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import errno
import os
import warnings
from datetime import datetime
from inspect import getargspec
from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import SuspiciousFileOperation
from django.core.files import File, locks
from django.core.files.move import file_move_safe
from django.utils._os import abspathu, safe_join
from django.utils.crypto import get_random_string
from django.utils.deconstruct import deconstructible
from django.utils.deprecation import RemovedInDjango20Warning
from django.utils.encoding import filepath_to_uri, force_text
from django.utils.functional import LazyObject
from django.utils.module_loading import import_string
from django.utils.six.moves.urllib.parse import urljoin
from django.utils.text import get_valid_filename
__all__ = ('Storage', 'FileSystemStorage', 'DefaultStorage', 'default_storage')
class Storage(object):
"""
A base storage class, providing some default behaviors that all other
storage systems can inherit or override, as necessary.
"""
# The following methods represent a public interface to private methods.
# These shouldn't be overridden by subclasses unless absolutely necessary.
def open(self, name, mode='rb'):
"""
Retrieves the specified file from storage.
"""
return self._open(name, mode)
def save(self, name, content, max_length=None):
"""
Saves new content to the file specified by name. The content should be
a proper File object or any python file-like object, ready to be read
from the beginning.
"""
# Get the proper name for the file, as it will actually be saved.
if name is None:
name = content.name
if not hasattr(content, 'chunks'):
content = File(content)
args, varargs, varkw, defaults = getargspec(self.get_available_name)
if 'max_length' in args:
name = self.get_available_name(name, max_length=max_length)
else:
warnings.warn(
'Backwards compatibility for storage backends without '
'support for the `max_length` argument in '
'Storage.get_available_name() will be removed in Django 2.0.',
RemovedInDjango20Warning, stacklevel=2
)
name = self.get_available_name(name)
name = self._save(name, content)
# Store filenames with forward slashes, even on Windows
return force_text(name.replace('\\', '/'))
# These methods are part of the public API, with default implementations.
def get_valid_name(self, name):
"""
Returns a filename, based on the provided filename, that's suitable for
use in the target storage system.
"""
return get_valid_filename(name)
def get_available_name(self, name, max_length=None):
"""
Returns a filename that's free on the target storage system, and
available for new content to be written to.
"""
dir_name, file_name = os.path.split(name)
file_root, file_ext = os.path.splitext(file_name)
# If the filename already exists, add an underscore and a random 7
# character alphanumeric string (before the file extension, if one
# exists) to the filename until the generated filename doesn't exist.
# Truncate original name if required, so the new filename does not
# exceed the max_length.
while self.exists(name) or (max_length and len(name) > max_length):
# file_ext includes the dot.
name = os.path.join(dir_name, "%s_%s%s" % (file_root, get_random_string(7), file_ext))
if max_length is None:
continue
# Truncate file_root if max_length exceeded.
truncation = len(name) - max_length
if truncation > 0:
file_root = file_root[:-truncation]
# Entire file_root was truncated in attempt to find an available filename.
if not file_root:
raise SuspiciousFileOperation(
'Storage can not find an available filename for "%s". '
'Please make sure that the corresponding file field '
'allows sufficient "max_length".' % name
)
name = os.path.join(dir_name, "%s_%s%s" % (file_root, get_random_string(7), file_ext))
return name
def path(self, name):
"""
Returns a local filesystem path where the file can be retrieved using
Python's built-in open() function. Storage systems that can't be
accessed using open() should *not* implement this method.
"""
raise NotImplementedError("This backend doesn't support absolute paths.")
