Generality delights not in such Studies; so as
they will partly Dye in Oblivion, especially if
you take no notice of them.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration against those that lay an Aspersion
upon the Retirement of Noble men.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>VVE have some Ill-natured people a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mongst
us, that indeavour to turn all
other mens Actions, but their own, to the worst
Sense or Construction; as for Example, some of
our Nobles retire to their Country Habitations,
for which those Ill-natured or Foolish persons
Exclame against them, both in Books and Spee<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ches,
as that they Retire through Pride, Ambi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion,
and Revenge, being Discontented they are
not the Chief Ministers of State, Rulers in Go<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vernment,
or Counsellers for Advices; also they
would make their harmless Country Recrea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions,
as Hunting, Hawking, Racing, and the
like Sports, as also Hospitality, Dangerous De<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>signs,
which is unjustly Censured, and wickedly
Wrested, to pull out the Right and Truth, to
place Falshood, when as it may be easily known,
that most of our Nobles, which Retire out of this
<pb n="67" facs="tcp:44350:41"/>
Metropolitan City to their Country Houses,
Retire either for Pleasure, Profit, Quiet, or
Health, or all; for it is manifest, that in a very
Great and Populous City, there is nothing but
Trouble, Expenses, Noise, and oftentimes Ma<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lignant
Diseases, all which some Ill-natured
men and Pretending Politicians would have
theem suffer rather than to avoid. But those
men that are so Wise, to choose the Best, are not
Afraid of a Bawling Pen or Tongue, and seldom
Consider or Regard what they Write or Speak,
and if they do, they only give such Find-faults
Pity or a Scorn. But put the Case, <hi>Noble
Citizens,</hi> that some Noble men did Retire out
of some just Discontent, as for Example, ima<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gine
this Kingdome or Monarchy had been in a
long Civil Warr, and some Noble men had not
only been so Loyal, as never to Adhere to the
Rebels, but had Serv'd their Prince to the last of
their Power, Ventured their Lives, Lost their
Estates, and had Indured great misery in a long
Banishment, and after an Agreement of Peace,
and the Proof of their Honesty and Loyalty,
should be Neglected or Affronted, instead of
Reward and Favour; if these Forsaken and
Ruined, although Honest Persons, should Retire
from Court and City into the Country, to be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wail
their Misfortunes in solitary Groans, or to
pick up their scattered Goods, broken Inheri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tance,
and tattered States, or to restore their Half<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dying
Posterity to some time of Life, should
they be Rail'd and Exclamed against? can Hea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ven
<pb n="68" facs="tcp:44350:42"/>
Bless a State or Kingdom, that will suffer
such Uncharitableness and Inhumanity? or can
Nature suffer her most Noble-minded Crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures
to stay in the presence of Publick Affronts,
Disgraces, and Neglects, and not humbly turn
their Faces from them, or Honestly indeavour
not to Trouble those, that have a desire to Please?
and if by their Wise Prudence, those Retired
Persons can afford themselves some Harmless
Recreations to mix and temper their Over-care<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>full
and Industrious Labours, they ought not to
be Condemned for it; for God and Nature
mixes Good and Evil, and the greatest Grief hath
some Refreshment of Ease, and the hardest La<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bours
some Rest, but only these Find-faults are
Restless, through Envy and Ambition, hoping
by their Busie Heads, Restless Pens, and Abusive
Exclamations, to rise to Promotion and Prefer<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment,
and though they pretend to Discover Se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ditions,
they are the only Authors of Factions
and Seditions. Wherefore it would be very fit,
<hi>Noble Citizens,</hi> that our Ministers of State and
Magistrates should Silence such bold Persons,
that dare Censure our Nobles private and parti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cular
Actions; for if they should have that Li<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>berty,
they would in time Censure this Go<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vernment
and our Governours of State and
Common-wealth, and who can fore-see, but
that the Common Rout or People might take
their Factions or Ill-natured or Medling Dispo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sitions
for Wisdome?</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="69" facs="tcp:44350:42"/>
<head>An Oration for Liberty of Conscience.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>IT is very probable, we shall fall into a Civil
Warr, through the Divers Opinions in One
and the same Religion; for what hath been the
cause of this Hash in Religion, but the Suffering
of Theological Disputations in Schools, Colle<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ges,
Churches, and Chambers, as also Books of
Controversies? all which ought not to have
been Suffered, but Prohibited, by making Laws
of Restraint; but since that Freedome hath been
given, the Inconveniency cannot be Avoided,
unless the Magistrates will give, or at least not
oppose a Free Liberty to all; for if the People
of this Nation is so Foolish, or Wilfull, or Facti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ous,
or Irreligious, as not to Agree in One Opi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nion,
and to Unite in One Religion, but will be
of Divers Opinions, if not of Divers Religions,
the Governours must Yield, or they will Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sume
the Civil Government with the Fire of
their Zeal; indeed they will Consume them<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>selves
at last in their own Confusion. Where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fore,
the best remedy to prevent their Own
ruine, with the ruine of the Common-wealth,
is, to let them have Liberty of Conscience, Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ditionally,
that they do not meddle with Civil
Government or Governours; and for Security
that they Shall not, there must be a Law made
and Inacted, that, whosoever doth Preach, Dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pute,
<pb n="70" facs="tcp:44350:43"/>
or Talk against the Government or Go<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vernours,
not only in This, but of any Other Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion,
shall be Punished either with Death, Ba<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nishment,
or Fine; also for the quiet and Peace
of this Kingdome, there ought to be a strict
Law, that no Governour or Magistrate shall in
any kind Infringe our Just Rights, our Civil or
Common Laws, nor our Ancient Customs; for
if the One Law should be made, and not the
