CK workflow, portable packages and other artifacts for the ReQuEST-ASPLOS'18 submission:
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Failed to load latest commit information.

compatibility License

This repository contains experimental workflow and all related artifacts as portable, customizable and reusable Collective Knowledge components for image classification from the 1st ReQuEST tournament at ASPLOS'18 on reproducible SW/HW co-design of deep learning (speed, accuracy, energy, costs).


Artifact check-list

Details: Link

  • Algorithm: image classification with MobileNets
  • Program: MobileNets-v1 using Arm Compute Library v17.12+ and TensorFlow v1.7.0+
  • Compilation: GCC v6+ (recommended v7+); Python 2.7+ or 3.4+
  • Transformations:
  • Binary: compiled from source on a target platform
  • Data set: ImageNet 2012 validation (50,000 images)
  • Run-time environment: Linux; OpenCL v1.2+
  • Hardware: Linaro HiKey960, Firefly RK3399 development boards (or similar)
  • Run-time state: CPU and GPU frequencies set to the maximum
  • Execution:
  • Metrics: total execution time; top1/top5 accuracy over some (all) images from the data set
  • Output: classification result; execution time (throughput/latency) versus accuracy
  • Experiments: automated via CK command line
  • How much disk space required (approximately)? 4..20GB depending on library installations
  • How much time is needed to prepare workflow (approximately)? from 30 minutes to 1 day (if natively building TF)
  • How much time is needed to complete experiments (approximately)? from 30 minutes to 1 week (if validating accuracy on complete data set)
  • Publicly available?: Yes
  • Code license(s)?: BSD 3-clause
  • CK workflow framework used? Yes
  • CK workflow URL:
  • CK results URL:


Install global prerequisites (Ubuntu)

NB: Execute commands prefixed with # sign under root or using sudo.

# apt install libblas-dev liblapack-dev libatlas-base-dev
# apt install python python-pip python-numpy python-scipy
# pip install pillow

Minimal CK installation

The minimal installation requires:

  • Python 2.7 or 3.3+ (limitation is mainly due to unitests)
  • Git command line client.

You can install CK in your local user space as follows:

$ git clone
$ export PATH=$PWD/ck/bin:$PATH

You can also install CK via PIP with sudo to avoid setting up environment variables yourself:

$ sudo pip install ck

Install this CK repository

$ ck pull repo --url=

Install this CK workflow from the ACM Digital Library snapshot

It is possible to install and test the snapshot of this workflow from the ACM Digital Library without interfering with your current CK installation. Download related file "request-asplos18-artifact-?" to a temporary directory, unzip it and then execute the following commands:

$ . ./
$ . ./

All CK repositories will be installed in your current directory. You can now proceed with further evaluation as described below.

Install a sample dataset

$ ck install ck-caffe:package:imagenet-2012-val-min-resized
$ ck install ck-caffe:package:imagenet-2012-aux

Detect and test OpenCL driver

$ ck detect platform.gpgpu --opencl

If you are prompted to choose a platform description, select the one the name of which is the same or similar to your platform (e.g. hikey960-linux) or generic-linux.

You can later change it as follows:

$ ck ls platform.init | sort
$ ck detect platform.os --update_platform_init --platform_init_uoa=<one of the listed CK entries>

For example, for HiKey960 choose hikey960-linux, for RK3399 choose firefly-linux.

CK workflows will then use various platform-specific scripts such as for monitoring or setting up the CPU and GPU frequencies:

$ ls `ck find platform.init:hikey960-linux`

Exploring performance and accuracy of MobileNets using the Arm Compute Library (ArmCL)

Install ArmCL variants

Install dividiti's fork of ArmCL 18.03 with a new direct convolution kernel:

$ ck install package:lib-armcl-opencl-request

Optionally, install one or more of the official ArmCL releases:

$ ck install ck-math:package:lib-armcl-opencl-18.03 --env.USE_GRAPH=ON --env.USE_NEON=ON
$ ck install ck-math:package:lib-armcl-opencl-18.01 --env.USE_GRAPH=ON --env.USE_NEON=ON
$ ck install ck-math:package:lib-armcl-opencl-17.12 --env.USE_GRAPH=ON --env.USE_NEON=ON

NB: It is necessary to specify --env.USE_GRAPH=ON --env.USE_NEON=ON for the official release packages (from repo:ck-math), but not for package:lib-armcl-opencl-request.

