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The Modular Networking Architecture - high-performance libraries for creating REST-based, JSON Web Services

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README
Introduction
------------

Monarch is a set of libraries and tools for creating high-performance
REST-based, native JSON Web Services. Monarch is best suited for sites
that rely on lots and lots of AJAX calls to provide their core
functionality.

Features
--------

* Native and cross-platform - works on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux.
* Scalability - designed to scale easily with multi-cpu/multi-core systems.
* Efficient - small executable size and very high-performance.
* Modular - use as much or as little as is required for your software.
* Crypto - complete cryptography stack supporting SSL and TLS.
* Network-centric - everything necessary to create a high-performance AJAX
                    backend including light-weight, high-performance, 
                    multi-threaded HTTP server.
* Streaming - Built to stream all input and output, thus saving on memory
              and disk usage. Capable of in-line encryption, steganography
              and decryption of audio and video data.
* Integration - integrates with other network services like SMTP, UPnP, and
                MySQL.
* Micro-kernel - Microkernel architecture that allows hundreds of thousands
                 of simultaneous micro-processes (fibers) to operate without
                 operating system intervention.
* Validation - Ensures validity of incoming or outgoing JSON data to AJAX
               front-end services.

This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in
the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/).

Getting Started
---------------

To compile and run on Linux, Intel Mac OS X, or other similar *NIX systems:

   $ ./build-setup
   $ make

To compile for Windows XP, Vista, 7:
* You must have the mingw32 compiler toolchain - the easiest way to get
this working is to use Linux and cross-compile for Windows:

  $ ./build-setup -s
  $ ./configure --host=windows
  $ make

To run configure with custom build options:

   $ ./build-setup -s
   $ ./configure --help
   $ ./configure [options...]
   $ make

To specify a custom build target, use the --host option. Monarch has custom
build target aliases "linux", "macos", and "windows". Any other standard
configure host alias is also acceptable. See autoconf documentation for host
alias help. Note that non-MacOS and Windows targets will currently build as if
in Linux mode.

To test the various subsystems in Linux and Mac OS X:

   $ make test

To run the ping/pong test:

   $ ./monarch-run pong -t pong --log-level=d

In a separate console, try the following:

   $ curl http://localhost:19500/pong

You should see the following text in the response from the server:

   Pong!

If you see the text above, your Monarch server is operating correctly.

System Details
--------------

The Monarch project was originally created as a set of support libraries
that form the foundation for Bitmunk and similar projects. It needed to
provide APIs for robust, small, and fast cross-platform network-dependent
applications. An overview of each subsystem library is provided below:

moapp
-----
A generic framework for quickly setting up applications that use Monarch's
configuration system and logging capabilities and have the ability to
specify and parse command line options.

mocompress
----------
Provides APIs for using gzip and DEFLATE compression and decompression
and for creating ZIP archives.

moconfig
--------
Provides a versatile configuration system with "tiered"
support. Configuration objects can be created and arranged in an arbitrary
hierarchical order that allows for easy setting and overriding of default
options at various levels. For example, an application may be configured
such that it has system defaults, system user defaults, and application
user defaults as well as having custom user options. Configuration
objects can be serialized and deserialized in JSON format. Configuration
objects can also be spread across multiple files and include multiple
configuration files if desired.

mocrypto
--------
Provides APIs for encryption, decryption, digital signatures, secure
asymmetic and symmetric key generation, X.509 certificates, crypto hash
functions, and arbitrary precision big integer and big decimal support.

modata
------
Provides APIs for JSON and XML serialization and deserialization. This
includes serializing and deserializing DynamicObjects. Other APIs include
support for inspecting data for file formats and data structures for
parsing file formats such as MPEG, AVI, RIFF, and ID3v2. A simple template
parser that can search and replace template variables with other values
is also available.

moevent
-------
Provides APIs for a complete event monitoring system. Events can be
registered, scheduled, and received in a multithreaded environment. Event
taps may be created that allow events of different types to be grouped
together so that event observers can more easily monitor similar
events. Observers may also specify filters on event data to limit the
events they receive. Objects that can wait to proceed until particular
events have been received can easily be created. Event daemons can be
created to periodically schedule certain events.

mohttp
------
Provides APIs that support the basics of HTTP/1.1. This includes the
ability to read and write HTTP headers and entity bodies with or without
chunked transfer-encoding, the ability to specify HTTP trailers, service
HTTP connections and handle HTTP requests (including keep-alive support),
and the ability to read and write cookies. Also included is a simple
HTTP client.

