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import cgi
import mimetypes
import os
import posixpath
import shutil
import stat
import tempfile
from importlib import import_module
from os import path
from urllib.request import urlretrieve
import django
from django.conf import settings
from import BaseCommand, CommandError
from import handle_extensions
from django.template import Context, Engine
from django.utils import archive
from django.utils.version import get_docs_version
class TemplateCommand(BaseCommand):
Copy either a Django application layout template or a Django project
layout template into the specified directory.
:param style: A color style object (see
:param app_or_project: The string 'app' or 'project'.
:param name: The name of the application or project.
:param directory: The directory to which the template should be copied.
:param options: The additional variables passed to project or app templates
requires_system_checks = False
# The supported URL schemes
url_schemes = ['http', 'https', 'ftp']
# Rewrite the following suffixes when determining the target filename.
rewrite_template_suffixes = (
# Allow shipping invalid .py files without byte-compilation.
('.py-tpl', '.py'),
def add_arguments(self, parser):
parser.add_argument('name', help='Name of the application or project.')
parser.add_argument('directory', nargs='?', help='Optional destination directory')
parser.add_argument('--template', help='The path or URL to load the template from.')
'--extension', '-e', dest='extensions',
action='append', default=['py'],
help='The file extension(s) to render (default: "py"). '
'Separate multiple extensions with commas, or use '
'-e multiple times.'
'--name', '-n', dest='files',
action='append', default=[],
help='The file name(s) to render. Separate multiple file names '
'with commas, or use -n multiple times.'
def handle(self, app_or_project, name, target=None, **options):
self.app_or_project = app_or_project
self.paths_to_remove = []
self.verbosity = options['verbosity']
self.validate_name(name, app_or_project)
# if some directory is given, make sure it's nicely expanded
if target is None:
top_dir = path.join(os.getcwd(), name)
except FileExistsError:
raise CommandError("'%s' already exists" % top_dir)
except OSError as e:
raise CommandError(e)
top_dir = os.path.abspath(path.expanduser(target))
if not os.path.exists(top_dir):
raise CommandError("Destination directory '%s' does not "
"exist, please create it first." % top_dir)
extensions = tuple(handle_extensions(options['extensions']))
extra_files = []
for file in options['files']:
extra_files.extend(map(lambda x: x.strip(), file.split(',')))
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Rendering %s template files with "
"extensions: %s\n" %
(app_or_project, ', '.join(extensions)))
self.stdout.write("Rendering %s template files with "
"filenames: %s\n" %
(app_or_project, ', '.join(extra_files)))
base_name = '%s_name' % app_or_project
base_subdir = '%s_template' % app_or_project
base_directory = '%s_directory' % app_or_project
camel_case_name = 'camel_case_%s_name' % app_or_project
camel_case_value = ''.join(x for x in name.title() if x != '_')
context = Context({
base_name: name,
base_directory: top_dir,
camel_case_name: camel_case_value,
'docs_version': get_docs_version(),
'django_version': django.__version__,
}, autoescape=False)
# Setup a stub settings environment for template rendering
if not settings.configured:
template_dir = self.handle_template(options['template'],
prefix_length = len(template_dir) + 1
for root, dirs, files in os.walk(template_dir):
path_rest = root[prefix_length:]
relative_dir = path_rest.replace(base_name, name)
if relative_dir:
target_dir = path.join(top_dir, relative_dir)
if not path.exists(target_dir):
for dirname in dirs[:]:
if dirname.startswith('.') or dirname == '__pycache__':
for filename in files:
if filename.endswith(('.pyo', '.pyc', '.py.class')):
# Ignore some files as they cause various breakages.
old_path = path.join(root, filename)
new_path = path.join(top_dir, relative_dir,
filename.replace(base_name, name))
for old_suffix, new_suffix in self.rewrite_template_suffixes:
if new_path.endswith(old_suffix):
new_path = new_path[:-len(old_suffix)] + new_suffix
break # Only rewrite once
if path.exists(new_path):
raise CommandError("%s already exists, overlaying a "
"project or app into an existing "
"directory won't replace conflicting "
"files" % new_path)
# Only render the Python files, as we don't want to
# accidentally render Django templates files
if new_path.endswith(extensions) or filename in extra_files:
with open(old_path, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as template_file:
content =
template = Engine().from_string(content)
content = template.render(context)
with open(new_path, 'w', encoding='utf-8') as new_file:
shutil.copyfile(old_path, new_path)
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Creating %s\n" % new_path)
shutil.copymode(old_path, new_path)
except OSError:
"Notice: Couldn't set permission bits on %s. You're "
"probably using an uncommon filesystem setup. No "
"problem." % new_path,
if self.paths_to_remove:
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Cleaning up temporary files.\n")
for path_to_remove in self.paths_to_remove:
if path.isfile(path_to_remove):
def handle_template(self, template, subdir):
Determine where the app or project templates are.