To build this program for Android you need to embedd kernels and select target API as follows:

$ ck install ck-math:package:lib-armcl-opencl-18.05 --env.USE_GRAPH=ON --env.USE_NEON=ON --env.USE_EMBEDDED_KERNELS=ON --env.DEBUG=ON --target_os=android23-arm64

We have to embed kernels when building for Android as OpenCL kernel files are not copied to a remote device.

NB: Use --target_os=android23-arm64 to build for Android API 23 (v6.0 "Marshmallow") or similar.

TODO: For some reason only debug version of the library can be used with this program on Android. When we use release version, the program gets stuck at graph preparation stage.

To check all the installed ArmCL variants:

$ ck show env --tags=armcl
Env UID:         Target OS: Bits: Name:                         Version:         Tags:

fbf64d81a58d1c44   linux-64    64 ARM Compute Library (request) request-d8f69c13 64bits,arm,arm-compute-library,armcl,host-os-linux-64,lib,target-os-linux-64,v0,v0.0,vgraph,vneon,vopencl,vrequest
0241079df9c64221   linux-64    64 ARM Compute Library (opencl)  18.03-e40997bb   64bits,arm,arm-compute-library,armcl,channel-stable,host-os-linux-64,lib,target-os-linux-64,v18,v18.03,v18.3,v18.3.0,vdefault,vgraph,vneon,vopencl
8d8a8e65584dac8e   linux-64    64 ARM Compute Library (opencl)  18.01-f45d5a9b   64bits,arm,arm-compute-library,armcl,channel-stable,host-os-linux-64,lib,target-os-linux-64,v18,v18.01,v18.1,v18.1.0,vdefault,vgraph,vneon,vopencl
4cc4967546a67c59   linux-64    64 ARM Compute Library (opencl)  17.12-48bc34ea   64bits,arm,arm-compute-library,armcl,channel-stable,host-os-linux-64,lib,target-os-linux-64,v17,v17.12,v17.12.0,vdefault,vgraph,vneon,vopencl

Install MobileNets weights

To install all the MobileNets-v1 weights in one go:

$ ck install package --tags=mobilenet-v1-all,npy
$ cd $CK_TOOLS && du -hcs weights-mobilenet-v1_*
2.4M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.25_128-npy
2.4M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.25_160-npy
2.4M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.25_192-npy
2.4M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.25_224-npy
5.6M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.50_128-npy
5.6M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.50_160-npy
5.6M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.50_192-npy
5.6M    weights-mobilenet-v1_0.50_224-npy
11M     weights-mobilenet-v1_0.75_128-npy
11M     weights-mobilenet-v1_0.75_160-npy
11M     weights-mobilenet-v1_0.75_192-npy
11M     weights-mobilenet-v1_0.75_224-npy
17M     weights-mobilenet-v1_1.0_128-npy
17M     weights-mobilenet-v1_1.0_160-npy
17M     weights-mobilenet-v1_1.0_192-npy
17M     weights-mobilenet-v1_1.0_224-npy
140M    total

Alternatively, install the weights individually as below.

To install the weights for images with resolution 224x224:

$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.75-224-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.50-224-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.25-224-npy

To install the weights for images with resolution 192x192:

$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-1.0-192-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.75-192-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.50-192-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.25-192-npy

To install the weights for images with resolution 160x160:

$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-1.0-160-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.75-160-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.50-160-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.25-160-npy

To install the weights for images with resolution 128x128:

$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-1.0-128-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.75-128-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.50-128-npy
$ ck install package:weights-mobilenet-v1-0.25-128-npy

To check all the installed weights:

$ ck show env --tags=mobilenet,weights,npy

Build and make a sample run

$ ck compile ck-request-asplos18-mobilenets-armcl-opencl:program:mobilenets-armcl-opencl
$ ck run ck-request-asplos18-mobilenets-armcl-opencl:program:mobilenets-armcl-opencl
Process results in predictions
ILSVRC2012_val_00000001.JPEG - (65) n01751748 sea snake
0.73 - (65) n01751748 sea snake
0.07 - (67) n01755581 diamondback, diamondback rattlesnake, Cr...
0.06 - (53) n01728920 ringneck snake, ring-necked snake, ring ...
0.04 - (60) n01740131 night snake, Hypsiglena torquata
0.03 - (54) n01729322 hognose snake, puff adder, sand viper
Accuracy top 1: 1.000000 (1 of 1)
Accuracy top 5: 1.000000 (1 of 1)

  (reading fine grain timers from tmp-ck-timer.json ...)