Other, the People would be Slaves, and the Go<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vernours
their Tyrants.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration against Liberty of Conscience.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Am not of the former Orators opinion; for
if you give Liberty in the Church, you must
give Liberty in the State, and so let every one
do what they will, which will be a Strange Go<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vernment,
or rather I may say, no Government:
for if there be no Rules, their can be no Laws,
and if there be no Laws, there can be no Justice,
and if no Justice, no Safety, and if no Safety, no
Propriety, neither of Goods, Wives, Children,
nor Lives, and if there be no Propriety, there
will be no Husbandry, and the Lands will lye
Unmanured, also there will be neither Trade
nor Traffick, all which will cause Famine, Warr,
and Ruine, and such a Confusion, as the King<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dome
will be like a Chaos, which the Gods
keep us from.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="71" facs="tcp:44350:43"/>
<head>An Oration proposing a Mean betwixt the
two former Opinions.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Fellow Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I Am not of the two former Orators opinions,
neither for an Absolute Liberty, nor a Forced
Unity, but Between both, as neither to give
them such Liberty, as for Several Opinions, to
gather into Several Congregations, nor to force
them to such Ceremonies, as Agree not with their
Consciences; and if those Sects or Separatists
Disturb not the Canon, Common, or Civil
Laws, not to Disturb their Bodies, Minds, or
Estates: for if they Disturb not the Publick
Weal, why should you Disturb their Private
Devotions? Wherefore, give them leave to fol<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>low
their Several Opinions, in their Particular
Families, otherwise if you Force them, you will
make them Furious, and if you give them an
Absolute Liberty, you will make them Facti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ous.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration Reproving Vices.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>BEing a fellow <hi>Citizen</hi> with you, I ought not
to forbear from perswading you to Reform
the Disorders of this City, as not to Suffer
<pb n="72" facs="tcp:44350:44"/>
Loose and Idle persons to Live without Imploy<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment,
or to pass by their Abuses without Pu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nishment;
also to Reform the Excess of Vanity,
Luxury, Drunkenness, and Adultery, of which
the Chiefest are most Guilty; for the Poor and
Inferiour sort hath not Means to maintain those
Vices, although they indeavour to the utmost
of their Abilities; and as they have not Means,
so they have not that Courage or rather Impu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dence
to Act Vices so Publickly, as the Richer
sort doth; for Poverty is Humble, which makes
it Modest, when as Riches is Proud and Bold;
the truth is, this City is like a Surfeited Body,
full of Diseases, and I fear, easie Remedies,
which are Perswasions, will not Cure you, ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cept
Warrs, Plagues or Famine come amongst
you, or be Applied to you, for they may Cure
some, although they will Kill most: But one
thing I VVonder most at, that you send your
Children to School, to be Instructed in Divinity
and Morality, which is to Teach them to Pray
and to Fast, to be Humble and Charitable, to be
Prudent and Temperate, yet at Home they
have Leave and Liberty to be Vain, Idle, and
Expensive, to Feed Luxuriously, to Play Wan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tonly,
and to Live Riotously, so that what good
their Tutors teach them by Reading and Preach<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing,
their Fathers corrupt them by Example and
Precepts; they go forth to be Schooled, and
come home to be Fooled. Wherefore, I can<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>not
imagine, why you should put your selves to
<pb n="73" facs="tcp:44350:44"/>
that Charge, to have your Children Taught and
Instructed to that which is Good, and yet suffer
them to do what is Bad, unless you desire to
fee whether God or the Devil be Strongest in
them; But if you cannot Live more Soberly,
Moderately, Orderly, and Honestly, the best
way were to send your Children so far from
you, as not to hear of you, untill you Dye, so
that the next Generation may be Better, unless
by Nature you leave your Sons to Inherit your
Vices, as they do your Goods by Birth, and then
there is no Hopes of Amendment. It is likely
you will say, Why I stand here Talking to you,
and Exhorting you? I answer, that Saint <hi>Paul</hi>
fayeth, <hi>by the Foolishness of Preaching men may be
Saved:</hi> so I hope my Words may Work upon
your Hearts, as to perswade you, not to Spend
your Wealth, to Wast your Time, to End your
Lives so Unprofitably, as neither to Serve your
God, your Country, nor your Friends.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration concerning the Forein Travels of
Young Gentlemen.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>YOu think your Sons not well Bred, unless
you send them to Travel into Forein Nati<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons,
to see and understand Fashions, Customs,
and Manners of the World, by which they may
Learn the better to Know themselves, and to
<pb n="74" facs="tcp:44350:45"/>
Judge of others; but though you send your
Sons abroad, in Hope they will Profit by their
Travels, yet you are for the most part Deceived
in your Hopes and Expectations: for our Young
men in this Age get nothing by their Travels,
but Vanity and Vice, which makes them Fools;
for they gain not any Profitable Understanding,
or Knowledge, to make them Wise men; the
truth is, they go forth of their Own Country,
Civil Men, but return Brute Beasts, as Apes,
Goats, and Swine, and some few return Foxes,
so that their Travels Metamorphose them from
Men to Beasts; and as for their Learning of se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral
Languages, give me leave to tell you, that
they Learn more Words than Wit, which
makes them speak Much, but not Well. But to
come to the Drist of my Speech, since our Tra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>velling
Gallants being home only Vanity and
Vice, as more Prodigality than Frugality, more
Luxury than Temperance, more Diseases than
Health, more Extravagancy than Discretion,
more Folly than Experience, and more Vice than
Vertue, it were better they should stay at Home,
than Travel as they do; for their Travels are
not only Unprofitable to Themselves, and their
Country, but Destructive; for their Vices and
Vanity, doth not only Corrupt their own Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures
and civil Manners, and wast their Bodies
and Estates, but it Corrupts all good Govern<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment
in the Weal Publick; for which Reason,
I think it most requisite and fit, that none should
<pb n="75" facs="tcp:44350:45"/>
Travel without Leave of the State or Publick
Counsel, and at their Return should be Accoun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>table
to the State and Publick Counsel of their
Travels, and the Advantages they have made.
