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import datetime
import time

try:
    from django.utils.six.moves import _thread as thread
except ImportError:
    from django.utils.six.moves import _dummy_thread as thread
from collections import namedtuple
from contextlib import contextmanager
from importlib import import_module

from django.conf import settings
from django.core import checks
from django.db import DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS
from django.db.backends.signals import connection_created
from django.db.backends import utils
from django.db.transaction import TransactionManagementError
from django.db.utils import DatabaseError, DatabaseErrorWrapper, ProgrammingError
from django.utils.functional import cached_property
from django.utils import six
from django.utils import timezone


class BaseDatabaseWrapper(object):
    """
Represents a database connection.
"""
    ops = None
    vendor = 'unknown'

    def __init__(self, settings_dict, alias=DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS,
                 allow_thread_sharing=False):
        # Connection related attributes.
        self.connection = None
        self.queries = []
        # `settings_dict` should be a dictionary containing keys such as
        # NAME, USER, etc. It's called `settings_dict` instead of `settings`
        # to disambiguate it from Django settings modules.
        self.settings_dict = settings_dict
        self.alias = alias
        self.use_debug_cursor = None

        # Transaction related attributes.
        # Tracks if the connection is in autocommit mode. Per PEP 249, by
        # default, it isn't.
        self.autocommit = False
        # Tracks if the connection is in a transaction managed by 'atomic'.
        self.in_atomic_block = False
        # Increment to generate unique savepoint ids.
        self.savepoint_state = 0
        # List of savepoints created by 'atomic'.
        self.savepoint_ids = []
        # Tracks if the outermost 'atomic' block should commit on exit,
        # ie. if autocommit was active on entry.
        self.commit_on_exit = True
        # Tracks if the transaction should be rolled back to the next
        # available savepoint because of an exception in an inner block.
        self.needs_rollback = False

        # Connection termination related attributes.
        self.close_at = None
        self.closed_in_transaction = False
        self.errors_occurred = False

        # Thread-safety related attributes.
        self.allow_thread_sharing = allow_thread_sharing
        self._thread_ident = thread.get_ident()

    def __eq__(self, other):
        if isinstance(other, BaseDatabaseWrapper):
            return self.alias == other.alias
        return NotImplemented

    def __ne__(self, other):
        return not self == other

    def __hash__(self):
        return hash(self.alias)

    ##### Backend-specific methods for creating connections and cursors #####

    def get_connection_params(self):
        """Returns a dict of parameters suitable for get_new_connection."""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require a get_connection_params() method')

    def get_new_connection(self, conn_params):
        """Opens a connection to the database."""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require a get_new_connection() method')

    def init_connection_state(self):
        """Initializes the database connection settings."""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require an init_connection_state() method')

    def create_cursor(self):
        """Creates a cursor. Assumes that a connection is established."""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require a create_cursor() method')

    ##### Backend-specific methods for creating connections #####

    def connect(self):
        """Connects to the database. Assumes that the connection is closed."""
        # In case the previous connection was closed while in an atomic block
        self.in_atomic_block = False
        self.savepoint_ids = []
        self.needs_rollback = False
        # Reset parameters defining when to close the connection
        max_age = self.settings_dict['CONN_MAX_AGE']
        self.close_at = None if max_age is None else time.time() + max_age
        self.closed_in_transaction = False
        self.errors_occurred = False
        # Establish the connection
        conn_params = self.get_connection_params()
        self.connection = self.get_new_connection(conn_params)
        self.set_autocommit(self.settings_dict['AUTOCOMMIT'])
        self.init_connection_state()
        connection_created.send(sender=self.__class__, connection=self)

    def ensure_connection(self):
        """
Guarantees that a connection to the database is established.
"""
        if self.connection is None:
            with self.wrap_database_errors:
                self.connect()

    ##### Backend-specific wrappers for PEP-249 connection methods #####

    def _cursor(self):
        self.ensure_connection()
        with self.wrap_database_errors:
            return self.create_cursor()

    def _commit(self):
        if self.connection is not None:
            with self.wrap_database_errors:
                return self.connection.commit()

    def _rollback(self):
        if self.connection is not None:
            with self.wrap_database_errors:
                return self.connection.rollback()

    def _close(self):
        if self.connection is not None:
            with self.wrap_database_errors:
                return self.connection.close()