  "accuracy_top1": 1.0, 
  "accuracy_top5": 1.0, 
  "execution_time": 0.293805, 
  "execution_time_sum": 1.9365359999999998, 
  "frame_predictions": [
      "accuracy_top1": "yes", 
      "accuracy_top5": "yes", 
      "class_correct": 65, 
      "class_topmost": 65, 
      "file_name": "ILSVRC2012_val_00000001.JPEG"
  "images_load_time_avg_s": 0.017385, 
  "images_load_time_s": 0.017385, 
  "prediction_time_avg_s": 0.293805, 
  "prediction_time_total_s": 0.293805, 
  "setup_time_s": 1.625346, 
  "test_time_s ": 0.321721

Evaluate performance

$ cd `ck find script:mobilenets-armcl-opencl`
$ python [--repetitions=10]

Evaluate accuracy

$ cd `ck find script:mobilenets-armcl-opencl`
$ python --accuracy

Check experimental results

$ ck list local:experiment:*


$ ck search experiment --tags=request-asplos18


$ ck search experiment --tags=request-asplos18,performance

If something goes wrong, we suggest you remove experimental results before starting new exploration as follows:

$ ck rm experiment:* --tags=request-asplos18 [--force]

You can also create a compressed file with experimental results as follows (by default,

$ ck zip local:experiment:* [--archive_name=<archive name>.zip]

You can then copy the resulting file to another machine, and extract it into a CK repository as follows:

$ ck unzip repo:<repo name> --zip=<archive name>.zip

Shared experimental results

We have shared raw experimental results in the CK format in this CK repo.

You can view and test them as follows:

$ ck pull repo:ck-request-asplos18-results-mobilenets-armcl-opencl
$ ck ls ck-request-asplos18-results-mobilenets-armcl-opencl:experiment:* | sort
$ ck dashboard request.apslos18

Unify output and add extra dimensions

Scripts to unify all experiments and add extra dimensions in the ReQuEST format for further comparison and visualization are available here:

$ ck find ck-request-asplos18-mobilenets-armcl-opencl:script:mobilenets-armcl-opencl
  • merges separately obtained performance and accuracy data together;
  • adds extra dimensions (e.g. cost, peak power consumption).

All updated experimental results are then moved to ck-request-asplos18-results-mobilenets-armcl-opencl repository. The best configurations are also moved to ck-request-asplos18-results repo.

Exploring performance and accuracy of MobileNets using TensorFlow

Install TensorFlow dependencies

# apt install liblapack-dev libatlas-dev
# pip install enum34 mock pillow wheel absl-py scipy

Install CK-TensorFlow

$ ck pull repo:ck-tensorflow
$ ck install ck-env:package:tool-bazel-0.11.1-linux
$ ck install package:lib-tensorflow-1.7.0-src-cpu [--env.CK_HOST_CPU_NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS=1]

NB: You may want to restrict the number of build threads to 1 or 2 on a platform with less than 4 GB RAM. For example, add --env.CK_HOST_CPU_NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS=2 on HiKey960 (3 GB RAM with swap enabled) or --env.CK_HOST_CPU_NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS=1 on Tegra TX1 (4 GB RAM without swap enabled).