Use django.__path__[0] as the default because the Django install
directory isn't known.
if template is None:
return path.join(django.__path__[0], 'conf', subdir)
if template.startswith('file://'):
template = template[7:]
expanded_template = path.expanduser(template)
expanded_template = path.normpath(expanded_template)
if path.isdir(expanded_template):
return expanded_template
if self.is_url(template):
# downloads the file and returns the path
absolute_path =
absolute_path = path.abspath(expanded_template)
if path.exists(absolute_path):
return self.extract(absolute_path)
raise CommandError("couldn't handle %s template %s." %
(self.app_or_project, template))
def validate_name(self, name, app_or_project):
a_or_an = 'an' if app_or_project == 'app' else 'a'
if name is None:
raise CommandError('you must provide {an} {app} name'.format(
# Check it's a valid directory name.
if not name.isidentifier():
raise CommandError(
"'{name}' is not a valid {app} name. Please make sure the "
"name is a valid identifier.".format(
# Check it cannot be imported.
except ImportError:
raise CommandError(
"'{name}' conflicts with the name of an existing Python "
"module and cannot be used as {an} {app} name. Please try "
"another name.".format(
def download(self, url):
Download the given URL and return the file name.
def cleanup_url(url):
tmp = url.rstrip('/')
filename = tmp.split('/')[-1]
if url.endswith('/'):
display_url = tmp + '/'
display_url = url
return filename, display_url
prefix = 'django_%s_template_' % self.app_or_project
tempdir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix=prefix, suffix='_download')
filename, display_url = cleanup_url(url)
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Downloading %s\n" % display_url)
the_path, info = urlretrieve(url, path.join(tempdir, filename))
except IOError as e:
raise CommandError("couldn't download URL %s to %s: %s" %
(url, filename, e))
used_name = the_path.split('/')[-1]
# Trying to get better name from response headers
content_disposition = info.get('content-disposition')
if content_disposition:
_, params = cgi.parse_header(content_disposition)
guessed_filename = params.get('filename') or used_name
guessed_filename = used_name
# Falling back to content type guessing
ext = self.splitext(guessed_filename)[1]
content_type = info.get('content-type')
if not ext and content_type:
ext = mimetypes.guess_extension(content_type)
if ext:
guessed_filename += ext
# Move the temporary file to a filename that has better
# chances of being recognized by the archive utils
if used_name != guessed_filename:
guessed_path = path.join(tempdir, guessed_filename)
shutil.move(the_path, guessed_path)
return guessed_path
# Giving up
return the_path
def splitext(self, the_path):
Like os.path.splitext, but takes off .tar, too
base, ext = posixpath.splitext(the_path)
if base.lower().endswith('.tar'):
ext = base[-4:] + ext
base = base[:-4]
return base, ext
def extract(self, filename):
Extract the given file to a temporarily and return
the path of the directory with the extracted content.
prefix = 'django_%s_template_' % self.app_or_project
tempdir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix=prefix, suffix='_extract')
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Extracting %s\n" % filename)
archive.extract(filename, tempdir)
return tempdir
except (archive.ArchiveException, IOError) as e:
raise CommandError("couldn't extract file %s to %s: %s" %
(filename, tempdir, e))
def is_url(self, template):
"""Return True if the name looks like a URL."""
if ':' not in template:
return False
scheme = template.split(':', 1)[0].lower()
return scheme in self.url_schemes
def make_writeable(self, filename):
Make sure that the file is writeable.
Useful if our source is read-only.
if not os.access(filename, os.W_OK):
st = os.stat(filename)
new_permissions = stat.S_IMODE(st.st_mode) | stat.S_IWUSR
os.chmod(filename, new_permissions)