    ##### Generic wrappers for PEP-249 connection methods #####

    def cursor(self):
        """
Creates a cursor, opening a connection if necessary.
"""
        self.validate_thread_sharing()
        if (self.use_debug_cursor or
                (self.use_debug_cursor is None and settings.DEBUG)):
            cursor = self.make_debug_cursor(self._cursor())
        else:
            cursor = utils.CursorWrapper(self._cursor(), self)
        return cursor

    def commit(self):
        """
Commits a transaction and resets the dirty flag.
"""
        self.validate_thread_sharing()
        self.validate_no_atomic_block()
        self._commit()

    def rollback(self):
        """
Rolls back a transaction and resets the dirty flag.
"""
        self.validate_thread_sharing()
        self.validate_no_atomic_block()
        self._rollback()

    def close(self):
        """
Closes the connection to the database.
"""
        self.validate_thread_sharing()
        # Don't call validate_no_atomic_block() to avoid making it difficult
        # to get rid of a connection in an invalid state. The next connect()
        # will reset the transaction state anyway.
        try:
            self._close()
        finally:
            if self.in_atomic_block:
                self.closed_in_transaction = True
                self.needs_rollback = True
            else:
                self.connection = None

    ##### Backend-specific savepoint management methods #####

    def _savepoint(self, sid):
        with self.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute(self.ops.savepoint_create_sql(sid))

    def _savepoint_rollback(self, sid):
        with self.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute(self.ops.savepoint_rollback_sql(sid))

    def _savepoint_commit(self, sid):
        with self.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute(self.ops.savepoint_commit_sql(sid))

    def _savepoint_allowed(self):
        # Savepoints cannot be created outside a transaction
        return self.features.uses_savepoints and not self.get_autocommit()

    ##### Generic savepoint management methods #####

    def savepoint(self):
        """
Creates a savepoint inside the current transaction. Returns an
identifier for the savepoint that will be used for the subsequent
rollback or commit. Does nothing if savepoints are not supported.
"""
        if not self._savepoint_allowed():
            return

        thread_ident = thread.get_ident()
        tid = str(thread_ident).replace('-', '')

        self.savepoint_state += 1
        sid = "s%s_x%d" % (tid, self.savepoint_state)

        self.validate_thread_sharing()
        self._savepoint(sid)

        return sid

    def savepoint_rollback(self, sid):
        """
Rolls back to a savepoint. Does nothing if savepoints are not supported.
"""
        if not self._savepoint_allowed():
            return

        self.validate_thread_sharing()
        self._savepoint_rollback(sid)

    def savepoint_commit(self, sid):
        """
Releases a savepoint. Does nothing if savepoints are not supported.
"""
        if not self._savepoint_allowed():
            return

        self.validate_thread_sharing()
        self._savepoint_commit(sid)

    def clean_savepoints(self):
        """
Resets the counter used to generate unique savepoint ids in this thread.
"""
        self.savepoint_state = 0

    ##### Backend-specific transaction management methods #####

    def _set_autocommit(self, autocommit):
        """
Backend-specific implementation to enable or disable autocommit.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require a _set_autocommit() method')

    ##### Generic transaction management methods #####

    def get_autocommit(self):
        """
Check the autocommit state.
"""
        self.ensure_connection()
        return self.autocommit

    def set_autocommit(self, autocommit):
        """
Enable or disable autocommit.
"""
        self.validate_no_atomic_block()
        self.ensure_connection()
        self._set_autocommit(autocommit)
        self.autocommit = autocommit

    def get_rollback(self):
        """
Get the "needs rollback" flag -- for *advanced use* only.
"""
        if not self.in_atomic_block:
            raise TransactionManagementError(
                "The rollback flag doesn't work outside of an 'atomic' block.")
        return self.needs_rollback

    def set_rollback(self, rollback):
        """
Set or unset the "needs rollback" flag -- for *advanced use* only.
"""
        if not self.in_atomic_block:
            raise TransactionManagementError(
                "The rollback flag doesn't work outside of an 'atomic' block.")
        self.needs_rollback = rollback

    def validate_no_atomic_block(self):
        """
Raise an error if an atomic block is active.
"""
        if self.in_atomic_block:
            raise TransactionManagementError(
                "This is forbidden when an 'atomic' block is active.")

    def validate_no_broken_transaction(self):
        if self.needs_rollback:
            raise TransactionManagementError(
                "An error occurred in the current transaction. You can't "
                "execute queries until the end of the 'atomic' block.")

    ##### Foreign key constraints checks handling #####

    @contextmanager
    def constraint_checks_disabled(self):
        """
Context manager that disables foreign key constraint checking.
"""
        disabled = self.disable_constraint_checking()
        try:
            yield
        finally:
            if disabled:
                self.enable_constraint_checking()

    def disable_constraint_checking(self):
        """
Backends can implement as needed to temporarily disable foreign key
constraint checking. Should return True if the constraints were
disabled and will need to be reenabled.
"""
        return False

    def enable_constraint_checking(self):
        """
Backends can implement as needed to re-enable foreign key constraint
checking.
"""
        pass

    def check_constraints(self, table_names=None):
        """
Backends can override this method if they can apply constraint
checking (e.g. via "SET CONSTRAINTS ALL IMMEDIATE"). Should raise an
IntegrityError if any invalid foreign key references are encountered.
"""
        pass

    ##### Connection termination handling #####

    def is_usable(self):
        """
Tests if the database connection is usable.

This function may assume that self.connection is not None.

Actual implementations should take care not to raise exceptions
as that may prevent Django from recycling unusable connections.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError(
            "subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require an is_usable() method")

    def close_if_unusable_or_obsolete(self):
        """
Closes the current connection if unrecoverable errors have occurred,
or if it outlived its maximum age.
"""
        if self.connection is not None:
            # If the application didn't restore the original autocommit setting,
            # don't take chances, drop the connection.
            if self.get_autocommit() != self.settings_dict['AUTOCOMMIT']:
                self.close()
                return

            if self.errors_occurred:
                if self.is_usable():
                    self.errors_occurred = False
                else:
                    self.close()
                    return

            if self.close_at is not None and time.time() >= self.close_at:
                self.close()
                return

    ##### Thread safety handling #####

    def validate_thread_sharing(self):
        """
Validates that the connection isn't accessed by another thread than the
one which originally created it, unless the connection was explicitly
authorized to be shared between threads (via the `allow_thread_sharing`
property). Raises an exception if the validation fails.
"""
        if not (self.allow_thread_sharing
                or self._thread_ident == thread.get_ident()):
            raise DatabaseError("DatabaseWrapper objects created in a "
                "thread can only be used in that same thread. The object "
                "with alias '%s' was created in thread id %s and this is "
                "thread id %s."
                % (self.alias, self._thread_ident, thread.get_ident()))

    ##### Miscellaneous #####

    @cached_property
    def wrap_database_errors(self):
        """
Context manager and decorator that re-throws backend-specific database
exceptions using Django's common wrappers.
"""
        return DatabaseErrorWrapper(self)

    def make_debug_cursor(self, cursor):
        """
Creates a cursor that logs all queries in self.queries.
"""
        return utils.CursorDebugWrapper(cursor, self)

    @contextmanager
    def temporary_connection(self):
        """
Context manager that ensures that a connection is established, and
if it opened one, closes it to avoid leaving a dangling connection.
This is useful for operations outside of the request-response cycle.

Provides a cursor: with self.temporary_connection() as cursor: ...
"""
        must_close = self.connection is None
        cursor = self.cursor()
        try:
            yield cursor
        finally:
            cursor.close()
            if must_close:
                self.close()

    def _start_transaction_under_autocommit(self):
        """
Only required when autocommits_when_autocommit_is_off = True.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require a _start_transaction_under_autocommit() method')

    def schema_editor(self, *args, **kwargs):
        "Returns a new instance of this backend's SchemaEditor"
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseWrapper may require a schema_editor() method')


class BaseDatabaseFeatures(object):
    allows_group_by_pk = False
    # True if django.db.backends.utils.typecast_timestamp is used on values
    # returned from dates() calls.
    needs_datetime_string_cast = True
    empty_fetchmany_value = []
    update_can_self_select = True

    # Does the backend distinguish between '' and None?
    interprets_empty_strings_as_nulls = False

    # Does the backend allow inserting duplicate rows when a unique_together
    # constraint exists, but one of the unique_together columns is NULL?
    ignores_nulls_in_unique_constraints = True

    can_use_chunked_reads = True
    can_return_id_from_insert = False
    has_bulk_insert = False
    uses_savepoints = False
    can_combine_inserts_with_and_without_auto_increment_pk = False

    # If True, don't use integer foreign keys referring to, e.g., positive
    # integer primary keys.
    related_fields_match_type = False
    allow_sliced_subqueries = True
    has_select_for_update = False
    has_select_for_update_nowait = False

    supports_select_related = True

    # Does the default test database allow multiple connections?
    # Usually an indication that the test database is in-memory
    test_db_allows_multiple_connections = True

    # Can an object be saved without an explicit primary key?
    supports_unspecified_pk = False

    # Can a fixture contain forward references? i.e., are
    # FK constraints checked at the end of transaction, or
    # at the end of each save operation?
    supports_forward_references = True

    # Does the backend allow very long model names without error?
    supports_long_model_names = True

    # Is there a REAL datatype in addition to floats/doubles?
    has_real_datatype = False
    supports_subqueries_in_group_by = True
    supports_bitwise_or = True

    # Do time/datetime fields have microsecond precision?
    supports_microsecond_precision = True

    # Does the __regex lookup support backreferencing and grouping?
    supports_regex_backreferencing = True

    # Can date/datetime lookups be performed using a string?
    supports_date_lookup_using_string = True

    # Can datetimes with timezones be used?
    supports_timezones = True

    # Does the database have a copy of the zoneinfo database?
    has_zoneinfo_database = True

    # When performing a GROUP BY, is an ORDER BY NULL required
    # to remove any ordering?
    requires_explicit_null_ordering_when_grouping = False

    # Does the backend order NULL values as largest or smallest?
    nulls_order_largest = False

    # Is there a 1000 item limit on query parameters?
    supports_1000_query_parameters = True

    # Can an object have an autoincrement primary key of 0? MySQL says No.
    allows_auto_pk_0 = True

    # Do we need to NULL a ForeignKey out, or can the constraint check be
    # deferred
    can_defer_constraint_checks = False

    # date_interval_sql can properly handle mixed Date/DateTime fields and timedeltas
    supports_mixed_date_datetime_comparisons = True

    # Does the backend support tablespaces? Default to False because it isn't
    # in the SQL standard.
    supports_tablespaces = False

    # Does the backend reset sequences between tests?
    supports_sequence_reset = True

    # Confirm support for introspected foreign keys
    # Every database can do this reliably, except MySQL,
    # which can't do it for MyISAM tables
    can_introspect_foreign_keys = True

    # Can the backend introspect an AutoField, instead of an IntegerField?
    can_introspect_autofield = False

    # Support for the DISTINCT ON clause
    can_distinct_on_fields = False

    # Does the backend decide to commit before SAVEPOINT statements
    # when autocommit is disabled? http://bugs.python.org/issue8145#msg109965
    autocommits_when_autocommit_is_off = False

    # Does the backend prevent running SQL queries in broken transactions?
    atomic_transactions = True

    # Can we roll back DDL in a transaction?
    can_rollback_ddl = False

    # Can we issue more than one ALTER COLUMN clause in an ALTER TABLE?
    supports_combined_alters = False

    # Does it support foreign keys?
    supports_foreign_keys = True

    # Does it support CHECK constraints?
    supports_check_constraints = True

    # Does the backend support 'pyformat' style ("... %(name)s ...", {'name': value})
    # parameter passing? Note this can be provided by the backend even if not
    # supported by the Python driver
    supports_paramstyle_pyformat = True

    # Does the backend require literal defaults, rather than parameterized ones?
    requires_literal_defaults = False

    # Does the backend require a connection reset after each material schema change?
    connection_persists_old_columns = False

    # What kind of error does the backend throw when accessing closed cursor?
    closed_cursor_error_class = ProgrammingError

    # Does 'a' LIKE 'A' match?
    has_case_insensitive_like = True

    def __init__(self, connection):
        self.connection = connection

    @cached_property
    def supports_transactions(self):
        """Confirm support for transactions."""
        with self.connection.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute('CREATE TABLE ROLLBACK_TEST (X INT)')
            self.connection.set_autocommit(False)
            cursor.execute('INSERT INTO ROLLBACK_TEST (X) VALUES (8)')
            self.connection.rollback()
            self.connection.set_autocommit(True)
            cursor.execute('SELECT COUNT(X) FROM ROLLBACK_TEST')
            count, = cursor.fetchone()
            cursor.execute('DROP TABLE ROLLBACK_TEST')
        return count == 0

    @cached_property
    def supports_stddev(self):
        """Confirm support for STDDEV and related stats functions."""
        class StdDevPop(object):
            sql_function = 'STDDEV_POP'

        try:
            self.connection.ops.check_aggregate_support(StdDevPop())
            return True
        except NotImplementedError:
            return False


class BaseDatabaseOperations(object):
    """
This class encapsulates all backend-specific differences, such as the way
a backend performs ordering or calculates the ID of a recently-inserted
row.
"""
    compiler_module = "django.db.models.sql.compiler"

    # Integer field safe ranges by `internal_type` as documented
    # in docs/ref/models/fields.txt.
    integer_field_ranges = {
        'SmallIntegerField': (-32768, 32767),
        'IntegerField': (-2147483648, 2147483647),
        'BigIntegerField': (-9223372036854775808, 9223372036854775807),
        'PositiveSmallIntegerField': (0, 32767),
        'PositiveIntegerField': (0, 2147483647),
    }

    def __init__(self, connection):
        self.connection = connection
        self._cache = None

    def autoinc_sql(self, table, column):
        """
Returns any SQL needed to support auto-incrementing primary keys, or
None if no SQL is necessary.

This SQL is executed when a table is created.
"""
        return None

    def bulk_batch_size(self, fields, objs):
        """
Returns the maximum allowed batch size for the backend. The fields
are the fields going to be inserted in the batch, the objs contains
all the objects to be inserted.
"""
        return len(objs)

    def cache_key_culling_sql(self):
        """
Returns an SQL query that retrieves the first cache key greater than the
n smallest.

