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Coding style
Please follow these coding standards when writing code for inclusion in Django.
.. _coding-style-pre-commit:
Pre-commit checks
`pre-commit <>`_ is a framework for managing pre-commit
hooks. These hooks help to identify simple issues before committing code for
review. By checking for these issues before code review it allows the reviewer
to focus on the change itself, and it can also help to reduce the number of CI
To use the tool, first install ``pre-commit`` and then the git hooks:
.. console::
$ python -m pip install pre-commit
$ pre-commit install
On the first commit ``pre-commit`` will install the hooks, these are
installed in their own environments and will take a short while to
install on the first run. Subsequent checks will be significantly faster.
If an error is found an appropriate error message will be displayed.
If the error was with ``black`` or ``isort`` then the tool will go ahead and
fix them for you. Review the changes and re-stage for commit if you are happy
with them.
.. _coding-style-python:
Python style
* All files should be formatted using the `black`_ auto-formatter. This will be
run by ``pre-commit`` if that is configured.
* The project repository includes an ``.editorconfig`` file. We recommend using
a text editor with `EditorConfig`_ support to avoid indentation and
whitespace issues. The Python files use 4 spaces for indentation and the HTML
files use 2 spaces.
* Unless otherwise specified, follow :pep:`8`.
Use `flake8`_ to check for problems in this area. Note that our ``setup.cfg``
file contains some excluded files (deprecated modules we don't care about
cleaning up and some third-party code that Django vendors) as well as some
excluded errors that we don't consider as gross violations. Remember that
:pep:`8` is only a guide, so respect the style of the surrounding code as a
primary goal.
An exception to :pep:`8` is our rules on line lengths. Don't limit lines of
code to 79 characters if it means the code looks significantly uglier or is
harder to read. We allow up to 88 characters as this is the line length used
by ``black``. This check is included when you run ``flake8``. Documentation,
comments, and docstrings should be wrapped at 79 characters, even though
:pep:`8` suggests 72.
* String variable interpolation may use
:py:ref:`%-formatting <old-string-formatting>`, :py:ref:`f-strings
<f-strings>`, or :py:meth:`str.format` as appropriate, with the goal of
maximizing code readability.
Final judgments of readability are left to the Merger's discretion. As a
guide, f-strings should use only plain variable and property access, with
prior local variable assignment for more complex cases::
# Allowed
f'hello {user}'
f'hello {}'
f'hello {}'
# Disallowed
f'hello {get_user()}'
f'you are {user.age * 365.25} days old'
# Allowed with local variable assignment
user = get_user()
f'hello {user}'
user_days_old = user.age * 365.25
f'you are {user_days_old} days old'
f-strings should not be used for any string that may require translation,
including error and logging messages. In general ``format()`` is more
verbose, so the other formatting methods are preferred.
Don't waste time doing unrelated refactoring of existing code to adjust the
formatting method.
* Avoid use of "we" in comments, e.g. "Loop over" rather than "We loop over".
* Use underscores, not camelCase, for variable, function and method names
(i.e. ``poll.get_unique_voters()``, not ``poll.getUniqueVoters()``).
* Use ``InitialCaps`` for class names (or for factory functions that
return classes).
* In docstrings, follow the style of existing docstrings and :pep:`257`.
* In tests, use
:meth:`~django.test.SimpleTestCase.assertRaisesMessage` and
instead of :meth:`~unittest.TestCase.assertRaises` and
:meth:`~unittest.TestCase.assertWarns` so you can check the
exception or warning message. Use :meth:`~unittest.TestCase.assertRaisesRegex`
and :meth:`~unittest.TestCase.assertWarnsRegex` only if you need regular
expression matching.
Use :meth:`assertIs(…, True/False)<unittest.TestCase.assertIs>` for testing
boolean values, rather than :meth:`~unittest.TestCase.assertTrue` and
:meth:`~unittest.TestCase.assertFalse`, so you can check the actual boolean
value, not the truthiness of the expression.
* In test docstrings, state the expected behavior that each test demonstrates.
Don't include preambles such as "Tests that" or "Ensures that".
Reserve ticket references for obscure issues where the ticket has additional
details that can't be easily described in docstrings or comments. Include the
ticket number at the end of a sentence like this::
def test_foo():
A test docstring looks like this (#123456).
.. _coding-style-imports:
* Use `isort <>`_ to automate import
sorting using the guidelines below.
Quick start:
.. console::
$ python -m pip install "isort >= 5.1.0"
$ isort .
This runs ``isort`` recursively from your current directory, modifying any
files that don't conform to the guidelines. If you need to have imports out
of order (to avoid a circular import, for example) use a comment like this::
import module # isort:skip
* Put imports in these groups: future, standard library, third-party libraries,
other Django components, local Django component, try/excepts. Sort lines in
each group alphabetically by the full module name. Place all ``import module``
statements before ``from module import objects`` in each section. Use absolute
imports for other Django components and relative imports for local components.
