Errors And Error Responses

Andrew Hlavats edited this page Nov 30, 2015 · 5 revisions

Dealing with errors when building an API can be a pain. Instead of manually building error responses you can simply throw an exception that extends from Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\HttpException and the API will automatically handle the response for you.

Here is a list of built-in Symfony exceptions.

Exception Status Code
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\AccessDeniedHttpException 403
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\BadRequestHttpException 400
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\ConflictHttpException 409
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\GoneHttpException 410
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\HttpException 500
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\LengthRequiredHttpException 411
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\MethodNotAllowedHttpException 405
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\NotAcceptableHttpException 406
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\NotFoundHttpException 404
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\PreconditionFailedHttpException 412
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\PreconditionRequiredHttpException 428
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\ServiceUnavailableHttpException 503
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\TooManyRequestsHttpException 429
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\UnauthorizedHttpException 401
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\UnsupportedMediaTypeHttpException 415

As an example you might throw a ConflictHttpException when you attempt to update a record that has been updated by another user prior to this update request.

$api->version('v1', function ($api) {
    $api->put('user/{id}', function ($id) {
        $user = User::find($id);

        if ($user->updated_at > app('request')->get('last_updated')) {
            throw new Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\ConflictHttpException('User was updated prior to your request.');
        }

        // No error, we can continue to update the user as per usual.
    });
});

The package automatically catches the thrown exception and will convert it into its JSON representation. The responses HTTP status code is also changed to match that of the exception. A ConflictHttpException would result in an HTTP 409 status code and the following JSON representation assuming you haven't changed the default error format.

{
	"message": "User was updated prior to your request.",
	"status_code": 409
}

Resource Exceptions

The following is a list of generic resource exceptions. Each of these returns an HTTP 422 status code.

Dingo\Api\Exception\DeleteResourceFailedException
Dingo\Api\Exception\ResourceException
Dingo\Api\Exception\StoreResourceFailedException
Dingo\Api\Exception\UpdateResourceFailedException

These exceptions are special in that they allow you to pass along any validation errors that occurred when trying to create, update, or delete resources.

As an example you might throw a StoreResourceFailedException when you encounter errors when trying to validate the creation of a new user.

$api->version('v1', function ($api) {
    $api->post('users', function () {
        $rules = [
            'username' => ['required', 'alpha'],
            'password' => ['required', 'min:7']
        ];

        $payload = app('request')->only('username', 'password');

        $validator = app('validator')->make($payload, $rules);

        if ($validator->fails()) {
            throw new Dingo\Api\Exception\StoreResourceFailedException('Could not create new user.', $validator->errors());
        }

        // Create user as per usual.
    });
});

The package automatically catches the thrown exception and will convert it into its JSON representation. The responses HTTP status code is also changed to match that of the exception. Resources exceptions result in an HTTP 422 status code and the following JSON representation.

{
    "message": "Could not create new user.",
    "status_code": 422,
    "errors": {
        "username": [
            "The username field is required."
        ],
        "password": [
            "The password field is required."
        ]
    }
}

Custom HTTP Exceptions

You can create your own custom HTTP exceptions so long as they extend from Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\HttpException or implement Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\HttpExceptionInterface.

Custom Exception Responses

If you need to customize the response that exceptions return you can register a custom error handler.

app('Dingo\Api\Exception\Handler')->register(function (Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\UnauthorizedHttpException $exception) {
    return Response::make(['error' => 'Hey, what do you think you are doing!?'], 401);
});

Now if authentication fails we'll be presented with the following JSON representation.

{
    "error": "Hey, what do you think you are doing!?"
}

Form Requests

If you're using form requests then you will need to either extend the base API form request class or implement your own. The base API form request class will check to see if the incoming request is for the API, and, if it is, it will throw a Dingo\Api\Exception\ValidationHttpException if validation fails.

This exception will then be rendered correctly by the package and the error response returned.

If you'd like to implement your own form request you must overload the failedValidation and failedAuthorization methods. These methods must throw one of the above mentioned exceptions and not the response HTTP exceptions that Laravel throws.

← Responses | Transformers →

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