This is used by the 'db' cache backend to determine where to start
culling.
"""
        return "SELECT cache_key FROM %s ORDER BY cache_key LIMIT 1 OFFSET %%s"

    def date_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        """
Given a lookup_type of 'year', 'month' or 'day', returns the SQL that
extracts a value from the given date field field_name.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a date_extract_sql() method')

    def date_interval_sql(self, sql, connector, timedelta):
        """
Implements the date interval functionality for expressions
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a date_interval_sql() method')

    def date_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        """
Given a lookup_type of 'year', 'month' or 'day', returns the SQL that
truncates the given date field field_name to a date object with only
the given specificity.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a datetrunc_sql() method')

    def datetime_cast_sql(self):
        """
Returns the SQL necessary to cast a datetime value so that it will be
retrieved as a Python datetime object instead of a string.

This SQL should include a '%s' in place of the field's name.
"""
        return "%s"

    def datetime_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name, tzname):
        """
Given a lookup_type of 'year', 'month', 'day', 'hour', 'minute' or
'second', returns the SQL that extracts a value from the given
datetime field field_name, and a tuple of parameters.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a datetime_extract_sql() method')

    def datetime_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name, tzname):
        """
Given a lookup_type of 'year', 'month', 'day', 'hour', 'minute' or
'second', returns the SQL that truncates the given datetime field
field_name to a datetime object with only the given specificity, and
a tuple of parameters.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a datetime_trunk_sql() method')

    def deferrable_sql(self):
        """
Returns the SQL necessary to make a constraint "initially deferred"
during a CREATE TABLE statement.
"""
        return ''

    def distinct_sql(self, fields):
        """
Returns an SQL DISTINCT clause which removes duplicate rows from the
result set. If any fields are given, only the given fields are being
checked for duplicates.
"""
        if fields:
            raise NotImplementedError('DISTINCT ON fields is not supported by this database backend')
        else:
            return 'DISTINCT'

    def drop_foreignkey_sql(self):
        """
Returns the SQL command that drops a foreign key.
"""
        return "DROP CONSTRAINT"

    def drop_sequence_sql(self, table):
        """
Returns any SQL necessary to drop the sequence for the given table.
Returns None if no SQL is necessary.
"""
        return None

    def fetch_returned_insert_id(self, cursor):
        """
Given a cursor object that has just performed an INSERT...RETURNING
statement into a table that has an auto-incrementing ID, returns the
newly created ID.
"""
        return cursor.fetchone()[0]

    def field_cast_sql(self, db_type, internal_type):
        """
Given a column type (e.g. 'BLOB', 'VARCHAR'), and an internal type
(e.g. 'GenericIPAddressField'), returns the SQL necessary to cast it
before using it in a WHERE statement. Note that the resulting string
should contain a '%s' placeholder for the column being searched against.
"""
        return '%s'

    def force_no_ordering(self):
        """
Returns a list used in the "ORDER BY" clause to force no ordering at
all. Returning an empty list means that nothing will be included in the
ordering.
"""
        return []

    def for_update_sql(self, nowait=False):
        """
Returns the FOR UPDATE SQL clause to lock rows for an update operation.
"""
        if nowait:
            return 'FOR UPDATE NOWAIT'
        else:
            return 'FOR UPDATE'

    def fulltext_search_sql(self, field_name):
        """
Returns the SQL WHERE clause to use in order to perform a full-text
search of the given field_name. Note that the resulting string should
contain a '%s' placeholder for the value being searched against.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('Full-text search is not implemented for this database backend')

    def last_executed_query(self, cursor, sql, params):
        """
Returns a string of the query last executed by the given cursor, with
placeholders replaced with actual values.

`sql` is the raw query containing placeholders, and `params` is the
sequence of parameters. These are used by default, but this method
exists for database backends to provide a better implementation
according to their own quoting schemes.
"""
        from django.utils.encoding import force_text

        # Convert params to contain Unicode values.
        to_unicode = lambda s: force_text(s, strings_only=True, errors='replace')
        if isinstance(params, (list, tuple)):
            u_params = tuple(to_unicode(val) for val in params)
        elif params is None:
            u_params = ()
        else:
            u_params = dict((to_unicode(k), to_unicode(v)) for k, v in params.items())

        return six.text_type("QUERY = %r - PARAMS = %r") % (sql, u_params)

    def last_insert_id(self, cursor, table_name, pk_name):
        """
Given a cursor object that has just performed an INSERT statement into
a table that has an auto-incrementing ID, returns the newly created ID.