* On each line, alphabetize the items with the upper case items grouped before
the lowercase items.
* Break long lines using parentheses and indent continuation lines by 4 spaces.
Include a trailing comma after the last import and put the closing
parenthesis on its own line.
Use a single blank line between the last import and any module level code,
and use two blank lines above the first function or class.
For example (comments are for explanatory purposes only):
.. code-block:: python
:caption: ``django/contrib/admin/``
# future
from __future__ import unicode_literals
# standard library
import json
from itertools import chain
# third-party
import bcrypt
# Django
from django.http import Http404
from django.http.response import (
Http404, HttpResponse, HttpResponseNotAllowed, StreamingHttpResponse,
# local Django
from .models import LogEntry
# try/except
import yaml
except ImportError:
yaml = None
CONSTANT = 'foo'
class Example:
# ...
* Use convenience imports whenever available. For example, do this::
from django.views import View
instead of::
from django.views.generic.base import View
Template style
* In Django template code, put one (and only one) space between the curly
brackets and the tag contents.
Do this:
.. code-block:: html+django
{{ foo }}
Don't do this:
.. code-block:: html+django
View style
* In Django views, the first parameter in a view function should be called
Do this::
def my_view(request, foo):
# ...
Don't do this::
def my_view(req, foo):
# ...
Model style
* Field names should be all lowercase, using underscores instead of
Do this::
class Person(models.Model):
first_name = models.CharField(max_length=20)
last_name = models.CharField(max_length=40)
Don't do this::
class Person(models.Model):
FirstName = models.CharField(max_length=20)
Last_Name = models.CharField(max_length=40)
* The ``class Meta`` should appear *after* the fields are defined, with
a single blank line separating the fields and the class definition.
Do this::
class Person(models.Model):
first_name = models.CharField(max_length=20)
last_name = models.CharField(max_length=40)
class Meta:
verbose_name_plural = 'people'
Don't do this::
class Person(models.Model):
first_name = models.CharField(max_length=20)
last_name = models.CharField(max_length=40)
class Meta:
verbose_name_plural = 'people'
Don't do this, either::
class Person(models.Model):
class Meta:
verbose_name_plural = 'people'
first_name = models.CharField(max_length=20)
last_name = models.CharField(max_length=40)
* The order of model inner classes and standard methods should be as
follows (noting that these are not all required):
* All database fields
* Custom manager attributes
* ``class Meta``
* ``def __str__()``
* ``def save()``
* ``def get_absolute_url()``
* Any custom methods
* If ``choices`` is defined for a given model field, define each choice as a
list of tuples, with an all-uppercase name as a class attribute on the model.
class MyModel(models.Model):
Use of ``django.conf.settings``
Modules should not in general use settings stored in ``django.conf.settings``
at the top level (i.e. evaluated when the module is imported). The explanation
for this is as follows:
Manual configuration of settings (i.e. not relying on the
:envvar:`DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE` environment variable) is allowed and possible
as follows::
from django.conf import settings
settings.configure({}, SOME_SETTING='foo')
However, if any setting is accessed before the ``settings.configure`` line,
this will not work. (Internally, ``settings`` is a ``LazyObject`` which
configures itself automatically when the settings are accessed if it has not
already been configured).
So, if there is a module containing some code as follows::
from django.conf import settings
from django.urls import get_callable
default_foo_view = get_callable(settings.FOO_VIEW)
...then importing this module will cause the settings object to be configured.
That means that the ability for third parties to import the module at the top
level is incompatible with the ability to configure the settings object
manually, or makes it very difficult in some circumstances.
Instead of the above code, a level of laziness or indirection must be used,
such as ``django.utils.functional.LazyObject``,
``django.utils.functional.lazy()`` or ``lambda``.
* Mark all strings for internationalization; see the :doc:`i18n
documentation </topics/i18n/index>` for details.
* Remove ``import`` statements that are no longer used when you change code.
`flake8`_ will identify these imports for you. If an unused import needs to
remain for backwards-compatibility, mark the end of with ``# NOQA`` to
silence the flake8 warning.
* Systematically remove all trailing whitespaces from your code as those
add unnecessary bytes, add visual clutter to the patches and can also
occasionally cause unnecessary merge conflicts. Some IDE's can be
configured to automatically remove them and most VCS tools can be set to
highlight them in diff outputs.
* Please don't put your name in the code you contribute. Our policy is to
keep contributors' names in the ``AUTHORS`` file distributed with Django
-- not scattered throughout the codebase itself. Feel free to include a
change to the ``AUTHORS`` file in your patch if you make more than a
single trivial change.
JavaScript style
For details about the JavaScript code style used by Django, see
.. _black:
.. _editorconfig:
.. _flake8: