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<p>THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND Physical Opinions,</p>
<p>Written by her Excellency, the Lady MARCHIONESSE of NEWCASTLE.</p>
<p>
<hi>LONDON</hi>
</p>
<p>Printed for <hi>J. Martin</hi> and <hi>J. Allestrye</hi> at the Bell in St. <hi>Pauls</hi> Church-Yard 1655.</p>
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<p>
<figure>
<head>Collegium sive Aula S.S.<hi rend="sup">t</hi> Trinitatis in Academiâ Cantabrigiensi, 1700</head>
</figure>
</p>
</div>
<div type="encomium">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:2"/>
<head>TO THE LADY MARQVESSE OF NEVVCASTLE, On her Book intitled her Philosophicall, and Physicall Opinions.</head>
<lg>
<l>WEre the old Grave Philophers alive,</l>
<l>How they would envy you, and all would strive</l>
<l>Who first should burn their Books; since they so long</l>
<l>Thus have abus'd the world, and taught us wrong,</l>
<l>With hard words that mean nothing; which non-sense.</l>
<l>When we have Conn'd by heart, then we commence</l>
<l>Masters and Doctors, with grave looks; and then</l>
<l>Proud, because think, thus we are learned men,</l>
<l>And know not that we do know nothing right,</l>
<l>Like blinde men now, led onely by your sight.</l>
<l>And for diseases, let the Doctors look</l>
<l>Those worthy learned men but in your Book,</l>
<l>They'le finde such news in their art, and so true</l>
<l>As old <hi>Hippocrates</hi> he never knew,</l>
<l>Nor yet vast <hi>Gallen;</hi> so you need not seek</l>
<l>Farther then English, to know lesse in Greek;</l>
<l>If you read this and study it, you may</l>
<l>Out of dark ignorance see brighter Day.</l>
</lg>
<closer>
<signed>W. NEWCASTLE.</signed>
</closer>
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<div type="letter">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:3"/>
<head>AN EPISTLE To justifie the LADY NEW CASTLE, AND Truth against falshood, laying those false, and malicious aspersions of her, that she was not Authour of her BOOKS.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">I</seg> Would willingly begin with the common, and Dun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stable rode of Epistles, <hi>Gentle Readers,</hi> but finding you much otherwise, I will fall to our discourse in hand. First 'tis but your envious Supposition that this Lady must have converst with many Scholers of all kindes in learning, when 'tis well known the con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>trary, that she never convert with any profest Shooler in learning, for to learn, neither did she need it, since she had the conversation of her Honorable, and most learned Brother from her cradle; and since she was married, with my worthy and learned Brother; and for my self I have lived in the great world a great while, and have thought of what has been brought to me by the senses, more then was put into me by learned discourse; for I do not love to be led by the nose, by Autho<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rity and old Authours, <hi>ipse dixit</hi> will not serve my turn, were <hi>Aristotle</hi> made a more Philosophical Bible then he is, and all scholers to have a lively faith in him, doth not move me to be of their Philosophical churche at all. And I assure you her conversation with her Brother, and Brother-in-law, were enough without a miracle or an impossibility to get the language of the arts, and learned professions, which are their terms, without taking any degrees in Schooles. It is not so difficult a thing though they make mountains of mole-hills, &amp; say they, thatthis Lady useth many termes of
<pb facs="tcp:48875:3"/>
the Schooles; but truly she did never Impe her high-flying Phan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cies, with any old broken Fethers out of any university; and if you read well, which is to understand, and look on her Poems, you will <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> they are all new born Phansies, never toucht of heretofore. But for the rarity of the terms, or nests of Divines, Philosophers, Physici<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ans, Geometricians, Astrono mers, and the rest of the Gown-Tribe, as one tearms them, how is it possible she should know them; And first for Divinity, when she speaks of Predestination, Free-will, <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>, and consubstantiation; truly these termes are not so hard to be got by heart as to be understood, since I beleeve it puzzels the learned to make sense of them. But I beseech you give this Lady so much ca<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pacity, as to get them by heart, since every Tub-preacher discourses of them, and every sanctified wife gossips them in wafers, and hipo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cris at every Christening. Next are the termes of the Philosophers, Certainly 'tis no Conjuration to conceive Atomes, invisible, and indi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>visible bodies, elements, earth, air, water and fire, whereof your ele<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mentary fire under the moon is much doubted of, and then you have but three elements. Motion is a difficult thing indeed, to understand the varietes of it, but certainly not of a body moved, that's no such transcen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dent thing. Dilation a spreading, Contraction a gathering together Ra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rificationthinning, and Condensation thickning; I confesse in the La<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tine it seems very learned, but in the English very vulgar, there-fore I beseech you give this Lady leave to have the wit, and the judge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment to understand these Great no mysteries. And put the case now that this Lady should name <hi>materia prima,</hi> -and understand the English of it to be first matter, and ask her friend again what they mean by it, and he tells her they say they mean matter without form, and she should answer, there is no matter without some form, so <hi>materia prima</hi> are two Latine words that mean nothing. An incorporeal substance is too learned to be understood, so that is waved. Now for the termes of Physicians, when she speaks of Choler, Phlegme, Melancholy and Blood, and of Ventricles in the heart and brain, of veines, arteries and nerves, and discourses of fevers, apoplexies, convulsions, Drop<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sies, and divers other diseases with their particular causes, symptoms and cures; how should this Lady understand these terms say some? truly a good Farmers wife in the country, by seeing one of her sheep opened, may well understand the tearms of most of these, and a Consta<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bles wife of a hundred in <hi>Essex</hi> that useth Physick and Surgery may well talk of the diseases, without any great learned mystery, they are so plain and so common, as none needsto construe Greek in <hi>Hippocra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tes</hi> or <hi>Galen</hi> for them. But would you know how we know the great Mystery of these Physical terms, I am almost ashamed to tell you; not that we have been ever sickly, but by Melancholy often supposed our selves to bave such diseases as we had not, and learned Physitians were too wise to put us out of that humour, and so these tearms cost us much more then they are Worth, and I hope there is no body so malicious, as to envie our bargain, neither truly do I repent my bargain, since Phy<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sitians are the most rational men I have converst with all, and my worthy and very good friends, and truly this Lady never converst with
<pb facs="tcp:48875:4" rendition="simple:additions"/>
any Physitian of any disease, but what she thought she had her self, neither hath she converst with many of that profession. Now for the great learning of knowing the terms of Geometricians, when this La<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dy touches upon Triangles, Squares, Circles, Diameters, Circumfe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rences, Centers, lines straight and crooked &amp;c. I will not dissect these great mysteries, because they are so very common, as the meanest under<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stands all these termes, even to Joyners and Carpenters, therefore sure<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly this Lady is capable of them.</p>
<p>Then of Astronomers, say they, when she speak's of the Horizon, Meridian, Equator, Zodiack, Eclyptick, Tropicks, Poles of the world &amp;c. When these termes are understood thats their meaning, they are no such subtilties, since every boy may be taught them, with an apple for the Globe, and the parings for the sphears, it is so ridiculous then to think that this Lady cannot understand these tearms, as it is rather to be laught at, then to trouble ones self to answer. And that invinci<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble Problem, the quadrature of the circle, as they call it, which makes me doubt that they think themselves wiser, for naming the quadrature, then squaring the circle, who lives that hath not heard of it, and who lives that can do it, and who is dead that hath done it, and put the case it were done, what then? why then 'tis squa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>red, and that's all, and that all is nothing, much ado about nothing. But we will leave these impertinent, malicious, and most false ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ceptions to the Lady, and her Books, and will now begin with her book of Poems, examining first her Philosophy there. Thats an old o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pinion of Atomes, say some, witnesse <hi>Democrates</hi> and many others; Tis very true they have talkt of atomes, but did they ever dispose of them as they are there, or tell you what several sorts there are of them, and what figure they bear, and being joyned, what forms they produce of all kindes, in all things, if you have read any such things before, i'le be bold to burn the Book. Why then all these are new opinions, and grounded upon Reason, I say some, but they are Paradoxes, what then? I hope a Paradox may be as true as an old opinion, and an old opinion as false as a Paradox, for neither the one nor the other makes a truth, either the new or the old, for what is most reason &amp; reasonable; for in natural Philosophy, one opinion may be as true as another, since no body knows the first cause in nature of any thing. Then this Ladies Philosophy is excellent, and will be thought so hereafter, and the truth is that it was wholy, and onely wrought out of her own brain, as there are many witnesses, by the several sheets that she sent daily to be writ fair for the presse. As for her Poems, where are the exceptions to these? marry they misse sometimes in the numbers and in the rimes. It is well known by the copies, that those faults lie most upon the Corrector, and the Printer; but put the case there might be some slips in that kinde, is all the book damned for it, no mercy Gentlemen? when for the num<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bers, every Schoole-boy can make them on his fingers, and for Rimes <hi>Fenner</hi> would have put down <hi>Ben. Johnson,</hi> and yet neither the boy or <hi>Fenner</hi> so good Poets. No, it is neither of those either makes, or condemns a Poet, it is new born and creating Phansies that Glori<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fies
<pb facs="tcp:48875:4"/>
a Poet, and in her Book of Poems, I am sure there is excellent, and new Phancies, as have not been writ by any, and that it was onely writ by her is the greatest truth in the world. Now for her Book called the Worlds Olio, say some, how is it possible that she showld have such experience, to write of such things so; I answer, that I living long in the great world, and having the various fortunes of what they call good and bad, <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> the reading of men might bring me to as much experience as the reading of Books, and this I have now and then discourst unto this Lady, who hath wisely and elegantly drest it in her own way, and sumptuously cloathed it, at the charge of her own Phancies and expressions; I say some of them she hath heard from me, but not the fortieth part of her book, all the rest are absolutely her own in all kindes, this is an ingenious truth, therefore beleeve it. As for the Book of her Philosophical opinions, there is not any one thing in the whole Book, that is not absolutely spun out by her own studious phancy, and if you will lay by a little passion against writers, you will like it, and the best, of any thing she has writ, therefore read it once or twice, not with malice to finde a little fault, but with judgement to like what is good. Truly I cannot beleeve so unworthily of any Scho<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ler, honouring them so much as we both do, that they should envie this Lady, or should have so much malice or emulation, to cast such false as<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>persions on her, that she did not write those Books that go forth in her name, they will hardly finde out who else writ them, and I protest none ever writ them but her self; You should rather incourage her, then by false suppositions to let her see the world is so ill natured, as to beleeve fal<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>shoods before truths. But here's the crime, a Lady writes them, and to in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>trench so much upon the male prerogative, is not to be forgiven; but I know Gown-men will be more civil to her, because she is of the Gown too, and therefore I am confident you will defend her and truth, and thus be undeceived. I had not troubled you with this, but that a learned Doctor, our very noble friend, writ is word of the infidelity of some people in this kinde; whatsoever I have write is absolutly truth, which I here as a man of Honour set my hand to.</p>
<closer>
<signed>W. NEWCASTLE.</signed>
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<div type="to_the_reader">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:5"/>
<head>TO THE READER.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">I</seg>N my Book called the Worlds Olio, there are such grosse mistakes in misplacing of Chapters, and so many literall faults, as my book is much disad<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vantaged thereby.</p>
<p>As for Chapters, there are many misplaced, for some Chapters that belong to that part of diseases, are misplaced among those of natural Philosophy, as one that belongs to sleep, and three Chapters that are of the temper of Aire; likewise another Chapter of the strength of the soul and bo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dy is placed between the first and last part of the Common-Wealth, which nothing belongs to it: for though there is a soul and body belonging to every Common-Wealth, yet not such a soul and body as I have dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>courst of there.</p>
<p>For the soul of a Common-Wealth is Actuall Justice, and in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dustry.</p>
<p>The soul of a man is Contemplation, Reason, and imagina<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion.</p>
<p>And the body of a Common-Wealth, is the Citizens therein, and Magistrates thereof.</p>
<p>And the body of a man is the senses therein, and the members thereof.</p>
<p>Likewise the strength of a Common-Wealth is the Laws.</p>
<p>And the strength of a mans body is the nerves.</p>
<p>Likewise a short copie of verses which is at the latter end of the book, is what I intended for this book, as being my beloved of all my works, prefering it as my master-piece, although I do beleeve it will not please my Readers, because as I have said in some of my Epistles, few take delight in the study of Natural Philosophy, yet those that de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>light not, or slight the study, or dispraise the work, make it not the lesse rational, for reason will be reason in the despite of the most malicious detractors or sophsterian censurers, but for the faults and mistakes in my other works, and perchance the like mischance may come to these, and although I know a passion cannot recal an injury past: yet I cannnot but grieve at the misfortune, as for a friend that
<pb facs="tcp:48875:5"/>
should be hurt or lamed by some unhappy accident, but if there be any other faults of indiscretions in it, I the Author am to be pardo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ned by reason somwhat of it was writ in the dawning of my know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge, and experience, and not having a clear light I might chance to stamble in dark ignorance on molehills of errors; not that I accuse my book of faults; but arm my self with truth against crabbed censu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rers. Likewise I do not lay all the faults in my book to the Prin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ters or Correctors charge, for that would be so great an injustce, as I could never forgive my self for the crime, for the Chapters that are misplaced are through my fault, by reason I sent some part of it af<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter the book was in the presse, and it seems that the Printer or cor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rector not understanding where to place them, put them in a wrong place.</p>
<p>But the literate faults I lay to their charge, whereof I cannot choose but complain, for in some places it is so falsly printed, as one word alters the sense of many lines; whereby my book is much prejudiced, and not onely by putting in false words, as a costements, for accoutra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments, ungrateful for ungraceful, muster for mufler, and the like; but the significancy of words, to expresse a singular for a plural; yet I must confesse that this book is much truer Printed then my book of Poems, for where this book hath one fault, that hath ten; for which I can forgive the Printer, and Corrector ten times easier then I did for the other, but setting aside the faults of my book, and complaining thereof, I must take the liberty in my own behalf to complain of this ill natured, and unbeleeving age, in not allowing me to be the right Authour thereof; and though it were an endlesse work to answer e<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>very idle and impertinent question, or malicious objection; for I am assured that rational, wise, learned, and just persons will never make a doubt, knowing that nature hath power to temper a brain as she pleaseth both to receive, retain, discuss, and create, yet for truths sake I am willing to satisfie my worthy readers (if I can) although I had thought I had answerd it in my former writings.</p>
<p>But to answer those objections that are made against me, as first, how should I come by so much experience, as I have expressed in my several books to have? I answer, I have had by relation, the long and much experience of my Lord, who hath lived to see and be in many changes of fortunes, and to converse with many men of sundry nations, ages, qualities, tempers, capacities, abilities, wits, humors, fashions and customes.</p>
<p>And as many others, especially wives go from church to church, from ball to ball, from collation to collation, gossiping from house to house, so when my Lord admits me to his company, I listen with attention to his edifying discourse, and I govern my self by his Doctrine; I dance a measure with the muses, feast with the Sciences, or sit and discourse with the arts.</p>
<p>The second is, that since I am no Scholer, I cannot know the names and terms of art, and the divers and several opinions of several Au<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thors, I answer, that I must have been a natural fool if I had not known and learnt them, for they are customarily taught all children from
<pb facs="tcp:48875:6"/>
their nurses brest being ordinarily discoursed of in every family that is of quality, and the family from whence I sprung are neither natu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral idiots, nor ignorant fools, but the contrary, for they were ratio<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nal, learned, understanding and wittie.</p>
<p>And when I said I never converst an hour with professed Philo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sophers, for indeed in this age, I have not heard of many which do professe it, or an intimate acquaintance or familiar conversation with profest scholers, nor so much discourse as to learn from them, for three or four visits do not make an intimacy, nor familiarity, nor can much be learnd therefrom, for visiting and entertaining dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>course, for the most part are either cautionary, frivolous, vain, idle, or at least but common and ordinary matter, and most com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>monly all visiting discourses, are after one and the same manner, al<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>though the company be several; but I did not think my readers would have been so rigid as to think I excluded my husband, brothers, and the rest of my family, neither are they profest Philosophers nor Scholers, although they are learned therein, or to beleeve I was so ridiculously foolish, or so foolishly vain, or so basely false as that I strive to make the world to beleeve, I had all my experience and knowledge before I was born, and that my native Language came by instinct, and that I was never taught my A, B, C; or the marks and names of several things; but I hope my book hath more spite<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ful enemies then faults; for I have said in an Epistle before the se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cond part of my Olio, that if I had never seen nor heard so much as I have done, should never have been able to have writ a book.</p>
<p>Thirdly, that I had taken feathers out of the Universities to en<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>large the wings, of my fancy; I answer, no more then <hi>David</hi> took the wooll from his sheeps backs to cloath his Poetical Phancies of devo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion, or as I may say his devout Poetry which is drest with simuli<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sing.</p>
<p>But it hath been known in several ages, that even poor Peasents that hear nothing but the blating of sheep: the lowing of herds, the crowing of cocks, and the like, and their ordinary discourses of nothing but of their market, or the like, have been high flying Poets, politick states men, wise Governours, prudent Souldiers, subtle Philosophers, excellent Physitians, and what not, even to be eloquent Orators, and Divine preachers, as the holy writ will make manifest to us, and I beleeve many more are mentioned in other Histories of lesse authority; thus we may observe that nature is Prevalent in all qualities and con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ditions; And since nature is so generous to distribute to those that fortune hath cast out, and education hath neglected, why should my readers mistrust nature should be sparing to me, who have been honou<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rably born, carefully bred, and nobly married to a wise man, from whom, as I have said in some of my Epistles, in my book called the Worlds Olio, and do here say again, and again, if it will satisfie the Readers that I am my Lords Scholer, and as I have learnt, so I do daily learn knowledge and understanding, wit, and the purity of my language; and let me intre at my Readers to be so just to me, as not to condemn me for an ideot by their objections and doubts, as not beleeving
<pb facs="tcp:48875:6"/>
I am capable of learning, but let me tell my Readers that what I have learned since I was married, it is from my Lord, and what I had learned before it was from wy own familie, as from my own brothers, for my father died when I was young, and not from strangers; for though I have seen much company, yet I have converst with few, and I take conversation to be in talking, which I have not practised very much, unlesse it be to particular friends, for naturally I am so wedded to contemplations, that many times when I have been in company, I had not known one word they have said, by reason my busie thoughts have stopped the sense of my hearing; and though I prefer the delight of contemplation, before the pleasure of the senses, yet when the neerest and dearest of my friends speak, as my husband, brothers, sisters, or their children, my affection is such that I give such an atention to them, as if I had no other thoughts but of what they say, or any other sense but hearing; but as I have said of the names and tearms of art, and the several opinions of the Antients, and the distinguishment of the sci<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ences, and the like, I learned them from my neerest and dearest friends as from my own brothers, my Lords brother, and my Lord (but ha<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving the words and termes of art makes me not a Philosopher) nor a Poet; and if every one in justice ought to have a due, then nature must have a share, and truly I will never be so ingrateful as not to acknowledge her favours, or to belie her in saying she hath not been bountiful to me, for she hath given me such materials, as I hope to build me a monumental fame therewith; but to satisfie my Readers, I will tell them as well as I can how I came to know, and understand passages, all though I never practised, or were a spectator therein, or thereof; as put the case my husband, or brothers should tell me of an Army of horse and foot, and that two Armies encountred, and fought a battle, and expresse the forms and figures, rancks and fiels, the flanck, the wings the vans, the rears, and the like, by which relation to my con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ceit I see it in my brain as perfectly, as if the battle was pitcht, and fought there, and my fancy will build discourse therefrom. Like<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wise if they should tell me all the parts of an Animal body, and how they are formed and composed, I conceive it as perfectly to my under<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>standing as if I had seen it dissected although I never did and therefore may be deceived in my understanding, for truly I have gathered more by piece-meals, then from a full relation, or a methodical educa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion for knowledge; but my fancy will build thereupon, and make discourse therefrom, and so of every thing they discourse of, (I say they) that is my husband and brothers; For the singularity of my affections are such, that though I have an ill memory, and could not if it were for my life relate word for word of any discourse, if it be any thing long that I shall hear from strangers, for I am the worst repeater of a story from strangers, or out of a book in the World, when from my neer friends (especially my Lord) whose discourses are lively discriptions, I cannot forget any thing they say, such deep im<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pressions their words print in my brain, when I cannot remember one discourse perfectly from others, were they holy sermons to save my soul.
<pb facs="tcp:48875:7"/>
but as I have said from a bare relation, I can conceive to my think<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing every particular part, and passage, as if I were a witnesse thereof, or an actor therein; but many things, although I should never have heard of any such thing, yet my natural reason will guide and disco<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ver to me, the right and the truth.</p>
<p>For put the case I see a watch, or any other invention, and none should tell me how it was made, yet my natural reason would con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ceive how it was made, so in natural things my natural reason will conceive them without being any wayes instructed; and so working a brain I have that many times on small objects or subjects will raise up many several phancies, and opinions therein, from which my discourse betwixt reason and those opinions will be produced; but the truth is, I have more materials to build with, then ground to build on, wherby they become uselesse, but I beleeve time will moulder them to dust, or accidents, as sicknesse may destroy them, as dropsies may drown them, fevers may burn them, consumptions may waste them, or griefs may wither them, or other imployments like usurpers may throw it out of my head, but as yet my head is fully populated with divers opinions, and so many phancies are therein, as sometimes they lie like a swarm of bees in a round heap, and sometimes they flie abroad to gather honey from the sweet flowry rhetorick of my Lords discourse, and wax from his wise judgement which they work into a comb making chapters therein. But those that make these and the like idle objecti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons against me either have not read all my Epistles, and the rest of my books or understands them not, but that is not my fault, but their unjust natures, to censure and condemn before they examine or understand; Nay they do in somethings faulsely, ac cuse, and maliciously break out of some of my Epistles some parts to throw against me, which is most base and cruel to dismember my book tormenting it with spiteful objections, misforming the truth with falshood: but those that have noble and generous souls will beleeve me, and those that have base and mechannick souls, I care not what they say, and truly I would not have troubled my self in striving to satisfie this present age which is very censorious; but fear the future age wherein I hope to live, may be deceived, and I by false constructions wronged; for I have observed that the ignorant, and malicious, do strive to disturb, and obstruct all probable opinions, wittie ingenui<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ties, honest industry, vertuous indeavours, harmlesse phancies, innocent pleasures, and honourable fames although they become infamous thereby.</p>
<p>Readers I had forgotten to mention the objection, that there is no distinction between a scholer, and a Philosopher, if they mean as being vulgarly called both scholers</p>
<p>I answer a scholer is to be learnd in other mens opinions, inventi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons and actions, and a philosopher is to teach other men his opinions of nature, and to demostrate the works of nature, so that a scholer is to learn a Philosopher to teach, and if they say there is no distinction between a profest scholer, and a profest philosopher, I am not of their opinion; for a profest scholer in theologie, is not a profest Philosopher; for Di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vines leave nature on the left hand, and walk on the right to things su<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pernatural
<pb facs="tcp:48875:7"/>
and if they mean profest scholers, as being bred at univer<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sities ( I answer) that I take not all those that are bred at an Vniver<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sity, and those that are learned to be profest scholers, or those that are great Philosophers to be profest, unlesse they make it their profession, as a profest Divine that hath taken Orders, or a profest Physitian that hath commenced Doctor, or profest Pleaders, or Lawyers that are made Barresters, or Philosophers, that teach Scholers; but certainly there are many that are very learned that are not profest, as being of that profession by which they live.</p>
<p>Likewise an objection for my saying I have not read many Books; but I answer, for not reading of many Authors, had I understood se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral Languages, as I do not, , I have not had so much time; had I indeavoured to have been learned threin, for learning requires close studies, long time, and labour.</p>
<p>Besides, our sex takes so much delight in dressing and adorning themselves, as we for the most part make our gowns our books, our laces our lines, our imbroderies our letters, and our dressings are the time of our studie; and instead of turning over solid leaves, we turn our hair into curles, and our sex is as ambitious to shew them<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>selves to the eyes of the world, when finely drest, as Scholers do to expresse their learning to the ears of the world, when fully fraught with Authors.</p>
<p>But as I have said my head was so full of my own naturai phan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cies, as it had not roome for strangers to boord therein, and certainly natural reason is a better tutor then education; for though education doth help natural reason to a more sudden maturity, yet natural rea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>son was the first educator; for natural reason did first compose Com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mon-Wealths, invented arts, and sciences, and if natural reason have composed, invented and discoverd, I know no reason, but natu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral reason may finde out what natural reason hath composed, invented, and discovered, without the help of education; but some may say that education is like mony n put to use, which begets increase; I say it is true, but natural reason is the principal, which without in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>crease could not be, but in truth natural reason, is both the princi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pal and the increase, for natural reason produceth beneficial effects, and findes out the right and the truth, the wrong and the falshood of things, or causes; but to conclude, what education hath not instructed me, na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tural Reason hath infor med me of many things.</p>
</div>
<div type="to_the_universities">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:8"/>
<head>TO THE TWO UNIVERSITIES.</head>
<opener>
<salute>Most Famously learned,</salute>
</opener>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">I</seg> Here present the sum of my works, not that I think wise School-men, and industrious, laborious students should value my book for any worth, but to receive it without a scorn, for the good incouragement of our sex, lest in time we should grow irratio<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nal as idiots, by the <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> of our spirits, through the carelesse neglects, and despisements of the masculine sex to the effeminate, thinking it impossible we should have either learning or understanding, wit or judgement, as if we had not rational souls as well as men, and we out of a custom of dejected<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse think so too, which makes us quit all all industry towards pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fitable knowledge being imployed onely in looe, and pettie imploy<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments, which takes away not onely our abilities towards arts, but high<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>er capacities in speculations, so as we are become like worms that one<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly live in the dull earth of ignorance, winding our selves sometimes out, by the help of some refreshing rain of good educations which sel<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dom is given us; for we are kept like birds in cages to hop up and down in our houses, not sufferd to fly abroad to see the several changes of fortune, and the various humors, ordained and created by na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture; thus wanting the experiences of nature, we must needs want the understanding and knowledge and so consequently prudence, a nd in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vention of men: thus by an opinion, which I hope is but an erronious one in men, we are shut out of all power, and Authority by reason we are never imployed either in civil nor marshall affaires, our counsels are despised, and laught at, the best of our actions are troden down with scorn, by the over-weaning conceit men have of themselves and through a dispisement of us.</p>
<p>But I considering with my self, that if a right judgement, and a true understanding, &amp; a respectful civility live any where, it must be in learned Universities, where nature is best known, where truth is oftenest found, where civility is most practised, and if I finde not a resent<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment here, I am very confident I shall finde it no where, neither shall I think I deserve it, if you approve not of me, but if I desserve
<pb facs="tcp:48875:8"/>
not Praise, I am sure to receive so much Courtship from this sage society, as to bury me in silence; thus I may have a quiet grave, since not worthy a famous memory; but to lie intombed under the dust of an University will be honour enough for me, and more then if I were worshipped by the vulgar as a Deity. Wherefore if your wisdoms cannot give me the Bayes, let your charity strow me with Cy<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pres; and who knows but after my honourable burial, I may have a glorious resurrection in following ages, since time brings strange and unusual things to passe, I mean unusual to men, though not in na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture: and I hope this action of mine, is not unnatural, though un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>usual for a woman to present a Book to the University, nor impudence, for the action is honest, although it seem vain-glorious, but if it be, I am to be pardoned, since there is little difference between man and beast, but what ambition and glory makes.</p>
</div>
<div type="epilogue">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:9"/>
<head>AN EPILOGE TO MY PHILOSOPHICAL OPINIONS.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">S</seg>Ome say that my Book of Philosophy, it seems as if I had converst with <hi>Des-Cartes</hi> or Master <hi>Hobbes,</hi> or both, or have frequented their studies, by reading their works, but I cannot say but I have seen them both, but upon my conscience I never spake to monsieur <hi>De Cartes</hi> in my lise, nor ever understood what he said, for he spake no English, and I understand no other language, and those times I saw him, which was twice at dinner with my Lord at <hi>Paris,</hi> he did ap<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pear to me a man of the fewest words I ever heard. And for Master <hi>Hobbes,</hi> it is true I have had the like good fortune to see him, and that very often with my Lord at dinner, for I conversing seldom with any strangers, had no other time to see those two famous Philosophers; yet I never heard Master <hi>Hobbes</hi> to my best remembrance treat, or discourse of Philosophy, nor I never spake to Master <hi>Hobbes</hi> twen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty words in my life, I cannot say I did not ask him a question, for when I was in <hi>London</hi> I meet him, and told him as truly I was very glad to see him, and asked him if he would please to do me that honour to stay at dinner, but he with great civility refused me, as having some businesse, which I suppose required his absence.</p>
<p>And for their works, my own foolish fancies do so imploy my time, as they will not give me leave to read their books, for upon my con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>science I never read more of Mounsieur <hi>Des-Cartes</hi> then half his book of passion, and for Master <hi>Hobbes,</hi> I never read more then a little book called De Cive, and that but once, nor never had any bo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dy to read to me, as for their opinions, I cannot say I have not heard of many of them. As the like of others, but upon my conscience not throughly discoursed of, for I have heard the opinions of most Philoso<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>phers in general, yet no otherw aies then if I should see a man, but
<pb facs="tcp:48875:9"/>
neither know his estate, quality, capacity, or natural disposition, thus upon my conscience is a truth, not onely in these two Philosophers, but all Philosophers, and not onely Philosophers, but all their learned men, so that I am no otherwayes learned in writers works, or other opinions then those that onely learned the tearms of arts, and sciences, but know no more. The like they may say of Physitians, as of Philosophers, when they read my opinions of diseases; it is true I have converst with Physitians more then any other learned profession, yet not so much as to increase my understanding, although more then was advantagious for my health, indeed I have been the worst Physitian to my self; be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sides wise learned men think it a discredit to discourse learnedly to ig<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>norant women, and many learned men speak most commonly to women, as women do to children nonsense, as thinking they understand not any thing, or else like those that are of another Language speak such gib<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>brish, to those they would have understood that they understand not themselves yet think those they speak to do conceive them, as if ig<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>norance was bound to understand nonsense, that is not to be understood; but I desire my Readers, or censurers; for some will censure that have not read, or at least not understood me, that I did never take nor steal any opinion, or argument from any other as my own, nor never will, and if I hit or light upon the same, it is meer chance. Tis true, I have mentioned many opinions, but not as my own opinions or arguments, but rather, <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> civilly I have been opposite to those opinions I have heard of, and I make no question but if my Readers will take the paines to compare my writings to others, and throughly examine them, they will I make no question, finde great difference; for though other Philosophy have treated of matter, form, and motion, being the fundamental ground, of all all natural Philosophical discourse, yet I believe not my way, nor I never read any book of diseases, or medicines but <hi>Gerrards Herball,</hi> which no question is a very rare book, and cetainly discribes the tempers of herbs, fruits, and drugs very lear<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nedly, but I do verily <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> the learning lies more in the tempers then in the applications; for I beleeve where one is rightly applied, forty are falsly applied, and how shall it be otherwaies, unlesse he had studied the motions and tempers of diseases; for one and the same diseases may be of several tempers, and motions, wherefore one and the same simple will not cure one and the same kinde, or rather sort of disease; Wherefore I beseech my readers to be so charitable, and just, as not to bury my works in the monuments of other writers, but if they will bu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ry them, let it be in their own dust, or oblivion, for I had rather be forgotten, then scrape acquaintance, or insinuate my self into others company, or brag of received favours, or take undeserved gifts, or belie noble Benefactors, or to steal, although I were sure the theft would never be discovered, and would make me live eternally.</p>
<p>But I have no acquaintance with old Authors, nor no familiarity with the moderns, I have received no instructions by learning, and I never owned that which was not justly my own, nor never stole that which was justly anothers, neither have I retained, but plain truth to defend, and conscience towitnesse for me.</p>
<pb facs="tcp:48875:10"/>