This method also receives the table name and the name of the primary-key
column.
"""
        return cursor.lastrowid

    def lookup_cast(self, lookup_type):
        """
Returns the string to use in a query when performing lookups
("contains", "like", etc). The resulting string should contain a '%s'
placeholder for the column being searched against.
"""
        return "%s"

    def max_in_list_size(self):
        """
Returns the maximum number of items that can be passed in a single 'IN'
list condition, or None if the backend does not impose a limit.
"""
        return None

    def max_name_length(self):
        """
Returns the maximum length of table and column names, or None if there
is no limit.
"""
        return None

    def no_limit_value(self):
        """
Returns the value to use for the LIMIT when we are wanting "LIMIT
infinity". Returns None if the limit clause can be omitted in this case.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a no_limit_value() method')

    def pk_default_value(self):
        """
Returns the value to use during an INSERT statement to specify that
the field should use its default value.
"""
        return 'DEFAULT'

    def process_clob(self, value):
        """
Returns the value of a CLOB column, for backends that return a locator
object that requires additional processing.
"""
        return value

    def return_insert_id(self):
        """
For backends that support returning the last insert ID as part
of an insert query, this method returns the SQL and params to
append to the INSERT query. The returned fragment should
contain a format string to hold the appropriate column.
"""
        pass

    def compiler(self, compiler_name):
        """
Returns the SQLCompiler class corresponding to the given name,
in the namespace corresponding to the `compiler_module` attribute
on this backend.
"""
        if self._cache is None:
            self._cache = import_module(self.compiler_module)
        return getattr(self._cache, compiler_name)

    def quote_name(self, name):
        """
Returns a quoted version of the given table, index or column name. Does
not quote the given name if it's already been quoted.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a quote_name() method')

    def random_function_sql(self):
        """
Returns an SQL expression that returns a random value.
"""
        return 'RANDOM()'

    def regex_lookup(self, lookup_type):
        """
Returns the string to use in a query when performing regular expression
lookups (using "regex" or "iregex"). The resulting string should
contain a '%s' placeholder for the column being searched against.

If the feature is not supported (or part of it is not supported), a
NotImplementedError exception can be raised.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations may require a regex_lookup() method')

    def savepoint_create_sql(self, sid):
        """
Returns the SQL for starting a new savepoint. Only required if the
"uses_savepoints" feature is True. The "sid" parameter is a string
for the savepoint id.
"""
        return "SAVEPOINT %s" % self.quote_name(sid)

    def savepoint_commit_sql(self, sid):
        """
Returns the SQL for committing the given savepoint.
"""
        return "RELEASE SAVEPOINT %s" % self.quote_name(sid)

    def savepoint_rollback_sql(self, sid):
        """
Returns the SQL for rolling back the given savepoint.
"""
        return "ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT %s" % self.quote_name(sid)

    def set_time_zone_sql(self):
        """
Returns the SQL that will set the connection's time zone.

Returns '' if the backend doesn't support time zones.
"""
        return ''

    def sql_flush(self, style, tables, sequences, allow_cascade=False):
        """
Returns a list of SQL statements required to remove all data from
the given database tables (without actually removing the tables
themselves).

The returned value also includes SQL statements required to reset DB
sequences passed in :param sequences:.

The `style` argument is a Style object as returned by either
color_style() or no_style() in django.core.management.color.

The `allow_cascade` argument determines whether truncation may cascade
to tables with foreign keys pointing the tables being truncated.
PostgreSQL requires a cascade even if these tables are empty.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseOperations must provide a sql_flush() method')

    def sequence_reset_by_name_sql(self, style, sequences):
        """
Returns a list of the SQL statements required to reset sequences
passed in :param sequences:.

The `style` argument is a Style object as returned by either
color_style() or no_style() in django.core.management.color.
"""
        return []

    def sequence_reset_sql(self, style, model_list):
        """
Returns a list of the SQL statements required to reset sequences for
the given models.

The `style` argument is a Style object as returned by either
color_style() or no_style() in django.core.management.color.
"""
        return [] # No sequence reset required by default.

    def start_transaction_sql(self):
        """
Returns the SQL statement required to start a transaction.
"""
        return "BEGIN;"

    def end_transaction_sql(self, success=True):
        """
Returns the SQL statement required to end a transaction.
"""
        if not success:
            return "ROLLBACK;"
        return "COMMIT;"

    def tablespace_sql(self, tablespace, inline=False):
        """
Returns the SQL that will be used in a query to define the tablespace.

Returns '' if the backend doesn't support tablespaces.

If inline is True, the SQL is appended to a row; otherwise it's appended
to the entire CREATE TABLE or CREATE INDEX statement.
"""
        return ''

    def prep_for_like_query(self, x):
        """Prepares a value for use in a LIKE query."""
        from django.utils.encoding import force_text
        return force_text(x).replace("\\", "\\\\").replace("%", "\%").replace("_", "\_")

    # Same as prep_for_like_query(), but called for "iexact" matches, which
    # need not necessarily be implemented using "LIKE" in the backend.
    prep_for_iexact_query = prep_for_like_query

    def validate_autopk_value(self, value):
        """
Certain backends do not accept some values for "serial" fields
(for example zero in MySQL). This method will raise a ValueError
if the value is invalid, otherwise returns validated value.
"""
        return value

    def value_to_db_date(self, value):
        """
Transform a date value to an object compatible with what is expected
by the backend driver for date columns.
"""
        if value is None:
            return None
        return six.text_type(value)

    def value_to_db_datetime(self, value):
        """
Transform a datetime value to an object compatible with what is expected
by the backend driver for datetime columns.
"""
        if value is None:
            return None
        return six.text_type(value)

    def value_to_db_time(self, value):
        """
Transform a time value to an object compatible with what is expected
by the backend driver for time columns.
"""
        if value is None:
            return None
        if timezone.is_aware(value):
            raise ValueError("Django does not support timezone-aware times.")
        return six.text_type(value)

    def value_to_db_decimal(self, value, max_digits, decimal_places):
        """
Transform a decimal.Decimal value to an object compatible with what is
expected by the backend driver for decimal (numeric) columns.
"""
        if value is None:
            return None
        return utils.format_number(value, max_digits, decimal_places)

    def year_lookup_bounds_for_date_field(self, value):
        """
Returns a two-elements list with the lower and upper bound to be used
with a BETWEEN operator to query a DateField value using a year
lookup.

`value` is an int, containing the looked-up year.
"""
        first = datetime.date(value, 1, 1)
        second = datetime.date(value, 12, 31)
        return [first, second]

    def year_lookup_bounds_for_datetime_field(self, value):
        """
Returns a two-elements list with the lower and upper bound to be used
with a BETWEEN operator to query a DateTimeField value using a year
lookup.

`value` is an int, containing the looked-up year.
"""
        first = datetime.datetime(value, 1, 1)
        second = datetime.datetime(value, 12, 31, 23, 59, 59, 999999)
        if settings.USE_TZ:
            tz = timezone.get_current_timezone()
            first = timezone.make_aware(first, tz)
            second = timezone.make_aware(second, tz)
        return [first, second]

    def convert_values(self, value, field):
        """
Coerce the value returned by the database backend into a consistent type
that is compatible with the field type.
"""
        if value is None or field is None:
            return value
        internal_type = field.get_internal_type()
        if internal_type == 'FloatField':
            return float(value)
        elif (internal_type and (internal_type.endswith('IntegerField')
                                 or internal_type == 'AutoField')):
            return int(value)
        return value

    def check_aggregate_support(self, aggregate_func):
        """Check that the backend supports the provided aggregate

This is used on specific backends to rule out known aggregates
that are known to have faulty implementations. If the named
aggregate function has a known problem, the backend should
raise NotImplementedError.
"""
        pass

    def combine_expression(self, connector, sub_expressions):
        """Combine a list of subexpressions into a single expression, using
the provided connecting operator. This is required because operators
can vary between backends (e.g., Oracle with %% and &) and between
subexpression types (e.g., date expressions)
"""
        conn = ' %s ' % connector
        return conn.join(sub_expressions)

    def modify_insert_params(self, placeholders, params):
        """Allow modification of insert parameters. Needed for Oracle Spatial
backend due to #10888.
"""
        return params

    def integer_field_range(self, internal_type):
        """
Given an integer field internal type (e.g. 'PositiveIntegerField'),
returns a tuple of the (min_value, max_value) form representing the
range of the column type bound to the field.
"""
        return self.integer_field_ranges[internal_type]


# Structure returned by the DB-API cursor.description interface (PEP 249)
FieldInfo = namedtuple('FieldInfo',
    'name type_code display_size internal_size precision scale null_ok')


class BaseDatabaseIntrospection(object):
    """
This class encapsulates all backend-specific introspection utilities
"""
    data_types_reverse = {}

    def __init__(self, connection):
        self.connection = connection

    def get_field_type(self, data_type, description):
        """Hook for a database backend to use the cursor description to
match a Django field type to a database column.

For Oracle, the column data_type on its own is insufficient to
distinguish between a FloatField and IntegerField, for example."""
        return self.data_types_reverse[data_type]

    def table_name_converter(self, name):
        """Apply a conversion to the name for the purposes of comparison.

The default table name converter is for case sensitive comparison.
"""
        return name

    def table_names(self, cursor=None):
        """
Returns a list of names of all tables that exist in the database.
The returned table list is sorted by Python's default sorting. We
do NOT use database's ORDER BY here to avoid subtle differences
in sorting order between databases.
"""
        if cursor is None:
            with self.connection.cursor() as cursor:
                return sorted(self.get_table_list(cursor))
        return sorted(self.get_table_list(cursor))

    def get_table_list(self, cursor):
        """
Returns an unsorted list of names of all tables that exist in the
database.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseIntrospection may require a get_table_list() method')

    def django_table_names(self, only_existing=False):
        """
Returns a list of all table names that have associated Django models and
are in INSTALLED_APPS.

