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This module contains helper functions for controlling caching. It does so by
managing the "Vary" header of responses. It includes functions to patch the
header of response objects directly and decorators that change functions to do
that header-patching themselves.
For information on the Vary header, see:
Essentially, the "Vary" HTTP header defines which headers a cache should take
into account when building its cache key. Requests with the same path but
different header content for headers named in "Vary" need to get different
cache keys to prevent delivery of wrong content.
An example: i18n middleware would need to distinguish caches by the
"Accept-language" header.
import re
import time
from django.conf import settings
from django.core.cache import get_cache
from django.utils.encoding import smart_str, iri_to_uri
from django.utils.http import http_date
from django.utils.hashcompat import md5_constructor
from django.utils.translation import get_language
from django.http import HttpRequest
cc_delim_re = re.compile(r'\s*,\s*')
def patch_cache_control(response, **kwargs):
This function patches the Cache-Control header by adding all
keyword arguments to it. The transformation is as follows:
* All keyword parameter names are turned to lowercase, and underscores
are converted to hyphens.
* If the value of a parameter is True (exactly True, not just a
true value), only the parameter name is added to the header.
* All other parameters are added with their value, after applying
str() to it.
def dictitem(s):
t = s.split('=', 1)
if len(t) > 1:
return (t[0].lower(), t[1])
return (t[0].lower(), True)
def dictvalue(t):
if t[1] is True:
return t[0]
return t[0] + '=' + smart_str(t[1])
if response.has_header('Cache-Control'):
cc = cc_delim_re.split(response['Cache-Control'])
cc = dict([dictitem(el) for el in cc])
cc = {}
# If there's already a max-age header but we're being asked to set a new
# max-age, use the minimum of the two ages. In practice this happens when
# a decorator and a piece of middleware both operate on a given view.
if 'max-age' in cc and 'max_age' in kwargs:
kwargs['max_age'] = min(cc['max-age'], kwargs['max_age'])
for (k, v) in kwargs.items():
cc[k.replace('_', '-')] = v
cc = ', '.join([dictvalue(el) for el in cc.items()])
response['Cache-Control'] = cc
def get_max_age(response):
Returns the max-age from the response Cache-Control header as an integer
(or ``None`` if it wasn't found or wasn't an integer.
if not response.has_header('Cache-Control'):
cc = dict([_to_tuple(el) for el in
if 'max-age' in cc:
return int(cc['max-age'])
except (ValueError, TypeError):
def patch_response_headers(response, cache_timeout=None):
Adds some useful headers to the given HttpResponse object:
ETag, Last-Modified, Expires and Cache-Control
Each header is only added if it isn't already set.
cache_timeout is in seconds. The CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS setting is used
by default.
if cache_timeout is None:
cache_timeout = settings.CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS
if cache_timeout < 0:
cache_timeout = 0 # Can't have max-age negative
if settings.USE_ETAGS and not response.has_header('ETag'):
response['ETag'] = '"%s"' % md5_constructor(response.content).hexdigest()
if not response.has_header('Last-Modified'):
response['Last-Modified'] = http_date()
if not response.has_header('Expires'):
response['Expires'] = http_date(time.time() + cache_timeout)
patch_cache_control(response, max_age=cache_timeout)
def add_never_cache_headers(response):
Adds headers to a response to indicate that a page should never be cached.
patch_response_headers(response, cache_timeout=-1)
def patch_vary_headers(response, newheaders):
Adds (or updates) the "Vary" header in the given HttpResponse object.
newheaders is a list of header names that should be in "Vary". Existing
headers in "Vary" aren't removed.
# Note that we need to keep the original order intact, because cache
# implementations may rely on the order of the Vary contents in, say,
# computing an MD5 hash.
if response.has_header('Vary'):
vary_headers = cc_delim_re.split(response['Vary'])
vary_headers = []
# Use .lower() here so we treat headers as case-insensitive.
existing_headers = set([header.lower() for header in vary_headers])
additional_headers = [newheader for newheader in newheaders
if newheader.lower() not in existing_headers]
response['Vary'] = ', '.join(vary_headers + additional_headers)
def has_vary_header(response, header_query):
Checks to see if the response has a given header name in its Vary header.
if not response.has_header('Vary'):
return False
vary_headers = cc_delim_re.split(response['Vary'])
existing_headers = set([header.lower() for header in vary_headers])
return header_query.lower() in existing_headers
def _i18n_cache_key_suffix(request, cache_key):
"""If enabled, returns the cache key ending with a locale."""
if settings.USE_I18N:
# first check if LocaleMiddleware or another middleware added
# LANGUAGE_CODE to request, then fall back to the active language
# which in turn can also fall back to settings.LANGUAGE_CODE
cache_key += '.%s' % getattr(request, 'LANGUAGE_CODE', get_language())
return cache_key
def _generate_cache_key(request, method, headerlist, key_prefix):
"""Returns a cache key from the headers given in the header list."""
ctx = md5_constructor()
for header in headerlist:
value = request.META.get(header, None)
if value is not None:
path = md5_constructor(iri_to_uri(request.get_full_path()))
cache_key = 'views.decorators.cache.cache_page.%s.%s.%s.%s' % (
key_prefix, request.method, path.hexdigest(), ctx.hexdigest())
return _i18n_cache_key_suffix(request, cache_key)
def _generate_cache_header_key(key_prefix, request):
"""Returns a cache key for the header cache."""
path = md5_constructor(iri_to_uri(request.get_full_path()))
cache_key = 'views.decorators.cache.cache_header.%s.%s' % (
key_prefix, path.hexdigest())
return _i18n_cache_key_suffix(request, cache_key)
def get_cache_key(request, key_prefix=None, method='GET', cache=None):
Returns a cache key based on the request path and query. It can be used
in the request phase because it pulls the list of headers to take into
account from the global path registry and uses those to build a cache key
to check against.
If there is no headerlist stored, the page needs to be rebuilt, so this
function returns None.
if key_prefix is None:
key_prefix = settings.CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX
cache_key = _generate_cache_header_key(key_prefix, request)
if cache is None:
cache = get_cache(settings.CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_ALIAS)
headerlist = cache.get(cache_key, None)
if headerlist is not None:
return _generate_cache_key(request, method, headerlist, key_prefix)
return None
def learn_cache_key(request, response, cache_timeout=None, key_prefix=None, cache=None):
Learns what headers to take into account for some request path from the
response object. It stores those headers in a global path registry so that
later access to that path will know what headers to take into account
without building the response object itself. The headers are named in the
Vary header of the response, but we want to prevent response generation.
The list of headers to use for cache key generation is stored in the same
cache as the pages themselves. If the cache ages some data out of the
cache, this just means that we have to build the response once to get at
the Vary header and so at the list of headers to use for the cache key.
if key_prefix is None:
key_prefix = settings.CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX
if cache_timeout is None:
cache_timeout = settings.CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS
cache_key = _generate_cache_header_key(key_prefix, request)
if cache is None:
cache = get_cache(settings.CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_ALIAS)
if response.has_header('Vary'):
headerlist = ['HTTP_'+header.upper().replace('-', '_')
for header in cc_delim_re.split(response['Vary'])]
cache.set(cache_key, headerlist, cache_timeout)
return _generate_cache_key(request, request.method, headerlist, key_prefix)
# if there is no Vary header, we still need a cache key
# for the request.get_full_path()
cache.set(cache_key, [], cache_timeout)
return _generate_cache_key(request, request.method, [], key_prefix)
def _to_tuple(s):
t = s.split('=',1)
if len(t) == 2:
return t[0].lower(), t[1]
return t[0].lower(), True
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