<p>Besides, I have heard that learning spoiles the natural wit, and the fancies, of others, drive the fancies out of our own braines, as enemies to the nature, or at least troublesome guests that fill up all the rooms of the house.</p>
<p>This opinion, or rather a known truth, was a sufficient cause for me, neither to read many Books, or hear arguments, or to dispute opinions, had I ever been edicted to one, or accustomed to the other, by reason I found a naturall inclination, or motion in my own brain to fancies, and truly I am as all the world is, partial, although perchance, or at least I hope not so much as many are, yet enough to desire that my own fancies, and opinions might live in the world, rather then the fancies and opinions of other mens in my brain.</p>
</div>
<div type="to_the_reader">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:10"/>
<head>AN EPISTLE TO MY HONOURABLE READERS.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">M</seg>Ost Noble Reader, let not partialitie, or obstina<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cie weigh judgments scales, but truth; wherefore if you weigh my Philosophical, and Physical opi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nions with the ancient Philosophers, lay by the weaknesse, and incapacity of our sex; my un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>experienced age, my unpractised time, my igno<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rant studies, my faint knowledge, and dim un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>derstanding to help to pair my discourse, with theirs, in which scale there are learned studies, long experience, practised time, high argu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments, and School-disputations; Besides, they draw and make the large river of their discourse from many several springs; mine onely flows in little Rivolets, from the natural spring in my own brain.</p>
</div>
<div type="to_the_reader">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:11"/>
<head>AN EPISTLE TO THE Reader, for my Book of Philosophy.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">P</seg>Erchance many that read this book, will hardly understand it, not but it may be as rational, and as probable, as any that have writ before, but unlesse they be contemplary persons, which are not many in our nation, especially in the Protestant opinion, which live not Monastical lives, are not so curious, nor so inquisitive, after nature, as to study that Science; Besides, they think it unprofitable, bring<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing no advantage; but they are much mistaken, for that it is a great insight to the knowledge of all Vegetables, Minerals, and Animals, their constitutions, their sympathies, and antipathies, their extractions, and applications which they apply, for health, and prolonging of life; Be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sides, the study in this Science, brings them acquainted with the course of the stars and planets, and the several tempers of the Climats, and the nature of the several Soyls, which is profitable in husbandry; then it is advantagious for the art of Navigation, and Plantations, and many other things; but above all, this study is a great delight, and pleases the curiosity of mens minds, it carries their thoughts a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bove vulgar and common Objects, it elevates their spirits to an as<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>piring pitch; It gives room for the untired appetites of man, to walk or run in, for so spatious it is, that it is beyond the compasse of time; besides, it gives pleasure in varieties, for infinite wayes are sirawed with infinite varieties, neither doth it binde up man to those strickt rules as other Sciances do, it gives them an honest liberty, and proves temperance is the greatest pleasure in nature. Tis true, moral Philosophy is an excellent study, but the doctrine is too strict for the practise, for it teaches more then can be followed, and Theologie is a glorious study, but the way is difficult and dangerous, for though there are many pathes, yet there is but one that leads to heaven, and those that step awrie fall into the Gulph of damnation, and the deep study in this many times blindes the eyes, both of faith and reason, and instead of uniting mankind with love, to live in peace, it makes discords with controversies, raises up fa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ction to uphold each-side, whose endlesse quarrels are followed with such hatred, and fought with such malice and envie, and the zeal spits so much blood, as if not onely several parties would be rased out, but
<pb facs="tcp:48875:11"/>
the bulk of mankinde; And to study Law, is to study dissention, to study Logick is to study deceit, to make falshood appear like truth; to study Rhetorick is to study words more then sense, and many the like studies are more painful then useful, more time lost then profit got, more tedious then pleasant, more sophistry then truth. Indeed the Mathematicks brings both profit and pleasure to the life of man, it gives just measure and equal weight, it makes all odd reckonings even, it sets all musical notes, it brings concord out of discord, it gives diminution and extention; But as I said before, few or none but Monastical men, which live contemplary lives, despising the vanities of the world, next to the service of God, seek to be ac<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>quainted with nature, and to observe the course of her works, yet in an humble and respectful manner, as to admire her curiosity, and to glori<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fie and adore the God of nature, for the wonders they finde by her works, and workings: for this reason, if I had been so learned, I would have put my book into Latine, which is a general language through all Europe, and not have writ it in my native Language, which goeth no further then the kingdom of <hi>England,</hi> wherein I fear my book will finde but little applause; because few therein study na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tural Philosophy, and what they understand not, they cannot judge of, yet I beleeve all that read will take upon them to give a censure, and what their weak braines is not capable to reach at, their active tongues are capable to pull down, so that I fear me my book will be lost in o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>blivion, or condemned by ignorance, unlesse some generous disposi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion which hath a genius in natural Philosophy, and learned and e<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>loquent in the Latine tongue will translate my work; yet I had ra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther my book should die in Oblivion, then to be divulged to disad<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vantage, and instead of cloathing it in a new garment, they will dismember the body of sense, as to put out the natural eyes, and put in glasse eyes in the place, or to cut off the legs, and then set the body upon wooden stumps, but unlesse the Translator hath a genius sutable to the Author of the Original, the Original will be disfigured with mistakes; yet it is easier to translate prose then verse, for rimes, number, and sense, are hard to match in several Languages, it is double labour, and requires double capacitie; for although <hi>Ovid</hi> and <hi>Dubartus</hi> were so happy as to meet a <hi>Sylvester</hi> and a <hi>Sands,</hi> yet very few or no other had the like good fortune in our Language: for this reason I would have turned my Atomes out of verse into prose, and joyned it to this book, but I finding my brain would be like a river that is turned from its natural course, which will neither run so smooth, swift, easie, nor free, when it is forced from its natural motion and course, both which made me desist &amp;c.</p>
</div>
<div type="to_the_reader">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:12"/>
<head>AN EPISTLE TO MY READERS.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">I</seg> Must advertise my Readers that though I have writ difserent wayes of one and the same subject, yet not to obstruct, crosse, or contradict; but I have used the freedom, or taken the liberty to draw seve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral works upon one ground, or like as to build several rooms upon one foundation, likewise my desire was, to expresse the several works that several motions make in printed figures, that the sense of my opinions might be explained to the eye, as well as to the ear, or conceivements of my Readers; but by reason the Painters and Cutters in this Country cannot speak, nor understand English, nor I any other Language; which reason per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>swaded me to let my Book be Printed without them, for though I might have had such an Interpreter that could expresse grosse ma<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>terial subjects, yet none that were so learned in both Languages, as to expresse, and instruct them to expresse by their art the figures of the fine, curious, subtil, and obscure motions in nature, and to have them all done would have rather puzled my Readers, and confoun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ded the sense of my opinions, then any wayes have advantaged the one, or informed the other.</p>
<p>Wherefore I must intreat my Readers to take a little more paines, and care in the reading, and considering part.</p>
</div>
<div type="to_the_reader">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:12"/>
<head>AN EPISTLE TO MY READERS.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">I</seg> Desire my Readers to give me the same priviledge to discourse in natural Philosophy, as Scholers have in schooles, which I have heard speak freely, and boldly, without being condemned for Atheisme; for they speak as natural Philosophers, not as Divines: and since it is natural Philosophy, and not Theologie, I treat on, pray account me not an Atheist, but beleeve as I do in God Almighty.</p>
</div>
<div type="treatise">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:13"/>
<head>A CONDEMNING TREATISE OF ATOMES.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">I</seg> Cannot think that the substance of infinite mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter is onely a body of dust, such as small atoms, and that there is no solidity, but what they make, nor no degrees, but what they compose, nor no change and variety, but as they move, as onely by fleeing about as dust and ashes, that are blown about with winde, which me thinks should make such uncer<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tainties, such disproportioned figures, and confused creations, as there would be an infinite and eternal disorder. But surely such wandring and confused figures could never produce such infinite effects; such rare compositions, such various figures, such several kindes, such constant continuance of each kinde, such exact rules, such undissol<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vable Laws, such fixt decrees, such order, such method, such life, such sense, such faculties, such reason, such knowledge, such power, which makes me condemn the general opinions of atoms, though not my particular opinions of the figures, that the long atoms make air, the round water, the flat square earth; also that all the other fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures are partly severed from those; also the measure, and the weight of atoms, of slime, flame, of burning, of quenching of fire, and of the several motions, compositions, and composers in their creating and dissolving of figures; also their wars and peace, their sympathies and antipathies, and many the like; but this opinion of mine is, if the infinite, and eternal matter are atoms, but I have considered that if the onely matter were atoms, and that every atome is of the same degree, and the same quantity, as well as of the same matter; then every atom must be of a living substance, that is innate mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter, for else they could not move, but would be an infinite dull and immoving body, for figures cannot make motion, unlesse motion be in the matter, and it cannot be a motion that sets them at work without substance, for motion cannot be without substance or produced therefrom, and if motion proceeds from substance, that sub<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stance is moving innately, but if motion is nothing, then every several nothings, which are called several motions, are gods to infi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nite matter, and our stronger nothing, which is every stronger motion, is god to every weaker nothing, which is every weaker motion; for if motion depend upon nothing, every particular motion is absolute; but the old opinions of atoms seems not so clear to my reason, as my own, and absolutly new opinions, which I hear call my Philosophical opinions, which opinions seem to me to be most probable, and these opi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nions are like Chymistrie, that from a grosse substance, extract the substance and essence, and spirits of life, or knowledge which I call the innated matter.</p>
</div>
<div type="opinion">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:13"/>
<head>THE OPINION, or RELIGION OF THE OLD PHILOSOPHERS.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">N</seg>Atural Philosophers in their opinions make three gods, the causer, the worker, and the matter, as God, na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture, and the Chaos, all three being eternal, as the causer God was, is, and shall be, the worker, nature was, is, and shall be, the matter, chaos was, is, and shal be, was ever, is present, and shall be eternally, and whatsoever was in its self from all eternity, and shall be to all eternity, is a God, but if they make them all but one thing, then they may say there is but one God; but if they make them three distinct things, then they make three Gods, for though they make them all one in unity, yet not in property, but God is like a Center, from whom all infinites flow, as from him, and through him, and to him, his infinite knowledg knowes all past, present, and what is to come, and is a fixt instant.</p>
</div>
<div type="preface">
<pb facs="tcp:48875:14"/>
<head>THE TEXT TO MY Natural Sermon.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">I</seg> As the preacher of nature, do take my text out of natural observance, and contemplation, I begin from the first chapter, which is the onely, and in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>finite matter, and conclude in the last which is eternity.</p>
<p>But I desire my noble Readers to hear me with so much patience, or be so just to me as to observe, that though my text is common, for who hath not heard of the first matter? and my application old, for what is older then eternity?</p>
<p>Yet that my arguments, and proofs are new; for what ancient Phi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>losophers have preached after my way? wherefore most industrious and ingenious students, cast me not out of your Schools, nor condemn my opinions, out of a dispisement of my sex; for though nature hath made the active strength of the effeminat sex weaker then the mascu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>line, yet perchance she may elevate some fancies, and create some opini<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons, as sublime, and probable in effeminate brains as in masculine.</p>
<p>Wherefore it were unjust to condemn the probable particulars for the errours of the generality; and if you speak or think me too vainglorious in pleading in my own cause, it may be thought you are irregular, and if I should not plead for my self in a just cause, it may be thought I were not a right begotten daughter of nature, but a monster produced by her escapes, or defects; for every true childe of nature will require its just inheritance.</p>
<p>The first cause is matter.</p>
<p>The second is Motion.</p>
<p>The third is figure</p>
<p>which produceth all natural effects.</p>
<p>Nature is matter, form, and motion, all these being as it were but one thing; matter is the body of nature, form is the shape of nature and motion.</p>
<p>The spirits of nature, which is the life of nature, and the several motions are the several actions of nature.</p>
<p>The several figures are the several postures of nature, and the se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral parts, the several members of nature.</p>
</div>
</front>
<body>
<div type="text">
<pb n="1" facs="tcp:48875:14"/>
<div n="1" type="part">
<head>OF MATTER AND MOTION.</head>
<div n="1" type="chapter">
<head>CHAP. I.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">T</seg>HERE is no <hi>first matter,</hi> nor <hi>first Motion;</hi> for <hi>matter</hi> and <hi>motion</hi> are <hi>infinite,</hi> and being <hi>infinite,</hi> must consequently be <hi>Eternal;</hi> and though but <hi>one matter,</hi> yet there is no such thing, as the <hi>whole matter,</hi> that is, as one should say, <hi>All.</hi> And though there is but one <hi>kinde</hi> of <hi>matter,</hi> yet there are <hi>in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>finite degrees</hi> of <hi>matter,</hi> as <hi>thinner</hi> and <hi>thicker, softer</hi> and <hi>harder, weightier,</hi> and <hi>lighter;</hi> and as there is but one <hi>matter,</hi> so there is but <hi>one motion,</hi> yet there are <hi>infinite degrees of motion,</hi> as <hi>swifter</hi> and <hi>slower;</hi> and <hi>infinite changes of motion;</hi> And although there is but one <hi>matter,</hi> yet there are <hi>in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>finite</hi> of <hi>parts</hi> in that <hi>matter,</hi> and so <hi>infinits</hi> of <hi>Figures:</hi> if <hi>infinite figures, infinite sizes;</hi> if <hi>infinite sizes, infinite degrees</hi> of <hi>bignesse,</hi> and <hi>infinite degrees</hi> of <hi>smalnesse, infinite thicknesse, infinite thin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesle, infinite lightnesse, infinite weightinesse;</hi> if <hi>infinite de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grees</hi> of <hi>motion, infinite degrees</hi> of <hi>strengths;</hi> if <hi>infinite degrees</hi> of <hi>strengths, infinite degrees</hi> of <hi>power,</hi> and <hi>infinite degrees</hi> of <hi>knowledge,</hi> and <hi>infinite degrees</hi> of <hi>sense.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="2" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 2. <hi>Of the</hi> Form <hi>and the</hi> Minde.<note place="margin">I mean of Form, dull Matter.</note>
</head>
<p>AS I said, there is but <hi>one Matter,</hi> thinner and thicker which is the <hi>Form,</hi> and the <hi>Minde,</hi> that is, <hi>Matter mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving,</hi> or <hi>Matter moved;</hi> likewise there is but one <hi>motion,</hi>
<pb facs="tcp:48875:15"/>
<gap reason="duplicate" extent="1 page">
<desc>〈1 page duplicate〉</desc>
</gap>
<pb n="1" facs="tcp:48875:15"/>
<gap reason="duplicate" extent="1 page">
<desc>〈1 page duplicate〉</desc>
</gap>
<pb n="2" facs="tcp:48875:16"/>
though flower or swifter moving several wayes; but the slow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>er or weaker motions are no lesse motion, then the stronger or swifter. So <hi>Matter</hi> that is is thinnest or thickest, softest or hardest, yet is but <hi>one matter;</hi> for if it were divided by <hi>di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grees,</hi> untill it came to an <hi>Atome,</hi> that <hi>Atome</hi> would still be the same <hi>matter,</hi> as well as the greatest bulk. But we cannot say smallest, or biggest,, thinnest, softest or hardest it <hi>In<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>finite.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="3" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 3. <hi>Eternal matter.</hi>
</head>
<p>THat <hi>matter</hi> which was <hi>solid,</hi> and weighty from all <hi>Eternity,</hi> may be so eternally; and what was <hi>spungie,</hi> and light from all Eternity, may be so eternally; and what had innate mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion from Eternity, may be so eternally; and what was dull without innate motion from Eternity, may be so eternally: for if the <hi>degrees</hi> could change, then there might be all thin, and no thick, or all thick, and no <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> all hard, no soft, and fluid, or all fluid, and no solidity. For <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> contracting and di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lating may bring and joyn <hi>parts</hi> together, or separate parts asun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>der, yet those <hi>parts</hi> shall not be any other wayes, then by Nature they were.</p>
</div>
<div n="4" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 4. Of <hi>Infinite matter.</hi>
</head>
<p>
<hi>INfinite matter</hi> cannot have exact <hi>Form,</hi> or <hi>Figure,</hi> because it hath no <hi>Limits:</hi> but being divided by <hi>motion</hi> into several parts, those <hi>Parts</hi> may have perfect <hi>Figures,</hi> so long as those <hi>Figures</hi> last; yet these <hi>parts</hi> cannot be taken from the <hi>Infinite Body.</hi> And though parts may be divided in the <hi>Body Infinite,</hi> and joyned several wayes, yet <hi>Infinite</hi> can neither be added, nor diminished; yet division is as <hi>infinite</hi> as the <hi>matter divided.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="5" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 5. <hi>No proportion in Nature.</hi>
</head>
<p>IN <hi>Nature</hi> there is no such thing, as <hi>Number</hi> or <hi>Quantity;</hi> for <hi>Number,</hi> and <hi>Quantity</hi> have onely reference to <hi>division:</hi> neither is there any such thing as <hi>time</hi> in <hi>Eternity;</hi> for <hi>Time</hi> hath no reference but to the <hi>Present,</hi> if there be any such thing as <hi>Present.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="6" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 6. <hi>Of one</hi> Kinde <hi>of</hi> Matter.</head>
<p>ALthough there may be <hi>infinite degrees of matter,</hi> yet the <hi>Nature,</hi> and <hi>kinde of matter</hi> is <hi>finite:</hi> for <hi>Infinite</hi> of <hi>seve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rall kindes of matter</hi> would make a <hi>Confusion.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="7" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 7. Of <hi>Infinite knowledge.</hi>
</head>
<p>THere can be no absolute <hi>Knowledge,</hi> if <hi>infinite degrees of Knowledge;</hi> nor no <hi>absolute power,</hi> if there be <hi>infinite degrees of strength:</hi> nor <hi>present,</hi> if infinite degrees of motion.</p>
</div>
<div n="8" type="chapter">
<pb n="3" facs="tcp:48875:16" rendition="simple:additions"/>
<head>Chap. 8. <hi>No</hi> Judge <hi>in</hi> Nature.</head>
<p>NO <hi>Intreaty,</hi> nor <hi>Petition</hi> can perswade <hi>Nature,</hi> nor any Bribes can corrupt, or alter the course of nature. Justly there can be no complaints made against <hi>Nature,</hi> nor to <hi>Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture. Nature</hi> can give no redresse. There are no Appeals can be made, nor <hi>Causes</hi> determined, because <hi>Nature</hi> is infinite, and <hi>eternal:</hi> for <hi>Infinite</hi> cannot be confined, or prescribed, setled, rul'd, or dispos'd, because the <hi>Effects</hi> are sa <hi>infinite</hi> as the <hi>Causes:</hi> and what is infinite, hath no absolute power: for what is <hi>absolute,</hi> is finite.</p>
<lg>
<l>
<hi>Finite</hi> cannot tell how <hi>Infinite</hi> doth flow,</l>
<l>Nor how <hi>infinite matter</hi> moveth to and fro.</l>
<l>For <hi>infinite</hi> of <hi>Knowledge</hi> cannot guess</l>
<l>Of <hi>infinite</hi> of <hi>matter,</hi> more, or lesse:</l>
<l>Nor <hi>infinite</hi> of <hi>Causes</hi> cannot finde</l>
<l>The <hi>infinite Effects</hi> of every Kinde.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="9" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 9. <hi>Of</hi> Perfection.</head>
<lg>
<l>IN <hi>infinite</hi> can no perfection be,</l>
<l>For why? <hi>Perfection</hi> is in <hi>Unity.</hi>
</l>
<l>In <hi>infinite</hi> no <hi>union</hi> can combine,</l>
<l>For that has neither <hi>Number, point</hi> nor <hi>Line;</hi>
<note place="margin">Some think there was a <hi>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
</hi>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fused Heap.</note>
</l>
<l>Though <hi>infinite</hi> can have no <hi>Figure,</hi>
</l>
<l>Yet not lie all confus'd in heaps together</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="10" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 10. Of Inequalities.</head>
<lg>
<l>IF <hi>infinites</hi> have <hi>infinite</hi> degrees,</l>
<l>And none alike to make Equalities.</l>
<l>As if a <hi>Haire</hi> be cut with curious Arts,</l>
<l>
<hi>Innumerable</hi> but unequal parts,</l>
<l>And that not any part alike shall be,</l>
<l>How shall we joyn, to make them well agree?</l>
<l>If every one is like it self alone,</l>
<l>Three cannot be, unlesse three equal <hi>One.</hi>
</l>
</lg>
<p>If <hi>one,</hi> and <hi>one</hi> make <hi>two;</hi> and two, and <hi>two</hi> make <hi>four</hi> yet there must be <hi>two equal ones</hi> to make <hi>two,</hi> and <hi>two equal two's</hi> to to make <hi>four.</hi> And as <hi>two</hi> and <hi>one</hi> make <hi>three,</hi> yet there must be <hi>two equal ones</hi> joyned to a <hi>single one,</hi> to make <hi>three,</hi> or <hi>three equal single ones</hi> to joyn in <hi>three.</hi>
</p>
<p>The like is in weight, and Measure, Motion and Strength.</p>
</div>
<div n="11" type="chapter">
<pb n="4" facs="tcp:48875:17"/>
<head>Chap. 11. <hi>Of</hi> Unities.</head>
<lg>
<l>IN <hi>infinite</hi> if <hi>infinite degrees,</hi>
</l>
<l>Then those <hi>Degrees</hi> may meet in <hi>Unities.</hi>
</l>
<l>And if <hi>one man</hi> should have the <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> of four,</l>
<l>Then <hi>four</hi> to equal him will be no more.</l>
<l>As if <hi>one Line</hi> should be in <hi>four</hi> parts cut,</l>
<l>Shall <hi>equal</hi> the <hi>same Line</hi> together put;</l>
<l>So <hi>two</hi> and <hi>one,</hi> though odd is theer;</l>
<l>Yet <hi>three</hi> and <hi>three</hi> shall equal be.</l>
<l>Like those that equal spaces backwards go,</l>
<l>To those that's forward, equals them we know.</l>
<l>Like Buckets in a Well if empty be,</l>
<l>As one descends, the other ascends, we see;</l>
<l>So <hi>Motions,</hi> though their crosse, may well agree,</l>
<l>As oft in Musick make a Harmony.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="12" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 12. <hi>There is no</hi> Vacuity.</head>
<lg>
<l>IN Nature if <hi>Degrees</hi> may equal be,</l>
<l>All may be full, and no Vacuity.</l>
<l>As Boxes small, and smaller may contain,</l>
<l>So bigger, and bigger must there be again.</l>
<l>Infinite may run contracting, and dilating,</l>
<l>Still, still, by degrees without a separating.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="13" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 13. <hi>Of</hi> Thin, <hi>and</hi> Thick Matter.</head>
<lg>
<l>THus may <hi>thin Matter</hi> into Solid run,</l>
<l>And by its motion;, make <hi>thick Matter turn</hi>
</l>
<l>In several wayes, and fashions, as it will,</l>
<l>Although <hi>dull Matter</hi> of it self lie still:</l>
<l>Tis not, that <hi>Solid Matter</hi> moves in Thin,</l>
<l>For that is <hi>dull,</hi> but <hi>thin</hi> which moves therein.</l>
<l>Like Marrow in the Bones, or Blood in Veins;</l>
<l>Or thinner matter which the blood contains.</l>
<l>Like Heat in Fire, the effect is straight to burn,</l>
<l>So <hi>Matter thin</hi> makes solid <hi>matter</hi> run.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="14" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 14. <hi>Of</hi> Vacuum.</head>
<lg>
<l>IF <hi>Infinite inequalitie</hi> doth run,<note place="margin">The Readers may take ei<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther Opinion.</note>
</l>
<l>Then must there be <hi>in Infinite Vacuum.</hi>
</l>
<l>For what's <hi>unequal,</hi> cannot joyned be</l>
<l>So close, but there will be <hi>Vacuity.</hi>
</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="15" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 15. <hi>The</hi> Unity <hi>of</hi> Nature.</head>
<p>
<hi>NAture</hi> tends to <hi>Unity,</hi> being but of a kinde of Matter, but the <hi>degrees</hi> of this Matter being thinner, and thicker,
<pb n="5" facs="tcp:48875:17"/>
softer, and harder, weightier, and lighter, makes it, as it were, of different kinde, when tis but <hi>different degrees:</hi> Like se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral <hi>extractions,</hi> as it were out of one and the same thing; and when it comes to such an <hi>Extract,</hi> it turns to <hi>Spirits,</hi> that is, to have an <hi>Innate motion.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="16" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 16. <hi>Of</hi> Division.</head>
<p>THe several degrees of Matter cause <hi>Division</hi> by <hi>different motion,</hi> making several <hi>Figures,</hi> erecting, and dissolving them, according as their <hi>matter</hi> moves. This makes <hi>motion</hi> and <hi>Figure</hi> alwayes to be in War, but not the <hi>matter;</hi> for it is the several <hi>effects</hi> that disagree, but not the <hi>Causes:</hi> for the <hi>E<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ternal matter</hi> is alwayes in peace, as being not subject to change;<note place="margin">Several Moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions, and se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>verall Figures</note> but <hi>motion</hi> and <hi>Figure,</hi> being subject to <hi>Change,</hi> strive for <hi>Supe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>riority:</hi> which can never be, because subject to <hi>Change.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="17" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 17. <hi>The</hi> Order <hi>of</hi> Nature.</head>
<p>THe Reason, that there is not a <hi>Confusion</hi> in <hi>Nature,</hi> but an orderly Course therein, is, the <hi>Eternal matter</hi> is alwayes <hi>one,</hi> and the <hi>same:</hi> for though there are <hi>Infinite degrees,</hi> yet the <hi>Nature</hi> of that <hi>Matter</hi> never alters. But all variety is made according to the several <hi>Degrees,</hi> and the several degrees do palliate and in some sense make an <hi>Equality</hi> in <hi>infinite;</hi> so as it is not the <hi>several degrees</hi> of <hi>matter,</hi> that strive against each other, but <hi>several motions</hi> drive them against one another.</p>
</div>
<div n="18" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 18. <hi>Of</hi> War, <hi>and no absolute</hi> Power.</head>
<p>THe Reason that all things make War upon one another, is, the several <note n="*" place="margin">Not the <hi>Matter,</hi> but the <hi>Degrees.</hi>
</note>
<hi>Degrees</hi> of <hi>matter,</hi> the contradiction of <hi>motion,</hi> and the Degrees, and the <hi>advantage</hi> of <hi>the shapes</hi> of (<note n="*" place="margin">Not the <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> of Figures, but the manner of shapes: which makes some shapes to have the advantage over others much bigger, as a Mouse will kill an Elephant.</note>) <hi>Figures</hi> alwayes striving.</p>
</div>
<div n="19" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 19. <hi>Of</hi> Power.</head>
<p>THere is no <hi>absolute</hi> Power, because <hi>Power</hi> is <hi>infinite,</hi> and the <hi>infinitenesse</hi> hinders the absolutenesse: for if there were an <hi>absolute power,</hi> there would be no dispute: but because there is no <hi>absolute power,</hi> there would be no dispute; but be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cause there is no <hi>absolute power,</hi> therefore there be Disputes, and will be eternally: for the several degrees of <hi>matter, motion,</hi> and <hi>Figure</hi> strive for the Superiority, making <hi>Faction</hi> by (<note n="*" place="margin">Which is in Likenesse.</note>) <hi>Sym<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pathy,</hi> and Fraction, by (<note n="*" place="margin">Unlike<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse.</note>) Antipathy.</p>
</div>
<div n="20" type="chapter">
<pb n="6" facs="tcp:48875:18"/>
<head>Chap. 20. Similizing <hi>the</hi> spirits, <hi>or</hi> Innate Matter.</head>
<p>THe <hi>Spirits,</hi> or <hi>Essences</hi> in <hi>Nature</hi> are like Quick-silver: for say it be <hi>fluid,</hi> it will part into little <hi>Sphaerical Bodies,</hi> run<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning about, though it be nere so small a Quantity: and though they are <hi>Sphaerical,</hi> yet those <hi>Figures</hi> they make by several, and subtle motion, may differ variously, and Infinitely.</p>
<p>This <hi>innate matter</hi> is a kinde of <hi>god</hi> or <hi>gods</hi> to the <hi>dull part of matter,</hi> having power to form it, as it please, and why may not every degree of <hi>Innate matter</hi> be as several <hi>gods,</hi> and so a <hi>strong motion</hi> be a god to the <hi>weaker,</hi> and so have an <hi>infinite,</hi> and <hi>Eternal Government?</hi> As we will compare <hi>motions</hi> to <hi>Officers,</hi> or <hi>Magistrates.</hi> The <hi>Constable</hi> rules the <hi>Parish,</hi> the <hi>Mayor,</hi> the Constable, the King the Mayor, and some <hi>Higher power</hi> the <hi>King:</hi> thus <hi>infinite powers</hi> rule <hi>Eternity.</hi> Or again thus, the <hi>Constable</hi> rules the <hi>Hundred,</hi> the <hi>Major</hi> rules the <hi>City,</hi> the <hi>King</hi> the <hi>kingdom,</hi> and <hi>Caesar</hi> the <hi>world.</hi>
</p>
<lg>
<l>Thus may <hi>dull matter</hi> over others rule,</l>
<l>According as 'tis* shap'd by <hi>motions Tool.</hi>
<note place="margin">One <hi>Shape</hi> hath power over another; one <hi>Minde</hi> knowes more then another.</note>
</l>
<l>So <hi>Innate matter</hi> Governs by degree,</l>
<l>According as the <hi>stronger motions</hi> be.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="21" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 21. <hi>Of</hi> Operation.</head>
<p>ALL things in the world have an <hi>Operative power;</hi> which <hi>Operation</hi> is made by <hi>Sympathetical motions</hi> &amp; <hi>Antipathetical motions,</hi> in several <hi>Figures.</hi> for the <hi>assisting Operation</hi> is caused by <hi>one,</hi> the <hi>destructive Operation</hi> by another; like Poyson and cordials, the one kills, the other cures: but <hi>Operations</hi> are infi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nite, as <hi>motions.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="22" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 22. Natural, <hi>or</hi> Sensivtie War.</head>
<p>ALL <hi>Natural War</hi> is caused either by a <hi>Sympathetical mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion,</hi> or an <hi>Antepathetical motion.</hi> For <hi>Natural War,</hi> and <hi>Peace</hi> proceed from Self-preservation, which belongs only to the <hi>Figure;</hi> for nothing is annihilated in <hi>Nature,</hi> but the particular prints, or <hi>several shapes</hi> that <hi>motion</hi> makes of <hi>matter;</hi> which <hi>motion</hi> in every <hi>Figure</hi> strives to maintain what they have cre<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ated: for when some <hi>Figures</hi> destroyothers, it is for the main<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tenance or security ofthemselves: and when the destruction is for, Food it is <hi>Sympathetical motion,</hi> which makes a particular Appetite, or nourishment from some <hi>Creatures</hi> to others; but an <hi>Antipathetical motion</hi> that makes the <hi>Destruction.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="23" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 23. <hi>Of</hi> Annihilation.</head>
<p>THere can be no <hi>Annihilation</hi> in <hi>Nature:</hi> nor particular <hi>mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions,</hi> and <hi>Figures,</hi> because the <hi>matter</hi> remains that was the
<pb n="7" facs="tcp:48875:18"/>
<hi>Cause</hi> of those <hi>Motions</hi> and <hi>Figures.</hi> As for <hi>particular figures,</hi> although every <hi>part</hi> is separated that made such a <hi>figure,</hi> yet it is not <hi>Annihilated;</hi> because <hi>those parts remain</hi> that <hi>made it.</hi> So as it is not impossible but the same particular Figures may be erected by the same <hi>motions,</hi> that joyned those parts, and in the <hi>matter</hi> may repeat the same <hi>motion eternally so by successi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on:</hi> and the same <hi>matter</hi> in a <hi>figure</hi> may be erected and dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>persed eternally. Thus the dispersing of the <hi>matter</hi> into par<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ticular<note place="margin">Either by Growth, or Sense, or Reason.</note> figures by an <hi>Alteration of motion,</hi> we call <hi>Death;</hi> and the joyning of parts to create a <hi>Figure,</hi> we call life. <hi>Death</hi> is a <hi>Separation, life</hi> is a <hi>Contraction.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="24" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 24. LIFE.</head>
<p>
<hi>LIfe</hi> is the <hi>Extract,</hi> or <hi>spirit</hi> of <hi>common matter:</hi> (*) this <hi>ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tract</hi>
<note place="margin">For when Matter comes to such a de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gree, it quick<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ens.</note> is Agile, being alwayes in motion; for the Thin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse of this <hi>matter</hi> causes the subtilty of the Quality, or pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>perty, which quality, or preporty is to work upon all dull <hi>Matter.</hi>
</p>
<p>This <hi>Essence,</hi> or <hi>life,</hi> which are Spirits of sense, move of themselves: for the dull part of Matter moves not, but as it is moved thereby.</p>
<list>
<head>
<hi>Their common motions</hi> are four.</head>
<item>Atractive.</item>
<item>Retentive.</item>
<item>Digestive.</item>
<item>Expulsive.</item>
</list>
<p>
<hi>Attractive</hi> is that which we call <hi>Growth,</hi> or <hi>youth. Retentive,</hi>
<note place="margin">That it begins to move, and Motion is Life.</note> is that we call <hi>strength. Digestive</hi> is that we call <hi>Health,</hi> that is an equal distribution of parts to parts, and agreeing of those spirits. <hi>Expulsive</hi> is that which we call <hi>Death,</hi> or <hi>decay.</hi>
</p>
<p>The <hi>Attractive spirits</hi> gather, and draw the materials to<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gether.</p>
<p>The <hi>Digestive spirits</hi> do cut and carve out every thing.</p>
<p>The <hi>Retentive</hi> do fit, and lay them in their proper places.</p>
<p>The <hi>Expulsive</hi> do pul down, and scatter them about.</p>
<p>Those <hi>spirits</hi> most commonly move according to the matter they work on. For in spung and porous light matter, their <hi>motion</hi> is quick; in solid, and weighty, their <hi>motion</hi> is slow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>er. For the solid parts are not onely dull, and immoveable of themselves, but they hinder and <note n="*" place="margin">I mean when I say Obstruct, that it either turns their motion another way or makes them move slower.</note> obstruct those Spirits of sence, and though they cut and pierce through all, yet it is with more labour, and slower motion; for their motions change according to the quantity and quality of that matter they meet with; for that which is porous and spungy, the Figures that they form that <hi>matter</hi> in, are sooner made, and sudenlier destroyed, then that which is more combustible. This is the reason, Minerals last longer then <hi>Vegetables,</hi>
<pb n="8" facs="tcp:48875:19"/>
and <hi>Animals,</hi> because that matter is both tougher and harder to work on, then <hi>Vegetables</hi> and <hi>Animals</hi> are.</p>
<p>These <hi>Sensitive</hi> spirits we may similize to several workmen, being alwayes busily imployed, removing, lifting, carrying, driving, drawing, digging, and the like. And although these spirits are of substance thinner then dull matter, yet they are stronger by reason of their subtility, and motion, which moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on gives them power: for they are of an acute quality, be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing the <hi>Vitriol,</hi> as it were, of <hi>Nature,</hi> cut and divide all that op<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>poseth their way.</p>
<p>Now these <hi>spirts,</hi> though they be <hi>infinite,</hi> yet we cannot think them so grosse an infinite, as combustible matter, yet those thinner <hi>infinites</hi> may cut, and carve the thicker infinites all into several <hi>figures:</hi> like as <hi>Aqua-fortis</hi> will eat into the hardest iron, and divide it into small parts.</p>
<p>As I have said before, the <hi>spirits of life</hi> works according as the <hi>matter</hi> is, for every thing is shap'd according to the soli<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dity of the <hi>matter;</hi> like as a man which builds a house of such wood, which is tough, and strong, because he knows otherwise it will break, by reason of the great weight they are to bear, but to make laths, he takes his wood and cuts it thin, that the nails may the easier passe through, so joyning and fit<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ting several sorts to proper uses to build his house. Or like a <hi>Cook,</hi> when he's to raise a pie, must take stiff Dough; for otherwise it will not onely fall before it be finished, but it cannot be raised, and to make the lids to cover his pye, he must use a softer Paste, otherwise it will not rowl thin; thus a stiff paste is not fit for a lid, nor a thinner paste for to raise a Pye; it may make a Cake, or so. So the <hi>spirits</hi> of <hi>life</hi> must make <hi>figures,</hi> as the <hi>matter</hi> is fit: and proper therto, for the <hi>figure</hi> of man or the like; the <hi>spirits</hi> of life take the solid and hard <hi>matter</hi> for the<note n="*" place="margin">I do not say that bones are the solid'st matter in Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture.</note>
<hi>Bones:</hi> the Glutinous <hi>matter</hi> for the Sinews, Nerves, Muscles, and the like; and the <hi>Oyly matter,</hi> for Flesh, Fat, Marrow. So the <hi>fluid</hi> for Blood, and such like <hi>matter.</hi> and the spirits themselves do give this dull matter, <hi>motion,</hi> not onely in the building of the <hi>figure,</hi> but to make the <hi>figure</hi> move when it is built.</p>
<p>Now the <hi>spirits</hi> of <hi>life,</hi> or <hi>lively spirits</hi> do not onely move dull and immoving <hi>matter,</hi> but makes that <hi>matter</hi> to move and work upon others; for some kinde of <hi>figures</hi> shall make<note n="*" place="margin">As the figure of man.</note> an<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>other to resemble it self, though not just be as it self is made, but as the shadow like the substance; for it works as a <hi>hand</hi> that is guided by another, and not of its own strength: that is the reason, <hi>Arts</hi> have not so much perfection as <hi>nature.</hi> The <hi>Copy</hi> is not so lively as the <hi>Original;</hi> for the spirits of life move, and work of their own strength, and the dul <hi>matter</hi> by the strength of the <hi>spirits.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="25" type="chapter">
<pb n="9" facs="tcp:48875:19"/>
<head>Chap. 25. <hi>Of</hi> CHANGE.</head>
<p>THe <hi>Change</hi> of <hi>motion</hi> in several <hi>Figures</hi> makes all <hi>change</hi> and difference in the World, and their several properties and effects thereto. And that which we call <hi>Death,</hi> or <hi>corruption,</hi> is not<note n="*" place="margin">All Motion <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> Life.</note> an absence of <hi>life,</hi> but an <hi>expulsive motion</hi> which doth <hi>annihilate</hi> those <hi>figures,</hi> that erecting <hi>motion</hi> hath made. So <hi>death</hi> is an <hi>annihilation</hi> of the <hi>Print,</hi> not of the <hi>Mould</hi> of <hi>figures;</hi> for the <hi>Moulds</hi> of those <hi>figures</hi> of Mankinde, Beast, or Plant, of all kindes whatsoever, shall never be <hi>annihilated</hi> so long as <hi>motion</hi> and <hi>matter</hi> last, which may alwayes be; for the <hi>mould</hi> of all <hi>figures</hi> is in the power of <hi>motion,</hi> and the substance of <hi>matter.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="26" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 26. <hi>Of</hi> Youth, <hi>or</hi> Growth.</head>
