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'''Convert to and from Roman numerals
This program is part of 'Dive Into Python 3', a free Python book for
experienced programmers. Visit http://diveintopython3.org/ for the
latest version.
'''
import re
class OutOfRangeError(ValueError): pass
class NotIntegerError(ValueError): pass
class InvalidRomanNumeralError(ValueError): pass
roman_numeral_map = (('M', 1000),
('CM', 900),
('D', 500),
('CD', 400),
('C', 100),
('XC', 90),
('L', 50),
('XL', 40),
('X', 10),
('IX', 9),
('V', 5),
('IV', 4),
('I', 1))
roman_numeral_pattern = re.compile('''
^ # beginning of string
M{0,3} # thousands - 0 to 3 M's
(CM|CD|D?C{0,3}) # hundreds - 900 (CM), 400 (CD), 0-300 (0 to 3 C's),
# or 500-800 (D, followed by 0 to 3 C's)
(XC|XL|L?X{0,3}) # tens - 90 (XC), 40 (XL), 0-30 (0 to 3 X's),
# or 50-80 (L, followed by 0 to 3 X's)
(IX|IV|V?I{0,3}) # ones - 9 (IX), 4 (IV), 0-3 (0 to 3 I's),
# or 5-8 (V, followed by 0 to 3 I's)
$ # end of string
''', re.VERBOSE)
def to_roman(n):
'''convert integer to Roman numeral'''
if not (0 < n < 4000):
raise OutOfRangeError('number out of range (must be 1..3999)')
if not isinstance(n, int):
raise NotIntegerError('non-integers can not be converted')
result = ''
for numeral, integer in roman_numeral_map:
while n >= integer:
result += numeral
n -= integer
return result
def from_roman(s):
'''convert Roman numeral to integer'''
if not roman_numeral_pattern.search(s):
raise InvalidRomanNumeralError('Invalid Roman numeral: {0}'.format(s))
result = 0
index = 0
for numeral, integer in roman_numeral_map:
while s[index : index + len(numeral)] == numeral:
result += integer
index += len(numeral)
return result
# Copyright (c) 2009, Mark Pilgrim, All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
# are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
#
# * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
# this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
# * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
# this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
# and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS 'AS IS'
# AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
# ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
# LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
# CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
# SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
# INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
# CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
# ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
# POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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