Thus their Travels would be Profitable both to
Themselves, and to their Country; for they
would be as a Nursery and School to breed up
Youth to be Wise men.</p>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>An Oration concerning Playes, and
Players.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Noble Citizens,</salute>
</opener>
<p>HEre is a Company of Players, which are
for Pleasure and Pastime to those that have
Nothing to do, and Money to Spend; but give
me leave to tell you, youMis-spend your Time,
and also your Money, unless the Players were
better Actors, and their Playes better Playes;
for as their Playes have no VVit in them, so the
Actors have no Grace, nor Becoming Behaviour
in their Actions; for what is Constraint, is Mis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>becoming,
as being not Natural, and whatsoever
is Unnatural, is Deformed: but pray, Mistake
me not, as believing, I am an Enemy to Playes
or Players, for I am an Enemy only to Foolish
Playes, and Ill Actors, but for Good Playes well
Acted, I am so far from being an Enemy to
them, as I think there is nothing so Profitable
for Youth, both to Increase their Understan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ding,
<pb n="76" facs="tcp:44350:46"/>
and to Fashion their Behaviour; and for
those that have Spare time, they cannot pass it
more Pleasingly; therefore let me Advise you,
that are Magistrates of this City, to set up a
Company of Players at the Common charge,
and to Maintain some Excellent Poet, to make
Good Playes, and certainly you will be no Lo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sers
in so doing, but Gainers, being the Best
and Readiest way of Education for your Chil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dren:
for the Poet will inform them both of
the World, and the Natures and Humours of
Mankind, an Easier and Delightfuller way, than
the School-men; and the Actors will shew
them to Behave themselves more Gracefully
and Becomingly, than their Dancing-Masters.
Thus they will Learn more both for their Bo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dies
and Minds of the Poet and Players, than
of their Tutors and Governours, or by Study<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing
or Travelling, which is Expensive, Labo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rious,
and Dangerous, whereas the other is
Easie, Delightfull, Safe, and Profitable. Also
one thing more I must advise you, that you pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vide
a Practick Judicious man, to Instruct the
Players to Act well; for as they must have a
Poet, to make their Playes, so they must have a
Tutor to teach them to Act those Playes, unless
the Poet will take the pains to teach them him<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>self,
as to Humour the Passions, and to Express
the Humours Naturally, and not to Act after
the French Fashion, with High strained Voices,
Constrained Motions, Violent Actions, and
<pb n="77" facs="tcp:44350:46"/>
such Transportation, as is neither Gracefull, Be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>coming,
nor Natural; but they must make Love
Soberly, Implore Favour Humbly, Complain
Seriously, Lament Sadly, and not Affectedly,
Fantastically, Constraintly, Ragingly, Furiously,
and the like; all which in my Opinion they do
Senselesly, Foolishly, and Madly; for all Feign<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ings
must be done as Naturally as may be, that
they may seem as Real Truths.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div n="4" type="part">
<pb n="78" facs="tcp:44350:47"/>
<head>SEVERAL CAUSES
PLEADED IN SEVERAL
COURTS OF JUDICATURE.</head>
<head>PART IV.</head>
<div type="oration">
<head>Accusing and Pleading at the Barr before
the Judges, for and against a Woman
that hath kill'd her Husband.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>The Plaintiff</speaker>
<p>THis Woman, who is Accused, not
only for Killing a Man, but her Hus<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>band,
we have for this Grievous and
Horrid Fact brought before your
Honours, to be Judged according to
the Laws, delivering her to your Justice and
Judgement.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend, and Just Judges,</hi> 'T is true,
that this Unhappy Woman hath unfortunately
Kill'd her Husband, but Heaven knows, it was
Against her Will, and as I may say Against her
<pb n="79" facs="tcp:44350:47"/>
Knowledge: for her Husband and She being
Lovingly together, not Mistrusting any Danger,
on a sudden came a Man, who as it seems, was
her Husbands Enemy, for he assaulted her Hus<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>band
with a drawn Sword; this Woman seeing
her Husband in Danger, as being Unarmed and
Defenceless, was so afrighted as she knew not
what she did; Wherefore, she having got a
Dagger, which lay in the Room they were in,
and thinking to thrust it into her Husbands Ene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>my,
Unawares thrust it into her Husbands Body,
wherewith he fell down, and immediately Died,
which when she saw and perceived the mistake,
she was as Distracted, and at last fell into a Trance,
but being Recovered out of that faint Fit, she
hath since remain'd a most Sorrowfull and La<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>menting
Widdow; I Express her Sorrow, to
prove her Innocence from all Evil Constructi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons;
for the Death of her Husband was not
Designed or Intended by her, but by Fate and
Fortune; and it is the Duty of a Loving Wife,
to defend her Husbands Honour, Person, and
Life, with all her Indeavours, and if the success
of her Honest, Loyal, and Loving indeavours
falls out unfortunately, She ought not to be Pu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nished
for her Misfortune; for Misfortune is no
Crime, but rather to be Pitied and Comforted,
either can Justice make Misfortune a Law to
Condemn to Dye; and shall Duty and Loyalty
be made Traitors? shall Honest Love be Pu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nished
with Torments and Death? No, <hi>Most
Reverend Judges,</hi> Love and Loyalty ought to
<pb n="80" facs="tcp:44350:48"/>
be Honoured with Praise and Respect, and not
with Torments and Death, and the Death of
