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from __future__ import unicode_literals
import os
import pkgutil
import sys
from collections import OrderedDict, defaultdict
from importlib import import_module
import django
from django.apps import apps
from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from import (
BaseCommand, CommandError, CommandParser, handle_default_options,
from import color_style
from django.utils import autoreload, lru_cache, six
from django.utils._os import npath, upath
from django.utils.encoding import force_text
def find_commands(management_dir):
Given a path to a management directory, returns a list of all the command
names that are available.
Returns an empty list if no commands are defined.
command_dir = os.path.join(management_dir, 'commands')
return [name for _, name, is_pkg in pkgutil.iter_modules([npath(command_dir)])
if not is_pkg and not name.startswith('_')]
def load_command_class(app_name, name):
Given a command name and an application name, returns the Command
class instance. All errors raised by the import process
(ImportError, AttributeError) are allowed to propagate.
module = import_module('' % (app_name, name))
return module.Command()
def get_commands():
Returns a dictionary mapping command names to their callback applications.
This works by looking for a management.commands package in django.core, and
in each installed application -- if a commands package exists, all commands
in that package are registered.
Core commands are always included. If a settings module has been
specified, user-defined commands will also be included.
The dictionary is in the format {command_name: app_name}. Key-value
pairs from this dictionary can then be used in calls to
load_command_class(app_name, command_name)
If a specific version of a command must be loaded (e.g., with the
startapp command), the instantiated module can be placed in the
dictionary in place of the application name.
The dictionary is cached on the first call and reused on subsequent
commands = {name: 'django.core' for name in find_commands(upath(__path__[0]))}
if not settings.configured:
return commands
for app_config in reversed(list(apps.get_app_configs())):
path = os.path.join(app_config.path, 'management')
commands.update({name: for name in find_commands(path)})
return commands
def call_command(command_name, *args, **options):
Calls the given command, with the given options and args/kwargs.
This is the primary API you should use for calling specific commands.
`name` may be a string or a command object. Using a string is preferred
unless the command object is required for further processing or testing.
Some examples:
call_command('shell', plain=True)
call_command('sqlmigrate', 'myapp')
from import flush
cmd = flush.Command()
call_command(cmd, verbosity=0, interactive=False)
# Do something with cmd ...
if isinstance(command_name, BaseCommand):
# Command object passed in.
command = command_name
command_name = command.__class__.__module__.split('.')[-1]
# Load the command object by name.
app_name = get_commands()[command_name]
except KeyError:
raise CommandError("Unknown command: %r" % command_name)
if isinstance(app_name, BaseCommand):
# If the command is already loaded, use it directly.
command = app_name
command = load_command_class(app_name, command_name)
# Simulate argument parsing to get the option defaults (see #10080 for details).
parser = command.create_parser('', command_name)
# Use the `dest` option name from the parser option
opt_mapping = {
sorted(s_opt.option_strings)[0].lstrip('-').replace('-', '_'): s_opt.dest
for s_opt in parser._actions if s_opt.option_strings
arg_options = {opt_mapping.get(key, key): value for key, value in options.items()}
defaults = parser.parse_args(args=[force_text(a) for a in args])
defaults = dict(defaults._get_kwargs(), **arg_options)
# Move positional args out of options to mimic legacy optparse
args = defaults.pop('args', ())
if 'skip_checks' not in options:
defaults['skip_checks'] = True
return command.execute(*args, **defaults)
class ManagementUtility(object):
Encapsulates the logic of the django-admin and utilities.
A ManagementUtility has a number of commands, which can be manipulated
by editing the self.commands dictionary.
def __init__(self, argv=None):
self.argv = argv or sys.argv[:]
self.prog_name = os.path.basename(self.argv[0])
self.settings_exception = None
def main_help_text(self, commands_only=False):
Returns the script's main help text, as a string.
if commands_only:
usage = sorted(get_commands().keys())
usage = [
"Type '%s help <subcommand>' for help on a specific subcommand." % self.prog_name,
"Available subcommands:",
commands_dict = defaultdict(lambda: [])
for name, app in six.iteritems(get_commands()):
if app == 'django.core':
app = 'django'
app = app.rpartition('.')[-1]
style = color_style()
for app in sorted(commands_dict.keys()):
usage.append(style.NOTICE("[%s]" % app))
for name in sorted(commands_dict[app]):
usage.append(" %s" % name)
# Output an extra note if settings are not properly configured
if self.settings_exception is not None:
"Note that only Django core commands are listed "
"as settings are not properly configured (error: %s)."
% self.settings_exception))
return '\n'.join(usage)
def fetch_command(self, subcommand):
Tries to fetch the given subcommand, printing a message with the
appropriate command called from the command line (usually
"django-admin" or "") if it can't be found.