If only_existing is True, the resulting list will only include the tables
that actually exist in the database.
"""
        from django.apps import apps
        from django.db import router
        tables = set()
        for app_config in apps.get_app_configs():
            for model in router.get_migratable_models(app_config, self.connection.alias):
                if not model._meta.managed:
                    continue
                tables.add(model._meta.db_table)
                tables.update(f.m2m_db_table() for f in model._meta.local_many_to_many)
        tables = list(tables)
        if only_existing:
            existing_tables = self.table_names()
            tables = [
                t
                for t in tables
                if self.table_name_converter(t) in existing_tables
            ]
        return tables

    def installed_models(self, tables):
        "Returns a set of all models represented by the provided list of table names."
        from django.apps import apps
        from django.db import router
        all_models = []
        for app_config in apps.get_app_configs():
            all_models.extend(router.get_migratable_models(app_config, self.connection.alias))
        tables = list(map(self.table_name_converter, tables))
        return set([
            m for m in all_models
            if self.table_name_converter(m._meta.db_table) in tables
        ])

    def sequence_list(self):
        "Returns a list of information about all DB sequences for all models in all apps."
        from django.apps import apps
        from django.db import models, router

        sequence_list = []

        for app_config in apps.get_app_configs():
            for model in router.get_migratable_models(app_config, self.connection.alias):
                if not model._meta.managed:
                    continue
                if model._meta.swapped:
                    continue
                for f in model._meta.local_fields:
                    if isinstance(f, models.AutoField):
                        sequence_list.append({'table': model._meta.db_table, 'column': f.column})
                        break # Only one AutoField is allowed per model, so don't bother continuing.

                for f in model._meta.local_many_to_many:
                    # If this is an m2m using an intermediate table,
                    # we don't need to reset the sequence.
                    if f.rel.through is None:
                        sequence_list.append({'table': f.m2m_db_table(), 'column': None})

        return sequence_list

    def get_key_columns(self, cursor, table_name):
        """
Backends can override this to return a list of (column_name, referenced_table_name,
referenced_column_name) for all key columns in given table.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseIntrospection may require a get_key_columns() method')

    def get_primary_key_column(self, cursor, table_name):
        """
Returns the name of the primary key column for the given table.
"""
        for column in six.iteritems(self.get_indexes(cursor, table_name)):
            if column[1]['primary_key']:
                return column[0]
        return None

    def get_indexes(self, cursor, table_name):
        """
Returns a dictionary of indexed fieldname -> infodict for the given
table, where each infodict is in the format:
{'primary_key': boolean representing whether it's the primary key,
'unique': boolean representing whether it's a unique index}

Only single-column indexes are introspected.
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseIntrospection may require a get_indexes() method')

    def get_constraints(self, cursor, table_name):
        """
Retrieves any constraints or keys (unique, pk, fk, check, index)
across one or more columns.

Returns a dict mapping constraint names to their attributes,
where attributes is a dict with keys:
* columns: List of columns this covers
* primary_key: True if primary key, False otherwise
* unique: True if this is a unique constraint, False otherwise
* foreign_key: (table, column) of target, or None
* check: True if check constraint, False otherwise
* index: True if index, False otherwise.

Some backends may return special constraint names that don't exist
if they don't name constraints of a certain type (e.g. SQLite)
"""
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseIntrospection may require a get_constraints() method')


class BaseDatabaseClient(object):
    """
This class encapsulates all backend-specific methods for opening a
client shell.
"""
    # This should be a string representing the name of the executable
    # (e.g., "psql"). Subclasses must override this.
    executable_name = None

    def __init__(self, connection):
        # connection is an instance of BaseDatabaseWrapper.
        self.connection = connection

    def runshell(self):
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of BaseDatabaseClient must provide a runshell() method')


class BaseDatabaseValidation(object):
    """
This class encapsulates all backend-specific model validation.
"""
    def __init__(self, connection):
        self.connection = connection

    def validate_field(self, errors, opts, f):
        """
By default, there is no backend-specific validation.

This method has been deprecated by the new checks framework. New
backends should implement check_field instead.
"""
        # This is deliberately commented out. It exists as a marker to
        # remind us to remove this method, and the check_field() shim,
        # when the time comes.
        # warnings.warn('"validate_field" has been deprecated", RemovedInDjango19Warning)
        pass

    def check_field(self, field, **kwargs):
        class ErrorList(list):
            """A dummy list class that emulates API used by the older
validate_field() method. When validate_field() is fully
deprecated, this dummy can be removed too.
"""
            def add(self, opts, error_message):
                self.append(checks.Error(error_message, hint=None, obj=field))

        errors = ErrorList()
        # Some tests create fields in isolation -- the fields are not attached
        # to any model, so they have no `model` attribute.
        opts = field.model._meta if hasattr(field, 'model') else None
        self.validate_field(errors, field, opts)
        return list(errors)
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