this VVomans Husband was caused by a mas<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>kered
Fear, proceeding from an Extraordinary
Love. Thus his Death was a Chance, not an In<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tended
Murder.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> there can be no Wit<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ness
of the Intention, but her own Knowledge
and Conscience, which are Invisible and not
Proveable, and therefore Insufficient to Acquit
Her; but that which is a Sufficient VVitness a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst
her Intention, and may lawfully Condemn
her, is her indeavour to Resist the Judgement and
Sentence of Death; for all Good, Loyal, and
Loving VVives ought, nay, desire to Live and
Dye with their Husbands, when as they be free
from all Suspect, wherefore much more ought
they to accompany their Husbands in Death,
who are liable to be Judged and Condemned for
Treason and Murder; for as it is Unlawfull and
Irreligious for to Act her own Death, so it is
Dishonourable and Impious to Indeavour to re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sist
the Judgement of Death by Lawfull Autho<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rity,
Pleading by her Lawyers most shamefully
for Life.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> It is not that she De<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sires
to Live, but not to Dye Infamously, as to
Dye as a Murderer of her Husband; for though
her Husband was Kill'd by her Hand, yet he
was not Kill'd by her Intention, but by Chance,
which misfortune makes her Life a Torment
to her, for being so unhappy as Unwittingly to
<pb n="81" facs="tcp:44350:48"/>
Destroy him, which her Life did most Delight
with; but yet she would, if she could, rather
Live Miserably, than Dye Dishonourably; for
in her Dishonourable Death, both She and her
Husband doth doubly Dye.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> It were better Two
Persons should Dye Four times over, than such a
Crime should be Once Pardoned; for the Ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ample
will be more Dangerous, than to have an
Innocent Condemned would be Grievous: But
it is most probable, She is Guilty.</p>
</sp>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Cause of Adultery Pleaded at the Barr
before Judges.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>HEre is a Man and a Woman, that were Ta<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ken
in Adultery, and brought hither to be
judged, that they may Suffer according to the
Law, which is Death.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> This Adulteress,
and Adulterer, (for so in truth they are) al<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>though
the Woman is ashamed to confess in
Words, only in silent Tears, yet the man con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fesseth
his fault publickly, and asks pardon, only
he says, it is a Natural fault: for the desire of
Procreation is Born and Bred in all Nature's
Animal Creatures; it is an Orginal Appetite,
but whether it be an Original Sin, he says, he
doth not know; yet if it be, it may more justly
be Pardoned, than Gluttony, which was the
<pb n="82" facs="tcp:44350:49"/>
cause of Mans Fall, witness <hi>Eve,</hi> and the forbid<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>den
Fruit; and that Damnable Sin, Gluttony,
that destroyes many Lives through Surfeits, the
Law takes no notice of, but Procreation that
begets and makes Life, is Punish'd by the Law,
which seems strange to Reason, that Cursed
Gluttony should be Advanced, and Loving A<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dultery
Hang'd. Indeed, it is a great Injustice,
at least a grievous Law; and surely our Fore<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fathers,
that made that Law, were Defective
either in Bodies or Minds, or at least in Judge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment;
and though I confess it is not fit, we
should break or dissolve those Laws, howso<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ever
Erroneous they are, that our Predecessors
made; yet we, their Posterities and Successors
may Sweeten or Qualifie the Extreme Rigor of
their Laws, as in this Case of Adultery, to
Punish the Bodies, but to Spare their Lives;
or to Fine their Estates, and Spare their Bodies;
for if the Rigor of the Law should be put in
Execution in all Cases, and to all Persons, there
would no man be Free, either in his Estate, Per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>son,
or Life; but howsoever, this Male-offen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>der,
my Client, sayes, that if he must Dye, yet
he shall not Dye Basely or Dishonourably, by
reason he shall Dye Loves Martyr; As for the
Femal offender, She sayes, that she was seduced
by Nature, as <hi>Eve</hi> by the Devil, and Women
being of Soft and Tender Dispositions, do easily
yield to an Inticing Appetite; besides, men be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing
Eloquent in Perswading, Prevalent in Flat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tering,
Free in Protesting, and Earnest in Vows
<pb n="83" facs="tcp:44350:49"/>
and Promises, all which hath such force with
Females, who are Credulous and Believing
Creatures, as she had no Power to deny him his
Desire. But both these Lovers desire these
Most Noble and Just Judges to Consider, their
Crime is not caused through Spite, Envy, Ma<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lice,
Revenge, Scorn, Pride, Hate, or the like
Sins, but through Love, Kindness, Friendship,
Charity, Generosity, Humility, and such like
Vertues, which caused this Crime, namely A<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dultery,
so that it is the only Sin, that is Built
upon Vertues: besides, this Sin, namely Adul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tery,
hath a Well-pleased Countenance, a Court<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly
Behaviour, and an Eloquent Speech, which is
the cause, most Men and Women are in Love
with this Sin, the Gods forgive them for it; for
this Sin doth not appear with Terrible and Hor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rid