Install MobileNets weights

To install all the pretrained MobileNets-v1 weights shared in 2017 (which were used for this evaluation):

$ ck install package --tags=mobilenet-v1-all,tensorflowmodel,2017_06_14
$ cd $CK_TOOLS && du -hsc tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-*-py
12M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-128-py
12M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-160-py
12M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-192-py
12M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-224-py
25M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-128-py
25M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-160-py
25M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-192-py
25M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-224-py
44M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-128-py
44M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-160-py
44M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-192-py
44M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-224-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-128-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-160-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-192-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-py
595M    total

To install the pretrained MobileNets-v1 weights shared in 2018:

$ ck install package --tags=mobilenet-v1-all,tensorflowmodel,2018_02_22
$ cd $CK_TOOLS && du -hsc tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-*-2018_02_22-py
11M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-128-2018_02_22-py
11M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-160-2018_02_22-py
11M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-192-2018_02_22-py
11M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.25-224-2018_02_22-py
35M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-128-2018_02_22-py
35M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-160-2018_02_22-py
35M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-192-2018_02_22-py
35M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.50-224-2018_02_22-py
43M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-128-2018_02_22-py
43M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-160-2018_02_22-py
43M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-192-2018_02_22-py
43M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-0.75-224-2018_02_22-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-128-2018_02_22-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-160-2018_02_22-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-192-2018_02_22-py
69M     tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-2018_02_22-py
624M    total

Make a sample run

$ ck run ck-tensorflow:program:image-classification-tf-py
Model module: /home/anton/CK_TOOLS/tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-py/
Model weights: /home/anton/CK_TOOLS/tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-py/mobilenet_v1_1.0_224.ckpt
Input images dir: /home/anton/ilsvrc2012_val
Batch size: 1
Batch count: 1
Net created in 2.963983s
Restore checkpoints from /home/anton/CK_TOOLS/tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-py/mobilenet_v1_1.0_224.ckpt
Weights loaded in 2.038522s

Batch 0
Batch loaded in 0.293845s
Batch classified in 0.506592s
ILSVRC2012_val_00000001.JPEG - (65) n01751748 sea snake
0.73 - (65) n01751748 sea snake
0.07 - (67) n01755581 diamondback, diamondback rattlesnake, Cr...
0.06 - (53) n01728920 ringneck snake, ring-necked snake, ring ...
0.04 - (60) n01740131 night snake, Hypsiglena torquata
0.03 - (54) n01729322 hognose snake, puff adder, sand viper

Average classification time: 0.506592s
Accuracy top 1: 1.000000 (1 of 1)
Accuracy top 5: 1.000000 (1 of 1)

All batches time: 5.811523s
Execution time: 10.881770s

  (post processing from script  /  ... )"

  (reading fine grain timers from tmp-ck-timer.json ...)

  "CK_IMAGENET_SYNSET_WORDS_TXT": "/home/anton/CK_TOOLS/dataset-imagenet-ilsvrc2012-aux/synset_words.txt",
  "CK_IMAGENET_VAL_TXT": "/home/anton/CK_TOOLS/dataset-imagenet-ilsvrc2012-aux/val.txt",
  "CK_MODEL_MODULE": "/home/anton/CK_TOOLS/tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-py/",
  "CK_MODEL_WEIGHTS": "/home/anton/CK_TOOLS/tensorflowmodel-mobilenet-v1-1.0-224-py/mobilenet_v1_1.0_224.ckpt",
  "accuracy_top1": 1.0,
  "accuracy_top5": 1.0,
  "avg_fps": 1.9739749745976212,
  "avg_time_ms": 506.5920352935791,
  "batch_size": 1,
  "batch_time_ms": 506.5920352935791,
  "execution_time": 10.881769895553589,
  "frame_predictions": [
      "accuracy_top1": "yes",
      "accuracy_top5": "yes",
      "class_correct": 65,
      "class_topmost": 65,
      "file_name": "ILSVRC2012_val_00000001.JPEG"
  "images_load_time_s": 0.29384493827819824,
  "net_create_time_s": 2.9639828205108643,
  "prediction_time_avg_s": 0.5065920352935791,
  "prediction_time_total_s": 0.5065920352935791,
  "total_time_ms": 5811.522960662842,
  "weights_load_time_s": 2.0385220050811768

Execution time: 10.882 sec.

Evaluate performance

$ cd `ck find script:mobilenets-tensorflow`
$ python [--repetitions=10]

Evaluate accuracy

$ cd `ck find script:mobilenets-tensorflow`
$ python --accuracy

See accepted results on the live scoreboard


Further discussions