<p>THus <hi>Spirits</hi> of <hi>sense</hi> work according to the substance of the <hi>matter:</hi> for if the <hi>matter</hi> be porous and light, they form those <hi>figures</hi> quicker, and dissolve them suddenly: But if their <hi>matter</hi> be solid and hard, they work slower, which makes some <hi>figures</hi> longer ere they come to <hi>perfection,</hi> and not so easily un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>done. And if their strength be too weak for the <hi>matter</hi> they work upon, as wanting help, then the <hi>figure</hi> is imperfect, and mishapen, as we say. This is the reason <hi>Animals</hi> and <hi>Vegeta<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bles,</hi> which are yong, have not so great strength as when they are full grown; because there are fewer <hi>spirits,</hi> and the <hi>mate<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rials</hi> are loose and unsetled, not knockt close: But by degrees more <hi>spirits</hi> gather together, which help to forward their work, bring in <hi>materials</hi> by <hi>food,</hi> setling them by <hi>nourishment,</hi> carrying out by <hi>Evacuations</hi> that <hi>matter</hi> that is unuseful, and that Rub<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bish and Chips, as I may say, which would hinder their <hi>mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion.</hi> If they bring in unuseful <hi>matter,</hi> their <hi>figure</hi> increases not, as we say, thrives not. And if they carry out the princi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pal <hi>materials,</hi> the <hi>figure</hi> decayes, and falls down. But those parts of <hi>matter</hi> which are not <hi>spirits,</hi> do not carry that part of <hi>matter</hi> which is <hi>spirit,</hi> but these <hi>spirits</hi> carry the dull <hi>matter.</hi> Thus the <hi>spirits,</hi> the <hi>innated matter,</hi> move in dull <hi>matter,</hi> and dull <hi>matter</hi> moveth by the <hi>spirits;</hi> and if the <hi>matter</hi> be fine, and not gross, which they build withal, and their <hi>motion</hi> be regular, then the <hi>figure</hi> is beautiful and well proportioned.</p>
</div>
<div n="27" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 27. <hi>Of</hi> Increasing.</head>
<p>THe reason that the <hi>corruption</hi> of one <hi>figure</hi> is the cause of making of <hi>another</hi> of the same <hi>kinde,</hi> is, not onely, that it is of such a <hi>tempered matter</hi> that can onely make such a kinde of <hi>figure;</hi> but that the <hi>spirits</hi> make <hi>figures</hi> according to their strength: So that the <hi>spirits</hi> that are in the <hi>Seed,</hi> when they have<note place="margin">I <hi>mean the Fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure of dull matter.</hi>
</note> undone the <hi>figure</hi> they are in, by a general expulsion, which we call <hi>corruption,</hi> they begin to create again another <hi>figure</hi> of the
<pb n="10" facs="tcp:48875:20"/>
same kinde, if no greater power hinder it. For the <hi>matter</hi> that is proper, to make such like <hi>figures,</hi> is fitted, or temper'd to their strengths. So as the <hi>Temper</hi> of the <hi>matter,</hi> and the <hi>strength</hi> of the <hi>spirits,</hi> are the <hi>Erectors</hi> of those <hi>figures</hi> eternally. And the reason, that from one <hi>Seed,</hi> less, or more Numbers are increased and rais'd, is, that though <hi>few</hi> begin the work, <hi>more</hi> will come to their help; and as their <hi>numbers</hi> are increased, their <hi>figures</hi> are more, or less, weaker, or stronger.</p>
</div>
<div n="28" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 28. <hi>Of</hi> Decay.</head>
<p>WHen <hi>Spirit</hi> of <hi>Life</hi> have created a <hi>Figure,</hi> and brought it<note place="margin">As a plentiful Crop or a great Brood.</note> to perfection; if they did not pull it down again, they would be idle, having no work to do; and Idleness is against the <hi>nature</hi> of <hi>life,</hi> being a perpetual <hi>motion.</hi> For as soon as a <hi>figure</hi> is perfected, the <hi>spirits</hi> generally move to an <hi>expulsive mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion.</hi> This is the reason, that <hi>Age</hi> hath not that strength as <hi>full<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>growth:</hi> But like an old house falling down by degrees, shed their Haires, or Leaves, instead of Tiles, the Windows broke down, and stopped with Rubbish.</p>
<p>So <hi>Eyes</hi> in <hi>Animals</hi> grow hollow and dim. And when the Foundation of a house is loose, every little winde shakes it. So when the <hi>Nerves</hi> being slack, and the <hi>Muscles</hi> untied, and the <hi>Joynts</hi> unhing'd, the whole <hi>Body</hi> is weak, and tottering, which we call <hi>Palsies:</hi> which <hi>Palsies,</hi> as the winde, shakes.</p>
<p>The <hi>Bloud,</hi> as the <hi>Springe</hi> dries up, <hi>Rhumes,</hi> as <hi>Rain</hi> falls down, and <hi>Vapours,</hi> as <hi>Dust,</hi> flie up.</p>
</div>
<div n="29" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 29. <hi>Of</hi> Dead, <hi>and</hi> Death.</head>
<p>
<hi>DEad</hi> is, where there is a <hi>General Alteration</hi> of such <hi>Motion,</hi> as is proper to such <hi>Figures.</hi> But <hi>Death</hi> is an <hi>Annihilation</hi> of that <hi>Print,</hi> or <hi>Figure,</hi> by an <hi>Expulsive Motion:</hi> And as that <hi>Figure</hi> dissolves, the <hi>Spirits</hi> disperse about, carrying their seve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral burdens to the making of other <hi>Figures.</hi> Like as a house that is ruin'd by <hi>Time,</hi> or spoyled by accident; the several <hi>Ma<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>terials</hi> are imployed to other uses; sometimes to the building of an house again. But a house is longer a building then a pul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ling down, by reason of the cutting, carving, laying, carrying, placing, and fitting every part to make them joyn together; so all the works of <hi>Nature</hi> are sooner dissolv'd then created.</p>
</div>
<div n="30" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 30. <hi>Of</hi> Local Shapes.</head>
<p>SOme <hi>Shapes</hi> have power over others, but 'tis not alwayes in the size, or bulk of the <hi>Figure,</hi> but in the manner of their <hi>Formes</hi> that give advantage, or disadvantage. A little Mouse will run through the Snowt of a great Elephant: A little Flye will sting a great <hi>Figure</hi> to death; A Worm will wind through
<pb n="11" facs="tcp:48875:20"/>
a thick Body; The Lions force lies in his Claws; The Horses in his Hoof; The Dogs in his Teeth; The Bulls in his Horns; and Mans in his Armes, and Hands; Birds in their Bills, and Talons: And the manner of their <hi>Shapes</hi> gives them several properties, or faculties. As the <hi>Shape</hi> of a Bird causes them to <hi>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>,</hi> a Worm to <hi>creep,</hi> the <hi>Shape</hi> of a Beast to <hi>run,</hi> the <hi>Shape</hi> of Fish to <hi>swim;</hi> yet some flie swifter, and higher then others, as their Wings are made: So some run nimbler then others, ac<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cording as their Limbs are made; and some swim glider then others, according as their Fins are made. But <hi>Man</hi> surpasses the <hi>shape</hi> of all other <hi>Creatures;</hi> because he hath a part, as it were, of every <hi>shape.</hi> But the same <hi>motion,</hi> and the same <hi>mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter</hi> without the <hi>shape,</hi> could not give such <hi>External Properties;</hi> since all <hi>Internal Properties</hi> are wrought out of <hi>dull matter.</hi> So as it is their <hi>shapes,</hi> joyned with such <hi>motions</hi> proper thereunto, that giveth strength, and Agileness. But the <hi>Internal Qualities</hi> may be alike in every <hi>figure;</hi> because <hi>Rational Spirits</hi> work not upon <hi>dull matter,</hi> but <hi>figures</hi> themselves.</p>
</div>
<div n="31" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 31. <hi>The</hi> Visible Motion <hi>in</hi> Animals, Vegetables, <hi>and</hi> Minerals.</head>
<p>THe <hi>external motions</hi> of <hi>Animals</hi> are, running, turning, wind<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing, tumbling, leaping, jumping, shoving, throwing, dart<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing, climbing, creeping, drawing, heaving, lifting, carrying, holding, or staying, piercing, digging, flying, swimming, di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving. The <hi>Internal motion,</hi> is, contriving, directing, examin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing, comparing, or judging, contemplating, or reasoning, ap<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>proving or disapproving, resolving. From whence arise all the <hi>Passions,</hi> and several <hi>Dispositions.</hi> These, and the like, are the <hi>visible Internal motions</hi> in <hi>Animals.</hi>
</p>
<p>The <hi>Internal motions</hi> of <hi>Vegetables,</hi> and <hi>Minerals,</hi> are in ope<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ration; As, contracting, dilating; which is <hi>Attractive, Reten<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tive, Digestive, Expulsive.</hi> The <hi>Vegetables External motion,</hi> is, increasing, decreasing, that is, enlarging, or lasting; although there may be <hi>matter</hi> not moving, yet there is no <hi>matter,</hi> which is not moved.</p>
</div>
<div n="32" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 32. <hi>Of the</hi> Working <hi>of several</hi> Motions <hi>of</hi> Nature.</head>
<lg>
<l>
<hi>MOtions</hi> do work according as they finde</l>
<l>
<hi>Matter,</hi> that's fit, and proper for each kinde.</l>
<l>
<hi>Sensitive Spirits</hi> work not all one way,</l>
<l>But as the <hi>matter</hi> is, they cut, carve, lay.</l>
<l>Joyning together <hi>Matter, solid Light,</hi>
</l>
<l>And build and form some <hi>figures</hi> streight upright;</l>
<l>Or make them bending, and so jutting out:</l>
<l>And <hi>some</hi> are large, and strong, and big about.</l>
<pb n="12" facs="tcp:48875:21"/>
<l>And <hi>some</hi> are thick, and hard, and close unite;</l>
<l>
<hi>Others</hi> are flat, and low, and loose, and light.</l>
<l>But when they meet with <hi>matter,</hi> fine, and thin,</l>
<l>Then they do weave, as <hi>Spiders</hi> when they spin:</l>
<l>All that is woven is soft, smooth, thin things,</l>
<l>As flowry <hi>Vegetables,</hi> and <hi>Animal skins.</hi>
</l>
<l>Observe the <hi>Grain</hi> of every thing, you'l see,</l>
<l>Like inter-woven <hi>Threads</hi> lye evenly.</l>
<l>And like to <hi>Diaper,</hi> and <hi>Damask</hi> wrought,</l>
<l>In several works, that for our Table's bought.</l>
<l>Or like to Carpets which the <hi>Persian</hi> made,</l>
<l>Or Sattin smooth, which is the <hi>Florence</hi> Trade.</l>
<l>Some <hi>matter</hi> they ingrave, like Ring, and Seal,</l>
<l>Which is the stamp of <hi>Natures</hi> Common-weal.</l>
<l>'Tis <hi>Natures</hi> Armes, where she doth print</l>
<l>On all her Works, as <hi>Coin</hi> that's in the <hi>Mint.</hi>
</l>
<l>Some several sorts they joyn together glu'd.</l>
<l>As <hi>matter solid,</hi> with some that's <hi>fluid.</hi>
</l>
<l>Like to the Earthly ball, where some are mixt</l>
<l>Of several sorts, although not fixt.</l>
<l>For though the <hi>Figure</hi> of the Earth may last</l>
<l>Longer then others; yet at last may waste.</l>
<l>And so the <hi>Sun,</hi> and <hi>Moon,</hi> and <hi>Planets</hi> all,</l>
<l>Like other <hi>Figures,</hi> at the last may fall.</l>
<l>The <hi>Matter's</hi> still the same, but <hi>motion</hi> may</l>
<l>Alter it into <hi>Figures</hi> every way:</l>
<l>Yet keep the property, to make such kinde</l>
<l>Of <hi>Figures</hi> fit, which <hi>Motion</hi> out can finde.</l>
<l>Thus may the <hi>Fgures</hi> change, if <hi>Motion</hi> hurls</l>
<l>That <hi>Matter</hi> of her wayes, for other Worlds.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div type="chapter">
<head>
<hi>Of the</hi> Minde.</head>
<p>THere is a degree of stronger <hi>Spirits</hi> then the <hi>sensitive Spirits:</hi>
<note place="margin">These degrees are visible to us.</note> as it were the <hi>Essence</hi> of <hi>Spirits;</hi> as the <hi>Spirit</hi> of <hi>Spirits,</hi> This is the <hi>Minde,</hi> or <hi>Soul</hi> of <hi>Animals.</hi> For as the <hi>sensitive Spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits</hi> are a weak <hi>knowledg,</hi> so this is a stronger <hi>knowledge.</hi> As to similize them, I may say, there is as much difference betwixt them, as <hi>Aqua Fortis,</hi> to ordinary <hi>Vitriol.</hi> These <hi>Rational Spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits,</hi> as I may call them, work not upon <hi>dull matter,</hi> as the <hi>Sen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sitive Spirits</hi> do; but onely move in measure, and number, which make <hi>Figures;</hi> which <hi>Figures</hi> are <hi>Thoughts,</hi> as <hi>Memory, Understanding, Imaginations,</hi> or <hi>Fancy,</hi> and <hi>Remembrance</hi> and <hi>Will.</hi>
</p>
<p>Thus these <hi>Spirits</hi> moving in measure, casting, and placing themselves into <hi>Figures</hi> make a <hi>Consort,</hi> and <hi>Harmony</hi> by Num<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bers.</p>
<p>Where the greater Quantity, or Number, are together of<note place="margin">
<hi>Dancing is a measur'd</hi> Mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion.</note> those <hi>rational spirits,</hi> the more variety of <hi>Figure</hi> is made by their
<pb n="13" facs="tcp:48875:21"/>
several <hi>motions,</hi> they dance several dances according to their Company.</p>
</div>
<div n="34" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 34. <hi>Of their several</hi> Dances, <hi>or</hi> Figures.</head>
<p>WHat <hi>Object</hi> soever is presented unto them by the <hi>sen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ses,</hi> they strait dance themselves into that figure; this is <hi>Memory.</hi> And when they dance the same figure with<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>out the help of the outward <hi>object,</hi> this is <hi>Remembrance,</hi> when they dance the <hi>figures</hi> of their own invention, (as I may say) then that is imagination or <hi>Fancie. Understanding</hi> is, when they dance perfectly (as I may say) not to misse the least part of those <hi>figures</hi> that are brought through the senses. <hi>Will</hi> is to choose a dance, that is to move as they please, and not as they are perswaded by the <hi>sensitive spirits.</hi> But when their <hi>motion</hi> and <hi>measures</hi> be not regular, or their <hi>quantity</hi> or <hi>numbers</hi> sufficient to make the <hi>figures</hi> perfect, then is the minde weak and infirme, (as I may say) they dance out of time and measure. But where the greatest number of these, or <hi>quanti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty</hi> of these <hi>Essences</hi> are met, and joyn'd in the most regular <hi>motion,</hi> there is the clearest <hi>understanding,</hi> the deepest <hi>Iudge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment,</hi> the perfectest <hi>knowledge,</hi> the finest <hi>Fancies,</hi> the more <hi>I<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>magination,</hi> the stronger <hi>memory,</hi> the obstinatest <hi>will.</hi>
</p>
<p>But somtimes their motions may be <hi>regular;</hi> but society is so small, so as they cannot change into so many several <hi>figures:</hi> then we say he hath a weak minde, or a poor <hi>soul.</hi> But be their quantity or numbers few or great, yet if they move confusedly, and out of order, we say the <hi>minde</hi> is distracted. And the reason the <hi>minde,</hi> or <hi>soul</hi> is improveable, or decayable, is, that the quantity or numbers are increaseable, or decrease<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>able, and their <hi>motions</hi> regular, and irregular,</p>
<p>A <hi>Feaver</hi> in the Body is the same <hi>motion</hi> among the <hi>sensi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tive spirits,</hi> as madnesse is in the minde amongst the rational <hi>Spirits.</hi> So likewise pain in the Body is like those <hi>motions,</hi> that make grief in the <hi>minde.</hi> So pleasure in the body is the like <hi>motions,</hi> as make delight, and joy in the <hi>minde,</hi> all Convulsive <hi>motions</hi> in the Body, are like the <hi>motions</hi> that cause Fear in the minde. All Expulsive motions amongst the rational <hi>spirits,</hi> are a dispersing their society; As Expulsity in the Body, is the dispersing of dull <hi>matter</hi> by the sensitive spirits.</p>
<p>All <hi>Drugs</hi> have an <hi>Opposite motion</hi> to the matter they work on, working by an <hi>expulsive motion;</hi> and if they move strong<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly, having great quantity of spirits together in a little dull matter, they do not onely cast out superfluous <hi>matter,</hi> but pull down the very materials of a <hi>figure.</hi> But all <hi>Cordials</hi> have a <hi>Sympathetical motion</hi> to the <hi>matter</hi> they meet, giving strength by their help to those <hi>spirits</hi> they finde tired: (as one may say) that it is to be over-power'd by <hi>opposite motions</hi> in <hi>dull Matter.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="35" type="chapter">
<pb n="14" facs="tcp:48875:22"/>
<head>Chap. 35. <hi>The</hi> Sympathy, <hi>and</hi> Antipathy <hi>of</hi> Spirits.</head>
<p>
<hi>PLeasure,</hi> and <hi>delight, discontent,</hi> and <hi>sorrow,</hi> which is Love, and hate, is like <hi>light,</hi> and <hi>darknesse;</hi> the one is a quick, equal, and free <hi>motion;</hi> the other is a slow, irregular, and ob<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>structed motion. When there is the like <hi>motion</hi> of <hi>Rational</hi> Spirits in <hi>opposite figures,</hi> then there is a like <hi>understanding,</hi> and <hi>disposition.</hi> Just as when there is the like <hi>Motion</hi> in the <hi>sen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sitive spirits;</hi> then there is the like constitution of body. So when there is the like quantity laid in the same <hi>Symmetry,</hi> then the <hi>figures</hi> agree in the same proportions, and Lineaments of <hi>Figures.</hi>
</p>
<p>The reason, that the <hi>rational spirits</hi> in one <hi>Figure,</hi> are de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lighted with the outward form of another <hi>Figure,</hi> is, that the <hi>motions</hi> of those <hi>sensitive Spirits,</hi> which move in that <hi>figure,</hi> a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gree with the <hi>motion</hi> of the <hi>rational spirits</hi> in the other. This is love of beauty; And when the <hi>sensitive motions</hi> alter in the <hi>figure</hi> of the <hi>body,</hi> and the <hi>beauty</hi> decayes, then the motion of <hi>rational spirits</hi> alter, and the <hi>love</hi> of <hi>godlinesse</hi> ceases. If the <hi>motion</hi> of the <hi>rational spirits</hi> are crosse to the motion of the <hi>sensitive spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits,</hi> in opposite <hi>figures,</hi> then it is <hi>dislike.</hi> So if the <hi>motion</hi> be just crosse and contrary, of the <hi>rational spirits</hi> in <hi>opposite figures,</hi> it is <hi>hate;</hi> but if they agree, it is <hi>love.</hi>
</p>
<p>But these <hi>Sympathies,</hi> which are made only by a likenesse of <hi>motions</hi> without an intermixture, last not long; because those <hi>spirits</hi> are at a distance, changing their <hi>motion</hi> without the knowledge, or consent of either side. But the way that the <hi>rational spirits</hi> intermix, is, through the Organs of the body, especially the <hi>eyes,</hi> and <hi>Eares,</hi> which are the common doors, which let the spirits out, and in. For the vocal, and verbal <hi>motion</hi> from the mouth, carry the <hi>spirits</hi> through the <hi>eares</hi> down to Heart, where <hi>love</hi> and <hi>hate</hi> is lodged. And the <hi>spirits</hi> from the <hi>eyes</hi> issue out in Beams, and Raies; as from the <hi>Sun,</hi> which heat, or scorch<note n="*" place="margin">Scorching is, when the Motioh is too quick.</note> the <hi>heart,</hi> which either raise a fruitful crop of <hi>love,</hi> making the ground fertile, or dries it so much, as makes it insipid, that nothing of good will grow there, unlesse stinking weeds of <hi>Hate:</hi> But if the ground be fertile, although every Crop is not so rich, as some, yet it never grows barren, unlesse they take out the strength with too much kindnesse; As the old proverb, they kill with too much kind<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse; which murther is seldom committed. But the rational spirits<note n="*" place="margin">That is, when there come so many spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits, as they disagree. pres<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sing upon one another.</note> are apt to take Surfet, as well as <hi>sensitive spirits,</hi> which makes love, and <hi>Good-will,</hi> so often to be ill rewarded, neg<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lected, and disdain'd.</p>
</div>
<div n="36" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 36. <hi>The</hi> Sympathy <hi>of</hi> Sensitive, and Rational spirits <hi>in one</hi> Figure.</head>
<p>THere is a strong <hi>Sympathy,</hi> and agreement, or Affection (as I may say) betwixt the rational spirits, and the <hi>sensitive spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits</hi> joyned in one figure: like Fellow-labourers that assist one
<pb n="15" facs="tcp:48875:22"/>
another, to help to finish their work. For when they dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>agree, as the rational spirits will move one way sometimes, and the <hi>sensitive spirits</hi> another; that is, when reason strives to abate the appetite of the <hi>Senses;</hi> yet it is by a loving direction, rather to admonish them by a gentle <hi>contrary motion</hi> for them to imitate, and follow in the like <hi>motions;</hi> yet it is, as they alwayes agree at last; Like the Father and the Son. For though the father rules by command, and the Son obeies through o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bedience, yet the father out of love to his son, as willing to please him, submits to his delight, although it is against his liking;<note n="*" place="margin">Those de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grees that are neerest, have the greatest Sympathy</note> So the <hi>rational spirits</hi> oftimes agree with the <hi>motions</hi> of the <hi>sensitive spirits,</hi> although they would move another way.</p>
</div>
<div n="37" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 37. <hi>The</hi> Sympathy <hi>of the</hi> Rational <hi>and</hi> Sensitive Spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits, <hi>to the</hi> Fgure <hi>they make, and inhabit.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL the <hi>External motion</hi> in a <hi>Figure,</hi> is, by the <hi>sensitive spirits;</hi> and all the internal, by the <hi>rational spirits:</hi> and and when the <hi>rational</hi> and <hi>sensitive spirits,</hi> disagree in <hi>opposite figures,</hi> by contrary <hi>motion,</hi> they oft war upon one another; which to defend, the <hi>sensitive Spirits</hi> and <hi>rational spirits,</hi> use all their force, and power in either <hi>Figure;</hi> to defend, or to assault, to succour, or to destroy, through an aversion made by contrary motions in each other.</p>
<p>Now the <hi>rational spirits</hi> do not onely choose the <hi>materials</hi> for their defence, or assault, but do direct the <hi>sensitive spirits</hi> in the management thereof; and according to the strength of the <hi>spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits</hi> of either side, the victory is gain'd, or lost. If the <hi>Body</hi> be weak, there is like sensitive spirit, if the direction be not advantagious, there is lesse <hi>rational spirit.</hi> But many times the Alacrity of the <hi>rational</hi> and <hi>sensitive spirits,</hi> made by mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving in a <hi>regular motion,</hi> overcoms the greater <hi>numbers,</hi> being in a disordered <hi>motion.</hi> Thus what is lost by <hi>Scarcity,</hi> is regain'd by <hi>Conformity</hi> and <hi>Vnity.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="38" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 38. Pleasure, <hi>and</hi> Pain.</head>
<p>ALL <hi>Evacuations</hi> have an <hi>expulsive motion;</hi> If the <hi>Expul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sive motion</hi> is <hi>regular,</hi> 'tis <hi>Pleasure,</hi> if <hi>irregular,</hi> 'tis pain. In<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>deed, all Irregular and crosse <hi>motion,</hi> is Pain; all <hi>regular motion</hi> is pleasure, and <hi>delight,</hi> being <hi>Harmony</hi> of <hi>Motion,</hi> or a discord of <hi>Motion.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="39" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 39. <hi>Of the</hi> Minde.</head>
<p>IMagine the <hi>rational Essence,</hi> or <hi>spirits,</hi> like little <hi>sph<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>erical Bobdies</hi> of <hi>Quick-silver</hi> several ways <note n="*" place="margin">Like Chess<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>men, Table-men, Nine-pins, or the like.</note> placing themselves in several <hi>figures,</hi> sometimes moving in mea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sure, and in order: and sometimes out of order this Quick-silver to be the <hi>minde,</hi> and their several postures made by <hi>motion,</hi> the passions and <hi>affections;</hi> or all that is moving in a
<pb n="16" facs="tcp:48875:23"/>
<hi>minde,</hi> to expresse those several <hi>motions,</hi> is onely to be done by guesse, not by knowledge, as some few will I guesse at <hi>Love</hi> is, when they move in equal number, and even measure. <hi>Hate</hi> is an opposite motion: <hi>Fear</hi> is, when those small bodies tumble on a heap together without order. <hi>Anger</hi> is, when they move without measure, and in no uniform Figure. <hi>In<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>constancy</hi> is, when they move swiftly several wayes. <hi>Constancy</hi> is a circular motion, <hi>doubt,</hi> and <hi>suspicion,</hi> and <hi>jealousie,</hi> are when those small bodies move with the odd numbers. <hi>Hope</hi> is when those small bodies move like wilde-Geese, one after another. <hi>Admiration</hi> is, when those Spherical bodies gather close toge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther, knitting so, as to make such a circular figure; and one is to stand for a Center or point in the midst. <hi>Humility</hi> is a cree<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ping motion. <hi>Joy</hi> is a hopping, skipping motion. <hi>Ambition</hi> is a lofty motion, as to move upwards, or<note n="*" place="margin">I say higher for expressions sake.</note> higher then other motions. <hi>Coveting,</hi> or <hi>Ambition</hi> is like a flying motion, mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving in several Figures like that which they covet for; if they covet for <hi>Fame,</hi> they put themselves into such Figures, as Let<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ters do, that expresse words, which words are such praises as they would have, or such Figure as they would have Sta<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tues cut, or Pictures drawn: But all their motion which they make, is according to those Figures with which they sym<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pathize and agree: besides, their motion and figures are like the sound of Musick; though the notes differ, the cords agree to make a harmony: so several Symmetries make a perfect Fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure, several figures make a just number, and several quantities or proportions make a just weight, and several Lines make an even measure: thus equal may be made out of Divisions eter<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nally, and infinitely. And because the figures and motions of the infinite Spirits which they move and make are infinite, I cannot give a final description: besides, their motion is so subtle, curious, and intricate, as they are past finding out.</p>
<lg>
<l>Some <hi>Natural motions</hi> worke so curious fine,</l>
<l>None can perceive, unlesse an <hi>Eie divine.</hi>
</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="40" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 40. <hi>Of</hi> Thinking, <hi>or the</hi> Minde, <hi>and</hi> Thoughts.</head>
<p>ONE may think, and yet not of any particular thing; that is, one may have sense, and not thoughts: For thoughts are when the minde takes a particular notice of some out<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ward <hi>Object,</hi> or inward <hi>Idea;</hi> But <hi>Thinking</hi> is onely a <hi>sense</hi> without any particular notice. As for example; Those that are in a great fear, and are amazed, the <hi>minde</hi> is in confus'd sense, without any particular <hi>thoughts:</hi> but when the minde is out of that amaze, it fixes it self on <hi>Particulars,</hi> and then have <hi>thoughts</hi> of <hi>past danger;</hi> but the <hi>minde</hi> can have no particular <hi>thought</hi> of the <hi>Amaze;</hi> for the <hi>minde</hi> cannot call to minde that which was not.</p>
<pb n="17" facs="tcp:48875:23"/>
<p>Likewise when we are asleep, the <hi>Minde</hi> is not out of the <hi>Body,</hi> nor the <hi>motion</hi> that makes the sense of the <hi>minde</hi> ceast, which is <hi>Thinking;</hi> but the motion that makes the thoughts therein work upon particulars. Thus the <hi>minde</hi> may be with<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>out <hi>thoughts,</hi> but <hi>thoughts</hi> cannot be without the <hi>minde:</hi> yet <hi>thoughts</hi> go out of the <hi>minde</hi> very oft, that is, such a <hi>motion</hi> to such a thing is ceast; and when that <hi>motion</hi> is made again, it returns. Thus <hi>thinking</hi> is the <hi>minde,</hi> and <hi>thoughts</hi> the <hi>effect</hi> thereof: <hi>Thinking</hi> is an equal <hi>motion</hi> without a figure, or, as when we feel <hi>Heat,</hi> and see no fire.</p>
</div>
<div n="41" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 41. <hi>Of the</hi> Motions <hi>of the</hi> Spirits.</head>
<p>IF it be, as probably it is, that all sensitive <hi>spirits</hi> live in dul <hi>matter;</hi> so <hi>rational spirits</hi> live in <hi>sensitive spirits,</hi> according to the shape of those <hi>Figures</hi> that the <hi>sencitive spirits</hi> form them.</p>
<p>The rational <hi>spirits</hi> by moving several ways, may make se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral kindes of knowledge, and according to the <hi>motions</hi> of the <hi>sensitive spirits</hi> in their several figures they make, though the <hi>spirits</hi> may be the same, yet their several <hi>motions</hi> may be unknown to each other. Like as a point, that writes upon a Table-book, which when the Letter that was <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> thereon, is rub'd out, the Table is as plain, as if there were never any let<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter thereon; but though the letters are out, yet the Table<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>book, and in Pen remain. So although this <hi>Motion</hi> is gone, the <hi>spirit,</hi> and <hi>matter</hi> remain; But if those <hi>spirits</hi> make other kindes of motions, like other kinds of <hi>Letters,</hi> or <hi>Language,</hi> those <hi>Motions</hi> understand not the first, nor the first understands not them, being as several <hi>Languages.</hi> Even so it may be in a sound; for that kinde of <hi>knowledge</hi> the <hi>Figure</hi> had in the <hi>sound,</hi> which is an alteration of the <hi>motion</hi> of the <hi>rational spirits,</hi> caus'd by an alteration of the <hi>motion</hi> of the sensitive <hi>spirits</hi> in dull <hi>matter:</hi> And by these disorderly <hi>motions,</hi> other <hi>motions</hi> are rub'd out of the Table-book, which is the <hi>matter</hi> that was moved. But if the same kinde of letters be writ in the same place again; that is, when the spirits move in the same <hi>motion,</hi> then the same <hi>knowledg</hi> is in that figure, as it was before; the other kinde of <hi>know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge,</hi> which was made by other kinde of <hi>motion,</hi> is rub'd out, which several knowledge is no more known to each other, then several <hi>Languages</hi> by unlearned men. And as <hi>Language</hi> is still <hi>Language,</hi> though not understood, so knowledge is still knowledge, although not general; but if they be that we call dead, then those letters that were rubbed out, were never writ again; which is, the same knowledge never returns into the same <hi>figures.</hi>
</p>
<p>Thus the spirits of knowledge, or the <hi>knowledge</hi> of <hi>spirits,</hi> which is their several motions, may be ignorant and unacquain<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted with each other: that is, that some <hi>motion</hi> may not know how other <hi>motions</hi> move, not onely in several <hi>spirits,</hi> but in one and the same <hi>spirit;</hi> no more then in every Effect can know
<pb n="18" facs="tcp:48875:24"/>
their cause: and <hi>motion</hi> is but the effect of the Spirits, which <hi>spirits</hi> are a thin subtle <hi>matter:</hi> for there would be no motion if there were no matter; for no thing can move: but there may be <hi>matter</hi> without <hi>Self-motion;</hi> but not <hi>self-motion</hi> without <hi>matter.</hi>
</p>
<lg>
<l>
<hi>Matter prime</hi> knowes not what effects shall be,</l>
<l>Or how their several <hi>motions</hi> will agree.</l>
<l>Because<note n="*" place="margin">Nothing can be made or known abso<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lute out of Infinite and Eternal.</note> tis <hi>infinite,</hi> and so doth move</l>
<l>Eternally, in which no thing can prove.</l>
<l>For <hi>infinite</hi> doth not in compasse lye,</l>
<l>Nor hath Eternal lines to measure by.</l>
<l>
<hi>Knowledge</hi> is there none, to comprehend</l>
<l>That which hath no beginning, nor no end.</l>
<l>Perfect <hi>knowledge</hi> comprises all can be,</l>
<l>But nothing can comprise <hi>Eternity.</hi>
</l>
<l>
<hi>Destiny</hi> and <hi>Fates,</hi> or what the like we call,</l>
<l>In <hi>infinites</hi> they no power have at all.</l>
<l>
<hi>Nature</hi> hath Generosity enough to give</l>
<l>All <hi>figures</hi> ease, whilst in that <hi>Form</hi> they live;</l>
<l>But motion which innated <hi>matter</hi> is,</l>
<l>By running crosse, each several pains it gives.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="42" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 42. <hi>Of the Creation of the Animal</hi> Figure.</head>
<p>THe reason,<note n="*" place="margin">Though it may mave o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>Motions, yet not the Ani<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mal Motion.</note> that the sensitive <hi>spirits,</hi> when they begin to create an animal figure, the figure that is created feels it not, untill the model befinished, that is, it cannot have an a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nimal motion, until it hath an animal figure; for it is the shape which gives it local motion? and after the Fabrick is built, they begin to furnish it with<note n="*" place="margin">The Figure might be without an Animal Moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on, but an A<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nimal motion cannot be un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>till there is an Animal Fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure.</note> strength, and enlarge it with growth, and the <hi>rational spirit</hi> which inhabits it chooseth his room, which is the <hi>Head;</hi> And although some <hi>rational spirits</hi> were from the first creating it, yet had not such mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions, as when created: besides, at first they have not so much company, as to make so much change, as to take parts, like instruments of Musick, which cannot make such division up<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on few strings as upon more. The next, the figure being weak, their motions cannot be strong; besides, before the figure is inlarged by growth, they want room to move in. This is the reason, that new-born Animals seem to have no knowledge, especially Man; because the <hi>spirits</hi> do neither move so strong, nor have such variety of change, for want of company to make a consort. Yet some animals have more knowledge then others, by reason of their strength, as all beasts know their dams, and run to their Dugs, and know how to suck as soon as they are born; and birds and children, and the like weak Creatures, such do not.</p>
<p>But the <hi>spirits</hi> of sense give them strength, and the <hi>spirits</hi> of reason do direct them to their food, <note n="*" place="margin">Which food is when such Materials are not pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>per for such a Figure.</note>and the spirits of sense
<pb n="19" facs="tcp:48875:24"/>
gave them Taste, and <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>, and the <hi>spirits</hi> of reason choose their meat: for all Animal Creatures are not of one dyet, for that which will nourish one, will destroy another.</p>
</div>
<div n="43" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 43. <hi>The gathering of Spirits.</hi>
</head>
<p>IF the rational <hi>spirit</hi>s should enter into a <hi>figure</hi> newly created, altogether, and not by degrees, a Childe (for example) would have as much <hi>understanding,</hi> and <hi>knowledge</hi> in the <hi>womb,</hi> or when it is new-born, as when it is inlarged and fully grown. But we finde by experience there are several sorts and degrees of <hi>knowledge</hi> and <hi>understanding,</hi> by the recourse of <hi>spirits:</hi> which is the reason, some <hi>figures</hi> have greater <hi>proportion</hi> of <hi>understand<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing</hi> and <hi>knowledge,</hi> and sooner then others; yet it is increased by degrees, according as <hi>rational spirits</hi> increase. Like as chil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dren, they must get strength before they can go. So <hi>Learning</hi> and <hi>experience</hi> increase <hi>rational spirits,</hi> as Food the <hi>sensitive:</hi> But experience and Learning is not alwayes tyed to the <hi>eare;</hi> for every <hi>Organ</hi> and <hi>Pore</hi> of the body is as several doors to let them in and out: For the <hi>rational spirits</hi> living with the <hi>sensitive spirits,</hi> come in, and go out with them, but not in equal <hi>propor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion,</hi> but sometimes more, sometimes fewer: this makes <hi>un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>derstanding</hi> more perfect in <hi>Health</hi> then in <hi>sicknesse,</hi> and in our middle age, more then in the latter age: For in age and sick<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse there is more carried out, then brought in. This is the rea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>son, Children have not such understanding, but their reason increaseth with their years. But the <hi>resional spirits</hi> may be similized<note n="*" place="margin">The greater the number is, the more variety of Motion is made, which makes Fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures in the brain.</note> to a company of Good-fellows, which have pointed a meeting; and the company coming from several places, makes their time the longer ere their numbers are compleated, though many a brain is disappointed; but in some <hi>figures</hi> the rooms are not commodious to move in, made in their Creation, for want of help: those are Changelings, Innocents, or Natu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral Fools.</p>
<p>The <hi>rational spirits</hi> seem most to delight in <hi>spungie soft</hi> and <hi>liquid matter;</hi> as in the <hi>Blood, Brain, Nerves,</hi> and in <hi>Vegetables;</hi> as not onely being neerest to their own nature, but having more room to move in. This makes the <hi>rational spirits</hi> to choose the <hi>Head</hi> in <hi>Animals,</hi> for their chief room to dance their <hi>Figures</hi> in:<note n="*" place="margin">in Animal Shapes</note> for the Head is the biggest place that hath the spun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gy <hi>Materials;</hi> thus as soon as a <hi>figure</hi> is created, those rational Spirits choose a Room.</p>
</div>
<div n="44" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 44. <hi>The moving of</hi> Innate matter.</head>
<p>THough <hi>Motion</hi> makes <hi>knowledge,</hi> yet the spirits give <hi>motion:</hi> for those Spirits, or <hi>Essences,</hi> are the Guiders, Governours, Directers; the Motions are but their Instruments, the <hi>Spirits</hi>
<pb n="20" facs="tcp:48875:25"/>
are the Cause, <hi>motion</hi> but an Effect therefrom: For that thin <hi>matter</hi> which is <hi>spirits,</hi> can alter the <hi>motion,</hi> but <hi>motion</hi> can<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>not alter the <hi>matter,</hi> or <hi>nature</hi> of those <hi>Essences,</hi> or spirits; so as the same spirits may be in a body, but not one and the same <hi>knowledge,</hi> because not the same <hi>motion,</hi> that made that <hi>know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge.</hi> As for example; how many several <hi>Touches</hi> belong to the body? for every part of the <hi>body</hi> hath a several <hi>touch,</hi> which is a several <hi>knowledge</hi> belonging to every several part; for every several part doth not know, and feel every several <hi>touch.</hi> For when the head akes, the <hi>heel</hi> feels it not, but one<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly the <hi>Rational spirits</hi> which are free from the incumbrance of <hi>dull matter,</hi> they are <hi>agile,</hi> and <hi>quick</hi> to take notice of every particular <hi>touch,</hi> in, or on every part of the <hi>figure.</hi> The like <hi>motions</hi> of a pain in the <hi>Body.</hi> The like motions of the <hi>Ratio<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nal spirits,</hi> we call <hi>grief</hi> in the minde; and to prove it is the like <hi>motion</hi> of the Rational Spirits to the <hi>sensitive,</hi> which makes the <hi>knowledge</hi> of it, is, when the <hi>rational Spirits</hi> are busily moved with some Fantasmes, if any thing touches the <hi>body,</hi> it is not known to the <hi>rational spirits,</hi> because the <hi>rational spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits</hi> move not in such <hi>motion,</hi> as to make <hi>a thought</hi> in the <hi>head,</hi> of the <hi>touch</hi> in the heel, which makes the <hi>thoughts</hi> to be as sense<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lesse of that touch, as any other part of the <hi>body,</hi> that hath not such paines made by such <hi>motions.</hi> And shall we say, there is no sense in the <hi>heel,</hi> because no knowledge of it in the head? we may as well say, that when an <hi>Object</hi> stands just before an <hi>eye</hi> that is blinde, either by a contrary <hi>motion</hi> of the <hi>thoughts</hi> in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ward, by some deep Contemplation, or otherwise: we may as well say there is no outward object, because the rational <hi>spirits</hi> take no notice of that <hi>Object;</hi> tis not, that the stronger <hi>motion</hi> stops the lesse, or the swifter, the slower; for then the <hi>motions</hi> of the <hi>Planets</hi> wold stop one anothers course.</p>
<p>Some will say, what <hi>sense</hi> hath man, or any other <hi>Ani<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mal</hi> when they are dead? it may be answered, that the <hi>Fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gnre,</hi> which is a <hi>body,</hi> may have <hi>sense,</hi> but not the <hi>Animal;</hi> for that we call <hi>Animal,</hi> is such a temper'd <hi>matter,</hi> joyn'd in such a <hi>figure,</hi> moving with such kinde of <hi>motions;</hi> but when those <hi>mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions</hi> do generally alter, that are proper to an <hi>Animal,</hi> although the <hi>matter,</hi> and Figure remain, yet it is no longer an <hi>Animal,</hi> because those motions that help it to make an <hi>Animal</hi> are ceas'd So as the Animal can have no more knowledge of what kind of sense the Figure hath (because it is no more an <hi>Animal</hi>) then an Animal, what sense dust hath. And that there is the reason, that when any part is dead in an Animal, if that those motions that belonged to the Animal, are ceas'd in that part, which alter it from being a part of the Animal, and knowes no more what sense it hath, then if a living man should carry a dead man upon his shoulders, what sense the dead man feels, whether any, or no.</p>
</div>
<div n="45" type="chapter">
<pb n="21" facs="tcp:48875:25"/>
<head>Chap. 45. <hi>Of</hi> Matter, Motion, <hi>and</hi> Knowledge, <hi>or</hi> Understanding.</head>
<p>VVHatsoever hath an <hi>innate motion, hath knowledge;</hi> and what matter soever hath this <hi>innate motion,</hi> is <hi>knowing,:</hi> but according to the several motions, are several knowledges made; for <hi>knowledge</hi> lives in <hi>motion,</hi> as motion lives in <hi>matter:</hi> for though the kind of <hi>matter</hi> never alters, yet the manner of <hi>motions</hi> alters in that <hi>matter:</hi> and as <hi>motions</hi> alter, so <hi>knowledge</hi> differs, which makes the several <hi>motions</hi> in several <hi>figures</hi> to give several knowledge. And where there is a like<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse of <hi>motion,</hi> there is a likenesse of <hi>knowledge:</hi> As the <hi>Appetite</hi> of <hi>Sensitive spirits,</hi> and the desire of <hi>rational spi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rits</hi> are alike motions in several degrees of matter. And the <hi>touch</hi> in the heel, or any part of the body else, is the like <hi>mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion,</hi> as the <hi>thought</hi> thereof in the head; the one is the <hi>motion</hi> of the <hi>sensitive</hi> spirits, the other in the rational <hi>spirits,</hi> as <hi>touch</hi> from the sensitive spirits, for thought is onely a strong <hi>touch,</hi> and <hi>touch</hi> a weak <hi>thought.</hi> So sense is a weak knowledge, and <hi>knowledge</hi> a strong <hi>sense,</hi> made by the degrees of the spirits: for <hi>Animal spirits</hi> are stronger (as I said before) being of an high<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>er extract (as I may say) in the Chymistry of Nature, which makes the different degrees in knowledge, by the difference in strengths and finenesse, or subtlety of <hi>matter.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="46" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 46. <hi>Of the</hi> Animal Figure.</head>
<p>WHatsoever hath <hi>motion</hi> hath <hi>sensitive spirits;</hi> and what is there on earth that is not wrought, or made into <hi>figures,</hi> and then undone again by these <hi>spirits?</hi> so that all <hi>matter</hi> is moving, or moved by the movers; if so, all things have <hi>sense,</hi> because all things have of these spirits in them; and if <hi>Sensi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tive spirits,</hi> why not <hi>rational spirits?</hi> For there is as much infi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nite of every several degree of matter, as if there were but one <hi>matter:</hi> for there is no <hi>quantity</hi> in <hi>infinite; for. infinite</hi> is a con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tinued thing. If so, who knows, but <hi>Vegetables</hi> and <hi>Minerals</hi> may have some of those <hi>rational spirits,</hi> which is a <hi>minde</hi> or <hi>soul</hi> in in them, as well as <hi>man?</hi> Onely they want that <hi>Figure</hi> (with such kinde of motion proper thereunto) to expresse <hi>knowledge</hi> that way. For had <hi>Vegetables</hi> and <hi>Minerals</hi> the same shape, made by such <hi>motions,</hi> as the sensitive spirits create; then there might be wooden <hi>men,</hi> and <hi>iron beasts;</hi> for though marks do not come in the same way, yet the same <hi>marks</hi> may come in, and be made by the same <hi>motion;</hi> for the spirits are so subtle, as they can pass and repass through the solidest matter. Thus there may be as many several and various motions in <hi>Vegetables</hi> and <hi>Mine<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rals,</hi> as in <hi>Animals;</hi> and as many internal <hi>figures</hi> made by the <hi>rational spirits;</hi> onely they want the <hi>Animal,</hi> to expresse it the
<pb n="22" facs="tcp:48875:26"/>
<hi>Animal</hi> way. And if their knowledge be not the same know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge, but different from the <hi>knowledge</hi> of <hi>Animals,</hi> by reason of their different <hi>figures,</hi> made by other kinde of <hi>motion</hi> on o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther tempered matter, yet it is <hi>knowledge.</hi> For shall we say, A <hi>man</hi> doth not know, because he doth not know what ano<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther man knows, or some higher power?</p>
</div>
<div n="47" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 47. <hi>What an</hi> Animal <hi>is.</hi>
</head>
<p>AN <hi>Animal</hi> is that which we call <hi>sensitive spirit;</hi> that is, a <hi>figure</hi> that hath <hi>local motion;</hi> that is, such a kinde of <hi>figure</hi> with such kinde of <hi>motions</hi> proper thereunto. But when there is a general <hi>alteration</hi> of those <hi>motions</hi> in it, then it is no more that we call <hi>Animal;</hi> because the <hi>local motion</hi> is altered; yet we cannot knowingly say, it is not a <hi>sensitive Creature,</hi> so long as the <hi>figure</hi> lasts: besides, when the <hi>figure</hi> is dissolved, yet every scattered part may have <hi>sense,</hi> as long as any kinde of <hi>mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion</hi> is in it; and whatsoever hath an <hi>innate motion,</hi> hath sense, either increasing or decreasing <hi>motion;</hi> but the <hi>sense</hi> is as diffe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rent as the <hi>motions</hi> therein, because those properties belonging to such a <hi>figure</hi> are altered by other <hi>motions.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="48" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 48. <hi>Of the</hi> dispersing <hi>of the</hi> Rational Spirits.</head>
<p>SOme think, that the <hi>Rational spirits</hi> flye out of <hi>Animals,</hi> (or that <hi>Animal</hi> we call Man) like a swarm of <hi>Bees,</hi> when they like not their hives, finding some inconvenience, seek about for another habitation, or leave the body, like <hi>Rats,</hi> when they find the house rotten, and ready to fall; Or scar'd a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>way like <hi>Birds</hi> from their Nest. But where should this Swarm, or Troop, or Flight, or Essences go, unlesse they think this <hi>thin matter</hi> is an <hi>Essence,</hi> evaporates to nothing?</p>
<p>As I have said before, the difference of <hi>rational spirits,</hi> and <hi>sensitive spirits,</hi> is, that the <hi>sensitive spirits</hi> make <hi>figures</hi> out of dull <hi>matter:</hi> The <hi>rational spirits</hi> put themselves into <hi>figure,</hi> pla<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cing themselves with number, and measure; this is the reason when <hi>Animals</hi> die, the <hi>External Form</hi> of that <hi>Animal</hi> may be perfect, and the <hi>Internal motion</hi> of the <hi>spirits</hi> quite alter'd; yet not absent, not dispers'd untill the <hi>Annihilating</hi> of the <hi>External Figure:</hi> thus it is not the <hi>matter</hi> that alters, but the <hi>Motion</hi> and <hi>Form.</hi>
</p>
<p>Some <hi>Figures</hi> are stronger built then others, which makes them last longer: for some, their building is so weak, as they fall as soon as finished; like houses that are built with stone, or Timber, although it might be a stone-house, or timber-house, yet it may be built, not of such a sort of Stone, or such a sort of Timber.</p>
</div>
<div n="49" type="chapter">
<pb n="23" facs="tcp:48875:26"/>
<head>Chap. 49. <hi>Of the</hi> Senses.</head>
<p>THe <hi>Pores</hi> of the skin receive <hi>touch,</hi> as the <hi>eye</hi> light, the <hi>eare</hi> sound, the <hi>nose</hi> scent, the <hi>tongue</hi> tast. Thus the spirits passe, and repasse by the holes, they peirce through the <hi>dull matter,</hi> carrying their several burthens out, and in, yet it is neither the Burthen, nor the Passage that makes the different <hi>sense,</hi> but the different <hi>motion;</hi> (<note n="*" place="margin">To prove that it is the several Moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on, is that we shall have the same sense in our sleep, ei<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther to move pleasure or feel pain.</note>) for if the <hi>motion</hi> that coms through the <hi>Pores</hi> of the <hi>Skin,</hi> were as the <hi>motions</hi> which come from the <hi>Eye, Ear, Nose, Mouth,</hi> then the body might receive <hi>sound, light, scent, Tast,</hi> all other as it doth <hi>touch.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="50" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 50. <hi>Of</hi> Motion <hi>that makes</hi> Light.</head>
<p>IF the same <hi>motion</hi> that is made in the <hi>Head</hi> did move the <hi>Heel,</hi> there would appear a Light to the <hi>Sense</hi> of that part of the <hi>figure;</hi> unlesse they will make such <hi>matter</hi> as the <hi>Brain</hi> to be <hi>infinite,</hi> and onely in the head of an <hi>Animal.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="51" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 51. Opticks.</head>
<p>THere may be such <hi>motion</hi> in the <hi>Brain,</hi> as to make Light, although the <hi>Sun</hi> never came there to give the first <hi>motion:</hi> for two <hi>opposite motions</hi> may give a light by <hi>Reflection,</hi> unlesse the <hi>Sun,</hi> and the <hi>Eye</hi> have a particular <hi>Motion</hi> from all <hi>Eternity:</hi> As we say an <hi>Eternal Monopolor</hi> of such a kinde of <hi>Motion</hi> as makes <hi>Light.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="52" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 52. <hi>Of</hi> Motion, and Matter.</head>
<p>VVHY may not <hi>Vegetables</hi> have <hi>Light, Sound, Taste, Touch,</hi> as well as <hi>Animals,</hi> if the same <hi>kinde</hi> of <hi>mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion</hi> moves the same kinde of <hi>matter</hi> in them? For who <hi>knows,</hi> but the <hi>Sap</hi> in <hi>Vegetables</hi> may be of the same <hi>substance,</hi> and <hi>degree</hi> of the <hi>Brain:</hi> And why may not all the <hi>senses</hi> be <hi>inherent</hi> in a <hi>figure,</hi> if the same <hi>Motion</hi> moves the same <hi>matter</hi> within the <hi>fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure,</hi> as such <hi>motion</hi> without the <hi>figure?</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="53" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 53. <hi>Of the</hi> Brain.</head>
<p>THe <hi>Brain</hi> in <hi>Animals</hi> is like Clouds, which are sometimes swell'd full with <hi>Vapour,</hi> and sometimes <hi>rarified</hi> with <hi>Heat,</hi> and mov'd by the <hi>sensitive spirits</hi> to several <hi>Objects,</hi> as the <hi>clouds</hi> are mov'd by the <hi>Wind</hi> to several places.</p>
<p>The <hi>Winds</hi> seem to be all <hi>Spirits,</hi> because they are so <hi>agile,</hi> and <hi>quick.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="54" type="chapter">
<pb n="24" facs="tcp:48875:27"/>
<head>Chap. 54. <hi>Of Darknesse.</hi>
</head>
<p>TO prove that <hi>Darknesse</hi> hath <hi>particular motions</hi> which make it, as well as <hi>motion</hi> makes light, is that when some have used to have a light by them while they sleep, will, as soon as the light goeth out, awake; for if <hi>Darknesse</hi> had no <hi>motion,</hi> it would not strike upon the <hi>Opick Nerve.</hi> But as an equal <hi>motion makes light,</hi> and a <hi>perturb'd motion makes colour,</hi> which is between <hi>Light</hi> and <hi>darknesse:</hi> So <hi>darknesse</hi> is an <hi>Opposite Motion</hi> to those <hi>motions</hi> that <hi>make light;</hi> for though <hi>light</hi> is an equal <hi>motion,</hi> yet it is such a <hi>kinde,</hi> or sort of <hi>Motion.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="55" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 55. <hi>Of the</hi> Sun.</head>
<p>VVHY may not the <hi>Sun</hi> be of an higher <hi>Extract</hi> then the <hi>rational spirits,</hi> and be like <hi>Glasse,</hi> which is a high <hi>Extract</hi> in <hi>Chymistry,</hi> and so become a (<note n="*" place="margin">Like glasse.</note>) <hi>shining body?</hi> If so sure it hath a great knowledge; for the <hi>Sun</hi> seems to be com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>posed of <hi>pure</hi> spirits, without the mixture of dull <hi>matter;</hi> for the <hi>Motion</hi> is quick, and <hi>subtle,</hi> as we may finde by the effect of the light, and <hi>heat.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="56" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 56. <hi>Os the</hi> Clouds.</head>
<p>THe <hi>Clouds</hi> seem to be of such <hi>spungy,</hi> and <hi>porous Matter,</hi> as the <hi>Rain,</hi> and <hi>Aire,</hi> like the <hi>sensitive spirits</hi> that form, and move it, and the <hi>Sun</hi> the <hi>Rational Spirit</hi> to give them <hi>know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge;</hi> And as <hi>moist Vapours</hi> from the <hi>Stomack</hi> rise, and gather<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing in the <hi>Brain,</hi> flow through the eyes: so do the <hi>Clouds</hi> send forth, as from the <hi>Brain,</hi> the <hi>Vapours</hi> which do rise in <hi>showres.</hi>
</p>
</div>
<div n="57" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 57. <hi>Of the</hi> Motion <hi>of the</hi> Planets.</head>
<lg>
<l>THE <hi>Earth, Sun, Moon,</hi> the rest of <hi>Planets</hi> all</l>
<l>Are mov'd by that, we <hi>Vital Spirits</hi> cal.</l>
<l>And like to <hi>Animals,</hi> some move more slow,</l>
<l>And other some by <hi>quicker motion</hi> go.</l>
<l>And as some <hi>Creatures</hi> by their <hi>shapes</hi> do flye,</l>
<l>Some <hi>swim,</hi> some <hi>run,</hi> some <hi>creep,</hi> some <hi>riseth high</hi>
</l>
<l>So <hi>Planets</hi> by their <hi>shapes</hi> about do winde,</l>
<l>All being made, like <hi>Circles,</hi> round we finde.</l>
</lg>
</div>
<div n="58" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 58. <hi>The</hi> Motion <hi>of the</hi> Sea.</head>
<lg>
<l>THe <hi>Sea's</hi> more quick, then fresher waters are,</l>
<l>The reason is, more <hi>Vital spirits</hi> are there.</l>
<pb n="25" facs="tcp:48875:27"/>
<l>And as the <hi>Planets</hi> move still round about,</l>
<l>So <hi>Seas</hi> do ebb and flow both in and out.</l>
<l>As Arrows flye up, far as strength them lend,</l>
<l>And then for want of strength do back descend:</l>
<l>So do the Seas in <hi>ebbes</hi> run back again,</l>
<l>For want of strength, their length for to maintain</l>
<l>But when they ebb, and flow, at certain times,</l>
<l>Is like the <hi>Lungs</hi> that draw, and breath out wind.</l>
<l>Just so do <hi>Seas</hi> draw back and then do flow,</l>
<l>As constant as the <hi>Lungs</hi> do to and fro:</l>
<l>Alwayes in motion never lying still,</l>
<l>The empty place they leave, turn back to fill.</l>
</lg>
<p>We may as well inquire of <hi>Nature, why Animals</hi> breath in such a space of <hi>Time,</hi> as the <hi>Seas</hi> ebb and flow in such a space of <hi>Time.</hi>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div type="letter">
<pb n="26" facs="tcp:48875:28"/>
<head>AN EPISTLE TO CONDEMNING READERS.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">M</seg>Any perchance will laugh in scorn at my opinion, and ask what reason I have to think those things I have described should be made with such a kinde of Motion, my answer is, that I guess by the forms, I mean the figures, or shapes, what the motion may be to produce them; for I see the fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure of a four leg'd Creature hath other motions then two legged Creatures, or then those Crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures that have no legs; and I see some shape Crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures that can flee, by reason of their figures, which is made proper to produce that kinde of motion; for those that are not made so, cannot do so. By this I think it probable that Internal motions, are after the manner of External motions; for we may guess at the cause by the effects, so by the fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures of Snow, Frost, Hail, Rain, Vapor, and the like, we may guesse at other Internal, or external motions, that produced their External figures, or alterations, and by the effects of light, darknesse, heat, cold, moisture, what manner of motions pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>duced them; wherefore I know no reason why any should condemn my opinions. But the custom of their breeding in the Schools of <hi>Aristotle,</hi> and
<pb n="27" facs="tcp:48875:28"/>
<hi>Socrates,</hi> and the rest of ancient Authors, or else they consider not my opinions enough; for if they did, they might see as much probability for mine, as any of their opinions; For though in natural Philo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sophy there may be many touches found out by ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>periences, and experiments, yet the Study is onely conjecturally, and built upon probabilities, and until probabilities be condemned by absolute and known truth, let them have a place amongst the rest of probabilities, and be not so partial to con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tradict, as to be unjust to me, take not away the right of my place because young; for though age ought to have respect, yet not so as to do youth wrong, but I hope my new born opinions will be nourished in Noble and learned Schools, and bred up with industrious Students; but howsoever, I delight my self, for next to the finding out of truthes, the greatest pleasure in Study, is, to finde out proba<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bilities. I make no question but after Ages will esteem this work of mine, but what soever is new, is not received at the first with that good accep<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tation, by reason it is utterly unknown unto them, and a newnesse, and an unacquaintednesse makes the ignorance, but when time hath made acquaintance, and a right understanding, and a right understand<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing will make a friendship betwixt Fame and my Book.</p>
<pb facs="tcp:48875:29"/>
</div>
<div n="2" type="part">
<pb n="29" facs="tcp:48875:29"/>
<head>OF FORTUNE.</head>
<head>PART II.</head>
<div n="59" type="chapter">
<head>CHAP. 59.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">M</seg>Atter, Figure, and Motions, are the gods that Create fortune; For fortune is nothing in it self but various motions gathered, or drawn to a point, which point man onely thinks it fixt upon him, but he is deceived, for it fixes upon all other things; for if any thing comes, and rubs off the bark of a tree, or breaks the tree, it is a miss-fortune to that tree, and if a house be built in such a place, as to shelter a tree from great storms, or cold weather, it were good fortune to that tree, and if a beast be hurt it is a miss-fortune to that beast, or bird, and when a beast, or bird, is brought up for pleasure, or delight, and not to work or be imprisoned, it is a good fortune to that beast, or bird; but as I said before fortune is onely various motions, drawn to a point, and that point that comes from crosse motions, we call bad fortune, and those that come from Sympathetical motions we call good fortune, and there must needs be Antipathetical Motions as well as Sympa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thetical Motions, since Motions are so various.</p>
<p>But man, and for all that I know, all other things, are gover<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ned by outward Objects, they rule, and we obey; for we do not rule and they Obey, but every thing is led like dogs in a string, by a stronger power, <note n="*" place="margin">Natural power.</note> but the outward power be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing invisible, makes us think, we set the rules, and not the outward Causes, so that we are governed by that which is without us, not that which is within us; for man hath no power over himself.</p>
</div>
<div n="60" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 60. <hi>Of time and Nature.</hi>
</head>
<p>NO question but there is a time in Nature, for time is the Variation of Nature, and nature is a producing Mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion
<pb n="30" facs="tcp:48875:30"/>
a multiplying figure, an endlesse measure, a quantilesse substance, an indefaisable matter.</p>
</div>
<div n="61" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 61. <hi>Of Matter, Motion, and Figure.</hi>
</head>
<p>AS I said before in my first part of my Book, that there is no first Matter, nor no first Motion, because Eternal, and Infinite, yet there could be no Motion, without matter; for Matter is the cause, Motion but the effect of Matter, for there could be no motion unlesse there were Matter to be mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ved; But there might be Matter, and Figure, without Mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion, as an infinite, and eternal dull lump; For I see no reason, but infinite might be without running forward, or circle-wayes, if there were not several degrees of the onely Matter, wherein Motion is an Infinite Eternal effect of such a degree. Neither is it nonsense to say, Figure is the effect of Matter; for though there is no Matter without Figure, yet there could be no figure without Matter, wherefore Matter is the prime cause of Figure, yet there could be no figure without matter, wherefore matter is the prime cause of figure, but not figure of matter, for figure doth not make matter, but matter figure, no more then the creature can make the Creator; but a creature may make a figure. Thus although there is no first matter, yet matter is the first cause of moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on and figure, and all effects.</p>
<p>Although they are as infinite and Eternal, as matter it self, and when I say Matter <hi>prime,</hi> I speak for distinction sake, which is the onely Matter?</p>
<p>The innated Matter, is the soul of Nature.</p>
<p>The dull part of Matter, the Body.</p>
<p>And the infinite figures, are the infinite form of Nature.</p>
<p>And the several motions are the several actions of nature.</p>
</div>
<div n="62" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 62. <hi>Of Causes, and effects.</hi>
</head>
<p>AS I have said before the effects are infinite, and eternal as the Causes, because all effects lie in matter and mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion, indeed in matter onely; for motion is but the effect of matter.</p>
<p>Wherefore all particular figures although dssiolvable yet is inherent in the matter, and motion, as for example, if a man can draw the picture of a man, or any thing else, al<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>though he never draws it, yet the Art is inherent in the man, and the picture in the Art as long as the man lives, so as long as there is matter, and motion, which was from all Eternity, and shall be eternally; the effect will be so.</p>
</div>
<div n="63" type="chapter">
<pb n="31" facs="tcp:48875:30"/>
<head>Chap. 63. <hi>Whether motion is a thing, or nothing, or can be Annihilated</hi>
</head>
<p>SOme have opinion that Motion is nothing, but to my reason it is a thing; for if matter, is a substance, a substance is a thing, and the motion, and matter being unseparablely, united, makes it but one thing.</p>
<p>For as there could be no motion without such a degree, or extract of matter so there could be no such degree or ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tract<note place="margin">I say extract. because it is the essence of matter.</note> of matter without motion, thus motion is a thing. But by reason particular motions leave moving in such matters and figures, shall we say they are deceased, dead, or be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>come nothing; but say some, motions are accidents, and acci<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dents are nothing; but I say, all accidents live in substance, as all effects in the causes, say some, when a man for ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ample shakes his hand, and when he leaves shaking, whether is that motion gone (say others) no where, for that parti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cular motion ceaseth to be, say they.</p>
<p>I answer, that my reason tells me, it is neither fled a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>way, nor ceased to be, for it remains in the hand, and in that matter that created the hand, that is in that, and the like in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nated matter, that is in the hand. But some will say, the hand never moves so again, but I say the motion is never the lesse there, they may as well say, when they have seen a Chest full of Gold, or the like, and when their eyes are shut, or that they never see it more, that the Gold doth not lie in the Chest, although the Gold may lie there eternally, or if they should see it again, say it is not the same Gold. So like<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wise particular motions are, but shewed, not lost, or Annihila<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted: or say one should handle a vessel often, that every time you handle the vessel, it is not the same touch, vessel, or hand, and if you never touch the vessel again, that the hand, vessel, or touch is annihilated.</p>
<p>But particular motion, as the vessels, or hand is but used, not annihilated, for particular motions can be no more an<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nihilated, then particular figures that are dissolved and how, in reason can we say in reason particular figures are Annihilated, when every part and parcel, grain, and atome, remains in infinite matter, but some will say, when a house: for example, is pull'd down, by taking asunder the materials, that very figure of that house is annihilated; but my opini<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on is, that it is not, for that very figure of that house remains in those materials, and shal do eternally although those materi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>als were dissolved into Atoms, and every Ato me in a several place, part, or figure &amp; though infinite figures should be made by those materials by several dissolutions and Creations, yet those infinites would remain in those particular materials eternally, and was there from all eternity; And if any of those figures
<pb n="32" facs="tcp:48875:31"/>
be rebuilt, or Created again, it is the same figure it was.</p>
<p>So likewise the motion of the hand which I said for exam<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ple, if the same hand moves after the same manner, it is the same motion that moved the hand before; so it may make infinite repetitions; thus one and the same motion may move eternally, and rest from moving, and yet have a being.</p>
</div>
<div n="64" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 64. <hi>Of Motions.</hi>
</head>
<p>THere are millions of several motions which agree to the making of each figure, and millions of several motions are knit together; for the general motion of that are figure, as if every figure had a Common-Weale of several Motions working to the subsistence of the figure, and several sorts of motions, like several sorts of Trades hold up each other; some as Magistrates, and rulers; others as Train-bands, as souldiers; some make forts, and dig trenches; some as Mer<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>chants that traffick; some as Sea-men, and Ship<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>masters; some that labour and and work, as some cut and carve; Others paint, and ingrave; some mix, and temper, joyn, and inlay, and glue together; some form, and build; some cast in moulds, and some makes moulds to cast; some work rough-casts; some pollish and refine; some bear burthens, some take off burthens, some digg, some sowe, some plough, some set, some graft, some plant, some gather, some reap, some sift, some thrash, some grind, some knead, some bake, some beat, some spin, some weave, some sewe together, some wind and twist, some create, and others dissolve, and millions of millions of motions, but as we see external, so we may imagine are internal motions.</p>
</div>
<div n="65" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 65. <hi>Many motions go to the producing of one thing, or to one end.</hi>
</head>
<p>FOr there are millions of several motions go to the making of one figure, or in mixing, as I may say, of seve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral degrees of the dull part of matter, as I will give one for example in grosse external motions, where I will describe it by digestive motions, which is to fit parts, and to distri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bute parts to several places proper to the work. For digestive motions, there are many several sorts, or kinds of motions mixt together, as for example, a piece of meat is to be boyled, or the like, some motions cut fuel, and others take it up, others carrie, other lay down in a Chimnie, or the like place, others put fire, others kindle it, and make it burn, others take met<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tle and melt it, others cast such a figure as a pot, others bring the pot, others set it over the fire, others take up water, others carry that water to the pot, others put that water in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>to the pot, others kill a sheep, others divide it into parts,
<pb n="33" facs="tcp:48875:31"/>
others put it a part into the pot. Thus a piece of meat can<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>not be boyled without all these motions, and many more, which would be too tedious to relate, for I could have in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>larged in three times as many more, only to boyl a piece of meat, and if there be so many several motions in our grosse sense in such things as these, then what is there in infinite Na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture, yet for all these infinite varieties of motions, as I said before, I cannot perceive but six ground-motions, or funda<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mental motions, from whence all changes come, which are these attractive motions, contracting motions, retentive moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons, dilative motions digestive motions, and expulsive motions; likewise, although there be infinite kindes, and different fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures, yet the ground-work, from whence ariseth all the ve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>riety, is but from four figures; as Circular, Triangular, Cupe, and Paralels. And as there are infinite changes of motions, amongst the sensitive innated matter, working on the dull parts of matter, so there are infinite changes of motions in the rational innated matter, making infinite kinds of know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge, and degrees of knowledge, and understanding, and as there are infinite changes of motion, so there are infinite effects, and every produced effect, is a producing effect, and effects which effect produce effects, and the onely matter is the cause of all effects, for the several degrees of onely matter, is the effect of onely matter, and motion is the effect of some sorts of the degrees of onely matter, and varieties are the the effects of matter and motion, and life is the effect of in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nate matter; and knowledge the effect of life.</p>
</div>
<div n="66" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 66. <hi>Of the six principal motions.</hi>
</head>
<p>AS I have said, there are infinite Contractions, Atractions, Retentions, Dilations, digestions, and expulsions, and to explain my self to my readers as well as I can, unlesse they should mistake me, I will here describe, although after a grosse way; yet according to my capacity. A few of the in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>finite variety of motions, first there are five, or six principal motions, from whence infinite changes are made, or produ<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ced, as from Contractions, Attractions, Retentions; these three principal motions do in some kinde simpathize to each other; and dilations, and expulsions do also sympathize to each other, but digestions is a mixt motion taking part of all, but I divide them into six parts, for distinction; Now to treat of them se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>verally, we must make an imaginary Circumference, and Center.</p>
<p>Then first for Attracting motions, which is to draw towards the Center, that is, to draw to a lesse compasse, as to draw to<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wards a point, yet Atractions draw not alwayes after one and the same manner, for some motions draw after them, as horses do Coaches, Carts, sleds and the like, but after se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral<note place="margin">This for ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ample.</note>
<pb n="34" facs="tcp:48875:32"/>
fashions, forms, and biasses and several motions, in those motions some slow, some quick, some crosse, some even. Again, some times Attractive motions draw, as if one should pull in a line, or draw in a net, some slope-wayes, some straight wayes; some square wayes, some round wayes; and millions of the like varieties, in this sort of motion, yet all Attracting motion.</p>
<p>Secondly, Contracting motions which move after another manner; for though both these sorts of motions, are to bring to<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wards a point, yet Contraction me thinks, strives more a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gainst <hi>Vacuum,</hi> then Attraction, gathering all into a firm body, stopping up all porous passages, shutting out space, and ga<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thering in matter, as close as it can; indeed Attractions are but in the way to Contractions, as Dilations to expulsions; but this sort of motions is, surfling, pleating, folding, binding, knitting, twisting, griping, pressing, tying, and many the like, and after several manners, or fashions.</p>
<p>Thirdly, Retention is to hold, or to stay from wandring, to fix, as I may <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>, the matter to one place, as if one should stick, or glue parts together.</p>
<p>Fourthly, Dilations are to inlarge, as to spend, or extend, striving for space, or compasse; it is an incroaching motion, which will extend its bounds as far as it can, this sort of mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion is melting, flowing, streaming, spreading, smoothing, stretching, and millions of the like.</p>
<p>Fiftly, Expulsive, is a motion that shuns all unity, it strives against solidity, and uniformity, it disperses every thing it hath power on; this sort of motion, is, breaking, dissolving, throwing about.</p>
<p>Sixthly, Digestive motions, are the creating motions, carry<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing about parts to parts, and fitting, and matching, and joyning parts together, mixing and tempering the matter for pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>per uses.</p>
</div>
<div n="67" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 67. <hi>Of Exterior Motions produced from the six principle Motions.</hi>
</head>
<p>I Will here repeat some of the varieties of grosse exterior<note place="margin">Drawing mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions.</note> motions, such as are visible to our grosser senses, to cleer my readers imaginary motion; Some motions draw, as horses draw Coaches, Carts, Sleds, Harrows, or the like; o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thers, as horses, and dogs, are led in a bridle, or string.</p>
<p>Some, as beasts draw their prey to the Den moving back<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wards.</p>
<p>Some draw up lines shorter, and thicker, and some draw in circular lines, sloping lines, and square lines.</p>
<p>Other sorts of drawing, some straight lines; some square lines, round lines, slope lines, some motions draw up; some draw down, some draw side-wayes; some crosse, some regular;
<pb n="35" facs="tcp:48875:32"/>
Other motions do, as if one should drive, or shove a so<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lid<note place="margin">Driving m tions.</note> substance before them, the varieties of these moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons.</p>
<p>Some are, as if a man should drive a wheel-barrow, or rowling of barrels, or driving a plough, or a rowler, and mil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lions the like.</p>
<p>Others are, as if beasts and men were to carry burthens,<note place="margin">Bearing mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions.</note> some bearing burthens on their back; some on their head; some in in their mouth; some in their arms; some in their hands; some under their armes; some on their thighs; some on their stings, as Bees do, and millions the like, and eve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ry one of those burthens, have several motions thereto, and yet all but bearing motions.</p>
<p>Other sorts of motions, as throwing the bar, pitching the<note place="margin">Throwing, striking, dar<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ting motions.</note> bar, throwing a ball, striking a ball, throwing a bowl, fling<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing a dart, darting a dart, throwing upward, downward, straight-out, side-wayes, and all these several manners, is but a throwing motion.</p>
<p>Leaping, running, hopping, trotting, gallopping, climing, cla<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mering,<note place="margin">Lofty mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions.</note> flying, and infinite others, yet all is but a lofty mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion.</p>
<p>Diving, dipping, mowing, reaping, or shearing, rowling, cree<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ping,<note place="margin">Low <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
</note> crawling, tumbling, traveling, running, and infinite the like examples may be given of the varieties of one and the same kinde of motion.</p>
</div>
<div n="68" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 68. <hi>Of double motions at one and the same time, on the same matter.</hi>
</head>
<p>AS for example; spinning flax, or the like is drawn long, and small, twisted hard, and round, and at one time.</p>
<p>Again, a bowl runs round-way, and yet straight-out at one time.</p>
<p>A shuttle-cock spins about in a straight line.</p>
<p>The winde spreads, and yet blows straight-out at one and the same time.</p>
<p>Flame ascends Circular, and many the like examples may be given.</p>
</div>
<div n="69" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 69. <hi>Of the several strengths.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALthough there be infinite strengths of Motion, yet not to all sorts of figures, nor to all degrees of matter; for some figures move slow, others move swift, according to the Nature of the shape, or the interior strengths, or the degree, or quantity of innated matter, that created them; for though every degree of innated matter, is of one and the same strength, yet there are different degrees; but onely two degrees are
<pb n="36" facs="tcp:48875:33"/>
subject to our weak sense, as the innate minde, and the inna<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted body, which we call sense and reason, which sense and reason, may be in every thing, though after different man<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ners, but we have confined sense, onely to animal kinde, and reason onely to mankinde; but if the innated matter is in the dull parts of matter, as the life of the body, then there is no part that hath not sense and reason whether creating or created, dissolving, or dissolved, though I will not say that every creature enjoys life alike, so every figure is not innated alike, for some is weaker innated, and some stronger, either by quantity or degree, yet every figure is innated; for it is innated matter that creates, and dissolves figures, yet the innated matter works according to the several degrees, and tempers, of the dull part of matter, and to such properties, and figures, and figures properties, and proper figures, that is, motion doth form the onely matter, into figures, yet motion can<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>not alter the Entity of only matter, but motion can, and doth alter the interior, and exterior figures, and though the seve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral degrees of matter may be placed, and replaced in figures, yet the nature of the matter cannot be altered.</p>
</div>
<div n="70" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 70. <hi>The creations of Figures, and difference of Motions.</hi>
</head>
<p>THose motions that are proper to create figures, are dif<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ferent from those motions that dissolve them, so that sympathetical internal motions, do not onely assist one another, but Sympathetical external Motions, and Sympathetical figures; this is the reason that from two fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures, a third, or more is created, by the way of procrea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion; yet all figures are created, after one and the same kinde of way; yet not after one and the same man<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ner of way, as Vegetables, Minerals, and some sorts of Animals, as such as are bred from that we call corruption, as some sorts of worms, and some sorts of flies, and the like;<note place="margin">Conjunction of those dif<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ferent moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons.</note> Yet are they created by the procreation of the heat, and moisture, the same way are plants that grow wilde produ<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ced, but those that are sown or set, although they are after one and the same kinde of way, yet not after the same<note place="margin">First the earth bears Vegetables, and the plants bear seed, and the seed, and earth bear Vegetables again.</note> manner; for the young vegetables, were produced from the seeds, and the earth, which were sowed, or set together, and in grafts is when two different plants produce seed of mixt nature, as a Mule is produced, or the like creature, from two different Animals, which make them of mixt nature; for As there is a Sympathetical conjunction in one, and the same kinde of figure, so there is a Sympathetical conjunction in some sorts of figures; but not in all, nor to all, for that would make such a confusion in nature, as there would be no distinction, of kindes; besides, it were impossible for some kinde of figures, to make a conjunction with other kindes,
<pb n="37" facs="tcp:48875:33"/>
being such a difference betwixt them, some from the nature of the figures, others from the shape of the figures.</p>
<p>And Minerals are produced by the Conjunction of such Ele<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments, which were begot by such motions, as make heat, and drought, and cold and dry. Thus all figures are created from dif<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ferent motions, and different degrees, of infinite onely matter; for onely matter joyns, and divides it self by self motions, and hath done so, and will do so, or must do so eternally, being its nature, yet the divisions, and substractions, joynings, and crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions, are not alike, nor do they continue, or dissolve, with the like measure of time, which time is onely as in a reference to several motions.</p>