Aspect as Murder, as to cause the very Soul
as much as the Senses to be Maskered with Fear;
not it doth not appear of so Foul an Aspect as
Gluttony and Drunkenness, as to cause Hate or
Aversion, but it hath so Amiable an Aspect as to
cause Love, and so Fruitfull an Effect as to cause
Life and Living Creatures. They implore
Mercy, and beg your Favourable Sentence, and
since it is a Natural effect for Males and Females
to be Adulterers, at least Lovers, you may as
soon destroy all Animal Creatures as this Sin, if
it be one; and if there be some Men and Women
purely chast, those are of Divine Compositions,
and not Perfect Naturals, their Souls and Bodies
having more of the Purity of the Gods, than the
<pb n="84" facs="tcp:44350:50"/>
gross Corporality of Nature; but these two
Offendants confess, they have proved them<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>selves
Nature's Creatures, and the Woman says
she is <hi>Eve's</hi> Daughter, but if you will Spare her
Life, she hopes to be as great a Saint as <hi>Mary
Magdalen;</hi> for she will beg Pardon by Re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pentance,
and wash out her Sin with her
Tears.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> This Pleader ought
to be Condemned, not only for a Corrupt Law<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>yer,
but a Wicked Man, and may very well be
believed to be Guilty of the same Crime, he
Pleads so well for; for if he were not Guilty
of the Crime, he would not Plead for a Par<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>don.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> I am no more Guilty
of the Sin, than the Interceding Saints in Hea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ven
for Sinners on Earth; but if the Pleader
should be Condemned for the Cause of his
Client, neither Truth would be Heard, nor
Right Decided, so that all Justice would be O<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>verthrown
with Malicious Accusers, and False
Witnesses. But howsoever, <hi>Most Reverend
Judges,</hi> I am not to Decide the Cause, though I
Plead in the behalf of my Clients, and it is the
Profession of a Lawyer, to speak for his Clients,
and not Against them, whatsoever their Cause
be; for this is the part of their Opposites, and I
am not to fling the first Stone.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> Howsoever he be
Affected, whether evil or not, yet the Cause he
Pleads, is a Wicked Cause, and the Offenders
<pb n="85" facs="tcp:44350:50"/>
ought to be severely Punished, according to the
Punishing Laws for such Offences and Offen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ders;
and if Adultery should be suffered, Pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>priety
and the Right of Inheritance would be
lost in the Obscurity of hidden Adultery, or in
the Uncertainty of the Right Children or Fa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thers.</p>
</sp>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Cause Pleaded at the Barr before
Judges, concerning Theft.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend, and Just Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>HEre is a man, which is Accused for Stealing
privately, and Robbing openly, against all
Law and Right, the Goods of his Neighbours,
for which we have brought him before your
Honours, appealing to the Laws for satisfaction
of the Injuries, Wrongs, and Loffes, leaving
him to your Justice and Judgement.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> I am come here to
Plead for this poor man, my Client, who is Ac<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cused
for Stealing, which is a silent obscure way
of taking the Goods of other men, for his own
use; also this Poor man, (for so I may say he is,
having nothing of his own to Live on, but what
he is Necessitated to take from other men) is
accused for Robbery, which is to take away the
Goods of other men in a Visible way and Forci<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble
manner; All which he confesseth, as that
the Accusation against him is true; for he did
both Steal and Rob for his own Livelihood, and
<pb n="86" facs="tcp:44350:51"/>
Maintenance of his Old <gap reason="illegible: indecipherable" extent="1 span">
<desc>〈…〉</desc>
</gap> Past
Labouring, and for his Young Children, <gap reason="illegible: indecipherable" extent="1 span">
<desc>〈…〉</desc>
</gap> are
not Able to help themselves, and for his Weak;
Sick Wife, that Labours in Child Birth; For
which he appeals to Nature, who made all things
in Common, She made not some men to be Rich,
and other men Poor, some to Surfeit with over<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>much
Plenty, and others to be Starved for
Want: for when she made the World and the
Creatures in it, She did not divide the Earth,
nor the rest of the Elements, but gave the use
generally amongst them all. But when Govern<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mental
Laws were devised by some Usurping
Men, who were the greatest Thieves and Rob<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bers,
(for they Robbed the rest of Mankind of
their Natural Liberties and Inheritances, which
is to be Equal Possessors of the World;) these
Grand and Original Thieves and Robbers,
which are call'd Moral Philosophers, or Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mon-wealth
makers, were not only Thieves and
Tyrants to the Generality of Mankind, but they
were Rebels against Nature, Imprisoning Nature
within the Jail of Restraint, Keeping her to the
spare Diet of Temperance, Binding her with
Laws, and Inslaving her with Propriety, where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>as
all is in Common with Nature. Wherefore,
being against Nature's Laws for any man to
Possess more of the World or the Goods of the
World than an other man, those that have more
Wealth or Power than other men, ought to be
Punished as Usurpers and Robbers, and not those
that are Poor and Powerless. Therefore, if you
<pb n="87" facs="tcp:44350:51"/>
be Just Judges of Nature, and not of Art, Judges
for Right, and not for Wrong, if you be Judges
of the most Ancient Laws, and not Usurping
Tyrants, you will not only quit this Poor man,
and set him free from his Accusers, which are