# The following methods form the public API for storage systems, but with
# no default implementations. Subclasses must implement *all* of these.
def delete(self, name):
"""
Deletes the specified file from the storage system.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a delete() method')
def exists(self, name):
"""
Returns True if a file referenced by the given name already exists in the
storage system, or False if the name is available for a new file.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide an exists() method')
def listdir(self, path):
"""
Lists the contents of the specified path, returning a 2-tuple of lists;
the first item being directories, the second item being files.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a listdir() method')
def size(self, name):
"""
Returns the total size, in bytes, of the file specified by name.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a size() method')
def url(self, name):
"""
Returns an absolute URL where the file's contents can be accessed
directly by a Web browser.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a url() method')
def accessed_time(self, name):
"""
Returns the last accessed time (as datetime object) of the file
specified by name.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide an accessed_time() method')
def created_time(self, name):
"""
Returns the creation time (as datetime object) of the file
specified by name.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a created_time() method')
def modified_time(self, name):
"""
Returns the last modified time (as datetime object) of the file
specified by name.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a modified_time() method')
@deconstructible
class FileSystemStorage(Storage):
"""
Standard filesystem storage
"""
def __init__(self, location=None, base_url=None, file_permissions_mode=None,
directory_permissions_mode=None):
if location is None:
location = settings.MEDIA_ROOT
self.base_location = location
self.location = abspathu(self.base_location)
if base_url is None:
base_url = settings.MEDIA_URL
elif not base_url.endswith('/'):
base_url += '/'
self.base_url = base_url
self.file_permissions_mode = (
file_permissions_mode if file_permissions_mode is not None
else settings.FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS
)
self.directory_permissions_mode = (
directory_permissions_mode if directory_permissions_mode is not None
else settings.FILE_UPLOAD_DIRECTORY_PERMISSIONS
)
def _open(self, name, mode='rb'):
return File(open(self.path(name), mode))
def _save(self, name, content):
full_path = self.path(name)
# Create any intermediate directories that do not exist.
# Note that there is a race between os.path.exists and os.makedirs:
# if os.makedirs fails with EEXIST, the directory was created
# concurrently, and we can continue normally. Refs #16082.
directory = os.path.dirname(full_path)
if not os.path.exists(directory):
try:
if self.directory_permissions_mode is not None:
# os.makedirs applies the global umask, so we reset it,
# for consistency with file_permissions_mode behavior.
old_umask = os.umask(0)
try:
os.makedirs(directory, self.directory_permissions_mode)
finally:
os.umask(old_umask)
else:
os.makedirs(directory)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno != errno.EEXIST:
raise
if not os.path.isdir(directory):
raise IOError("%s exists and is not a directory." % directory)
# There's a potential race condition between get_available_name and
# saving the file; it's possible that two threads might return the
# same name, at which point all sorts of fun happens. So we need to
# try to create the file, but if it already exists we have to go back
# to get_available_name() and try again.
while True:
try:
# This file has a file path that we can move.
if hasattr(content, 'temporary_file_path'):
file_move_safe(content.temporary_file_path(), full_path)
# This is a normal uploadedfile that we can stream.
else:
# This fun binary flag incantation makes os.open throw an
# OSError if the file already exists before we open it.
flags = (os.O_WRONLY | os.O_CREAT | os.O_EXCL |
getattr(os, 'O_BINARY', 0))
# The current umask value is masked out by os.open!
fd = os.open(full_path, flags, 0o666)
_file = None
try:
locks.lock(fd, locks.LOCK_EX)
for chunk in content.chunks():
if _file is None:
mode = 'wb' if isinstance(chunk, bytes) else 'wt'
_file = os.fdopen(fd, mode)
_file.write(chunk)
finally:
locks.unlock(fd)
if _file is not None:
_file.close()
else:
os.close(fd)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno == errno.EEXIST:
# Ooops, the file exists. We need a new file name.
name = self.get_available_name(name)
full_path = self.path(name)
else:
raise
else:
# OK, the file save worked. Break out of the loop.
break
if self.file_permissions_mode is not None:
os.chmod(full_path, self.file_permissions_mode)
return name
def delete(self, name):
assert name, "The name argument is not allowed to be empty."
name = self.path(name)
# If the file exists, delete it from the filesystem.
# Note that there is a race between os.path.exists and os.remove:
# if os.remove fails with ENOENT, the file was removed
# concurrently, and we can continue normally.
if os.path.exists(name):
try:
os.remove(name)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno != errno.ENOENT:
raise
def exists(self, name):
return os.path.exists(self.path(name))
def listdir(self, path):
path = self.path(path)
directories, files = [], []
for entry in os.listdir(path):
if os.path.isdir(os.path.join(path, entry)):
directories.append(entry)
else:
files.append(entry)
return directories, files
def path(self, name):
return safe_join(self.location, name)
def size(self, name):
return os.path.getsize(self.path(name))
def url(self, name):
if self.base_url is None:
raise ValueError("This file is not accessible via a URL.")
return urljoin(self.base_url, filepath_to_uri(name))
def accessed_time(self, name):
return datetime.fromtimestamp(os.path.getatime(self.path(name)))
def created_time(self, name):
return datetime.fromtimestamp(os.path.getctime(self.path(name)))
def modified_time(self, name):
return datetime.fromtimestamp(os.path.getmtime(self.path(name)))
def get_storage_class(import_path=None):
return import_string(import_path or settings.DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE)
class DefaultStorage(LazyObject):
def _setup(self):
self._wrapped = get_storage_class()()
default_storage = DefaultStorage()
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