<p>But as I have said, there can be nothing lost in nature, Although there be infinite changes, and their changes never repeated. For say a man dies, and his figure dissolves into dust, as smal as Atoms, and is disperst so, as never to meet, and every Atome goeth to the making of several figures, and so changes infinitely, from figure, to figure, yet the figures of all these changes lie in those parts, and those parts in onely matter; so likewise several motions may cease as figures dissolve, but still those motions lies in innated matter, and each particular figure, in the generality of matter and motion, which is on the dull part, and innated part of one<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly matter.</p>
</div>
<div n="71" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 71. <hi>The Agilenesse of innated Matter:</hi>
</head>
<p>INnated matter seems much nimbler in some works, then in other, as making Elements, and their several changes, be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing more porous then Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, which are more contracted, and not so easily metamorphosed, and on the thin part of dull matter, they seem much nimbler, and agil, then when they work on the grosse part of dull matter; for though the innated matter can work, but according to the strength, yet not alwayes according to that strength; for their burthens are not alwayes equal to their strength; for we see in light thin dull matter, their motions to be more swift, having lesse incumbrances, and lighter burthens, unlesse it be oposed, and stopped by the innated matter, that works in the more solid, or thicker part of dull matter, or move solid and united figures, yet many times the innated matter, that works on the thin part of dull matter, or in more porous fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures, will make way through solid and thick bodies, and have the power on those that work on more grosse matter, for the innate matter that works on grosse matter, cannot re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sist so well, having greater burthens, nor act with that facility as the others can, whose matter is lighter, or figures more pourous; for we see many times water to passe through great rocks, and mountains, piercing and dividing their strengths, by
<pb n="38" facs="tcp:48875:34"/>
the frequent assaults thereon, or to; yet many times the passe is kept or lost, according to the quantity of the innated <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> of either side.</p>
</div>
<div n="72" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 72. <hi>Of external, and internal figures and Motions.</hi>
</head>
<p>FOr the motions of heat and drought begets the Sun the motions of heat and moisture begets the Aire.</p>
<p>The motions of cold and dry, begets the earth, and the rest of the Planets, and as other motions begot them, so they be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>got others, and as these Elemental Planets beget in gener all figures, which we call creatures in the world; so these fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures, as they are matched, beget each particular figures of several sorts; For external figures, are made by internal mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions; for though Vegetables, Minerals, and Animals be in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ternal figures, as to the globe of the World, which is the ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ternal figures to them, yet they are external figures to those which are created in them, untill such time as they are cast forth of that mould, as I may say, which they were made in, which is the womb, and the several wombs of several kinds, are several moulds, but indeed all moulds differ in their points.</p>
<p>Perchance this subject might be better explained, but my modest thoughts will not give my inquisitive thoughts leave to trace Natures Creations by procreation; Although I be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>leeve nature, and her works are pure of themselves, but 'tis the Abuse of her works, and not the knowledge that corrupts man-kinde.</p>
</div>
<div n="73" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 73. <hi>Of repeating one and the same work, and of varieties.</hi>
</head>
<p>NAture may repeat one and the same creature if she plea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>seth, that is, the same motions, on the same matter, may create the same creature, by reason the same motions, and the same matter, is eternally in the body infinite: thus the Origi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nal cause of producing one and the same is eternal, by reason nothing in nature can be annihilated, and though the infinite matter is but one and the same, yet the infinite part of innated matter, moves infinite several wayes, and by reason of the diversity of motion, there is such varietie, as seldom any two creatures are alike, for motion delights in variety, not so much in the different kindes, as in the particular creatures, which makes me think that motion is bound by the nature of the matter, to make such kindes; Although it be at liberty for particulars, and yet the several kindes may be as infinite as the particulars; as for example, although motion is bound to Animal kinde, Vegetable kinde, Mineral kinde, and also to
<pb n="39" facs="tcp:48875:34"/>
make such kinde of worlds as this is; yet motion may make infinite particular worlds, as infinite particular Animals, Ve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>getables, Minerals, and those infinite worlds may differ, as those kindes of Creaturs; for worlds may differ from other worlds, not onely as man from man, but as man from beast, beasts from birds, birds from fish, and so as Vegetables do; for an oak is not like a tulip, or roses; for trees are not like flowers, nor flowers like roots, nor roots like fruit, nor all flowers alike, nor all roots alike, nor all fruits alike, nor all trees, and the rest, and so for Minerals; gold is not like lead, nor a diamond like a pibble stone; so there may be infinite worlds, and infinite variety of worlds, and be all of that kinde we call worlds, yet be nothing alike, but as different, as if it were of another kinde, and may be infinite several kinds of creatures, as several sorts, that we can never imagine, nor guesse at; for we can guesse, nor imagine at no other wayes, but what our senses brought in, or our imaginations raised up, and though imaginations in nature may be infinite, and move in every particular brain after an infinite manner; yet it is but finite in every particular figure, because every particular fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>guse is finite, that is every particular figure comes by de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grees from creation to a full growth, from a full growth to a decay, from a decay to a dissolution; but not a Annihilation, for every particular figure lies in the body infinite, as well as every particular kinde; for unlesse eternalmatter, and infinite matter, and eternal and infinite motions could be Annihilated, infinite figures wil eternally remain, although not in their whole bulk, yet in their parted pieces; for though one and the same matter may be made into other figures: yet the former fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures have as much a being as the present figures, by reason the matter that was the cause of those figures hath an eternal being, and as long as the cause lasts, the effects cannot be Annihi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lated.</p>
</div>
<div n="74" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 74. <hi>Of creation, and dissolving of Nature.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe divisions, and substractions, joynings, and creations, are not alike, nor do they continue, and dissolve with the like measures of time; for some Vegetables are old, and de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>crepit at a day old, others are but in their prime after a hundred yeers, and so some Animals, as flies and the like, are old and decrepit at a yeer old; others, as man is but at his prime at twenty yeers, and will live a hundred yeers, if he be healthy and sound; so in the Minerals, perchance lead, or tin, or the like, is but a flie, for continuance to gold, or like a flower to an oak, then it is probable, that the Sun and the rest of the Planets, Stars, and Millions more that we know not, may be at their full strength at ten hundred thousand yeers, nay million of millions of yeers, which is nothing to eternity,
<pb n="40" facs="tcp:48875:35"/>
or perchance, as it is likely, other figures were at full strength when matter and motion created them, and shall last until matter dissolves them. Again, it is to be observed that all Spherical figures last longest, I think it is because that figure hath no ends to ravel out at.</p>
</div>
<div n="75" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 75. <hi>Of Gold.</hi>
</head>
<p>SOme say that Gold is not to be altered from the figure that makes it gold, because <hi>Chymists</hi> have tried and cannot do it, but certainly that innated motion that joyns those parts, and so made it in the figure of Minerals can dissolve those parts, and make it into some figure else, to expresse an other thing; but being a <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> solid part of dull matter then that which makes other minerals, it is longer a creating, and dissol<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving, then the other figures are, that are of a light or softer sub<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stance, and may be the motions that make gold, are of slow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>er nature, so as it is caused from the hardnesse of the mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter, or the slownesse of the spirit, caused by the curiosity of the work, wherein they must use more different motions then in other figures; so as it may be a thousand yeers uniting, or a thousand yeers a dispersing, a thousand, nay ten thousand; for there is no account, nor time in nature infinite, and be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cause we last not so song as to perceive it, shall we say that Gold was eternal, and shall last eternally; so we may as well<note place="margin">Unlesse a greater pow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>er destroy it before the natural time.</note> say an Oak, that is a hundred yeers, ere it comes to full maturity, and a hundred yeers, ere it comes to be dissoved, that it was an Oak eternally, and shall be so eternally, because a flower, is crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted, and dissolved in two or three dayes, but the solidity of the matter, and the cu<g ref="char:cmbAbbrStroke">̄</g>riosity in the several changes, and enter<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>changes of motions prolong the work, yet it is hastened, or re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tarded by the quantity of spirits that work therein; for when there is more, it is sooner formed, when less, longer ere it come to its figurative perfection.</p>
</div>
<div n="76" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 76. <hi>Of Sympathies, and Antipathies, which is to agree, or disagree, to joyn, or to crosse.</hi>
</head>
<p>THere are infinite sorts of figures, or Creatures, that have Sympathy, and infinite sorts of figures, that have Antipa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thies, both by their exterior, and interior motions, and some exterior Sympathie with some interior, and some interior with some exteriors, and some exterior with exteriors, and interi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ors with interiors, both in one and the same figure, and with one and the same kinde, and with different kinds, and with several sorts, which works various effects: and here I will treat a little of Vegetables, and Minerals with Antipathy, or Sympathies, with Animals of all Animals. First, man thinks himself to have the Supreme knowledge, but he can but think
<pb n="41" facs="tcp:48875:35"/>
so, for he doth not absolutely know it, for thought is not an absolute knowledge but a suppositive knowledge, for there are as many several degrees of knowledge, as of innate matter which is infinite, and therefore not absolute, and as much va<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>riety of knowledge, as there is of motions, and though all in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nated matter is knowing, yet all innated matter is not known; this makes figures to have of each others a suppositive, but not an absolute knowledge; thus infinite makes innated matter in some kinde, a stranger to it self, yet being know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing, although not known, it makes an acquaintance with parts of it self, and being various by interchanging motions, it also loseth acquaintance; the acquaintance we call learning, invention, experience, or memory, the unknown, or not ac<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>quainted we call stupidity, ignorance, forgetfulnesse, illiterate, but by the acquaintance of experience, we come to finde the use of many things, and by the use we come to learn, and from our learning we come to practise, and by our practise we come to produce many effects, from the hidden and mystical causes, which are the effects, from the onely cause which is the onely matter, thus we come to finde the use of Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, Vegetables, Minerals, and so A<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nimal with Animal, and we do not onely get new acquaintance; which is new experience, but we make use of our acquaintance to our own benefit, or at least we strive to do so; for it is the nature of life, which life is innated matter, to strive for pre<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>heminency,<note place="margin">Life is in eve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ry thing.</note> and absolute power, that is, onely matter would rule it self, but being infinite it neither absolutely knows it self, nor can absolutely rule or govern it self, and though it be an endlesse work, yet motion which is the moving part of na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture, cannot desist, because it is infinite, and eternal, thus mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving matter running perpetually towards absolute power, makes a perpetual war; for infinite, and onely matter is al<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wayes<note place="margin">It is but one thing, but three words.</note> at strife for absolute power, for matter would have power over infinite, and infinite would have over matter, and eternity would have power over both.</p>
<p>Thus infinit and eternal matter joyned all, as to one is alwayes at strife in it self, yet the war is regular, not confused; For there this is a natural order, and discipline is in nature as much as cruel Tyrannie; for there is a na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>turall order, and discipline often-times in cruel Ty<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ranny.</p>
</div>
<div n="77" type="chapter">
<pb n="42" facs="tcp:48875:36"/>
<head>Chap. 77. <hi>Of different knowledge in different figures.</hi>
</head>
<p>CErtainly there are infinite several kindes, as well as in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>finite several sorts, and particular creatures in nature, and certainly every several kinde, nay, every several sort in every kinde. Knowledge works after a different manner; in every different figure, which different manners we call particular knowledges which works according to the figure, so infinite knowledge lies in infinite figure, and infinite figure in infinite matter, and as there are infinite degrees of matter, so there are infinite degrees of knowledge, and as there are infinite de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grees of knowledge, so there are infinite degrees of motions, so there are infinite degrees of figures, and as there are infi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nite degrees, so there are infinite kinds, and as there are infinite kindes, so there are infinite sorts, and so infinite particulars in every sort, yet no kinde can be said to have most, or least, though lesse or more; for there is no such thing, as most or least in nature. For as I said before, there is one<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly different knowledge belonging to every kinde, as to Ani<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mal kinde, Vegetable kinde, Mineral kinde; and infinite more which we are not capable to know, but two particular sorts in every kinde; as for example, Man may have a different knowledge from beasts, birds, fish, worms, and the like, and yet be no wiser, or knowing then they; For different wayes in knowledge makes not knowledge more or lesse, no more then different paths inlarge one compasse of ground; nor no more then several words for one and the same thing, for the thing is the same, onely the words differ; so if a man hath different knowledge from a fish, yet the fish may be as knowing as man, but man hath not a fishes knowledge, nor a fish a mans knowledge.</p>
<p>Likewise some creatures may have more, and some lesse knowledge then others; yet none can be said to have most, or least; for there is no such thing as most or least in na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture, nor doth the weaknesse, or imperfection in particular creatures impaire the knowledge of the kinde, or impair the<note place="margin">That is to weaken the degree.</note> knowledge as I may say, belonging to any particular sort, nor can any one have such a supremacy of knowledge as to add to the knowledge of the kinde, or sort of kinde, as to have such a knowledge as is above the capacity of that kinde, or sort to understand. As for example, a man to know more then the nature of man is to know; for what knowledge man hath had, or can have, is in the capacity of the kinde, though not to every particular man, for though nature may work with<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>in her self; yet she cannot work beyond her self, and if there be mixe sorts of creatures, as partly man, and partly beast, partly man, and partly fish, or partly beast, and partly fish,
<pb n="43" facs="tcp:48875:36"/>
and partly fish, and partly foul; yet although they are mixt creatures, and may have mixt knowledges, yet they are par<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ticular sorts, and different knowledges, belonging to those sorts, and though different sorts have different knowledges, yet the kinde may be of one and the same degree; that is, every several sort of creatures, in one and the same kinde, is as knowing and as wise, as another, and that which makes some creatures seem lesse perfect then others, or more know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing then others, is the advantage, or disadvantage of their <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>, which gives one creature power over another; but different Knowledg in different creatures takes advantages by turns according as it turns to it. And as there is diffe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rent Knowledge, and different Kinds, and several sorts, so there is different Knowledge in different senses, in one and the same creature; for what man hath seen the interior biting mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion of Gold, and burning motions of heat? yet feels them we may imagine by the touch, the interior nature of fire to be composed of sharp points, yet our sight hath no Knowledge thereof, so our sight hath the Knowledge of light; but the rest of our senses are utterly ignorant thereof; our ears have the Knowledge of sound, but our eyes are ignorant of the Knowledge thereof; thus, though our ears may be as Know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing as our eyes, and our eyes as Knowing as our ears, yet they may be ignorant of each other, I say Knowledge, for sense is Knowledg, as well as reason, onely reason is a degree above sense, or sense, a degree beneath reason.</p>
</div>
<div n="78" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 78. <hi>The advantages of some figures, some de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>grees of matter, and motions, over others.</hi>
</head>
<p>IF we do but stricktly prie into the works of nature, we shall observe, that all internal motions, are much after the manner of external motions, I mean those motions that we can perceive, by those effects, as are subject to our senses, and although for the most part the strongest motions govern the weakest, yet it is not alwayes found that they conquer the weaker; for there are infinite slights, or infinite advantages to be taken, or mist in infinite nature, some by the <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> of their figures, and some in the degrees of matter, and some in the manner of moving; for slights are just like the actions of Juglers, Vauters, or Tumblers, Wrastlers, or the like; for shapes I will give one or two for example, as a little Mouse which is but a weak creature, in comparison to an Ele<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>phant, yet the small Mouse shall overcome an Elephant, by running up through the snout, and so get into the head, and so gnaw on his brain; And a Worm is a weak creature in com<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>parison of a man, yet if he get into the guts, it will gnaw out his bowels, and destroy that figure. So for degrees of matter, what advantage hath the innated matter, or the dull
<pb n="44" facs="tcp:48875:37"/>
part of matter, and for motions, most often the nimbler, and agile motions, get an advantage on the stronger, if more slower, and oftener by the manner of motions; for many times a diving motion will have the better of a swim<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ming motion, a jumping motion of a running motion, a cree<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ping or crawling motion, of either, a darting motion of a flying motion, a crosse motion of a straight motion, a tur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning motion of a lifting motion, so an Attractive motion of an expulsive motion, and infinite the like, and every motion may have their advantages by turns, and then the advantages of place, and of times, as I may call it, for distinction sake, some Creatures will suppresse other creatures in the night, when the suppressers dare not appear to the supprssed in the light, a great Army shall be destroyed by a little Army, by standing in a lower patch of ground, oft by fighting at such a time of the day, when the sun shines on their faces, but it would be too long for <hi>Methusalems</hi> life, to set down ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>amples, being infinite, but this shall serve to expresse my opinions.</p>
</div>
<div n="79" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 79. <hi>Of the figurative figures.</hi>
</head>
<p>MOst figures are lined, and enterlined, as I may say, for expression sake, some figures are like a set, or nest of boxes, as for example, half a dozen boxes one within a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nother, so every of those figures hath the same figure, within one another, the outermost figure being the largest, the in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>most figure the least; as for example, a man builds a house, first he builds the figure of that house with wood, as beams, and rafters and lathes; next he laies morter, then is the fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure of that house in morter, then he laies bricks or stones, then there is the figure of the house in stone, and brick, then it is plaistered within the inside, then there is the figure of the house in plaister, if it be painted, then there is figure of the house in painting; so likewise an Animal, as a man, first there is the figure of a man in bones, as we may see in a Anatomie, then there is the figure of a man in flesh; thirdly there is the figure of a man in the skin, then there are many, different figures, belonging to one and the same figure, as every several part of an Animal is of a different figure, and every part hath different figures belonging thereunto; as man for example, to the hand there is the palm, the back, the fingers, the nailes, yet all makes but one hand.</p>
<p>So the head, there is the brain, the pia mater, the dura mater, the scul, the nose, the eyes, the fore-head, the ears, the mouth, the lips, the tongue, the chin, yet all this is but a head; like<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wise the head, the neck, the brest, the arms, the hands, the back, the hips, the bowels, the thighes, the legs, the feet; besides, the bones, the nerves, the muscles, the veins, the arteries, the heart, the liver, the lights, the midrif, the bladder, the kidnies,
<pb n="45" facs="tcp:48875:37"/>
the guts, the stomacke, the brain, the marrow, the blood, the flesh, the skin, yet all these different figurative parts make but the figure of one man. So for Vegetables, the root, the sap, the peath, the bole, the bark, the branches, make but the figure of one tree; likewise every figure is different, this man is not like that man, this tree is not like that tree, for some trees are larger, or lesser, higher, or lower, more or lesse branched, crooked, or straghter, so in Ani<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mals, some are of one shape, some of another, as men, some are slender and tall; some little and low; some big and tall, others thick and low; some high-nos'd; some flat-nos'd; some thick, some thin lipt; some high fore-heads, some low, some broad, some narrow, and numbers of like examples may be given, not onely to man, but all other Animal creatures ac<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cording to their shapes, that every particular in one and the same kinde, hath different figures, yet every particular kinde hath but one and the same motion, which properly and na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>turally belong to that Kinde of figure, as a horse to gallop, to amble, to trot, to runn, to leap, to kick, and the like; and man to lift, to carry to walk, to run, to pitch, to dig, to shut, to chop, to pull back, to thrust forward; likewise every parti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cular part in one and the same Kinde, hath but one and the same kinde of motions, local or otherwise, and ever particu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lar bird, hath but one, and the same kinde of motion in their flights, and in their feeding;</p>
<p>So beasts, every particular kinde hath but one and the same manner of motion, and feeding; so likewise all mankinde hath after one and the same Kinde of motions belonging naturally to every particular part of his body, the onely difference is in the strength, or weaknesse, their restraints or facilities but not different in manner of the movings. But to return, to the figures, I say there are different figures belonging to one and the same kinde of figure, but the ground or funda<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mental figures in every particular figure, are there. (As for example) a tree at first is the figure of wood, the second is such a sort of wood, as a Cedar, an Oak, an Elm, an Ash, and the like; also of such a nature of wood, some fitter to burn then to build, others that will grow but on such, or such soils, o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thers to last longer, or die sooner, or bud and bear in such, and such seasons, some to bear fruit, others to bear none.</p>
<p>Likewise for Animals, the first figure is to be an Animal, that is, to have a local figure, the second figure is to be flesh,<note place="margin">Fish is a kind of flesh.</note> not wood. The third is to be such a kinde of flesh as mans flesh, not bears flesh, or dogs flesh, or horse flesh, or cows flesh, and more examples may be given, then I am able to repeat, or my book to infold, but Animals and Vegetables have more different figures, belonging to every particular, fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure or Kinde then Minerals, especially metals, which are as it were composed of one piece.</p>
</div>
<div n="80" type="chapter">
<pb n="46" facs="tcp:48875:38"/>
<head>Chap. 80. <hi>Of the gloomy figures, and figures of parts, and of one piece.</hi>
</head>
<p>AYre is not a shining body of it self, but as the lines of light shine upon it, it is smooth, and may be aglossie body, but not a shining; for though there are infinite several sorts of brightnesse and shining, yet two I will describe.</p>
<p>As there are two sorts of shining figures; some that cast forth beams of light, as bright shining fire, and likewise from some sorts of stones, bones, and wood, so there are some sorts of figures that onely retain a bright shining quality in themselves, but cast forth no beams there-from; or else so weak and small, as not useful to our sight, but what is represented to us thereon, by other lights; this sort is water, metal, and vulgar stones, which perchance ayre may have such a shining body.</p>
<p>These shining bodies, as water, or metal, or the like, are not perceived in the dark, but when light is cast thereon, we do not onely perceive the light, but their own natural shining quality by that light.</p>
<p>Again, some figures have onely a glosse, which is a faint shining, like as a fained light, or an eclipsed shadow, as all the pores Vegetables, and Animals skins have; and some fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures are glossy through the thinnesse, or transparentnesse, not in the nature, for by reason the figure is thin, and transpa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rent, the light shining, though transparent doth not onely shew the light, but the light gives those figures a glosse.</p>
<p>Some figures, as I have said, are as it were all of one piece, as some sorts of earth, water, vapor, and ayr, which may be me<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tamorphosed, by contracting and dilation.</p>
<p>Others of divers pieces, and several works, as Vegetables, and Animals, wherein are joynts and knots, some parts soft, and some liquid, some firme, some hard, every part having a several figure, which varieties and contrarieties serve to the consistence, and preservation, but of one perfect figure; but Animals of all other figures have the most variety of works, and several motions.</p>
</div>
<div n="81" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 81. <hi>Of the dull and innated matter.</hi>
</head>
<p>SOme may say, that if there were infinite dull and in-mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ving matter, some of it may lie unmoved eternally. I answer, that cannot be, for as there is infinite dulnesse and soli<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dity; so there is infinite acutenes and facility, by which I mean searching, and penetrating, which in some sense makes it equal, if there be equality in infinite, but the innating mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter works not upon the dull matter, as upon a new material; for the innate matter is mixt with the dull part of matter;
<pb n="47" facs="tcp:48875:38"/>
For the innated matter moves in the dull part of matter, and on the dull part of matter, as I have described in my first part, for the innated matter takes not fresh and new (as I may say) for distinction sake, to make a figure with; but turns the dull matter into several figures, joyning each degree as the innate matter will, or as it is proper for such a kinde of figure, for some degrees of matter will not make, I do beleeve some kinde of figures, but the dull part of matter, is not mixed in the innate matter, although the innate matter is mixed in that, for the innate matter is pure in it self, without any gross mixture, for it is the infinite pure part of matter infinite, it is the spirits, or essence of nature.</p>
</div>
<div n="82" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 82. <hi>An answer to an old question, what becomes of the shape, or figure, or outward forms of the old figure, when the nature takes a new form.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL Created, or not created, or created, and dissol<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ved again, figures or forms, lie in onely matter, either in by parts, or in the whole, for the materials of every figure is but of one matter, and the lump of all figures is the figure of eternal matter, for the infinite particular of figures, is the infinite form, shape, or figure of infinite and eternal matter, and the creation, disposals, and dissolvings of figures, are the several actions of that onely matter; for infinite motions are the infinite life, of the infinite and eternal life, which life, is as eternal matter, being part of the matter it self, and the manner of moving is but the several actions of life; for it is not an absence of life when the figure dissolves, but an alte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ration of life, that is, the matter ceaseth not from moving, for every part hath life in it, be the parts never so small, or disperst amongst other parts, and if life, there must be con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sequently sense, if sense, knowledge, then there can be no death, if every part hath life in it, so that which we call death, is onely an alteration of such motions, in such a figure, in onely matter.</p>
</div>
<div n="83" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 83. <hi>Of Transmigrations.</hi>
</head>
<p>TRansmigrations are not metamorphosed, for to metamor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>phose is to change the shape and interior form, but not the intellect, which cannot be without a new creation, nor then, but so as partly the intellect changes, with the shape and in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>terior form, but all bodies are in the way of transmigrations perpetually.</p>
<p>As for example, the nourishing food that is received in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>to the stomack transmigrated into Chylus, Chylus into blood, blood into flesh, flesh into fat, and some of the chylus
<pb n="48" facs="tcp:48875:39"/>
migrated into humors, as Choler, Flegme, and melancholy; some into excrement, which transmigrats through the body, into dung, dung into earth, earth into Vegetables, Vegetables into A<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nimals; again by the way of food, and likewise Animals into Animals, and Vegetables into Vegetables, and so likewise the elements.</p>
<p>But indeed all creatures are created by the way of trans<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>migration.</p>
<p>As for example, hens, or other fouls lay eggs, and then<note place="margin">The yolk and white is mixt into one sub<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stance which we call an a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dle egge; before it be a <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> it is bloody.</note> sit on them, from whence a nourishing heat is transmigrated from the hen into the eggs, which transmigrates into a kinde of a Chylus, then into blood, blood into flesh, flesh into si<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>news, sinews into bones, and some into veines, arteries, brains, and the like.</p>
<p>For transmigration is onely the mixing sifting, searching, tempering faculty, of innated matter, which is self-motion,<note place="margin">Tis a lump of flesh before it be bone, or sinew.</note> and motion is the onely transmigrater, otherwise infinite matter would lie idle eternally, though I cannot well con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ceive how infinite can be without motion; but howsoever we perceive so much as there are proper motions, and mix<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures of matter belonging to every particular figure; and though figures doth produce figures; yet figures do not order the creation, for it is not the figures that create, but creation that produceth by figures, which creation is motion, which motion is innated matter, which matter creates and dissolves by the way of transmigrations, all figures dissolving to create, and creates to dissolve, but dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>solving, and creation, which is that we call life and death, hath onely a reference to the figures, but not of the nature of the matter.</p>
</div>
<div n="84" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 84. <hi>Of metamorphosing of Animals and Vegetables.</hi>
</head>
<p>IT is impossible for Animals and vegetables to be meta<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>morphosed,<note place="margin">And then it is no metamor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>phosing I shal declare.</note> without a creation, as to transform a man into a tree, or a tree into a man, nor a man into the form of a beast, as to turn mans-flesh into horse-flesh, or horse-flesh in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>to mans-flesh or one mans-flesh to turn into another mans<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>flesh, or an Oak, into a Cypres, or a Cypres into an Oak, and so the like in all Vegetables, and Animals; thus Transform<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing the interior forms, or rather changing the interior form, like garments, putting one, and another interior form, upon one and the same intellect nature, which is im<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>possible, by reason the interior forms, and intellect natures, are inseparable, so that destroying the one, destroyes the o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther, and a change cannot be made of either, without the dissolution of the whole, no more then a man can change the whole building, without pulling down the house, for though they may make some alterations in the outward shape as
<pb n="49" facs="tcp:48875:39"/>
to add something more, or take away, and make all lesse, or thicker, or thinner, or higher or lower; but cannot alter the interior form, which is the foundations, but if they pull it down, the same materials may be put into another form, or into the same form it was at first, but it must first be new built again, before it can have those forms, and they must stay the time of building; so for every Vegetable creature, and Animal creature, they cannot be metamorphosed, by the reason metamorphosing is to change their forms without a new creation, and they cannot change their forms without a dissolution, and then created anew, by reason the intellect, and the interior form is as one body, and not to be sepa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rated; for the interior forms of these creatures, and the intel<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lects depend upon one another, and without one the another cannot be.</p>
<p>The intellect, and the interior form may be divided toge<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther into parts; but not separated apart, though the several sorts of one and the same kinde, as Animal kinde may be mixed in their creations, as to be some part a beast, some part a dog, or the like, and part a man, and some creature<note place="margin">And then it is called a new creature ra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther then a metamorpho<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sed creature &amp;c.</note> partly a bird, and partly a beast, or partly a beast and part<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly a fish; yet the intellect is mixt with the interior form, and the exterior shape with the interior form.</p>
<p>The like in vegetables, and if the interior forms, and in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tellects of each sort, nay of each creature, cannot be changed, much lesse of each kinde, thus the intellect natures, and inte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rior forms of it, can never be without a new creation, and as for the exterior shapes of Animals may be altered but not changed; for Animals of all other creatures have their shapes most unite to the interior form, and <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> intellect nature of a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ny other creature in nature.</p>
<p>But I desire my readers not to mistake me, for want of terms, and words of Art.</p>
<p>For the interior or intellect nature I mean is such properties, disposition, constitution, Capacity, and the like; that makes it such a creature.</p>
<p>The interior form is such a substance, and such a sort as flesh, or fish, or wood, or metal, and not onely so, but such a sort of flesh, as mans-flesh, horse-flesh, dogs-flesh, and the like.</p>
<p>So the wood of oak, the wood of maple, the wood of ash; And the like, so the gold metal, the iron metal, and the like.</p>
<p>For horse-flesh is not mans-flesh, nor the wood of oak, the wood of ash, nor the metal of gold, the metal of iron.</p>
<p>And as for the exterior form, I mean the outward shape.</p>
</div>
<div n="85" type="chapter">
<pb n="50" facs="tcp:48875:40"/>
<head>Chap. 85. <hi>The Metamorphosing of the exterior forms, of some figures.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL figures that are of a united piece, as water and fire are, and not in parts, as not having several parts of different natures, as Animals and Vegetables have, may be Metamorphosed out of one form into another, and rechange into the original form again, yet it is onely their exterior form, not their interior nature. As for example, water that is frozen, or turned to hail, or snow, the exterior is onely me<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tamorphosed;<note place="margin">Which circular lines I shal ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>presse hereaf<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter.</note> For the interior nature which is the circular line is unaltered, likewise when the circular line is extenuated into air, the interior circle line is not changed; but when the inte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rior nature is dissolved, and the matter it was composed of transmigrates into other figures.</p>
<p>Likewise metals when the interior nature is changed, it can<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>not be rechanged again without a new creation; for if we can turn onemetal into another, yet it is not as the way of metamor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>phosing, but transmigrating, otherwayes we may say, we can turn Animals and Vegetables into water, when we distil them, but the magick of Chymistry shall nor return them to their in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>terior nature, nor exterior shape. Again, although their desires make them beleeve it possible to be done, but substracting is not metamorphosing, but rather transmigrating, and sub<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stracting is one of the chiefest faculties of transmigration.</p>
<p>And as for those creatures that are composed of parts of different natures (as I have said) their exterior form cannot be metamorphosed, <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> those motions that metamorphose one part, cannot metamorphose another.</p>
<p>And though every part is different, yet they generally unite to the consistence of the whole figure, whereby the several trans<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>forming motions on the several parts would make such a con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fusion, as upon necessity must dissolve the intellect nature, and interior form of that <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> figure, thus striving to alter would destroy.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div type="letter">
<pb n="51" facs="tcp:48875:40"/>
<head>AN EPISTLE TO THE Unbeleeving Readers IN NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.</head>
