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import cgi
import errno
import mimetypes
import os
import posixpath
import re
import shutil
import stat
import sys
import tempfile
from os import path
import django
from import BaseCommand, CommandError
from import handle_extensions
from django.template import Context, Engine
from django.utils import archive, six
from django.utils.six.moves.urllib.request import urlretrieve
from django.utils.version import get_docs_version
_drive_re = re.compile('^([a-z]):', re.I)
_url_drive_re = re.compile('^([a-z])[:|]', re.I)
class TemplateCommand(BaseCommand):
Copies either a Django application layout template or a Django project
layout template into the specified directory.
:param style: A color style object (see
:param app_or_project: The string 'app' or 'project'.
:param name: The name of the application or project.
:param directory: The directory to which the template should be copied.
:param options: The additional variables passed to project or app templates
requires_system_checks = False
# Can't import settings during this command, because they haven't
# necessarily been created.
can_import_settings = False
# The supported URL schemes
url_schemes = ['http', 'https', 'ftp']
# Can't perform any active locale changes during this command, because
# setting might not be available at all.
leave_locale_alone = True
def add_arguments(self, parser):
parser.add_argument('name', help='Name of the application or project.')
parser.add_argument('directory', nargs='?', help='Optional destination directory')
help='The path or URL to load the template from.')
parser.add_argument('--extension', '-e', dest='extensions',
action='append', default=['py'],
help='The file extension(s) to render (default: "py"). '
'Separate multiple extensions with commas, or use '
'-e multiple times.')
parser.add_argument('--name', '-n', dest='files',
action='append', default=[],
help='The file name(s) to render. '
'Separate multiple extensions with commas, or use '
'-n multiple times.')
def handle(self, app_or_project, name, target=None, **options):
self.app_or_project = app_or_project
self.paths_to_remove = []
self.verbosity = options['verbosity']
self.validate_name(name, app_or_project)
# if some directory is given, make sure it's nicely expanded
if target is None:
top_dir = path.join(os.getcwd(), name)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno == errno.EEXIST:
message = "'%s' already exists" % top_dir
message = e
raise CommandError(message)
top_dir = os.path.abspath(path.expanduser(target))
if not os.path.exists(top_dir):
raise CommandError("Destination directory '%s' does not "
"exist, please create it first." % top_dir)
extensions = tuple(handle_extensions(options['extensions']))
extra_files = []
for file in options['files']:
extra_files.extend(map(lambda x: x.strip(), file.split(',')))
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Rendering %s template files with "
"extensions: %s\n" %
(app_or_project, ', '.join(extensions)))
self.stdout.write("Rendering %s template files with "
"filenames: %s\n" %
(app_or_project, ', '.join(extra_files)))
base_name = '%s_name' % app_or_project
base_subdir = '%s_template' % app_or_project
base_directory = '%s_directory' % app_or_project
camel_case_name = 'camel_case_%s_name' % app_or_project
camel_case_value = ''.join(x for x in name.title() if x != '_')
context = Context(dict(options, **{
base_name: name,
base_directory: top_dir,
camel_case_name: camel_case_value,
'docs_version': get_docs_version(),
'django_version': django.__version__,
'unicode_literals': '' if six.PY3 else 'from __future__ import unicode_literals\n\n',
}), autoescape=False)
# Setup a stub settings environment for template rendering
from django.conf import settings
if not settings.configured:
template_dir = self.handle_template(options['template'],
prefix_length = len(template_dir) + 1
for root, dirs, files in os.walk(template_dir):
path_rest = root[prefix_length:]
relative_dir = path_rest.replace(base_name, name)
if relative_dir:
target_dir = path.join(top_dir, relative_dir)
if not path.exists(target_dir):
for dirname in dirs[:]:
if dirname.startswith('.') or dirname == '__pycache__':
for filename in files:
if filename.endswith(('.pyo', '.pyc', '.py.class')):
# Ignore some files as they cause various breakages.
old_path = path.join(root, filename)
new_path = path.join(top_dir, relative_dir,
filename.replace(base_name, name))
if path.exists(new_path):
raise CommandError("%s already exists, overlaying a "
"project or app into an existing "
"directory won't replace conflicting "
"files" % new_path)
# Only render the Python files, as we don't want to
# accidentally render Django templates files
with open(old_path, 'rb') as template_file:
content =
if filename.endswith(extensions) or filename in extra_files:
content = content.decode('utf-8')
template = Engine().from_string(content)
content = template.render(context)
content = content.encode('utf-8')
with open(new_path, 'wb') as new_file:
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Creating %s\n" % new_path)
shutil.copymode(old_path, new_path)
except OSError:
"Notice: Couldn't set permission bits on %s. You're "
"probably using an uncommon filesystem setup. No "
"problem." % new_path,
if self.paths_to_remove:
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Cleaning up temporary files.\n")
for path_to_remove in self.paths_to_remove:
if path.isfile(path_to_remove):
def handle_template(self, template, subdir):
Determines where the app or project templates are.
Use django.__path__[0] as the default because we don't
know into which directory Django has been installed.
if template is None:
return path.join(django.__path__[0], 'conf', subdir)
if template.startswith('file://'):
template = template[7:]
expanded_template = path.expanduser(template)
expanded_template = path.normpath(expanded_template)
if path.isdir(expanded_template):
return expanded_template
if self.is_url(template):
# downloads the file and returns the path
absolute_path =
absolute_path = path.abspath(expanded_template)
if path.exists(absolute_path):
return self.extract(absolute_path)
raise CommandError("couldn't handle %s template %s." %
(self.app_or_project, template))
def validate_name(self, name, app_or_project):
if name is None:
raise CommandError("you must provide %s %s name" % (
"an" if app_or_project == "app" else "a", app_or_project))
# If it's not a valid directory name.
if six.PY2:
if not'^[_a-zA-Z]\w*$', name):
# Provide a smart error message, depending on the error.
if not'^[_a-zA-Z]', name):
message = 'make sure the name begins with a letter or underscore'
message = 'use only numbers, letters and underscores'
raise CommandError("%r is not a valid %s name. Please %s." %
(name, app_or_project, message))
if not name.isidentifier():
raise CommandError(
"%r is not a valid %s name. Please make sure the name is "
"a valid identifier." % (name, app_or_project)
def download(self, url):
Downloads the given URL and returns the file name.
def cleanup_url(url):
tmp = url.rstrip('/')
filename = tmp.split('/')[-1]
if url.endswith('/'):
display_url = tmp + '/'
display_url = url
return filename, display_url
prefix = 'django_%s_template_' % self.app_or_project
tempdir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix=prefix, suffix='_download')
filename, display_url = cleanup_url(url)
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Downloading %s\n" % display_url)
the_path, info = urlretrieve(url, path.join(tempdir, filename))
except IOError as e:
raise CommandError("couldn't download URL %s to %s: %s" %
(url, filename, e))
used_name = the_path.split('/')[-1]
# Trying to get better name from response headers
content_disposition = info.get('content-disposition')
if content_disposition:
_, params = cgi.parse_header(content_disposition)
guessed_filename = params.get('filename') or used_name
guessed_filename = used_name
# Falling back to content type guessing
ext = self.splitext(guessed_filename)[1]
content_type = info.get('content-type')
if not ext and content_type:
ext = mimetypes.guess_extension(content_type)
if ext:
guessed_filename += ext
# Move the temporary file to a filename that has better
# chances of being recognized by the archive utils
if used_name != guessed_filename:
guessed_path = path.join(tempdir, guessed_filename)
shutil.move(the_path, guessed_path)
return guessed_path
# Giving up
return the_path
def splitext(self, the_path):
Like os.path.splitext, but takes off .tar, too
base, ext = posixpath.splitext(the_path)
if base.lower().endswith('.tar'):
ext = base[-4:] + ext
base = base[:-4]
return base, ext
def extract(self, filename):
Extracts the given file to a temporarily and returns
the path of the directory with the extracted content.
prefix = 'django_%s_template_' % self.app_or_project
tempdir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix=prefix, suffix='_extract')
if self.verbosity >= 2:
self.stdout.write("Extracting %s\n" % filename)
archive.extract(filename, tempdir)
return tempdir
except (archive.ArchiveException, IOError) as e:
raise CommandError("couldn't extract file %s to %s: %s" %
(filename, tempdir, e))
def is_url(self, template):
Returns True if the name looks like a URL
if ':' not in template:
return False
scheme = template.split(':', 1)[0].lower()
return scheme in self.url_schemes
def make_writeable(self, filename):
Make sure that the file is writeable.
Useful if our source is read-only.
if sys.platform.startswith('java'):
# On Jython there is no os.access()
if not os.access(filename, os.W_OK):
st = os.stat(filename)
new_permissions = stat.S_IMODE(st.st_mode) | stat.S_IWUSR
os.chmod(filename, new_permissions)
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