His and such Poor men's Abusers, but you will
cause his Accusers, who are Rich, to Divide
their Wealth Equally with Him and all his Fa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mily;
for which Judgement you will gain Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures
favour, which is the Empress of Mankind,
Her Government is the Ancientest, Noblest,
Generousest, Heroickest, and Royalest, and her
Laws are not only the Ancientest, (for there are
no Records before Nature's Laws, so that they
are the Fundamental Laws of the Universe, and
the most Common Laws extending to all Crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures,)
but they are the Wisest Laws, and yet
the Freest; also Nature is the most Justest Judge,
both for Rewards and Punishments; for She
Rewards her Creatures, that Observe her Laws
as they ought to do, with Delight and Pleasure,
but those that Break or abuse her Laws, as in
destroying their fellow Creatures by untimely
Deaths, or unnatural Torments, or do Riot and
oppress her with Excess, She Punishes them
with Grief, Pains, and Sicknesses, and if you
will avoid the Punishment of Remorse, Grief,
and Repentance, Save this Poor necessitated man
from Violence, and the Cruelty of these Inhu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>man,
Unnatural, Destroying Laws.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> This man, who is
Nature's Lawyer and Pleader, ought to be Ba<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nish'd
<pb n="88" facs="tcp:44350:52"/>
from this Place, and his Profession of
Pleading out of all Civilest Governments; for
he Talks he knows not what of Nature's Laws,
whereas there is no Law in Nature, for Nature
is Lawless, and hath made all her Creatures so,
as to be Wild and Ravenous, to be Unsatiable
and Injurious, to be Unjust, Cruel, Destructive,
and so Disorderous, that, if it were not for Civil
Government, Ordained from an Higher Power,
as from the Creator of Nature her self, all her
Works would be in a Confusion, and so their
own Destruction. But man is not all of Nature's
Work, but only in his Outward Frame, having
an Inward Celestial and Divine Composition,
and a Supreme Power given him by the Gods
to Rule and Govern Nature; So that if your
Honours submit to the Plea of this Babler, you
will make the Rulers and Governours of Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture,
the Slaves of Nature; Wherefore, if you
be Celestial and not Natural Judges, and will
give Divine Judgement, and not Judge according
to Brutal Senses, you will Condemn this Noto<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rious
Thief and Wild Robber to the Gallows,
that his Life may be the Satisfaction for the
Wrongs, and his Death an Example for a War<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning
to Prevent the like Crimes.</p>
</sp>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="89" facs="tcp:44350:52"/>
<head>A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt
two Bastards.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff</speaker>
<p>THere be Two Laws in this Kingdom, which
seem to be very Unjust; the One is, that if
a VVoman be Got / with Child by One Man, and
Marries an Other before her Child is Born, that
Child must Inherit her Husbands Estate, if it be
a Son, so that One mans Son comes to be an Other
mans Heir by the Law. The Other is, that if a
man Begets a Son before Marriage, and he Mar<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ries
not the VVoman till After his Son is Born,
and though the Marriage cancels the Fault of
Adultery, and is an Attonement for the Sin or
Crime, both to God and the Law, yet the Inno<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cent
Child, that was in No Fault, is put by the
Inheritance by the Law; indeed, the Son so
Born, Inherits only the Disgrace of a Bastard,
but not his Fathers Estate; and thus if the VVo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>man
be Incontinent, a mans Own begotten Son
shall not Inherit, and an Other mans Bastard be
his Heir. The same Case is brought to be Plea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ded
before your Honours, for two Sons of One
VVoman, but not of One Father, the Eldest
being her Husbands, Begotten and Born before
Marriage, the other Begotten by an Other man,
but Born a moneth after her Marriage with the
first Sons Father. The Son born after Marriage
claims his Mothers Husbands Estate as Inheri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tance
<pb n="90" facs="tcp:44350:53"/>
by Law, the Other claims the Estate as a
Natural Right.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> The Son born to
Inherit, claims the Estate by the Right of Birth,
and hopes your Honours will not suffer his
Birth-right to be taken from him.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> The Right Begot<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ten
Son doth not Challenge his Fathers Estate,
as his Right by Birth, but as his Right by Gift;
for his Father by Deed gave him that which the
Law took from him; for his Estate being not
Intail'd, he might Give it to whom he would,
and he could not Give it more Justly, Honestly,
and Lovingly, than to his Own Son; but had he
not a Child of his Own to have given it to, yet
surely he would never have Left it, if he had
Power to Dispose of it, to a Son of his Inconstant
Wife, or Friend, which bore him to his Shame
and Dishonour; but the Case is so clear for his
true-Begotten Son, as it needs no more Plea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ding.</p>
</sp>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Cause Pleaded before the Judges between
an Husband and his Wife.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>HEre is a Woman Born of good Parents,
brought a great Portion, and makes a chast
VVife, yet her Husband is so Unkind, and so
Cruel, as he doth not only Beat her often, but
so Grievously and Sorely, as she is weary of her
<pb n="91" facs="tcp:44350:53"/>
Life, and therefore she beseeches your Honours
to take so much Commiseration of her Cause,
as to Bind her Husband to a good Behaviour, or
to Grant her a Bill of Divorce, and some Allow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ance
from him, that she may Live Absent in
Peace.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> A Husband Anger,
