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Settings and configuration for Django.
Values will be read from the module specified by the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment
variable, and then from django.conf.global_settings; see the global settings file for
a list of all possible variables.
import importlib
import os
import time
from django.conf import global_settings
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.utils.functional import LazyObject, empty
class LazySettings(LazyObject):
A lazy proxy for either global Django settings or a custom settings object.
The user can manually configure settings prior to using them. Otherwise,
Django uses the settings module pointed to by DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE.
def _setup(self, name=None):
Load the settings module pointed to by the environment variable. This
is used the first time we need any settings at all, if the user has not
previously configured the settings manually.
settings_module = os.environ.get(ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE)
if not settings_module:
desc = ("setting %s" % name) if name else "settings"
raise ImproperlyConfigured(
"Requested %s, but settings are not configured. "
"You must either define the environment variable %s "
"or call settings.configure() before accessing settings."
self._wrapped = Settings(settings_module)
def __repr__(self):
# Hardcode the class name as otherwise it yields 'Settings'.
if self._wrapped is empty:
return '<LazySettings [Unevaluated]>'
return '<LazySettings "%(settings_module)s">' % {
'settings_module': self._wrapped.SETTINGS_MODULE,
def __getattr__(self, name):
if self._wrapped is empty:
return getattr(self._wrapped, name)
def configure(self, default_settings=global_settings, **options):
Called to manually configure the settings. The 'default_settings'
parameter sets where to retrieve any unspecified values from (its
argument must support attribute access (__getattr__)).
if self._wrapped is not empty:
raise RuntimeError('Settings already configured.')
holder = UserSettingsHolder(default_settings)
for name, value in options.items():
setattr(holder, name, value)
self._wrapped = holder
def configured(self):
Returns True if the settings have already been configured.
return self._wrapped is not empty
class BaseSettings(object):
Common logic for settings whether set by a module or by the user.
def __setattr__(self, name, value):
if name in ("MEDIA_URL", "STATIC_URL") and value and not value.endswith('/'):
raise ImproperlyConfigured("If set, %s must end with a slash" % name)
object.__setattr__(self, name, value)
class Settings(BaseSettings):
def __init__(self, settings_module):
# update this dict from global settings (but only for ALL_CAPS settings)
for setting in dir(global_settings):
if setting.isupper():
setattr(self, setting, getattr(global_settings, setting))
# store the settings module in case someone later cares
self.SETTINGS_MODULE = settings_module
mod = importlib.import_module(self.SETTINGS_MODULE)
tuple_settings = (
self._explicit_settings = set()
for setting in dir(mod):
if setting.isupper():
setting_value = getattr(mod, setting)
if (setting in tuple_settings and
not isinstance(setting_value, (list, tuple))):
raise ImproperlyConfigured("The %s setting must be a list or a tuple. " % setting)
setattr(self, setting, setting_value)
if not self.SECRET_KEY:
raise ImproperlyConfigured("The SECRET_KEY setting must not be empty.")
if hasattr(time, 'tzset') and self.TIME_ZONE:
# When we can, attempt to validate the timezone. If we can't find
# this file, no check happens and it's harmless.
zoneinfo_root = '/usr/share/zoneinfo'
if (os.path.exists(zoneinfo_root) and not
os.path.exists(os.path.join(zoneinfo_root, *(self.TIME_ZONE.split('/'))))):
raise ValueError("Incorrect timezone setting: %s" % self.TIME_ZONE)
# Move the time zone info into os.environ. See ticket #2315 for why
# we don't do this unconditionally (breaks Windows).
os.environ['TZ'] = self.TIME_ZONE
def is_overridden(self, setting):
return setting in self._explicit_settings
def __repr__(self):
return '<%(cls)s "%(settings_module)s">' % {
'cls': self.__class__.__name__,
'settings_module': self.SETTINGS_MODULE,
class UserSettingsHolder(BaseSettings):
Holder for user configured settings.
# SETTINGS_MODULE doesn't make much sense in the manually configured
# (standalone) case.
def __init__(self, default_settings):
Requests for configuration variables not in this class are satisfied
from the module specified in default_settings (if possible).
self.__dict__['_deleted'] = set()
self.default_settings = default_settings
def __getattr__(self, name):
if name in self._deleted:
raise AttributeError
return getattr(self.default_settings, name)
def __setattr__(self, name, value):
super(UserSettingsHolder, self).__setattr__(name, value)
def __delattr__(self, name):
if hasattr(self, name):
super(UserSettingsHolder, self).__delattr__(name)
def __dir__(self):
return sorted(
s for s in list(self.__dict__) + dir(self.default_settings)
if s not in self._deleted
def is_overridden(self, setting):
deleted = (setting in self._deleted)
set_locally = (setting in self.__dict__)
set_on_default = getattr(self.default_settings, 'is_overridden', lambda s: False)(setting)
return (deleted or set_locally or set_on_default)
def __repr__(self):
return '<%(cls)s>' % {
'cls': self.__class__.__name__,
settings = LazySettings()