<p>
<seg rend="decorInit">M</seg>Any say that in natural Philosophy, nothing is to be known, not the cause of any one thing, which I cannot per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>swade my selfis truth; for if we know effects, we must needs know some causes, by reason that effects are the causes of effects, and if we can knowbut one effect, it is an hun<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dred to one, but we shall know how to produce more effects thereby.</p>
<p>Secondly, the natural Philosophy is an endless study without any profitable advantage; but I may answer, that there is no Art nor Science, but is produced thereby, if they will without parti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ality consider from whence they are derived.</p>
<p>Thirdly, that it is impossible that any thing should be known in natural Philosophy, by reason it is obscure and hid from the knowledge of man-kinde.</p>
<pb n="52" facs="tcp:48875:41" rendition="simple:additions"/>
<p>I answer, that it is impossible that nature should perfectly understand, and absolutly know her self, because she is infinite, much lesse can any of her works know her.</p>
<p>Yet it doth not follow, that nothing can be known, because all is not known.</p>
<p>As for example, there are several parts of the world discovered, yet it is most likely not all, nor may be never shall be, yet most think that the whole world is found, because <hi>Drake,</hi> and <hi>Cavendish</hi> went in a circular line until they came to the place where they set out at first. And I am most confident that most of all thought all the world was known unto them before the <hi>West-Indies</hi> were discovered, and the man which discovered it in his brain before he had tra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>velled on the navigable sea, and offered it to King <hi>Henry</hi> the seventh, who slighted him as a foolish fellow, not beleeving his intelligence, and no questi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on there were many that laughed at him, as a vain fool, others pitied him, as thinking him mad, and others scorned him, as a cheating fellow, which would have couzened the King of <hi>England</hi> of a sum of money; but the Queen of <hi>Portugal</hi> being wiser then <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> rest imployed him, and adventured a great summe of money to set him forth on his way, which when the successe was according to the mans Genius brain, and had brought the Queen by the discovery, gold and silver mines for her Coine, then all other nations envied the King of <hi>Spain</hi> who was heir, and like a company of dogs which fight for a bone, went together by the ears, to be sharers with him.</p>
<p>So the Bishop, who declared his opinion, of the An<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tipodes, was not onely cryed down, and exclaimed against by the vulgar which hates all ingenuity, but learned Scholers stood up against him, and the great and grave Magistrates condemned him as an Atheist for that opinion, and for that reason put him from his Bishoprick, and though he had favour to spare
<pb n="53" facs="tcp:48875:41"/>
his life, which opinion hath since been found out by Navigators, but the ignorant &amp; unpractised brains, think all impossible that is unknown unto them.</p>
<p>But put the case many went about to finde that which can never be found (as they said natu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral Philosophy is) yet they might finde in the search that they did not expect, which might prove very beneficial to them; or put the case ten thousand should go ten thousand wayes to seek for a cabinet of precious Jewels, and all should misse of it but one, shall that one be scorned and laughed at for his good fortune, or industry? this were a great in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>justice.</p>
<p>But ignorance and envy strives to take off the glosse of truth, if they cannot wholy overthrow it; and those that write must arm themselves with negligence against censure.</p>
<p>For my part I do, for I verily beleeve, that ig<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>norance and present envie will slight my book; yet I make no question, when envy is worn out by time, but understanding will remember me in after ages, when I am changed from this life; but I had rather live in a general remembrance, then in a particular life.</p>
<pb facs="tcp:48875:42"/>
</div>
<div n="3" type="part">
<pb n="55" facs="tcp:48875:42"/>
<head>Earth Metamorphosed into water, water Me<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tamorphosed to vapor, Aire and fire, at least into heat.</head>
<head>PART III.</head>
<div n="86" type="chapter">
<head>CHAP. 86.</head>
<p>MOtion forms a round lump of earth, or such like matter, by extenuating swels it out, and as the swelling increases, the circumferent en<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>largeth, and when its extended further then this solid form, it becomes pores, and the parts looser. This degree of extenuation, makes it mud, when it extends further then the degree of mud, it turns to a softer form, as that of slime; the fourth extenuating degree shapes it into a perfect ring drawing all the loose parts into a compasse line, this becomes water, and the difference of a lump, or ball of earth to the watry circle, for a round lump is when there is no space, or distinct lines, and a circular ring is a distinct line with a hollow center, that is, an empty place, in the midst of a round line, so they may be a round ball, but not a ring, or a round circle line, and a circle line and not a ball, and as I said, when it comes to such a degree, of extenuating, it turns water, that is, to be wet, liquid and fluid, and according as the circles are, is the water more or lesse, and according as the lines are extenuated, or contracted, is the water thicker or thinner, colder or hotter, heavier or lighter, and according as the lines are round, or flat-edge, pointed, or smooth, is the water fresh, sharp, salt, or bitter, but these circles may not onely dilate, and contract several wayes, but after several fashions, as to make vapor, air, fire, snow, hail, ice, and frost, as I shall de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>clare in my following chapters.</p>
</div>
<div n="87" type="chapter">
<pb n="56" facs="tcp:48875:43"/>
<head>Chap. 87. <hi>Of wetnesse.</hi>
</head>
<p>WE may perceive that whatsoever is hot and dry, and cold and dry, shrinks inward as towards the center, and whatsoever is hot and moist, and cold and moist, dilates as towards the circumference, so that all moisture is wrought by extenuating motions, and drought, by contracting motions, and not onely extenuating motions, but such sorts of extenu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ating motions, and drought by contracting motions, and notonely extenuating motions, but such sorts of extenuating motions as in circular figures, which circular figures make water, so soft, smooth, and flowing, smooth, because circular; for Circles make it smooth, the figures having no end extenuating makes it softby spreading and loosing the parts, as flowing by rea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>son dilations drive all outward as toward the circumference yet the degree of extenuating may out-run the degree of wet; for wet is in such a degree of extenuating circles as I may say, the middle degree, yet there are many sorts of wet, as oylie, wet, and watry; but I have described that in my chapter of oyl, but I take oyl rather to be liquid and moist, then wet; For there is difference betwixt moist, liquid, and wet, for though moist and liquid is in a degree of wet, yet it is not an absolute wet, for dissolved gums are liquid, not wet, melted Sugers are liquid, not wet, oyl is more liquid then wet, and smoak may be said to be liquid, as being of an oyly nature, and air rather to be moist then wet, and dust, Ashes, flame, light, winde, may be said to be fluid, but not liquid nor wet.</p>
</div>
<div n="88" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 88. <hi>Of Circles.</hi>
</head>
<p>A Circle is a round figure without ends, having a circum<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ference, and a center, and the figure of a circle, may be many wayes contracted, but can be but in one way extenua<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted, which is by inlarging the compasse, of the line; and the reason is, because it is a round piece, without ends; for a straight line may be drawn out at either end; but if a circle be drawn out of the compasse, it may stretch out of the one side, but it will pull in the other side after it, unlesse the line be broke, and then it is no longer a circle, thus we can extend no part out, but another part must contract to give way to that part that goeth out.</p>
</div>
<div n="89" type="chapter">
<pb n="57" facs="tcp:48875:43"/>
<head>Chap. 89. <hi>Of Softnesse.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL that is wett is soft, I mean that which is naturally wet; but all that is soft is not wet, as hair, wool, feathers, and the like.</p>
<p>Likewise all that is soft or wet is made by extenuating motions; now some may ask me, why extenuating motions<note place="margin">I mean natu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral extenua<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions.</note> should cause figures to be soft, more then any other? I an<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>swer, first, that all extentions causeth porousnesse, or spungi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse, by spreading or loosing parts, and all that are po<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rous tend to hollownesse, and all that is hollow tends to slacknesse, and all that are porous hollow, and slack tend to softnesse; for we may perceive whatsoever figure is porous, is not so firm, strong, nor hard, as those which are close compact; for that which hath no Vacuum, or Conveni<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ent distance, hath not so much Liberty, as that which hath Va<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cuum;<note place="margin">As the pores of the skin.</note> for Vacuum is space and distance betwixt parts, which gives those parts liberty to move, and remove, and that which hath most liberty is most loose, and that which is most loose is least contracted, and that which is least contracted, is most pliant, and that which is most pliant is soft. But I desire my Readers would not mistake me, for as there is hard, soft, light, heavy, thick, thin, quick, slow, belonging to the nature of the onely infinite matter, so there are belonging to such shapes, or figures made by the working of the infinite moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons making infinite figures out of infinite matter; but the dif<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ference is, that what is in the nature cannot be altered, but what is done by the working of motions may be undone again, for the effects may alter, but not the cause; thus motion and figure, or figure by motion may alter, but not the nature of the matter; For motion and figure are but the effects of the onely and infinite matter &amp;c.</p>
</div>
<div n="90" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 90. <hi>Of Liquors.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL liquors are wrought by extenuating motions, and all that is liquid and wet, are circles extenuated to such a degree, and after such a manner, and all that are liquid and wet, is either water or of the nature of water, as also of oyls, vitrals, strong-waters, all juices from fruits, herbs, or the like, or any thing that is liquid and wet; but though all that is liquid and wet naturally agree in extenuating circles, yet their<note place="margin">Oyl, hot-wa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ters, wine, vi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>trals, aquafor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tis.</note> circle lines are different, which causeth the different effects, for some have different effects interiorly, others exteriorly, and some both interiorly, and exteriorly, for some have cir<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cular lines of points, others have circular lines pointed, others have circular lines of points pointed, others have circular lines of points edged, some have smooth circle lines onely edged; as the sharp edge of a knife, or the like, others have circle lines
<pb n="58" facs="tcp:48875:44"/>
edged of one side of the line, and pointed on the other side, some their circle lines are flat, others their circle lines are round, some their circle lines are twisted, others plain, some checkred, others smooth, some more sharpe-edged, or poin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted then other; some smoother, and some rougher then other; And infinite more that I know not how to describe; But these lines, nor circle points, nor edges, are not subject to our sen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ses, although their effects may make them subject to our rea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>son, for nature works beyond our sense, but reason is part of the sense of nature; but of all wet liquors oyl is most diffe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rent from the effects of water, for all other wet liquors do strive to quench fire, but oyl doth assist it, yet all vitrals have an exterior burning faculty, which oyl hath not, and although all strong wet liquors will flame when it is set on fire, yet they will quench out fire, if enough be cast thereon.</p>
</div>
<div n="91" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 91. <hi>The extention and contraction of circles.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe nature of extention strives to get ground, that is, space, or compasse, and to disperse, or level parts as it were, and the nature of contraction strives to thrust out space and compasse, and to thrust up parts close together, and this is the reason that a circle may contract so many several wayes, because contraction flings out the compasse, and makes use of the line, laying the line into millions of several works.</p>
<p>And yet the exterior form which is the circular line, be one and the same, that is, the circular line is not divided, but when those works are undone, and the line extended to the full compasse, it receives the original form, which is a round circle; for as they were contracted without breaking the circle, so they may be extended into a circle again.</p>
<p>Likewise the circular forms may be wrought with mixt mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions, as partly by contraction, and partly by extenuation, as when a round circle is wound about a staff, or pole, or the like; for though the winding about the staff be a contracting motion, or at least one way, which is when it draws inward, as towards the center, yet by winding it length<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wayes, or upward, is a kinde of an extenuation.</p>
<p>Likewise, a circle or smoak when it curls in rings, before the circle break, as we shall oft times see it doth contract, as folding and half curling, so it extenuates as it spreads and weares out. Likewise take a round string, that is, joyn the two ends, and put this circular string double, and then winde it serpentine wayes, and the like, and though the winding, or twisting about is contracting, yet winding or twisting one ring before another is extenuating.</p>
<p>Here have I set down after what manner of wayes are con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tracted, or continuated circles, and thus millions of several
<pb n="59" facs="tcp:48875:44"/>
works may by circles be wrought, and several figures made thereof; Likewise for circular lines, some may be broad, some narrow, some round, some flat, some edged, some twisted, but those that are flat are most apt to be edged.</p>
<p>Likewise there may be circle lines with smooth lines, some pointed, some checkred, some twisted, some braided, and the like.</p>
<p>But although the circle compasse is perfect, yet the line is not a perfect Circular compasse, because the roughnesse makes it uneven. Thus as I have said before, milions of changes may be in circles, but perchance some will say, it is no longer a cir<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cle, when it is turned square, or triangular-wayes, or the like.</p>
<p>I answer, it is a circle squared, but not a circle broke, for as long as the circle is whole, the interior nature is not dissolved, let the exterior figure be after what manner it will or can; for still it is a natural circle, although it be put into a Mathematical square, or the like; so those exterior figures, are but chan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ged shapes, not the natural form, but a natural square is to have four distinct lines, and a triangle three distinct lines, and a cupe six, as I take it, or sixteen; but it is to be observed, that all those figures that naturally are made of one piece, without distinct parts, or several tempered matter, may change, and re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>change their shapes, and yet keep their own interiour nature intire, that is the nature proper to such a figure; but those figures that are made of many distinct parts, or several tem<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pered matter, would make such a confusion in their transfor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mations, as would ruin the intire foundations.</p>
</div>
<div n="92" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 92. <hi>Of congealed water.</hi>
</head>
<p>WAter is not alwayes exteriorly wet, or fluid, as we may see alwayes when it is congealed to snow, ice, and hail, yet still it is water, keeping the interior nature of being wet and fluid, onely the cold contractions have, as may say, altered the face or countenance thereof; for it is to be obser<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ved, as there are extenuating motions, thrusting and stretching, inlarging further and wider out in compasse, bredth, length, and depth, as from the center to the circumference, so there are contracting motions together, draw winde, twist and pull in, as from the circumference to the center, and not onely by interior motions, but exterior motions; as for example, cold contraction upon water circles, or any thing that is porous and spungie, draws, and gathers them into several works, or draws them into a lesse compasse, as strings do a purse, or like fishers or faulkners nets.</p>
<p>But snow, hail, and frost, and ice is made by a level con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>traction, as if a Circular line should be laid upon a flat ground, and be drawn a particular work, as for example, according
<pb n="60" facs="tcp:48875:45"/>
to the number of watry circles, there is such a quantity of water, and if the quantity of water be more then the strength of the cold contraction, it is frozen more or lesse, now the several figures which cold contraction draws to make snow, hail, ice, and frost, are after this manner, as first the interior nature of the water is a round circle like a ring.</p>
<p>When it contracts into hail, the exterior figure contracts into a ball, or lump, as if one should winde up a double line, or thread into a bundle, or bottom.</p>
<p>Snow is made by contraction, as if one should draw a round line into a three square figure, as triangular way.</p>
<p>Ice, as if we should draw a round line into a four square fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure, as after a cupe way.</p>
<p>Frost is made by such contracting motions, as if a round line should be drawn into a surfling, as a crackling figure.</p>
<p>When this congealed cold thaws, it is either by the inte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rior strength of dilating motions, or by an exterior heat that draws these contractions out into smooth extenuating circles again.</p>
<p>Thus circular lines may be drawn from the round compasse, to be four square, three square, or length-wayes, as one would clap the brim of <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> hat together; and millions of several works, and never divide the circular lines, but I will not say by a Mathematicall rule, though nature is beyond our learning.</p>
<p>And that which makes ice and hail more shining then frost, and snow, is, that the lines are evener; for all figures that are composed by the way of lines, are apt to shine, and those figures that have fewest points, or ends are smoo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thest.</p>
<p>Now some may say, or ask, why I should think snow is made triangular wayes? My reason is, because it seems rougher, and not so united as ice, or hail, which shews the interior figure hath more points, or unevener numbers, or unequal lines, and a triangular figure is not so smooth, or at least seems not so, as a circular, a paralel, or cupe; for in the angulars the points and lines are odd, and the lines run slope-wayes, whereas the figure of a cupe, although it hath more points, yet the figure is more proportionable, by the even number of the points and lines; for as there are four points, so there are four equal lines, which make an equal number, when in the figure of a triangular the points and lines are odd; for though there are a plural number, yet it is an uneven number, as being odd. And as I have said, the lines are slope when the figure of a cupe is just square, besides triangular points be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing odd, multiplie and substract by reflections, as we shall see by triangular glasses, that from one face millions are made by subdividings. Thus what is made uneven by odd numbers, are made even by equal numbers, and the odd points,
<pb n="61" facs="tcp:48875:45"/>
and slope lines, make the figure of snow rough, and the e<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>qual points, and straight lines make the figure of ice smooth, but I treat here of exterior figures, or rather countenances, not of the interior form, for their contractions change the exteriors, not the interiors.</p>
<p>But if <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> be out, and mistake, either in termes of art, or o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>therwise, I must intreat my readers to pardon it, for I am no Mathematician, onely I have gathered here and there some little parcels or crums from the discourse of my friends, for I have not much kept the company of strangers, nor conversed with dead Authors by books, but these parcels I have got, I place according to my own fancy, if they sound probably, I have my ends, and the lines of my desires are pointed with a satisfaction.</p>
</div>
<div n="93" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 93. <hi>Motion changing the figure from wa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter to fire.</hi>
</head>
<p>VVHen these watry circle lines begin to inlarge, they grow smaller, and thereby become lesse wet, and more thinne, as vapor which is lesse wet then water, and not so grosse; for as I said before, when the circle comes in such a degree of extenuating, it becomes wet, and beyond such a degree, it becomes lesse wet; and so lesse and lesse, as be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>forè it came to such a degree, it became more and more wet, as from being pores to soft, from soft to liquid, from liquid<note place="margin">From earth to water.</note> to wet, likewise from wet to moist, from moist to thin, which thin is air.</p>
<p>But when the extenuating lines come to such a degree of smalnesse, as to cut, as a very smal line will do, which is to such a degree, as to be sharp as an edge, it makes it in a degree towards burning fire, so far as to become sulphury hot, as we know by the sense of feeling, we finde the air to be hot. This sort of air which is made of watry circles, is like seething hot water, for it is a moist heat, and not like the natural air, for this is but a Metamorphosed air; for the interior nature of water is undissolved, onely the exterior is altered, the lines being become small and edged, by the fair extenuations, but when those circles extenuate smaller then the quantity of matter will afford to give a compasse, it breaks, and turns to hot burn<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing fire; for the extenuating motions therein ceasing not, do stretch those lines so smal, as they fall into pointed parts; this alters the interior nature from being water, to burning fire, for the interior nature of water is the circle line, but if those lines be drawn by contracting motions into bigger lines, and lesse circles, it becomes from thin hot air to vapor, or mists, and from vapor to water, and so from water to slime, from slime to mud, from mud to earth, as it did extenuate, so it contracts, if nothing hinders the same; for contraction draws
<pb n="62" facs="tcp:48875:46" rendition="simple:additions"/>
in the lines to such a bignesse, like as a smaller thred to a big<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ger thred, so from the thinnest air to the thickest air, from grosse air to the thin vapor, from thin vapor to thick vapor, fromthick vapor to water to slime, fromslime to mud, from mud to earth; but according as the contracting and dilating motions are quick, or slow, it is sooner or longer turning out of one shape into another, and if any of the circular lines break by other motions or figures before it coms to the furthest extention, the quantity becomes lesse wasting that matter into figures of other natures, being dissolved from that natural figure; thus that ball, or lump may be dissolved, like as Animals, or the like; For no question these balls are created and dissolved as Animal kinde, and are as numerous as other creatures, and some lasting longer then others, and some dissolving sooner; though their creations are different, one being produced by procreation, the other by extenuation: thus these elements are increaseable, and decreaseable, and other creature are; and when the interior nature is altered, it dissolves as other creatures do, onely the exterior with the interior dissolves, which most of other creatures do not, for when the interi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>or is altered in Animals, the exterior is perfect, and dissolves more by degrees.</p>
</div>
<div n="94" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 94. <hi>Of Oyl.</hi>
</head>
<p>OYL is partly of the nature of fire, and partly of the na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture of water; for as it is soft, fluid, liquid, and moist, it is of the nature of water; as it is hot burning and flamable, it is of the nature of fire, for that which makes it fludi and liquid, is by extenuations, and that which makes it moist and liquid is by extenuating circles, and that which makes it burning, is, that those circular lines are composed of pointed parts, which when fire and oyl meets, the fire breaking those lines a sunder, sets those pointed parts at liberty, which causeth it to rise in a flame, and the reason why it flames, is, that it doth not suddenly lose the circular extenuating nature; for flame is somewhat of the nature of water, as being fluid, though not wet, and the reason why flame is fluid, is, because it ascends in a circular motion, for though the ascent be in a strict parrelled line, yet the matter is after a circular figure, as a hollow spungy body, as after this manner or the like, which shuts up<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ward, like an arrow out of a bow, onely imagining the arrow to be in serpentine<note n="*" place="margin">As thns</note> shape, and to turn and spin about as it as<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cends, likewise the body to extend, or spread outward, accor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ding to the bulk or quantity, which several figures, or several motions, may be all at one time, and in one and the same thing, and work to one and the same effect, and to several ef<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fects at the same time, which causeth it to be fluid, liquid, and light, for light as well as oyl, water, or flame, is fluid, caused
<pb n="65" facs="tcp:48875:46"/>
by extenuating motions, for as water will run forward when it hath liberty, or run backward in a torrent when it is stopt, so light will enter when it hath passage, or run back by re<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>flection if it be stopt, but all those fluidities are different by reason their extenuations are different; For light is caused by swift extenuating paralel lines; water, oyl, and the like by extenuating circular lines, which make it moist, and liquid, as well as fluid, but flame takes part from all, for it is light and fluid by the swift extenuating parallel lines, it ascends in, and liquid, although not wet, by the circular motions it as<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cends up in, and burning by the sharp parts it is composed of; vitral is after the same nature of oyl, onely the lines are<note place="margin">Or rather like flame.</note> edged, as a knife, or the like, or sharp edged tools, which make it have an exterior pressing quality, as burning fire hath; but the exterior of oylie lines are smooth, which makes it soft, and glib, and not so sharp and penetrating as vitrals, or the like are.</p>
<p>Thus flame, light, oyl, fire vitrals, waters, have mixt motions, to make one figure, and many figures, to make those figures which make them to be of mixt qualities producing mixt ef<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fects, as indeed all effects are of a mixt nature.</p>
</div>
<div n="95" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 95. <hi>Of Metals.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL Metals are created after the manner of circle lines, as water, onely the lines in metal are contracted, as draw<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing inwards, and water circle lines are extended outward, but in all metals the circle lines are flat, and edged, having a cutting and a subdividing nature, and by reason the exteri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>our nature is of a circle figure, it is apt to be fluid, and to flow as water doth, when the exterior is melted by forcible motions, then it is one, as that of fire, which draws out the contracted circles of metals, causing it to be fluid by exten<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion, yet the extention is not natural, as it is in water, but for<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ced by an over-powerful motion; for the nature of metal is not to be fluid, which is the reason that assoon as it can get libertie, that is, when the moer strong motions let go their<note place="margin">As if an Ani mal creature should be pulled and dragged out of 'its natural garb.</note> hold, it contracts into a firm and hard body: again, it breaks not the interior circle, for then the nature alters, for as much as metals loseth in the weight, so much is changed of that quantity, from the natural quality, and though some metals do not, wast in quantity, which is to change in quality, so soon as others, yet they are all dissolvable, although some say gold is not dissolvable; but sure that opinion proceeds from impa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tience in man-kinde, not to stay the time, or rather for want of longer time of life, having not so lasting a life, as to ob<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>serve the alteration, as the dissolution of gold, or perhaps they have not the right wayes to dissolve it; for certainly it is as all other figures are, dissolvable, and not fixt everlast<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ingly
<pb n="66" facs="tcp:48875:47"/>
in one body, Chymists make gold as a god, unaltera<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ble.</p>
</div>
<div n="96" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 96. <hi>Of the Load-stone.</hi>
</head>
<p>ME thinks 'tis strange, that men should wonder more at the nature of the Load-stone in attracting iron, and in the norths attracting o f the needle touched with the Load<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stone, then at the suns attracting of vapor.</p>
<p>But some will say, that it is the nature of fluiditie, of which nature vapor is one, to move with facility, and not the na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture<note place="margin">I mean here the exterior nature not the interior nature.</note> of solidity, of which nature iron is one, which is heavy and slow; but I say, if the attracting motion in one body be stronger then the contracting, and retentive motions in the o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther body, and those figures motions work with, be advantagi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ous; I see no reason but a fluid body may attract a solid body; For it is not the substance of the body that works, or produ<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ceth effects, but the agility, subtility, or strength of motion, and advantage of the shape, so that the working power is more in motion and figure, then meerly the matter; as for example, doth not experience prove that fluid, vitral, will work through solid metal, the reason is, because the expul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sive motions in the vitral and sharp points, are stronger then the contracting motions, in the metal and blunt edges: but some will ask me, why the Load-stone attracts onely iron? such a question I ask, why beauty should forcibly attract the eye? they will answer by sympathy; and I have heard, that it was the opinion of learned men, that sympathy had the same effect, betwixt the Load-stone and iron, but I think it not so much in sympathy, as supremacy.</p>
<p>Besides, it is the nature of contracting motions, of which the Load-stone is strongly inhabited withal, to work on that which is without it, as from it, not within it, or as it were upon it, which no other visible kinde of motion doth.</p>
<p>And certainly the Load-stone is composed of sharp figures, yet not of such sorts as heats or burns, and those figures do issue out as beams do from the sun: and as they draw the iron, they back return, and as the bright beams issue from the sun, do neither weaken nor lessen it, so the visible beams that issue out of the Load-stone, neither make it lesser or weaker; yet the beams of the Load-stone, do as the sun beams, the farther they spread out, the lesse strength they have to draw; Besides, if other motions which oppose, and are stronger then the natural motions, may weaken the strength, as accidental maladies mayweaken Animals, or shrewd and froward weather vegetables, or the natural consisting mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions proper to that figure, may turn to expulsive motions, and over-power the natural attracting motions, that issued there-from.</p>
<pb n="67" facs="tcp:48875:47"/>
<p>But as I have said, it seems the attractive power of the Load<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stone, is stronger then the irons retentive power, and sharp fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures that issue there-from, are more advantagious then the blunt edges in the iron; and as the sharp figures in fire unknit and loosen the contractive body of metals, making them fluid, so the sharp points that issue in lines from the Load-stone fasten to iron, drawing it to it; and as fire works upon seve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ral bodies after a different manner of way, according to the nature of the body it works on, producing divers effects; so for all I can perceive may the Load-stone; for certainly we do not know, nor never can come to that knowledge, as to per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ceive the several effects, that are produced from the least, or as we account the most inconsiderable creature made in na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture; so that the Load-stone may work as variously upon se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral bodies, as fire, and produce as various effects, although nor to our sense, nor after the same manner of wayes, that fire doth, and as fire works variously upon various bodies, so there are fires, as several sorts, and those several ral sorts have several effects, yet one and the same kinde, but as the causes in nature are hid from us, so are most of the effects; but to conclude my discourse, we have onely found that effect of the Load-stone, as to draw iron to it; but the at<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tracting motion is in obscurity, being invisible to the sense of man, so that his reason can onely discourse, &amp; bring probabilities, to strengthen his arguments, having no perfect knowledge in that, nor in any thing else, besides that knowledge we have of several things, comes as it were by chance, or by experi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ence, for certainly all the reason man hath, would never have found out that one effect of the Load-stone, as to draw iron, had not experience or chance presented it to us, nor the effect of the needle, and all the ages before, I mean those we have Records of, were ignorant of that one effect, and perchance other ages may finde out some other effects produced there<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>from, which these ages are ignorant of; And as our knowledge comes slow, and in parts, and pieces, so we know but parts and pieces of every particular thing, neither is the generality of our senses capable of one and the same knowledge; for what one sense knowes, another sense is ignorant of, and que<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stionlesse there are some things in nature that it is impossible for our senses to be made acquainted therewith, as being too cu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rious for our senses, but not to some other senses; for <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> nature hath as many different senses, as other works; indeed all things are wrought by sensitive motions, which <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> needs create a sensitive knowledge in every thing, and where know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge is, reason is; for knowledge is reason, and sense is know<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ledge; but sense and reason work in several figures, different wayes, and not onely in different figures, but in one and the same figure.</p>
</div>
<div n="96" type="chapter">
<pb n="68" facs="tcp:48875:48"/>
<head>Chap. 96. <hi>Of the needle.</hi>
</head>
<p>I Perceive the norths attraction of the Load-stone is not af<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter the same manner of attraction, as the Load-stone at<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tracts iron, for the attractions of the Load-stone draws iron to it, but the attraction of the north draws the Load-stone towards it, by the turning it that way, as the Sun will do the the heads of some sorts of flowers; For if the north attract<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ed the Load-stone, as the Load-stone iron, the Load-stone would be in a perpetual motion, travelling to the north pole, unlesse it were fixt, but I do not hear that a Load-stone doth remove out of the place wherein it is, but it turns, as I may say, the face towards it; now the question will be whether the Loadstone turns it self towards the north, or the north turns by compulsion, or by sympathy, the experiment will be by iron, that if a great quantity of iron should be said at one side of the needle, whether the needle would not vary from the north towards the iron, if it do, it shews the Load-stone turns itself towards the north, or else it could not turn from the north, for certainly the north hath a greater operative power to turn the Load-stone to it, then the Load-stone could have to turn it self from it, so if a quantity of iron can cause the needle to vary, it shews that the Load-stone turns to the north by a self motion, and not the motions of the north that make it turn to it, but if it varies not towards the iron, then the north forces it, unlesse the Load-stone takes more delight to view the norths frowning face, then to imbrace hard iron, or that the feeding appetite is stronger then the viewing de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>light; for it onely turns it self to the face of the north, but if it turns not it self, the north forces it to turn, which as I have said before, is to be found by the experiments of iron; but if it turns it self, I beleeve it may receive some refresh<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments from those raies which stream from the north, for all things turn with self-ends; for certainly every thing hath self<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>love, even hard stones, although they seem insensible, so the Load-stone may work as various effects upon several subjects, as fire, but by reason we have not so much experience of one as the other, the strangenesse creates a wonder, for the old saying is, that ignorance is the mother of admiration, but fire which produceth greater effects by invisible motions, yet we stand not at such amaze as at the Load-stone, because these effects are familiar unto us.</p>
<p>But per chance the Load-stone is nourished by iron as many crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tures are by heat, for though the creatures are nourished there with, yet the heat alters not its vertue, nor the body in which<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>the heat inheres, loses not the property of heating, the sun is not weakned by warming the earth, though the earth is stronger by the warm 'th of the sun; but warm 'th feeds after a spiri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tual
<pb n="69" facs="tcp:48875:48"/>
manner, not a corporal, and as somethings are nourished by warm'th, so others by cold, as ice, snow, and many other things that are above number.</p>
<p>So the Load-stone may be refreshed, although not fed by the cold north, and as fire is fed by fuel, so is the vertual part of the Load-stone by iron, or as exercise gets health and strength to Animal bodies, so doth the Load-stone on iron, and as idlenesse breeds faintnesse, or weaknesse, <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> doth the Load-stone from iron.</p>
</div>
<div n="98" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 98. <hi>Of stone.</hi>
</head>
<p>FIre hath more power over Metals in some sense, then on stone, and in some sense hath more power over stone then<note place="margin">I mean the heaviest me<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tal to the har<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dest stone, as gold to di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>amonds, or tin, or lead to a soft stone</note> metals.</p>
<p>For fire will sooner melt metal, then dissolve stone, but when the exterior form of stone is dissolved, it is changed from the nature of being stone, and be comes dust and ashes.</p>
<p>And though metal would likewise change the interior na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture, if the exterior form were dissolved, yet metal, although it be melted, keeps the interior nature, and exterior form, but not the exterior motions; for metal is metal still, although it be melted, onely it becoms fluid, this sheweth that fire doth not onely alter the exterior motion of stone, but dissolves, the ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>terior form, and so the interior nature, which in metal it doth not, unlesse a more forcible fire be applied thereto then will serve to melt; which shewes, that although the interior mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions of stone be contractions, as all solid bodies are, yet the interior, nor exterior natural figure is not circular as metals are, for stone cannot be made fluid, and as it were liquid as metal will be, but crumbles into dust, and wasts, as wood or the like, and not evaporates away as water, which metal doth; This sheweth that the exterior and interior natural form of stone is composed of parts, and not in one piece, as a circle; I do not mean in one piece, as the exterior bulk, but in one piece, in the exterior, and interior nature; For though you may pound, or file metal to dust, that dust as small as Atoms, the like may be done to stone, wood, and flesh, or any thing that is dividable, yet it will keep the nature of being metal, stone, wood, flesh, or the like, although the parts be no bigger then an Atom; but if you do dissolve the exterior nature, the interior nature doth dissove also, thus the exterior form may be altered, but not dissolved, without a total dissolu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion.</p>
</div>
<div n="99" type="chapter">
<pb n="70" facs="tcp:48875:49"/>
<head>Chap. 99. <hi>Of burning.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL that is hot is not of a burning faculty, nor all that is burning is not actually hot, and though Burning Moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons work several wayes according to the temperament of the matter, and composure of the figures it meets with, yet the nature of all kinds of burnings is to expulse by a piercing and subdividing faculty, provided that the burning Motions, and burning figures are strong enough to incounter what opposeth them; but when the opposed bodies and motions have an ad<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>vantage, either by strength, or otherwayes, it alters the nature and faculty of burning, and many times there is great dispute and long combats amongst the several motions, and different figures, for the preheminency.</p>
</div>
<div n="100" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 100. <hi>Of different burning.</hi>
</head>
<p>THough all that is of a burning nature, or faculty may be called fire, yet all that hath a burning nature, or faculty is not of that sort of fire, which is a bright, shining, hot, glow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing fire, as for example, vitrals, brimstone, oyl, or spirits, or that we call cordials, or hot-waters, or any of the like na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture.</p>
<p>Besides all burning figures, or motions, work not after one and the same manner, though after one and the same na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture, being all of a burning quality, or faculty, for some burn interiorly, others exteriorly, but as I havesaid all bur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning, is of a subdividing faculty.</p>
</div>
<div n="101" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 101. <hi>Fires transformation.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe interior, and exterior figures of hot, glowing, burn<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing, bright, shining fire are all one, and the motions work<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing apart according to the nature of the figure it works on can change every thing it hath power over, into its own likenesse, yet the power, and strength doth alter somewhat according to the work, and becoms grosser, and finer, accor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing to the temperaments, or degrees of that which they work on: as for example, wood that is set on fire, or a firy coal, is a grosser body of fire, then flaming oyl, or the like, that is such a sort of moist fluid matter set on fire, for fire takes hold, of the thinnest parts, as well as the thickest; if they be such thin bodies which are subject to take fire, for when fire is set to wood, it doth not onely take hold of the solid'st parts, but those that are more porous, or fluid, as those that rise in smoak, which become a flaming body, which is a fluid fire, but there is a cold, dul, burning fire, as well as a hot, bright, burning, as all strong vitrals, and this we call hot water, or
<pb n="71" facs="tcp:48875:49"/>
spirits, which have an exterior nature to burn, or dissolve o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther bodies, and an interior nature to flame, but it hath not an exterior nature to be hot, nor shining.</p>
<p>Also there is another sort of fire, which onely hath an inte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rior nature to flame, but the exterior is neither actual<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly burning, nor hot, as sulphur, or oyl, though oyl is no<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thing, but a liquid sulphur, and sulphur a hardened oyl.</p>
<p>But this cold dul fire hath not the power of transforming to its own likenesse, by reason there is some difference in the interiors to their exteriors, where the quick, hot, burning, bright, shining fire, the exterior and interior is all one, with<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>out any difference.</p>
</div>
<div n="102" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 102. <hi>Of such sorts of heating Motions, as cause burning, melting, boiling, Evaporating and rarifying.</hi>
</head>
<p>BUrning, melting, boyling, and evaporating are caused by several motions, or several degrees or temperaments of matter.</p>
<p>And though burning, melting, boyling, and evaporating, are caused by expulsive and dilating motions, yet al dilative and expulsive motions, work not after one and the same manner, but according as the matter is; As for example, leather doth not burn as wood doth, yet both are dissolved by an expulsive motion.</p>
<p>Besides, some figures do dissolve into flame, others moul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>der away into dust, and never flame, as stone, and many more examples may be given, but most commonly all burning motions do pierce, or shut, or wedge, in sharp tootht, or poin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted figures; into those figures they work upon, and then it dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>solves it by expulsions; for those sharp pointed figures, help motion to loosing, and unbinde those parts that they finde joy<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ned and contracted, that they may more freely separate those parts and dissolve those figures, which as they dissolve the thinner parts, dilate into vapor, the lighter parts flie out into fiery points, which are those we call sparks of fire, but the grosser, and more solid part moulders away into dust and ashes, as being too heavy and solid for the points to spread forth, they can onely as it were chew it between their sharp teeth; for ashes are nothing but chewed wood, yet this manner of chew<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing doth alter the nature from being wood, or any thing that burns after an expulsive manner, but those fiery motions that onely melt, or rather those figures that are not subject to burn, but onely to melt, is done by a stretching motion, for those motions do as it were thrust out the contracted parts, and cause them to extenuate; but when the fiery moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons cause any thing to boyl, they first stretch out the parts so
<pb n="72" facs="tcp:48875:50"/>
far, as causeth those parts to be fluid, and as it were liquid, if those things were contracted, but if they be liquid and fluid of themselves, they save those fiery motions that labour, and when this motion strives to ascend with those loose parts, the liquor riseth up in bubbles, or waves, but when those fiery motions are over-poured by the weight, they fall back again; thus the weight of the liquor, and the sharp points of the fire strive together, one party striving to ascend, the other to descend, so that those fiery motions, are to pull out, or to bear up, and the watry motion to pull, or presse down, but evaporating, is when the extenuating lines are stretcht so far out, as to break, or the lighter parts are carried away, and dispersed amongst other figures; but all rarifying heats, are caused by slow dila<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ting motions, and not expulsions, for if such sorts of dilations as make rarifying heat, were extended beyond the line of the matter they work on, it alters the nature of the figure, and the motions of that nature; but rarifying heat is an extenuating mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion, spreading parts equally, and evenly, but the farther they are spred, the more hot grows the heat, as neerer to expul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sion, and though all rarifying heat is in the way of burning, yet not in the manner.</p>
<p>But I must intreat my reader to take notice, that burning motions, make use of burning figures, for all sorts of motions work according to the matter and figure they work on, or in, or to.</p>
</div>
<div n="103" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 103. <hi>Of quenching of fire.</hi>
</head>
<p>THere is such Antipathy betwixt fire, and some sorts of wets, as such wets as are made by smooth extenuating cir<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cles, as they never can agree when they do personally meet; and indeed such sorts of wets, have such power over hot, bur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning, bright shining fire, as they never incounter, but fire is in danger to be quenched out, if there be not a sufficient quantity to break the watry circles, for it is not the coldnesse that quenches fire, but such sorts of wetnesse, for scalding water will quench out fire, and many sorts of liquors as wine, or the like, although they be flameable, yet if they be cast on this bright, hot, burning fire, it will quench it out, by reason they are more of the wet nature; then the oyly, and sulphurous, or the burning or flaming faculty.</p>
<p>Tis true, that there are many liquors that are subject to burn, but there are few wets that have not power to quench, for the spherical drops do either blunt the fiery points, or disperse the the united body, or intangle them in the porous circles.</p>
<p>Thus water hath the better unlesse the lines break in the combate, but when fire and water treat apart, or by an At<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>torny, or hath a body betwixt them to Moderate their
<pb n="73" facs="tcp:48875:50"/>
<note n="*" place="margin">As Vessels wherein wa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter is put, and fire un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>derneath.</note> spleens they agree better, but in this treaty most commonly the water becoms weak by rarification, and evaporates into air by too strong, or too much extenuating, extending further then the wet compasse.</p>
</div>
<div n="104" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 104. <hi>Of the quenching of fire, and evaporated Water.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe reason why water quenches fire, is, that the figure being spherical, and porous, gives distance and space of parts, where the sharp figures of fire, flying about to bite the circular lines asunder, that they may ravel out that figure of water, lose their strength both in their ffight and compasse, breaking their forces, by dispersing their parts, and intan<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gling their dispersed parts in the hollow places, in the watry figure, like arrows that are shot into a net, seldom break the net, but intangle themselves, by reason there is no firm substance to strick on, or in; for being soft and spungy, there is no stop, nor hold; besides water being wet and wet in the nature is sticking, that when those sharp points do at any time break the lines, they joyn again, for being fluid each part moves to each other, and being wet they joyn, and being circular they unite, into the natural figure.</p>
<p>Thus in a plain combat water most commonly hath the better of fire, if there be not too much odds on the fires fide for quanti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty, but when fire doth come by an undermining motion as when some other figures are betwixt them, then fire gets the better, by the help of those undermining motions.</p>
</div>
<div n="105" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 105. <hi>Of a bright-shining hot, glowing, fire.</hi>
</head>
<p>IT is the nature of bright-shining, hot-glowing fires, to have both an interior, and an exterior burning, and is of such a kinde of subdividing nature, as it strives to dissolve all united parts, or bodies, and if it doth not dissolve all bodies it works on, as we shall see many things which grow harder with fire, yet is not that the nature would not dissolve such a thing, but the power cannot, for those bodies that grow harder with<note place="margin">This sort of contraction is drawing in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ward.</note> fire, opposes the power of fire, and strives by contraction to unite the looser parts, in a more solid body, to resist with more strength.</p>
<p>Also some bodies grow hard by shrinking inward, for as<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>soon<note place="margin">Those sorts are falling backward.</note> as they feel the fire, they draw back, as from an ene<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>my, having an Antipathy thereunto.</p>
<p>Thus, it is not the fire that dries or hardens, or maks more<note place="margin">The contract<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing motions too strong for the expulsive motions.</note> solidity, but the opposite body that will not burn, having a strength to oppose, or a nature not to subject to this fire, or the fire hath not a sufficient power to overcome, but this sort of fire hath a general power, though some bodies will strong<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly resist it; but it is the nature of this sort of fire, that most
<pb n="74" facs="tcp:48875:51"/>
bodies they overcome, they first convert them into their<note place="margin">Yet there are but few bo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dies that are not overcome at last.</note> own likenesse, but their natures being different, their prisoners die in the fiery arms of their enemies.</p>
</div>
<div n="106" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 106. <hi>Of the drinesse of hot, burning, bright, shi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning fire.</hi>
</head>
<p>DRinesse hath such a relation to hot, burning, bright, shi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ning fire, as moistnesse to water, for though interior motions are expulsive, yet the exterior is attractive, drawing all unto it, like a greedy appetite, and as the teeth doth mince the the food that is chewed, so doth the pointed figure, of fire, all it laies hold on, or enters into.</p>
</div>
<div n="107" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 107. <hi>Of moist colds, and moist heats, of dry colds, and dry heats &amp;c.</hi>
</head>
<p>HEat doth not make drought, for there is a temper of heat, and moist; nor cold doth not make drought; for there is a temper of cold, and moist; nor heat doth not make moi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sture, for there is a temper of hot, and dry, nor cold doth not make moisture; for there is a temper of cold, and dry, but when the motions of heat, and the motions of drought joyn, they cause hot and dry effects, and when the motions of cold, and the motions of drought joyn, they cause cold and dry effects, and when the motions of heat, and the motions of moisture joyns, they cause hot and moist effects; and when the motions of cold, and the motions of moisture joyn, they cause cold and moist effects, yet there are infinite varieties in their several effects; but those motions which make cold and heat, I may fimilife to wandring armies, of the <hi>Gothes,</hi> and <hi>Vandals,</hi> which over-run all figures, as they all the world,<note place="margin">I mean the matter that made it.</note> sometimes they work attractive, contractive, retentive, dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gustive, expulsive, according to the temper and degree of matter, and proportion and shape of the figures they meet, or according to their own power and strength, and although both cold and heat, are motions that work more or lesse upon all the figures in this world, yet cold heat works not up<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on figure alike, but differ as their figures differ, nor are cold and heat directly the same motions, although they be of the same kinde of motions, no more then several sorts of beasts kinde, yet all beasts are of Animal kinde, and most common<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly like several sorts of beasts that falleth out, or rather like two equal powerful Monarchies, that oppose one anothers power, and fight for preheminency, where sometimes one gets the better, and then the other, sometimes by strength, and sometimes by advantage, but when there is a truce, or a league, they have a common commerce, joyning their mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions,
<pb n="75" facs="tcp:48875:51"/>
working sympathetically together, which produceth an equall temper.</p>
</div>
<div n="108" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 108. <hi>Of the motions of cold, and heat, drouth, and Moisture.</hi>
</head>
<p>COld and heat, are not wrought by different kinds of motions, but after a different manner of workings or movings, for a moist cold, and a moist heat, are but one kinde of motions, as being motions that extenuate, and en<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>larges from the center to the circumference; for a moist heat, doth thrust, or drive outward, as toward the circum<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ference.</p>
<p>A moist cold doth pull, or draw from the center towards the circumference. As for example, we shall often see a gardiner that rolles a green turft walk, to thrust the roll before him, and when he is weary with pressing forward, he will turn his arms behinde him, and pull the roll after him.</p>
<p>Also a dry, or congealed cold, and a dry heat, are not several kindes of motions, but moves after several manners; for as moist cold, and heat extends, and enlarges from the center, to the circumference, so a dry heat, or a dry, or con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gealed cold, contracts from the circumference towards the center, the congealed cold in several works; a dry cold, or a dry heat onely draws into a lesse space, or compasse, yet the same difference in the manner of the motions, is between a dry heat, and a dry cold, as was between a moist heat, and a most cold; for a dry heat drives from the circumference to the cen<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter; &amp; a dry cold draws from the circumference to the center for although al drought is from the circumference to the center, and all moisture from the center to the circumference, yet the several manner of movings are infinite, also cold, and heat are not several kindes of motions, but different motions, as every man is of man-kinde, but they are different men.</p>
<p>And if we observe the effects of heat, and cold, we shall finde them to work after one and the same manner; for ve<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ry sharp colds, and great heats, paines equally; and sharp colds destroy with as great &amp; strong fury, as burning heats; neither can I perceive that burning heats have swifter motions, then sharp colds; for water to the quantity shall freez, assoon as any light matter shall burn; for water shall be assoon fro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>zen, as straw burnt, take quantity for quantity, and Animals shall be assoon frozen to death if they be touched, or struck with very sharp colds, such as are neer the poles, as be burnt under the torrid Zone; as for plants, we oftener see them kil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>led<note place="margin">As several men will.</note> with cold, then heat, and I perceive there is no thaw so sudden, as a frost; for when any thing is frozen, it is not suddenly thawed, which half perswades me, that cold is the quicker motion; but howsoever we perceive they do often dispute for the mastry, when some time the cold predomi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nates,
<pb n="76" facs="tcp:48875:52"/>
and sometimes the heat. But when there is an ami<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty,<note place="margin">as peace a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mong neigh<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bours and friends.</note> and friendship between both, then it is temperate wea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther.</p>
</div>
<div n="109" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 109. <hi>Of dry heats, and cold, and of moist heats and colds.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL dry heats, and colds, are created, or produced by such manner of motions, as pleating, folding, surfling, crum<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pling, knitting, linking, brading, tieing, binding into a lesse compasse, or space.</p>
<p>All moist heats, and moist colds, are created, or produ<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ced by such manner of motions, as smoothing, planing, stricking, or stretching; but burning heats, are like those motions that prick a sheet of paper full of holes, or dart it, or cut it, but there are infinite of these several kinds of mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions, which make these several heats, and colds, working according to the several degrees, or temperaments of mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter, and the composers of figures, but l onely set these few notes to make my discourse, as easy to my readers under<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>standing as I can; for it is a difficulty to expresse several motions, although they be so grosse as to be visible to the optick sense.</p>
</div>
<div n="110" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 110. <hi>Of shining figures.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL figures that are composed of lines, are the aptest to shine, because lines are the evenest measure, and<note place="margin">I say aptest, not as they do.</note> the smoothest rule, for mathematical motions to work with, but according as the lines, either exterior, or interior is smooth or rough, contracted or extenuated, shines more or lesse; for some lines are interiorly even, and smooth, and exteri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>orly rough and unequal, as pointed lines, or chekred, or mi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lions the like.</p>
<p>Others are exteriorly even, and interiorly rough, as lines of points, some are interiorly rough, and exteriorly rough as lines of points pointed and some are interiorly smooth, and exteriorly smooth, which are drawn out even, as one piece, and not composed of parts.</p>
</div>
<div n="111" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 111. <hi>The motions that make natural air, and day light.</hi>
</head>
<p>NAtural air, which is not metamorphosed air, is made by such kinde of motions, as makes cloth that is spun threads weaved, as with shuttles in a loom; so some moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons spin threads of thin dull matter, and other motions in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>terweave those threads, where the grossest sort makes the thick<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>er air, as great threads make course cloth, and the thinner
<pb n="77" facs="tcp:48875:52"/>
matter makes the serenest air, as small threads make the finest cloth; where some is like cobweb-lawn, so sheer, or clear, as the smallest objects may be seen through, which is spread about the globe of the earth, as a thin vail over a face, or body, and from the sun rising, the motions that make light run in lines upon it, and so is like a gar<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ment laid all over with silver-twist, or rather like silver<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>wier, from the sun rising to high noon, it is as it were, setting, sewing, or imbroidering on; this serene air at mid-day it is quite finished, and by sun set it is quite reapt off again.</p>
<p>And to shew that the lines of light are as it were laid upon this serene air, and not mixt into it, is by the vapor which gathers into dark clouds, which will obscure the light, as far as they spread, besides if the light were intermixt the moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons and matter could not so easily, nor so quickly withdraw, or intermingle, as we see they do; for what is intermixt, is hard to separate; but dark clouds are onely as spots, which by rarification are rubbed out, if they be wet spots, or drops, they fall out in shours of rain, but by such sorts of motions as by ringing, or squeesing, or griping with a hand, or the like, which breaks the sea, or waves of water, which are clouds, into several streams of drops, sometimes with a greater force, and sometimes with a lesse, according as the motions are stronger, or weaker.</p>
<p>The difference betwixt this serene, and natural air, and the metamorphosed air, is as a natural face, and a mask which is put on, or put off according as the watry circles contract, or dilate; the other in probability may be as lasting as the sun it self, not being subject to change, but by a natural crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion or dissolution.</p>
</div>
<div n="112" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 112 <hi>Of light.</hi>
</head>
<p>LIght is made by such a kinde of motion as heat, being an equal extenuating motion, but the difference is, that the motions that make heat, is a spreading motion, but light is made by a spining motion, equally drawing out long paralel lines, with an extraordinary swiftnesse, evennesse, smalnesse, and straightnesse.</p>
</div>
<div n="113" type="chapter">
<pb n="78" facs="tcp:48875:53"/>
<head>Chap. 113. <hi>The reflections of light.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe reflections of light when are the innated matter draws even lines with equal motions backwards (as I may say) for when their motions are stopt, with a more solid matter, then that which they work on to make light, where touch<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing, or beating thereon, they do not break their lines, but the leading innated matter, which makes light, returns back in equal lines, with equal motions, so as there becomes equal lines of light, onely as some lines run forward, others run backward, but in straight paralel lines, not crossed, nor per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>turbed; for when these motions are crost, or perturbed, it doth as troubled waters do, the one rising in several colours, as the other in waves, so the colours are the waves, or bil<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lows of light.</p>
</div>
<div n="114" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 114. <hi>Of light, and reflections.</hi>
</head>
<p>NO question but there are as many various lights, as fa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ces, and as different kinds of lights, as there are different Animals, or vegetables, or minerals, as some I will here set down for distinction, the sun light, the lighs of the fixt stars, the fire light, meteor light, glow-worm light, rotten wood light, the light of fishes bones, and there are many sorts of stones which will sparkle in the dark, as diamonds, and ma<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ny I cannot recount. Then there are produced lights, as day from the sun, flame from fire, then there are reflected lights, as the planets, and reflected lights from reflected lights, as the light from the planets on the earth, and infinite reflecti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons made by several motions on figures, for on every figure are several reflections.</p>
</div>
<div n="115" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 115. <hi>Of some opinions of light, darknesse, and Death.</hi>
</head>
<p>SOme say light is nothing but a motion, but there can be no motion without some matter, for where there is no mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter, there is nothing to move; but light, as other effects are, is made by such kind of motions on such degrees, or tempered matter, and so is heat, and cold, and darknesse made by se<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>veral motions, on such matter, although some opinions are, that darknesse is nothing but an absence of light, as some think death is a cessation of motion; Tis true, death is an alteration of such kinde of motions, as we call life; so darknesse is not made by such motions as make light, for there are motions be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>long to darknesse, as well as those to make light; so there be many several motions, in dissolving of figures, which dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>solution
<pb n="79" facs="tcp:48875:53"/>
we call death, as the creating of a figure, which we call life.</p>
</div>
<div n="116" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 116. <hi>Of darknesse.</hi>
</head>
<p>THose motions which make darknesse, seem to be as swift motions, as those that make light, for the air is as soon made dark as light; but some do say, there is no motion in darknesse, and that darknesse is a cessation of motion; Tis true, of such kinde of motions as make light; but not of all mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions, no more then the motion of the sun makes all light, or the absence of the sun makes all darknesse; for first the sun is not the onely light, for we can set up lights, when that is gone, by fire, whose flames do illuminate that part of air, that is neerest, and could we make a fire as bigg as the sun, and feed it perpetually, we might have a perpetual day, and the air<note place="margin">I speak this as a comparison, for I know the sun is much bigger then the earth.</note> will be as much illuminated, if there were a sufficient fire, to inlighten so much air at one time, as the sun doth; wherefore the sun is not the monopler of such kinde of motions, as make light. And can we rationally think there is no motion in darknesse, because the motions of the suns light are gone from our Hemisphear, we may as well say a fish cannot swim, be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cause such a horse doth not gallop, but to my fancy darknesse works upon the air, as well as light; for a dark cloud shall obscure the light, as well as the light shall pierce through a dark cloud; thus darknesse covers many times the face of the light, which shewes it is not alwayes the with-drawing of light which makes darkness, since darknesse hath as much power over the light, as the light over darknesse, but obstructed motions make darknesse, and hinder those equal motions which make light, and those motions that make mists, and fogs, are in some degree like the motions which make darknesse, and so are such motions as make colours, but the motions of dark<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nesse seem to be intermixing motions, as I may say snarled motions, which intangle themselves, and the different motions of darknesse, and light, are like skeines of silk, where the light is like thread which is pulled out even and straight.</p>
<p>And darknesse is like a skein of silk, which is so insnarled, or broken, as not any can finde a leading thread, being full of ends, knots and entercourses.</p>
</div>
<div n="117" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 117. <hi>The motions that make Darknesse.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe motions of darknesse upon the air, are after another manner, then those of light, for as light is laid in such smal, straight, even, out-drawn lines, so darknesse is like moti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons of silk imbroidery, the work to be bossy, full of intermix<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing stiches, and crosse threds, knotted and purled after this manner.</p>
<pb n="80" facs="tcp:48875:54"/>
<p>And the reason I say silk, is, because darknesse is softer then light, which light I similise to silver, for the brightnesse of light many times hurts the opticks, which darknesse doth not.</p>
</div>
<div n="118" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 118. <hi>Of Shadows.</hi>
</head>
<p>SHadows are copies, and pictures, drawn, or printed, or ingraven by dark motions, for dark lines made by the eclipsed light, are as the pencel, or the like, the light is the paint, the solid body on which shadows are cast, is the ground or substance to work on, motion is the artificer; for several lights are like so many several sorts of paintings; for colours are but a perturbed light as some say, but to shew it is darknesse that doth pencel out, is that there would be no such representments, if darknesse were not; and too much light drowns the figure, or is as it were plash'd, or dabbed out, or if so much paint were spilt, or cast on the ground without order; Yet all shadows are not as if they were painted, but printed in black and white, as against a wall, or on wa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter, or the like, but on a looking-glasse, or on a piece of pa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>per through a little hole, in a dark room, it is as painted, the colours being represented as well as the figures.</p>
</div>
<div n="119" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 119. <hi>Of shadows and airie figures.</hi>
</head>
<p>SHadows are printed, or ingraven, or painted by those mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions, which make darknesse upon inlightned aire, but the print is not seen, but upon a solid ground, or flat, as I may say, which ground must be opposite to the figure it repre<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sents, which is after this manner, as one figure makes more, for the figure makes a figure, that is, the external motion of the external figure cuts out a figure of aire; for questionless wheresoever our bodies are, there is the figure in air; for we are alwayes encompast about with air, wherein we make prints of our figures; for the solid bodies print their fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures in that which is more porous, and softer substance, as a seal on wax, or a print on butter, or the like; thus the solid bodies as they remove, still make new prints perpetual<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly, and infinitely, but as they remove, the prints melt out like verbal and vocal sounds, which print words, and set notes in the air, and the reason we uannot see the letter in the air, as well as hear the sound, is, that the air being so porous, is proper onely to convey a sound to the ear, or to spread it a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>broad; but not solid enough to fix the eye thereon, having not substance to hold an object so long a time as to take notice thereof, unlesse it be drawn into a shadow upon a substantial ground, on which the eye may fix; but until the figurative be cast upon a solid ground, the figures are like sculpture, but
<pb n="81" facs="tcp:48875:54"/>
when they are drawn in shadows upon a ground, it is as pain<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ting, or printing.</p>
</div>
<div n="120" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 120. <hi>Of a more probable opinion to me of light making several colours.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe lines of light are whole and come so from the sun until the light of such a figure, and according to the figure, there the lines are broken, and the breaking of light a ccord<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing to the several figures, makes several colours, so it is not inherent in the thing, but in the form of the thing, which is the figure that makes several colours breaking the several lines of light several wayes, so the Diers of several colours by their observations findes it out by their practise, though they know not the reason of it, but the true reason is, that all those several dies make several figures, which several figures breake the lines of light several wayes, which being bro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ken several wayes produce all those several co<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lours.</p>
<p>To shew you that it is several figure that breaks the lines of light that make several colours, you may see it in a pigi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons neck and brest, how many various colours it will change into, with and in the same place, the lines of light being bro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ken several wayes by the pigions feathers, that make several fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures, as also you may perceive in Rain-bows, the sun shining upon a watry cloud, the cloud being between you, and the sun what various colours there are, so to spout water out of your mouth, if it be between me and the sun, it makes the same colours, and all this is nothing else, but that the lines of light are broken so many wayes, by the several forms and figures it shines of, which produceth the multiplicity of all those va<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rious colours.</p>
<p>Again, more plainly to make it appear, that there can be no more truth but this in colour, take a triangular glasse it is all of one colour, and was never sent to the diers, and look in it, and you shall see the most various colours in the world, the colours are not in the glasse, therefore with ra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tional man it suffers no dispute at all, that colour is nothing else, but the lines of light broken by several forms, and fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures, that produceth all the various colours that are in the world. And for excellent disputants, that make <hi>Aristotle</hi> their church of reason, that cannot erre, and will maintain his nonsense against reason, I leave them to their ignorance, and wish they would rather follow his Logick, and his Rhetorick, then his natural Philosophy, for their own sakes.</p>
</div>
<div n="121" type="chapter">
<pb n="82" facs="tcp:48875:55"/>
<head>Chap. 121. <hi>Of Colours.</hi>
</head>
<p>SOme say colours are made by perturbed or obstructed light, but in my opinion, colours are broken lines of light; for when light is obstructed as being stopped it reflects with double light, those lines returning back like double strings, and if it were perturbed light, like over-agi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tated air, or troubled and rough waters, the light would be onely thicker, and mudier, having not liberty to move in so level, even, and straight, paralel lines; it is true, those per<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>turbed motions may be the cause many times of breaking the light, which broken parts contracting into several figures, or works, causeth several colours, every particular work, being a several colour, and when these several figurative works are mixt, being part of one work, and part of another, the co<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lors are also mixt.</p>
<p>For the several works made of the pieces of light, are that which makes several colours, and not the pieces of light with<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>out those works, for if those pieces of light lay scattered and not contracted into several figurative workes, they could, or would not make colours, but if colours are not made by pieces of light, they are made by contracting the straight unbroken lines of light, which contraction turns light into colours, as contractions do water into snow, ice, hail, frost; Now it is to be observed, that it is not onely the contracted motions on the water that make the difference, but being contracted into such or such a figure; for whensoever water is contracted into such a manner of figure, it is snow, if into such a figure it is hail, if in such a figure it is ice, into such a figure frost, and may do so constantly, and eternally, and so when light is contracted into such a figure, it is red, when into such a figure, blue, into such a figure, yellow, into such a figure green, and when it is contracted partly into the figure of red, and partly into the figure of blue, it makes a figure of purple, and if it be contracted partly into the figure of red, and partly into the figure of blue, and partly into the figure of purple, it makes a fourth figure, which is a fourth colour, and so a fift, and so infinites, likewise one and the same figure which is one perfect colour, may vary with each patticular figure, which is each particular colour, and upon what body soever these figures are printed, they take colours, and accor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ding as the figures differ, the colours are changed, or alter; for it is not the body that they are printed on, or the reflecti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ons of light, cast upon such bodies that make colours, but such figures made by contracted lines of light, which figura<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tive works give such colours to any thing they can print, or place on, but the reason why I think they are rather broken pieces of light contracted, then contracted streight lines, is, be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cause they are so lasting, for though some colours will fade
<pb n="83" facs="tcp:48875:55"/>
sooner, yet some will last a long time; for whatsoever work is wrought with parts, as I may say, several pieces of thread, is not so apt to undo or ravel out, as that which is but of one piece, unlesse the thread were circular, without ends, but lines of light are paralels, and not circles, as for shadows of colours, in my opinion they are produced after this manner as I said, the figure of blue or the like, which is one perfect colour, and the figure of red which is another perfect co<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lour makes a third figure, which is a mixt colour, likewise blue and yellow makes a different figure, which is a different colour from blue and red, and blue and yellow, makes a dif<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ferent figure, which is a different colour from blue and green, &amp; so we may match figures until we be weary, but whatsoever hath constantly part of one and the same figure, in the several or single compartments of other figures, which are other co<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lours, as blue and green, blue and red, blue and yellow; and the like appears in shadows, by reason one particular figure, or figurative part is the ground-work, which is, the ground colour, which makes all the colours it mixes with, partly of its own complection, and according as there are more or lesse, of that figure, the shadow is fainter or stronger, and according as the contractions are more or lesse, the colours are deeper, or paler; for those figures that are closer contracted, and rougher wrought, are the darkest colours, as neerest to black, and those figures that are loosest, contracted, and finer wrought, ars the the lightest, or palest colours, as being most light, when the parts are loosest, and most at liberty, and the brightest, as the most glorious colours that are made of the purest, and clearest light, which is of the smallest lines of light, as I may say, the finest threaded light, for some lights are thicker then others, by reason their lines are grosser.</p>
<p>Also colours which are broken contracted lines of light, may appear darker, or brighter according to the reflection, of other lights, or rather according to the straight and unbroken lines of light are that cast upon them, likewise some light doth alter the colours that are made by other lights, as some colours appear not by candle-light as by day-light, and the reason is, that several lines of several lights, being grosser, or finer, causeth the colour to appear duller or brighter, and some par<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ticular lights make some colours appear more then others, and some particular lights obscure some particular colours more then others, according as they are further, or neerer off the nature of each other; for though the several figurative works make the several colours, yet it is the lines and pieces of light, that make those figures and works.</p>