# Get commands outside of try block to prevent swallowing exceptions
commands = get_commands()
app_name = commands[subcommand]
except KeyError:
if os.environ.get('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE'):
# If `subcommand` is missing due to misconfigured settings, the
# following line will retrigger an ImproperlyConfigured exception
# (get_commands() swallows the original one) so the user is
# informed about it.
sys.stderr.write("No Django settings specified.\n")
"Unknown command: %r\nType '%s help' for usage.\n"
% (subcommand, self.prog_name)
if isinstance(app_name, BaseCommand):
# If the command is already loaded, use it directly.
klass = app_name
klass = load_command_class(app_name, subcommand)
return klass
def autocomplete(self):
Output completion suggestions for BASH.
The output of this function is passed to BASH's `COMREPLY` variable and
treated as completion suggestions. `COMREPLY` expects a space
separated string as the result.
The `COMP_WORDS` and `COMP_CWORD` BASH environment variables are used
to get information about the cli input. Please refer to the BASH
man-page for more information about this variables.
Subcommand options are saved as pairs. A pair consists of
the long option string (e.g. '--exclude') and a boolean
value indicating if the option requires arguments. When printing to
stdout, an equal sign is appended to options which require arguments.
Note: If debugging this function, it is recommended to write the debug
output in a separate file. Otherwise the debug output will be treated
and formatted as potential completion suggestions.
# Don't complete if user hasn't sourced bash_completion file.
if 'DJANGO_AUTO_COMPLETE' not in os.environ:
cwords = os.environ['COMP_WORDS'].split()[1:]
cword = int(os.environ['COMP_CWORD'])
curr = cwords[cword - 1]
except IndexError:
curr = ''
subcommands = list(get_commands()) + ['help']
options = [('--help', False)]
# subcommand
if cword == 1:
print(' '.join(sorted(filter(lambda x: x.startswith(curr), subcommands))))
# subcommand options
# special case: the 'help' subcommand has no options
elif cwords[0] in subcommands and cwords[0] != 'help':
subcommand_cls = self.fetch_command(cwords[0])
# special case: add the names of installed apps to options
if cwords[0] in ('dumpdata', 'sqlmigrate', 'sqlsequencereset', 'test'):
app_configs = apps.get_app_configs()
# Get the last part of the dotted path as the app name.
options.extend((app_config.label, 0) for app_config in app_configs)
except ImportError:
# Fail silently if DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE isn't set. The
# user will find out once they execute the command.
parser = subcommand_cls.create_parser('', cwords[0])
(sorted(s_opt.option_strings)[0], s_opt.nargs != 0)
for s_opt in parser._actions if s_opt.option_strings
# filter out previously specified options from available options
prev_opts = [x.split('=')[0] for x in cwords[1:cword - 1]]
options = [opt for opt in options if opt[0] not in prev_opts]
# filter options by current input
options = sorted((k, v) for k, v in options if k.startswith(curr))
for option in options:
opt_label = option[0]
# append '=' to options which require args
if option[1]:
opt_label += '='
# Exit code of the bash completion function is never passed back to
# the user, so it's safe to always exit with 0.
# For more details see #25420.
def execute(self):
Given the command-line arguments, this figures out which subcommand is
being run, creates a parser appropriate to that command, and runs it.
subcommand = self.argv[1]
except IndexError:
subcommand = 'help' # Display help if no arguments were given.
# Preprocess options to extract --settings and --pythonpath.
# These options could affect the commands that are available, so they
# must be processed early.
parser = CommandParser(None, usage="%(prog)s subcommand [options] [args]", add_help=False)
parser.add_argument('args', nargs='*') # catch-all
options, args = parser.parse_known_args(self.argv[2:])
except CommandError:
pass # Ignore any option errors at this point.
no_settings_commands = [
'help', 'version', '--help', '--version', '-h',
'compilemessages', 'makemessages',
'startapp', 'startproject',
except ImproperlyConfigured as exc:
self.settings_exception = exc
# A handful of built-in management commands work without settings.
# Load the default settings -- where INSTALLED_APPS is empty.
if subcommand in no_settings_commands:
if settings.configured:
# Start the auto-reloading dev server even if the code is broken.
# The hardcoded condition is a code smell but we can't rely on a
# flag on the command class because we haven't located it yet.
if subcommand == 'runserver' and '--noreload' not in self.argv:
except Exception:
# The exception will be raised later in the child process
# started by the autoreloader. Pretend it didn't happen by
# loading an empty list of applications.
apps.all_models = defaultdict(OrderedDict)
apps.app_configs = OrderedDict()
apps.apps_ready = apps.models_ready = apps.ready = True
# In all other cases, django.setup() is required to succeed.
if subcommand == 'help':
if '--commands' in args:
sys.stdout.write(self.main_help_text(commands_only=True) + '\n')
elif len(options.args) < 1:
sys.stdout.write(self.main_help_text() + '\n')
self.fetch_command(options.args[0]).print_help(self.prog_name, options.args[0])
# Special-cases: We want 'django-admin --version' and
# 'django-admin --help' to work, for backwards compatibility.
elif subcommand == 'version' or self.argv[1:] == ['--version']:
sys.stdout.write(django.get_version() + '\n')
elif self.argv[1:] in (['--help'], ['-h']):
sys.stdout.write(self.main_help_text() + '\n')
def execute_from_command_line(argv=None):
A simple method that runs a ManagementUtility.
utility = ManagementUtility(argv)