moio
----
Provides APIs for input and output. This includes the ability to read and
write from files and to create an arbitrary chain of input and output
streams. Also included is a stream mutation API for quickly writing or
reusing objects that alter data as it is read or written, with applicable
uses including encryption/decryption, compression/decompression, and
data encoding/decoding. APIs for dynamic bit streams and byte buffers
and a File object for performing simple file system operations like
creating and deleting files and directories and manipulating paths
is provided. Future work will include APIs for easily working with
highly-scalable, asynchronous, event-based IO.

mologging
---------
Provides APIs for logging arbitrary information to an arbitrary location,
with built-in support for writing to log files, including file rotation
support. The APIs include printf-style macros that allow for more compact
logging calls.

momail
------
Provides APIs for a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol client. Included is
a mail template parser for easily sending generic/bulk emails and  mail
spool for when mail fails to be sent.

monet
-----
Provides APIs for quickly and easily setting up cross-platform network
communication in an application. This includes a fast and small generic
server that uses abstract port services that perform duties as specified
by a developer. Built-in port services include a simple datagram service
for handling generic UDP traffic, and a simple connection service for
handling generic TCP traffic. The http library builds on top of this
library to provide HTTP connection and request services that can be
easily customized. Included is a simple Socket API and the ability to
specify data presentation layers along with port services. Built-in data
presentation layers include SSL (and TLS) support. The library abstracts
away socket data presentation layers such that multiple layers can be
supported on a single port service, allowing, for instance, SSL and
non-SSL traffic to be handled on a single port. Also included is the
ability to cache and reuse SSL sessions, parse and resolve internet
addresses (IPv4 and IPv6), bandwidth throttling and URL parsing.

mort
----
Provides APIs for cross-platform dynamic objects, threads, thread
pools, atomic instructions, exclusive and shared locks, semaphores,
hazard pointers, a lock-free hash table, getting and manipulating
system time, reference-counted smart pointers, runnable interfaces and
runnable delegates for wrapping functions or class members as runnables
for threads, and a generic job dispatcher for efficiently queuing and
handling work in a multithreaded environment.

momodest
--------
Provides APIs for a microkernel that provides an engine for scheduling,
monitoring, and performing generic jobs and an infrastructure for
extending that kernel with modules that can utilize that engine,
share access to running operations. Also available is a shared state
machine that can be used to help determine when to schedule and/or cancel
particular operations. Each operation that is scheduled with the engine
can provide an operation guard that can synchronously check the shared
state machine (or other arbitrary location) for a particular set of
circumstances before allowing the operation to be run. Operations may
also mutate the state of the machine in ways that can affect all other
operations in the system. Extending modules can provide their own unique
interfaces so that other modules can take advantage of the features
they provide. All operations that run on any given module are unified
via the microkernel's engine, giving a developer the ability to limit
the number of threads used and the ability to interrupt and terminate
all operations or a group of operations as necessary. Operations can be
waited on for completion or queried for completion or cancelation.

mofiber
-------
Provides APIs that build on top of the modest microkernel to provide
cooperative multitasking fibers. Each fiber can specify its maximum stack
size and will run developer supplied code. Each fiber can be yielded or
put to sleep as necessary to allow other fibers to run. Switching contexts
is done is user space. The fiber scheduler can run on multiple operations
(multiple threads) using modest's engine, allowing for maximum scalability
and utilization of multiple-core machines. Any fiber can be scheduled
to run on any thread. Writing code for a fiber is seamless because the
yield() or sleep() calls swap out the current fiber stack for another
one, returning to exactly where the fiber left once the yield or sleep is
complete. Messaging fibers can be created that can send messages to one
another to control more complex behavior. Future work will include the
ability to seamlessly incorporate asynchronous IO with fibers so that when
reads and writes need to occur a fiber will sleep until data is ready,
sparing the use of a waiting thread and allowing for greater scalability.

mosql
-----
Provides unified APIs for accessing databases. Database connections
and statements use abstracted interfaces that hide the underlying
database format and protocol from the developer for maximum reuse and
replacability. The ability to prepare and execute arbitrary SQL statements
is provided. A connection pool is also available to obtain better
performance for network-based databases such as mysql. Also included
is an abstract database client that provides an simpler programming
interface with functions like insert(), update(), and select().

mosqlite3
---------
Provides an sqlite3 implementation for the monarch sql library.

momysql
-------
Provides a mysql implementation for the monarch sql library.

mosphinx
--------
Provides a client for performing searches and working with a sphinx
server.

motest
------
Provides APIs for a unit test architecture.

moupnp
------
Provides APIs for working with UPnP devices to forward ports, etc.

moutil
------
Provides APIs for getting random numbers, averaging transfer rates, doing
base64 encoding and decoding, getting CRC-16s, creating timers, getting
and manipulating dates, and handling strings and regular expressions.

movalidation
------------
Provides APIs for validating data. Validators can ensure that data is of
a particular type, ie a string, integer, regular expression, or is a map
or array. Validators can also ensure that data contains particular values.
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