</div>
<div n="122" type="chapter">
<pb n="84" facs="tcp:48875:56"/>
<head>Chap. 122. <hi>Of airy figures.</hi>
</head>
<p>AS I said before, the solid bodies moving in the soft, &amp; more porous bodies, make many figures therein, some as prin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted, some as painted, others as sculpture, as cut, or carved in wood, or stone, or cast in metal, or moulded in earth, some are as if a man, or the like creature should print them<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>selves in snow, others as if they should make themselves in snow, as for example; as if a man should stand, and let the snow fall thick upon him until he were all covered over, there would be his figure in snow, or if he should lie down in snow, there would be his print; so it is in air, as we move from place to place, new figures are made, and the former figures moulder, or melt out, but according as the air is, so they last, or decay, for if the air be congealed with cold, thickned with grosse fogs or mist, the figures last the longer therein, although in a misshapen posture, like ruina<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ted buildings, or broken statues, or like defeated armies, here an arm, or a piece of an arm, or a hand, and there leggs, here a head, there a mangled body; but when the air is thin, and serene, the print dissolves assoon as the figure removes; and if the air were as solid as snow, we should see the figures as perfect in the one, as in the other; but the air being very thin, and porous, the sight of the eye runs thorow without stay, or stop, taking no notice, like water in a sieve, wherein nought can be contained, because there is no hold to keep the water in from running out.</p>
</div>
<div n="123" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 123. <hi>Of External figures, and internal forms.</hi>
</head>
<p>IN some things there is such sympathy betwixt the internal form, and the external figure, as the alterations of the one, change the nature of the other; as for fire, when the external figure is altered, the internal faculty is gone, here the internal na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ture depends upon the exterior figure; but as for water, the external figure may be changed, as we see when it is frozen, but the internal nature not changed, for it is as water still, though it be not fluid, here the internal depends not upon the external; but thus much the exterior figures of all things depend so so much upon the exterior form, or nature, that when the internal is changed, the exterior cannot be altered, from and to, as to change the countenance or face, as I may say by contraction, and dilation, as water, and metals, and many others, but an animal figure may remain, as it was for a time, when the internal is changed, but not long, as for ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ample, Animals, although the internal nature, and faculty be<note place="margin">As we say dead.</note> changed, which is to move after such a manner, as is proper for Animal, the external figure is not altered: for when A<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nimals are dead, the external, which is the outward shape
<pb n="85" facs="tcp:48875:56"/>
remains perfect, for a time, yet the internal motions may be in disorder, as they are in animals that sound, or are sick or faint, or in vegetables that are fading, or drooping; but when the internal motions move orderly again, either of themselves, or by the help of assistant motions, and figures, the Animal is as it was before, and the Vegetable flourisheth green again, thus there may be an alteration; but when there is an absolute change in the internal, there can be no return, but by a new creation, for all alterations of motions do not do it, but a total change.</p>
</div>
<div n="124" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 124. <hi>Earth, water, air, fire, cold, heat, light, darknesse.</hi>
</head>
<p>EArth, water, air, fire, cold, heat, light, darknesse, is made as Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, that is, that such degrees of innated matter works upon the dull part of mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter with various motions, and several degrees, of dull mat<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter produceth such effects joyning parts together, and separa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ting parts asunder, but joyning, and mixing each degree to<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gether, loseth not the entity of each degree, for that can ne<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ver be altered, for as it was from all eternity, so it will last to all eternity.</p>
</div>
<div n="125" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 125. <hi>The motions of the Sun, and Planets.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe Sun, and the rest of the Planets, are questionlesse created as other Animal creatures, and their local mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions<note place="margin">I thimk them to be Animals.</note> are according to the shape, as we see all Animals are, for a worm cannot run, but onely moves by gathering up the body from one place, and then stretching it self out far<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther, or else by rolling, and winding his body from place to place, nor beasts cannot flee as birds, nor birds cannot trot, amble, nor gallop, as beasts, because they have no shape fitted thereto; for birds want four leggs to pace and gallop, and beasts want wings to flee, so the Planets move according to their shape, turning about as a spherical circle about a center, and if the sun runs about the world with such speed (as some old opinions are, it must turn as a wheel about the spoake, or rundle as a bowl in the ecliptick line.</p>
<p>But if the sun, as some Modern opinions hold, doth not move out of his place, but is as it were fixed, and that the Planets move about it, in circular wayes according to their shape, then the motions of the sun, are onely by dilation, and attra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ctions: from which light, and heat proceeds, and vapor is drawn or suckt up.</p>
</div>
<div n="126" type="chapter">
<pb n="86" facs="tcp:48875:57"/>
<head>Chap. 126. <hi>Of the motions and figures of the four na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tural Elements.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe motions that make the natural figure of earth, are not<note place="margin">I say natural because there are metamor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>phosed ele<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments.</note> so curious, nor the matter they work on so fine, as those which make fire, air, and water; for the materials being gros<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ser, their work is rougher, like morter that is made of hair, and lime, and the motions moving not so evenly, or distinctly, but rather mixtly, causeth it to be sad and dark, the solidity, weight, and drought are caused by the contracting, attracting, and retentive motions, which motions are the chief workers and creators of this element, which work like ants, drawing all thereto, making it like a round heap, or like a Load-stone, that attracts the solid matter.</p>
<p>The slimie or gelly part of the earth is made by such kinde of motions as spin small lines lik Silk-worms, in a round hollow ball; water is made after that manner, onely those lines extenuate more into perfect circles.</p>
<p>Natural and pure air is made by such a kinde of motion, as spiders spin webs, smal lines spread, and enterwoven e<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>venly.</p>
<p>Natural fire is made by such kinde of motions, as the art of whetting, or sharpening, or pointing with a grind-stone, or Load-stone or the like, and is made like the stings of Bees, which pierce, and wound whatsoever they can enter.</p>
<p>Natural light is made by such kinde of motions, as wier<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>drawing, or drawing a small thread from a spindle.</p>
<p>Natural darknesse is made by such kinde of motions, as winding up threads upon bottoms, in a heap.</p>
<p>I say natural, because they keep their original form, and is the right kinde, and true shape, as I may say of man-kinde; For if a creature should be partly a beast, and partly a man, it were not of the right kinde, and true shape.</p>
<p>Likewise Elements may be of the right kinde, and yet be different as mankinde, for every particular man is not alike, neither in shape nor quality, the like may elements differ.</p>
</div>
<div n="127" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 127. <hi>The reason of the ebbing and flowing of the sea thus.</hi>
</head>
<p>I Will not dispute, according to <hi>Copernicus,</hi> that the earth goes about, &amp; the Sun stands stil, upon which ground <hi>Galleleo</hi> saith, the reason of the ebbing and flowing of the sea, is the jogging of the earth, the old opinion is, that the moon is the cause of it, which I can hardly beleeve, for mark the tide from <hi>Scotland</hi> to <hi>Margel</hi> when the moon hath the same influence, and the tide is so many hours in coming from <hi>Scotland</hi> to <hi>Margell</hi>
<pb n="87" facs="tcp:48875:57"/>
as if one rid post, if it were the moon, why should it not be high water, or full tide <hi>Margell,</hi> that it is in <hi>Scotland</hi> at the time, the power of the moon being all one, so that comes very improbable to me, for many things fall out at the same time, and yet the one not cause of the other, and in Phi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>losophy there is nothing so ordinary, as to mistake the cause of things, since indeed the things for the most part are hid from us; some again will have the Sun the cause of the ebbing and flowing of the sea, others rationally say, heat makes motion, and the seas being salt make motion, because it is hot, but how comes it that the fresh waters ebbe and flow? even springs well, whatsoever the cause be of the seas motion where it moves,; for in some places they say it doth not, but where it moves it is never high water in one place, but it is low water in another place, and the sea moves alwayes<note place="margin">If one pow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ers water on the ground it flows with a Convex.</note> circularly, for as it is the nature of water to be made in fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gures of circular lines, so it is the nature to flow circularly, which in my opinion is the reason of the ebbing and flowing tides, that moves circularly, that is, part of a circular, where the convex flows still forward, the flowing motion extends more and more, causing it to swell out, and the concave ends to extend longer and closer, in so much as at last the con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cave ends are joyned into a convex, for it doth not extend in aperfect round circle, as I shall describe in my following dis<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>course, but after an oval, or rather a pear figure, but when the flowing convex is extended beyond the strength, it straight breaks, being most weak, by reason it is most extended out, so that when the tides have no more strength to flow for want of water to extend, and the convex over-powred by extenuation, it breaks asunder, and so falls back, whereby the convex parts are now become the concave, and where it was concave, is now become convex, which causeth it to flow the other way, and ebb where it did flow, for where it lies concave it ebbs, and where it is conex is flows, and thus it ebbs and flows perpetually, where it hath free passage, but the farther it flows, the weaker it becoms, by reason the strength is abated, like a horse that hath run fast and far, at last is so weak and breathlesse as he falls down, so when the convex can extend no farther, it breaks in two, but as the convex extends, the concave ends draw closer together, whereby such time as they come to joyn, the convex is so bowingly stretched, as it be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>comes brittle, as I may say or weak, which causeth it to break, but it is to be observed that the tides have a double mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion, for as the convex flows forward, the concave ends draw backward at one and the same time, for the extenuation of convex one way, causeth the extenuation of the concave<note place="margin">In a pear figure.</note> ends the other way; but by reason the two ends draws close towards a point, the ebbing waters seem narrow and little, but the ebbing tides are but an effect of the
<pb n="88" facs="tcp:48875:58"/>
flowing tides, not a cause in it self, for the interior nature of water is to flow where it can get liberty, and freedom of passage, and where it doth not flow it is obstructed by some obscure cause, but I desire my reader not to mistake me, as to conceive the motions of the tides, and the interior nature of water all one, being something alike; but the motions of the tides, and the motions of the interior nature of water are as different as the local motions of Animals, and their interior nature, and I beleeve if the fresh waters had the same liberty as the sea waters, to flow which way they would without op<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>position, or obstructions of hils, dales, banks and walls, and had the like quantity to move withal, I beleeve they would as naturally flow as the sea, and ebbe when their strength fails, and I beleeve if there were a sufficient quantity of water in the sea, and no obstructions, as Islands, creeks, and the like to hin<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>der the passage, and that the earth were like a billiard ball, it would flow perpetually round, as the Globe turns upon the Pole, if the Pole turns not round with the Globe.</p>
</div>
<div n="128" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 128. <hi>Describing the tides.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe flowing water gathers up together like superflous hu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mors, and swells out the convex, as corrupted matter doth the skin, and never leaves extending till it breaks, but it begins by degrees in a demy-circle, and as it flows it grows larger, and longer extending its compasse.</p>
<p>And as the convex extends, the concave ends must of necessi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty draw closer together.</p>
<p>Which makes the ebbing waters like a tail to the convex, which as the body, which makes the ebbing waters to be nar<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>row, and by the reason the bulk of the water flows in the convex, it causeth the concave ends to be small, which makes it shallow, and the more the concave ends extend, the smaller they are, like thread drawn from a full distaff of flax; for so the concave ends draws, or rather extends from the convex body; But as I said before the more the convex extends, the closer the concave ends draw together, and when the convex is extended to the uttermost they joyn.</p>
<p>And assoon as ever they are joyned and mixt together into one point, as it were, it swels into a body.</p>
<p>For the former convex being broke, the waters fal back to that part which was the concave, but now is become the convex, and that part which was the convex, is now become the con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cave.</p>
<p>Yet the convex must be full before the concave ends extend, like as a glasse that must be filled above the brims before it can run over.</p>
</div>
<div n="229" type="chapter">
<pb n="89" facs="tcp:48875:58"/>
<head>Chap. 229. <hi>Of double tides.</hi>
</head>
<p>AN after, or double tide is caused by winde, like as a man should walk against a very great winde, that although he presseth forward, yet it drives him back, but when he hath broken the gust as it were, he passeth more forcible through, and though winde have power over the exterior motions of the waters, yet not on the interior motions, but winde can discompose the face of the waters, as anger doth the counte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nance of men.</p>
</div>
<div n="130" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 130. <hi>Ofspring Tides.</hi>
</head>
<p>SPring tides I conceive to be caused by waters that issue forth from the veins of the earth, which are apt to swell, and then to vent themselves forth at certain times, as natural issues, which flowing causeth the tides to be greater, because it hath more strength to extend farther, and the tides to be higher because the convex is thicker, and fuller, for the greater body of water, the farther it flowes; for it is for want of strength which makes an ebb, or want of passage which makes a stop, and when the tides are lower, there are some invisible obstructions, or the eatrh hath drawn or suckt from that part of the sea.</p>
</div>
<div n="131" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 131. <hi>The tide and stream flowing against each other.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe reason the tide flows against the stream a of River, is, that the quantity of sea water forceth through the stream, and the descent of the river forceth the stream to passe through the motion, or rather by the motion of the tide, for the natural motions of all waters being to flow, and the force of the des<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cent added therto, gives it a double, if not a treble strength, so that when the force of the tide, and the force of the stream meets, and incounters, they make passes, as Duellers that fight hand to hand; but if one water runs quite through another, it is most probable that the tide runs through the stream, by reason it is armed strongly with salt, which may cause it to be stream<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>proof, when the river water is porous, and weak by reason it is fresh, and thin as I may say.</p>
</div>
<div n="132" type="chapter">
<pb n="90" facs="tcp:48875:59"/>
<head>Chap. 132. <hi>The difference of salt water and fresh water.</hi>
</head>
<p>THe difference of salt water and fresh, is, that salt waters circle lines are flat, and edged, as a knife, or the like, and in fresh water, round, which edge makes it not lesse smooth, although more sharp, nor hinders the extenuating compasse, but the lines being flat, make it more solid, and so give it more strength, then the fresh water circle that is round, which makes it more porous, then salt water is, by the experience of an egge, and the like, which in fresh wa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter the egge will sink to the bottom, but very salt water will bear it up, from sinking, and according to the strength, it will bear more or lesse, but those lines may exteriorly alter, from flat to round, and round to flat, and never alter the interiour nature, as to break the compasse, which is to dissolve the circle or ring (as I may say) which circle ring is the interior figure.</p>
</div>
<div n="133" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 133. <hi>Of winde.</hi>
</head>
<p>WInde is wrought by expulsive motions, and the strength doth not proceed from the thicknesse, or solidity of the body, as many think it doth, conceiving it to be con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tracted, or prest up air, which if it were, it could not enter into such small porous, and narrow passages as it doth; where<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>fore me thinks the strength should not proceed so much from the solidity, as the agilnesse therein; for the quick repetiti<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on doth so sorcibly presse on each other, as upon necessity it must drive all loose, and porous bodies before it, but the far<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ther it bloweth, the fainter is the breadth, for as the repetitions grow short, so weaker.</p>
</div>
<div n="134" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 134. <hi>Of the noise of Tempest and storms.</hi>
</head>
<p>AS I have said, that sort of air which is made by watry circles is apt to sound with every motion that strikes thereon, by reason of the hollow figure being spheri<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>call.</p>
<p>Likewise this is the reason running brooks make a murmur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing noise; also this is the reason, that the tides do make such a noise in the ebbs, and flowes, circles pressing, or rather strike<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing each other.</p>
<p>Again, this is the reason the windes, when they blow up<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>on airy, or watry circles, by striking those spherical circles, cause it to sound, and make a roaring noise, by the confu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sion it makes therein; for winde which is an expulsive vapor doth not onely strike those watry circles, but those that are extended into air, and when those motions drive circle against
<pb n="91" facs="tcp:48875:59"/>
circle, or circle upon circle, makes such quick rebound, which rebounds in contracting and crossing each other, make a confused sound, which we call tempestuous and stormy, and it is to be observed, that a tempest in the air, and a storm in the water, and thunder, is much after one and the same kinde of noise; But as thunder is caused by the expulsion of the most extended circular lines, so winde is the expulsion of the more grosser circles, as when lines break, which are extended no farther then to vapor, also these expulsions, if they be not very violent, cause rain; for the expulsed motion being no stronger then to presse upon the unbroken and ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tended circles, either of vapor, or air, drives it into the wa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>try compasse, but when the weather is cloudy, it is not alto<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gether so hard prest upon, as to drive it into perfect water circles, but to the next degree, as a thick vapor.</p>
<p>And when the weather is unconstant, as we say, that is sometimes grosse and thick, and then it will be strait clear, and bright, is as the presser doth abate, or increase; but unforced raines (as I may call them) which is without a vio<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lent constraint, is when those circles are drawn into a wetry compasse in a natural order, and by the natural waight, be<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing thicker then natural air, that is original air, and not trans<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>migrated water, it falls down on the earth.</p>
<p>Likewise the pouring showers make a sound, by the force of the falling drops, striking as they fall, sound; but by rea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>son the water is divided, by the falling motions into lesse bo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>dies, as it were, which makes not so strong a sound, having lesse compasse as the tides, or air having fewer circles in a body, as in drops, which makes it of a lesse bulk, and the lesse the body is, the weaker, and the smaller is the sound.</p>
<p>But when the watry lines are drawn into a triangular fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure of snow, it falls silently without sound, by reason the watry line is drawn out of the extended circle. Besides, that figure is the lightest figure, by reason of the inequality, for a square hath four equal parts, which makes a just number, so an equal ballance which gives it a steddy weight, and a circle is equally round, without parts, which gives a steddy weight.</p>
<p>But a triangular figure is in three parts, which is no just number, nor equal ballance, nor steddy weight, which make it of lesse force, for being a wavering figure, it cannot presse hard, nor strike strongly, nor fall heavy, but flies lightly a<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bout.</p>
</div>
<div n="135" type="chapter">
<pb n="92" facs="tcp:48875:60"/>
<head>Chap. 135. <hi>Of thunder and lightning.</hi>
</head>
<p>THunder and lightning are caused from watry circles, for when they are extended from water to vapor, from vapor to air, from temperate air, to hot air, from hot air to fire; for if those circles extended beyond the compasse, and strength of the line, they break, which is the cause of thunder, and lightning; for assoon as the farthest extention of the circle is broken, those extended parts do with an extraordinary swift<note place="margin">See my chap<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter of Fame</note> motion run, or rather shut forth into bright flaming flashes, as spinning lines of light, but when those lines extend with a strong strength, they break into smal parts, which causeth thunder to follow lightnings; for those bteaking parts some<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>times expulse disorderly, beating and striking upon those circle lines that are unbroke, which circles being of a hollow figure, cause a sound in the higher region, whereto they are ascended, for their extention causeth them to be light, their lightnesse to ascend; But all hollow figures being concave within, and convex without, do present to the ear, if they be strong, as concave, and convex glasses doth objects, when pre<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sented to the eye; thus hollow figures cause a hollow sound if they be struck, for the concave draws those motions in which rebounds from fide to side, and the rebounds continue <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> sound by the Echos repeated, for sound lasts longer in hollow<note place="margin">Sound enters into all hol<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>low places, as well as in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>to the Ani<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mal ear.</note> figures, then in any other, and though I will not say that onely hollow figures make sounds, yet I say that no sound can enter but through hollow figures, as the ear is a hollow fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure, and all hollow figures, and the ear is not onely hol<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>low, but circular, but sounds are made in the ear, or rather enters, as light and colours in the eyes, for discord is pertur<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>bed motion, or rather close Antipathetical motions, and har<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>mony are sympathetical, and regular motions, but the more of these extenuating circles break, the more lightning there is, and the stronger they brea, the more thunder rhere is, and the har<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>der they strike upon the unbroken circles the lowder is the sound.</p>
<p>But if the circle lines break onely asunder, and extend, or shut forth into straight lines without more parts, there is one<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly lightning without thunder, but if those lines break into more parts, there is thunder also, and when there falls r ain at those times of thunder, it is when the gentler motions of some of those expulsed parts, do not strike hard upon some of those unbroken circles, but presse upon them, which caus<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>eth them to draw, and gather into a lesse circle, and a grosser line, untill they return into the watry compasse, where grow<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing too heavy for the hight, falls down toward the center of the earth, as all heavie bodies, if not thick bodies under to bear them up, or stronger motions then their weight to hold them
<pb n="93" facs="tcp:48875:60"/>
up, thus in my opinion is thunder and lightning caused, and when it rains, those unbroken circles return into its nature again.</p>
</div>
<div n="136" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 136. <hi>Of the alterations of motions.</hi>
</head>
<p>ONe and the same degree of innate matter may change,<note place="margin">I <hi>call <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> na<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tural that are propper to the figure.</hi>
</note> and rechange the natural posture motion in one and the same figure, but a general alteration of those motions proper to that figure, dissolves the natural form of any one particular figure, for a figure moving by several motions, proper to its kinde, must joyntly consent either by a sympa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thy, or inforcement to make a dissolution, as well as a crea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion, but all motions works or alter according as the matter is, or figure they work to, or forced by stronger motions to alter their natural course; likewise several and contrary mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions may work by turns in one and the same figure, by one and the same degree of innated matter.</p>
</div>
<div n="137" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 137. <hi>Of different motions.</hi>
</head>
<p>ALL extenuating motions make not fludity or wet, but such kind of extenuating on such tempered, or on such<note place="margin">Fethers, wool hair, and the like, which are neither liquid, <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>, nor wet, one<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ly soft and sympathy</note> degrees of dull part of matter, for some extenuating motions make light, others make heat, and infinite the like, so all ex<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>pulsive motions do not burn, nor all <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> motions do not work alike, nor all attractive, nor all retentive, nor expul<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>sive; for there are infinite wayes or kindes of them, which works infinite varieties, for there are infinite several sorts of heats, coldes, droughts, moistures (and infinite kindes of lights and darknesse as well as of colours, so infinite wayes of con<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tractions, and attractions, and infinite wayes of expulsions, and so there are such varieties in one and the same kinde, as it is impossible for me to describe, as for one man to draw the several pictures of mankinde from all eternity; but if I could draw but one picture, it will be enough to shew my art and skill, although but a plain draught, but I finde the work too hard for my wit, yet I have ventured, and mean to hang it on the wall of censure, although I know spite will strive to pull it down.</p>
</div>
<div n="138" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 138. <hi>Of the local motions of water, air, and fire.</hi>
</head>
<p>I perceive there be other figures that have local motions besides Animals, yet it is partly their figures that are pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>per thereto; for though there is no matter, but is figured, yet all figures move not but of themselves, and though all figures aremoved, or moving, or both moved and moving, yet all local
<pb n="94" facs="tcp:48875:61"/>
motions move not after one and the same manner; but I hear mean by local motion, that which naturally can move from place to place, by their interior nature, and exterior shape, but if the word is not right to the sense, pray par<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>don it, and take the sense and leave the word, and Christen it a new; but these kindes of local figures are water, arie, and fire, which move after an Animal manner, although they have not the shape of those we cal Animals, yet they seem Animals by their<note place="margin">All animals are not of one shape.</note> self motion, as moving from place to place, unlesse they be stopt by stronger motions, or other figures that are more powerful: the like of other Animals, as for example, if one man, or more being stronger bindes another man which hath not strength, nor power to oppose, or hinder them, he cannot move accor<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ding to the property of his nature and shape.</p>
<p>So likewise, if cold contractions be more powerful then the extenuating circles, it bindes up the the water with icie fetters, wherby it cannot move according to the nature, nor circular shape; so if any man should go to a place, and a high wall should stand betwixt him and that place, he cannot passe un<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>lesse there were a passage, or that he can clamber, which must be by art, because there is no footing, and to jump o<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ver it he cannot, for it is so high that the weight of his body will pull him down, before the strength or agilnesse of his limbs shall raise him over, and he cannot flee over by reason his shape is not fitted thereto, having no wings, so water being<note place="margin">And as a man may pick a hole through the wall, so water will pick a passage through the earth.</note> stopt, and the passage hindered, by a thick bank of earth, can<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>not move according to its property; for it is proper for wa<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ter to move descendingly, at least straight forth; but when it ascends, it is forced by other more powerful motions, so likewise it is proper for air to move after a level, streaming, or spreading manner.</p>
<p>For fire to ascend, after a piercing, shooting, and perpendi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cular<note place="margin">I mean all exterior mo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tions.</note> manner, for these elements do as other Animals do, for man, beasts, birds, fishes, their local motions are different ac<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cording to their shapes, for it is the property of a four legged creature to gallop, trot, pace, run, leap, but they cannot flee, because their shape is not fitted thereto, having not wings, nor a bird cannot gallop, trot, nor pace, having not four leggs to make changes therewith, it is true, a two legged creature may leap, jump, hop, and run.</p>
<p>Likewise those fishes can neither run nor flee, that have not wings nor legs; but those that have mixt shapes, have mixt lo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cal motions, as there be fleeing fishes, and swimming birds, and running fishes, and swimming beasts, indeed most creatures can swim, for most shapes are fitted thereto in one kinde or another, but mans shape is such as it can imitate most various motions, though it is the shape that makes al creatures to move different ly, yet it is not altogether the shape that makes them move lo<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>cally, but there must be such an interior nature proper to such
<pb n="95" facs="tcp:48875:61"/>
shapes, as Vegetables and Minerals, their property is not to move locally, that is, to have a <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>.</p>
<p>It seems their interior nature, and exterior <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> is not pro<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>per thereto, or perchance it is only their <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>, <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> their interior nature that makes them unfit <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> for we finde their interior nature to be more active <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> of the exterior shapes of Animals. But to return to those elements I treat of, as first water, the interior nature causes it to be liquid and wet, the exterior shape to be fluid, both agreeing by a sympathetical conjunction give a local motion to descend, and bear all before it, or with it, that is loose, and unfixt, so fire, the interior nature causeth <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> to be hot and dry, the exte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rior figure to be sharp to <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>, both agreeing by a sympathe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tical conjuncting, giving it a local motion to pierce and divide it, all it can enter into, if not over-powered; so <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> the inte<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>rior nature causeth it to be soft, and pliant, and the exterior figure to be thin and searching, both agreeing by a sympathe<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tical conjunction, gives it a local motion to enter through all porous bodies in a level line, and to fill up all <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> places in other figures, unlesse it be thrust out, and kept out by some<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>thing more powerful; It is the natural property for fire to be hot and dry, to be sharp and burning, to move ascending.</p>
<p>And for water to be liquid, fluid, and wet, and to descend in a descending line.</p>
<p>And air to be soft, and yeelding, to be thin and searching, to move in a level line, unlesse they be forc'd otherwaies, for fire may be supprest downward, and water forc'd upwards and air disperst, and fire is not onely subject to be supprest but quench<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ed out for water, if there be a sufficient quantity to the fire on which it is cast, will over power it: for the innated motions which cause water to be wet, destroy the motions that cause fire to be sharp and burning, and the figure <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> de<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stroyed, that is disuniting those parts, and those motions, that keep and maintain those parts in that figure, the proper<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ty is extinguished too, as we see many Animal figures, do to one another, and birds, and fish, and men destroy beast, birds, and fish, according as they have <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> and advantage, for indeed the dissolution of one <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> cause of the creation of another, sometime the <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> one figure, make many figures, and sometimes <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> of many figures make but one figure; and <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap>
<gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> hath many several manners of moving locally and the ele<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ments as other Animals do move somtimes slower, and some<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>times faster.</p>
</div>
<div n="139" type="chapter">
<pb n="96" facs="tcp:48875:62"/>
<head>Chap. 139. <hi>Explanations of onely Matter.</hi>
</head>
<p>IT is to be observed by those figures that are wrought by the way of lines, are soft, smooth, and shining, whether they be paralel lines, cupe lines, triangular lines, or circular lines, but the smaller, and straighter the lines are, the smoother, and brighter is their work, but there are several sorts of softnesse, and several sorts of smoothnesse which are made by several kindes of motions.</p>
<p>Then it is to be observed, that all works of contractions, and retentions are stronger, and more lasting, then those figures that are more light, and porous, or extenu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ating.</p>
<p>Thirdly, it is to be observed, that the innated matter, which works upon the light, and thin part of dull matter, is more agil, and nimbler then that which works upon the thick and solid matter, unlesse the strength of the motions be not above, or at least equal to the solidity of the matter.</p>
<p>Also it is to be observed, they can make solid figures of light thine matter, by their close, and curious joynings injectures, and mixtures, and porous, and light figures of solid matter, by their dividings, and spreadings, but though the innated matter can contract and dilate, the thick, or thin, light, or heavie fluid or soft, yet it cannot alter the nature, or degrees of the dull part of matter, neither can the innated matter make it self wea<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ker, or stronger then by nature it is, for the entity of onely matter cannot be changed, but though the nature cannot be altered of dull part of matter, yet it may be cut, and carved, and joyned and dispersed into several figures, so the innated matter, although the nature cannot be altered as to make each degree weaker, or stronger, yet they may move swifter, or flower, according as the dull part of matter is they work on or according as the curiosity of the figure requires; and as I have said before, there be infinite degrees of the dull part of matter; as solid, and fluid, thinner, and thicker, lighter and heavier, harder, and softer, and infinite degrees of innated matter, as stronger, and weaker, swifter and slower, and though I have said that the innated matter is the thinnest part of onely matter, yet I do not mean the thin incipit matter, as I may call it for distinction sake; for there is no incipit in infinite, and eternal matter, though there be dull in moving matter, but the innated matter is the infinite extract of the entity of infinite matter, it is the quintessence of nature.</p>
</div>
<div n="140" type="chapter">
<head>Chap. 140. <hi>The differences and alterations of figures.</hi>
</head>
<p>IN the progresse of figures, figures are created in figures. The reason is, that infinite motions which are the gods
<pb n="97" facs="tcp:48875:62"/>
to create, dissolve, and dispose of figures, as they please to move, share as it were the infinite matter, in their work<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ing and dividing, and several motions, which is proper to the creation, of such kinde of figures, assisting each other in their works of creation; but not in the figures dissolu<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tion; for those motions which are proper to create one kinde of figure, are not proper to create another, for every fi<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>gure hath different motions, in the creation either more or lesse, which is the reason few, or none are just alike, but either in shape, or minde will differ, but when two figures are made with the same motions, among the sensitive innated matter, then their figures are just alike, as we shall see twins, and if the rational matters motion be just alike in several figures, their dispositions and understandings are just alike, and if they differ in their motions but a little, they resemble much either the minde, or the body; sometimes both, but the more they differ, the lesse they resemble, but almost all <gap reason="illegible" resp="#APEX" extent="1 word">
<desc>〈◊〉</desc>
</gap> are di<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>stinguishable, which shewes such variety of motions, as there needs no more repetition to move after one, and the same man<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>ner; for there are not onely different motions in different, and several figures, but in one and the same figure, for the same figure doth not look when it is old, as when it was young, nor when it is sick, as when it is in health; nor when it is cold, as when it is hot, nay the figure will alter and change, every minuit either by the altered motion of the sensitive, or ra<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>tional; but most commonly they alter their motions together, as in a joynt concent, for a troubled minde will make the body appear heavy and sad, for joy and grief will make different countenances in the figure, and so every passion in the minde, is most commonly matched with a countenance agreeable thereto, and most commonly other exterinal actions, yet al<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>though the motions may differ, the innated matter may be of one and the same degree, for I do not say every degree of in<g ref="char:EOLhyphen"/>nated matter moves alwayes in one kinde of motion; for though every degree of innated matter, is of a particular strength, yet not of a particular motion.</p>