nor yet his Corrections, is not a sufficient Plea
for a Wife to Part from her Husband; for a
Woman when she Marries, makes a Promise
before God and his Divine Minister in the Sa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cred
Temple, that she takes her Husband to
Have and to Hold, for Better for Worse, and
that she will be Dutifull and Obedient, as also
Constant to him so long as Life lasts, and so
plights her troth; Wherefore, it is against the
Laws of God and his Church, to sue for a Di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vorce;
also it is against her Duty to Complain;
Wherefore, she ought by the Laws of God,
and consequently by all Other Laws, to suffer
Patiently, did she give her Husband No cause to
use her so Severely.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> A Wife is not bound
by any Laws but Religion, to Hazard her Life,
and she fears he will Kill her in his Fury, and
therefore for the Safety of her Life, she desires
your Honours will quit her of the Danger.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> A Wife is bound
both by the Law of Nature, and God, to Hazard
her Life, not only for her Husbands Safety, Ho<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nour,
and Pleasure, but for his Humour; for a
VVife is bound to Leave her Parents, Country,
<pb n="92" facs="tcp:44350:54"/>
and what else soever, to go with her Husband,
wheresoever he goes, and will have her go with
him, were it on the Dangerous Seas, or into Bar<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ren
Deserts, or Perpetual Banishments, or
Bloody VVarrs, besides Child-birth; all which
is more Dangerous and Painfull than blows;
but howsoever, it is as Lawfull for an Husband
to Govern, Rule, and Correct his VVife, as for
Parents to Rule, Govern, and Correct their
Children, or for Masters to Rule, Govern, and
Correct their Servants or Slaves.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>But Parents ought not Strike or Cruelly use
their Children, nor Masters their Servants or
Slaves, without Faults committed.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant</speaker>
<p>Parents, Masters, and Husbands in the Case
of Ruling, Governing, Correcting, Punishing
or using their Children, Servants, Slaves, and
VVives, ought to be their Own Judges, and no
other. But, <hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> She is not
free from Fault, for though she be Chast, yet she
is a Scold, she gives her Husband more unkind
VVords, than he gives her unkind Blows, and
her Tongue provokes his Hand to strike her;
but as she is Lavish of her VVords, so she is of
his Estate, not so much with what she Spends, as
with that she Spoils, and though he can keep
her from the One, he cannot hinder her from the
Other; for she is not only Unhuswifely, and
Careless of the main Stock, but she Breaks,
Rends, and Spoils all his Goods out of a Malici<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ous
Revenge, and Evil Nature; Yet howsoever,
were she the Best VVife that could be, and he
<pb n="93" facs="tcp:44350:54"/>
the Worst Husband, the Law hath no Power to
Mend him, and Help her, for the Law ought not
to intermeddle in their Quarrel, as having no
more Power to take away the Prerogative of a
Husband, than the Prerogative of Parents and
Masters; for whensoever the Law takes the
part of a Servant against his Master, a Subject
against his Prince, a Child against his Parents,
or a Wife against her Husband, the Law doth
unjustly Usurp on their Rights and Privileges,
which Rights and Privileges they receiv'd from
Nature, God and Morality.</p>
</sp>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Widdows Cause Pleaded before Judges
in the Court of Equity.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>HEre is a Poor Widdow of a Rich Husband,
who in his Life-time did allow her Little,
and at his Death left her Less; for he only left
her a small Annuity during her Life, which is so
Small, as cannot Maintain her, neither Like his
Widdow, nor indeed in any Decent Fashion;
for she having no Joynture, he to Bar her of her
Widdows share, gave her this small Annuity,
knowing that otherwise she should have had the
Third part of his Estate during Life, but he by
a Deed and Gift of a Little hath cast out her
Claim from the Common Law, wherefore she
doth Appeal to this Court of Equity and Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>science,
hoping to have Justice accordingly.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<pb n="94" facs="tcp:44350:55"/>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> There is no Reason,
Equity, nor Conscience, that the VViddow
should carry away During her Life so Great a
Part of her Husbands Estate, as to Impoverish
his Children, and Ruine his Family; besides,
it hinders the Paying of Debts, and there be
very few Families, that have not Debts as well as
Children, which Creditors ought to be Paid as
well, as Children to have Portions: and were
there no Debts, yet many Childrens Portions,
although but Small, would shrink a Great Estate
almost into Nothing; but if a VViddow carries
out the Third Part, there will be little left for
after Posterity, when every Child hath had
their Portion, indeed so Little, as after Posterity
will have Nothing to Live on, nor to be Bred up
with, which is the Cause there are so many
Noble, Honourable, and Right VVorshipfull
Beggers; nay, it makes them not only Beggers,
but Base and VVicked, for having not Means
according to their Births, nor Minds according
to their Means, Despising their Fortunes, they
take Desperate Courses, or else their Minds are
so Dejected, as they Degenerate from their
Births, and do Base Actions.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> It is against Consci<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ence
and Equity, that the Mother, that Bred and
Bore her Children, with Fear, Sorrow, Pain,
and Danger of her Life, should be left Poorer
than the Children that were Born from her.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> It is against all
Reason, Equity, and Conscience, that Parents
<pb n="95" facs="tcp:44350:55"/>
should Get and Bring forth Children, and not
Provide for those Children; for if they give
them no Means to Live, as neither by Educa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion
to Get Means, nor some Allowance or
Means to Live, their Children will have Small
Reason to Thank their Parents, or Natural Affe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ction
to be Dutifull to them, for giving them a
Miserable Life, which Deserves no Thanks, nor
can Challenge a Duty; for as Children are
Bound by the Laws of Nature to Assist their Pa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rents,
so Parents are Bound by the Laws of
Nature, to Provide for their Childrens Subsist<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ence,
and when the Bonds are Broken of one
Part, the othe Part is Free. But, <hi>Most Reve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rend
Judges,</hi> I do not Plead against the Mothers
or Wife's Livelihood; for it is not, that Mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thers
and Wives ought not to be Provided for,
for a Man ought to be a Kind Husband, as well
as a Loving Father, but a Wife ought not to be
the Ruine either of her Own, or her Husbands
Children, and if she be a Natural Mother, she
ought to Spare for her Children, and not to
Spend what her Children should have, but
most Women do not only Spend what their
Children should have, but Give it away to a Se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cond
Husband, to the Ruine of the First Hus<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bands
Children and Family; for this Reason,
Wise men that are Husbands, not knowing what
their Wives will do, when they are Dead, leave
them as Little as they can, Securing their own
Estates and Familes as much as they possibly can
from the Spoils and Ruins, which Strangers, as
<pb n="96" facs="tcp:44350:56"/>
Second Husbands make; for it were more Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>scionable
not to leave a Wife any Maintenance,
than Too much, and better, One should Suffer,
than Many Perish, at least it is better that a
Widdow should live Poorly all her Life, than
that an Honourable Family should be Poor to all
Succession: Wherefore, this Widdow in Con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>science
ought to have no more out of her Dead
Husbands Estate, than what he hath Left her,
which is enough for Necessity, though not for
Vanity, enoough to Live a Solitary Widdow, as
she ought to do, although not enough to Inrich
a Second Husband, which a hundred to one, but
she would do, if she had it; but her Husband
was a Wise Man, a Carefull Father, and a Pru<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dent
Husband in not giving his VVife the Li<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>berty
to play the Fool.</p>
</sp>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<head>A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt a
Master and his Servant.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>HEre is a Poor Servant, which Served his
Master Honestly, and his Master hath
turn'd him out of his Service without his VVa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ges,
which are due unto him by Right of Bar<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gain
and Agreement made betwixt them, which
Bargain and Agreement he hath broken, and
unjustly Detains his VVages.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> This Servant Accu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ses
his Master Falsly, and Challenges that which
<pb n="97" facs="tcp:44350:56"/>
he ought not to have, as so much for his Wages,
for the Bargain was, that his Master would give
him so much Wages to do so much VVork, he
did not Hire him to be Idle, so that a Master is
not bound to keep a Lasie Servant, nor to Pay
him his VVages, unless he had Done the Work
he was Hired to do, and not only to Do it, but to
do according to his Masters Will and Good Li<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>king.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> If a Masters finding
Fault shall be sufficient to Barr a Servant of his
VVages, no Servants could Live by their La<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bours,
for Masters would find Faults a purpose
to Save their Hire.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> If Servants should
live Idlely, or Disorderly, or Disobediently, or
make VVast and Spoil of their Masters Goods
and Estate, and be maintain'd with Meat, Drink,
Lodging, and VVages, their Masters would be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>come
Poorer than their Servants, and Live in
more Subjection, rather than so, the Masters
would Serve themselves, and keep no Servants;
for surely, men will rather be their Own Ser<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vants,
than to be Servants, or rather Slaves to
their Servants, so that Servants would not only
want VVages, but Food, and Starve for want;
for if they gain Nothing by their Labour, and
have no Means of their Own, they must upon
necessity Perish; and for Examples sake, as well
as Justice, this Servant ought not to be Paid his
Wages, for he doth not Deserve it, and therefore
'tis not his Right nor Due to Have it.</p>
</sp>
</div>
<div type="oration">
<pb n="98" facs="tcp:44350:57"/>
<head>Two Lawyers Plead before Judges, a Cause
betwixt a Father and his Son.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Reverend Judges,</salute>
</opener>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff against the Father.</speaker>
<p>HEre is the Son which ought to be his Fa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thers
Heir, whom for Marryig against his
Fathers Consent, his Father hath Dis-inherited,
which is against all Law or Right, both of God,
Nature, and Man.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Defendant.</speaker>
<p>
<hi>Most Reverend Judges,</hi> Disobedient Chil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dren
ought to have no Part nor Parcel of their
Parents Estate, as Lands, Goods, or whatsoever;
for it the Parents have no Duty, nor Obedience
from their Child, their Child can challenge no
Part of their Parents Estate, and since he hath
Married Disobediently, he ought to Live Poor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly,
or to get his Living by his Own Labour or
Industry.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
<speaker>Plaintiff.</speaker>
<p><