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"""
Oracle database backend for Django.
Requires cx_Oracle: http://cx-oracle.sourceforge.net/
"""
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import datetime
import decimal
import os
import platform
import sys
import warnings
from django.conf import settings
from django.db import utils
from django.db.backends.base.base import BaseDatabaseWrapper
from django.db.backends.base.validation import BaseDatabaseValidation
from django.utils import six, timezone
from django.utils.deprecation import RemovedInDjango20Warning
from django.utils.duration import duration_string
from django.utils.encoding import force_bytes, force_text
from django.utils.functional import cached_property
def _setup_environment(environ):
# Cygwin requires some special voodoo to set the environment variables
# properly so that Oracle will see them.
if platform.system().upper().startswith('CYGWIN'):
try:
import ctypes
except ImportError as e:
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
raise ImproperlyConfigured("Error loading ctypes: %s; "
"the Oracle backend requires ctypes to "
"operate correctly under Cygwin." % e)
kernel32 = ctypes.CDLL('kernel32')
for name, value in environ:
kernel32.SetEnvironmentVariableA(name, value)
else:
os.environ.update(environ)
_setup_environment([
# Oracle takes client-side character set encoding from the environment.
('NLS_LANG', '.UTF8'),
# This prevents unicode from getting mangled by getting encoded into the
# potentially non-unicode database character set.
('ORA_NCHAR_LITERAL_REPLACE', 'TRUE'),
])
try:
import cx_Oracle as Database
except ImportError as e:
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
raise ImproperlyConfigured("Error loading cx_Oracle module: %s" % e)
# Some of these import cx_Oracle, so import them after checking if it's installed.
from .client import DatabaseClient # isort:skip
from .creation import DatabaseCreation # isort:skip
from .features import DatabaseFeatures # isort:skip
from .introspection import DatabaseIntrospection # isort:skip
from .operations import DatabaseOperations # isort:skip
from .schema import DatabaseSchemaEditor # isort:skip
from .utils import Oracle_datetime, convert_unicode # isort:skip
DatabaseError = Database.DatabaseError
IntegrityError = Database.IntegrityError
class _UninitializedOperatorsDescriptor(object):
def __get__(self, instance, owner):
# If connection.operators is looked up before a connection has been
# created, transparently initialize connection.operators to avert an
# AttributeError.
if instance is None:
raise AttributeError("operators not available as class attribute")
# Creating a cursor will initialize the operators.
instance.cursor().close()
return instance.__dict__['operators']
class DatabaseWrapper(BaseDatabaseWrapper):
vendor = 'oracle'
# This dictionary maps Field objects to their associated Oracle column
# types, as strings. Column-type strings can contain format strings; they'll
# be interpolated against the values of Field.__dict__ before being output.
# If a column type is set to None, it won't be included in the output.
#
# Any format strings starting with "qn_" are quoted before being used in the
# output (the "qn_" prefix is stripped before the lookup is performed.
data_types = {
'AutoField': 'NUMBER(11)',
'BinaryField': 'BLOB',
'BooleanField': 'NUMBER(1)',
'CharField': 'NVARCHAR2(%(max_length)s)',
'CommaSeparatedIntegerField': 'VARCHAR2(%(max_length)s)',
'DateField': 'DATE',
'DateTimeField': 'TIMESTAMP',
'DecimalField': 'NUMBER(%(max_digits)s, %(decimal_places)s)',
'DurationField': 'INTERVAL DAY(9) TO SECOND(6)',
'FileField': 'NVARCHAR2(%(max_length)s)',
'FilePathField': 'NVARCHAR2(%(max_length)s)',
'FloatField': 'DOUBLE PRECISION',
'IntegerField': 'NUMBER(11)',
'BigIntegerField': 'NUMBER(19)',
'IPAddressField': 'VARCHAR2(15)',
'GenericIPAddressField': 'VARCHAR2(39)',
'NullBooleanField': 'NUMBER(1)',
'OneToOneField': 'NUMBER(11)',
'PositiveIntegerField': 'NUMBER(11)',
'PositiveSmallIntegerField': 'NUMBER(11)',
'SlugField': 'NVARCHAR2(%(max_length)s)',
'SmallIntegerField': 'NUMBER(11)',
'TextField': 'NCLOB',
'TimeField': 'TIMESTAMP',
'URLField': 'VARCHAR2(%(max_length)s)',
'UUIDField': 'VARCHAR2(32)',
}
data_type_check_constraints = {
'BooleanField': '%(qn_column)s IN (0,1)',
'NullBooleanField': '(%(qn_column)s IN (0,1)) OR (%(qn_column)s IS NULL)',
'PositiveIntegerField': '%(qn_column)s >= 0',
'PositiveSmallIntegerField': '%(qn_column)s >= 0',
}
operators = _UninitializedOperatorsDescriptor()
_standard_operators = {
'exact': '= %s',
'iexact': '= UPPER(%s)',
'contains': "LIKE TRANSLATE(%s USING NCHAR_CS) ESCAPE TRANSLATE('\\' USING NCHAR_CS)",
'icontains': "LIKE UPPER(TRANSLATE(%s USING NCHAR_CS)) ESCAPE TRANSLATE('\\' USING NCHAR_CS)",
'gt': '> %s',
'gte': '>= %s',
'lt': '< %s',
'lte': '<= %s',
'startswith': "LIKE TRANSLATE(%s USING NCHAR_CS) ESCAPE TRANSLATE('\\' USING NCHAR_CS)",
'endswith': "LIKE TRANSLATE(%s USING NCHAR_CS) ESCAPE TRANSLATE('\\' USING NCHAR_CS)",
'istartswith': "LIKE UPPER(TRANSLATE(%s USING NCHAR_CS)) ESCAPE TRANSLATE('\\' USING NCHAR_CS)",
'iendswith': "LIKE UPPER(TRANSLATE(%s USING NCHAR_CS)) ESCAPE TRANSLATE('\\' USING NCHAR_CS)",
}
_likec_operators = _standard_operators.copy()
_likec_operators.update({
'contains': "LIKEC %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'icontains': "LIKEC UPPER(%s) ESCAPE '\\'",
'startswith': "LIKEC %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'endswith': "LIKEC %s ESCAPE '\\'",
'istartswith': "LIKEC UPPER(%s) ESCAPE '\\'",
'iendswith': "LIKEC UPPER(%s) ESCAPE '\\'",
})
# The patterns below are used to generate SQL pattern lookup clauses when
# the right-hand side of the lookup isn't a raw string (it might be an expression
# or the result of a bilateral transformation).
# In those cases, special characters for LIKE operators (e.g. \, *, _) should be
# escaped on database side.
#
# Note: we use str.format() here for readability as '%' is used as a wildcard for
# the LIKE operator.
pattern_esc = r"REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE({}, '\', '\\'), '%%', '\%%'), '_', '\_')"
_pattern_ops = {
'contains': "'%%' || {} || '%%'",
'icontains': "'%%' || UPPER({}) || '%%'",
'startswith': "{} || '%%'",
'istartswith': "UPPER({}) || '%%'",
'endswith': "'%%' || {}",
'iendswith': "'%%' || UPPER({})",
}
_standard_pattern_ops = {k: "LIKE TRANSLATE( " + v + " USING NCHAR_CS)"
" ESCAPE TRANSLATE('\\' USING NCHAR_CS)"
for k, v in _pattern_ops.items()}
_likec_pattern_ops = {k: "LIKEC " + v + " ESCAPE '\\'"
for k, v in _pattern_ops.items()}
Database = Database
SchemaEditorClass = DatabaseSchemaEditor
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
super(DatabaseWrapper, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self.features = DatabaseFeatures(self)
use_returning_into = self.settings_dict["OPTIONS"].get('use_returning_into', True)
self.features.can_return_id_from_insert = use_returning_into
self.ops = DatabaseOperations(self)
self.client = DatabaseClient(self)
self.creation = DatabaseCreation(self)
self.introspection = DatabaseIntrospection(self)
self.validation = BaseDatabaseValidation(self)
def _connect_string(self):
settings_dict = self.settings_dict
if not settings_dict['HOST'].strip():
settings_dict['HOST'] = 'localhost'
if settings_dict['PORT'].strip():
dsn = Database.makedsn(settings_dict['HOST'],
int(settings_dict['PORT']),
settings_dict['NAME'])
else:
dsn = settings_dict['NAME']
return "%s/%s@%s" % (settings_dict['USER'],
settings_dict['PASSWORD'], dsn)
def get_connection_params(self):
conn_params = self.settings_dict['OPTIONS'].copy()
if 'use_returning_into' in conn_params:
del conn_params['use_returning_into']
return conn_params
def get_new_connection(self, conn_params):
conn_string = convert_unicode(self._connect_string())
return Database.connect(conn_string, **conn_params)
def init_connection_state(self):
cursor = self.create_cursor()
# Set the territory first. The territory overrides NLS_DATE_FORMAT
# and NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT to the territory default. When all of
# these are set in single statement it isn't clear what is supposed
# to happen.
cursor.execute("ALTER SESSION SET NLS_TERRITORY = 'AMERICA'")
# Set Oracle date to ANSI date format. This only needs to execute
# once when we create a new connection. We also set the Territory
# to 'AMERICA' which forces Sunday to evaluate to a '1' in
# TO_CHAR().
cursor.execute(
"ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'"
" NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT = 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS.FF'"
+ (" TIME_ZONE = 'UTC'" if settings.USE_TZ else ''))
cursor.close()
if 'operators' not in self.__dict__:
# Ticket #14149: Check whether our LIKE implementation will
# work for this connection or we need to fall back on LIKEC.
# This check is performed only once per DatabaseWrapper
# instance per thread, since subsequent connections will use
# the same settings.
cursor = self.create_cursor()
try:
cursor.execute("SELECT 1 FROM DUAL WHERE DUMMY %s"
% self._standard_operators['contains'],
['X'])
except DatabaseError:
self.operators = self._likec_operators
self.pattern_ops = self._likec_pattern_ops
else:
self.operators = self._standard_operators
self.pattern_ops = self._standard_pattern_ops
cursor.close()
try:
self.connection.stmtcachesize = 20
except AttributeError:
# Django docs specify cx_Oracle version 4.3.1 or higher, but
# stmtcachesize is available only in 4.3.2 and up.
pass
# Ensure all changes are preserved even when AUTOCOMMIT is False.
if not self.get_autocommit():
self.commit()
def create_cursor(self):
return FormatStylePlaceholderCursor(self.connection)
def _commit(self):
if self.connection is not None:
try:
return self.connection.commit()
except Database.DatabaseError as e:
# cx_Oracle 5.0.4 raises a cx_Oracle.DatabaseError exception
# with the following attributes and values:
# code = 2091
# message = 'ORA-02091: transaction rolled back
# 'ORA-02291: integrity constraint (TEST_DJANGOTEST.SYS
# _C00102056) violated - parent key not found'
# We convert that particular case to our IntegrityError exception
x = e.args[0]
if hasattr(x, 'code') and hasattr(x, 'message') \
and x.code == 2091 and 'ORA-02291' in x.message:
six.reraise(utils.IntegrityError, utils.IntegrityError(*tuple(e.args)), sys.exc_info()[2])
raise
# Oracle doesn't support releasing savepoints. But we fake them when query
# logging is enabled to keep query counts consistent with other backends.
def _savepoint_commit(self, sid):
if self.queries_logged:
self.queries_log.append({
'sql': '-- RELEASE SAVEPOINT %s (faked)' % self.ops.quote_name(sid),
'time': '0.000',
})
def _set_autocommit(self, autocommit):
with self.wrap_database_errors:
self.connection.autocommit = autocommit
def check_constraints(self, table_names=None):
"""
To check constraints, we set constraints to immediate. Then, when, we're done we must ensure they
are returned to deferred.
"""
self.cursor().execute('SET CONSTRAINTS ALL IMMEDIATE')
self.cursor().execute('SET CONSTRAINTS ALL DEFERRED')
def is_usable(self):
try:
self.connection.ping()
except Database.Error:
return False
else:
return True
@cached_property
def oracle_full_version(self):
with self.temporary_connection():
return self.connection.version
@cached_property
def oracle_version(self):
try:
return int(self.oracle_full_version.split('.')[0])
except ValueError:
return None
class OracleParam(object):
"""
Wrapper object for formatting parameters for Oracle. If the string
representation of the value is large enough (greater than 4000 characters)
the input size needs to be set as CLOB. Alternatively, if the parameter
has an `input_size` attribute, then the value of the `input_size` attribute
will be used instead. Otherwise, no input size will be set for the
parameter when executing the query.
"""
def __init__(self, param, cursor, strings_only=False):
# With raw SQL queries, datetimes can reach this function
# without being converted by DateTimeField.get_db_prep_value.
if settings.USE_TZ and (isinstance(param, datetime.datetime) and
not isinstance(param, Oracle_datetime)):
if timezone.is_aware(param):
warnings.warn(
"The Oracle database adapter received an aware datetime (%s), "
"probably from cursor.execute(). Update your code to pass a "
"naive datetime in the database connection's time zone (UTC by "
"default).", RemovedInDjango20Warning)
param = param.astimezone(timezone.utc).replace(tzinfo=None)
param = Oracle_datetime.from_datetime(param)
if isinstance(param, datetime.timedelta):
param = duration_string(param)
if ' ' not in param:
param = '0 ' + param
string_size = 0
# Oracle doesn't recognize True and False correctly in Python 3.
# The conversion done below works both in 2 and 3.
if param is True:
param = 1
elif param is False:
param = 0
if hasattr(param, 'bind_parameter'):
self.force_bytes = param.bind_parameter(cursor)
elif isinstance(param, Database.Binary):
self.force_bytes = param
else:
# To transmit to the database, we need Unicode if supported
# To get size right, we must consider bytes.
self.force_bytes = convert_unicode(param, cursor.charset,
strings_only)
if isinstance(self.force_bytes, six.string_types):
# We could optimize by only converting up to 4000 bytes here
string_size = len(force_bytes(param, cursor.charset, strings_only))
if hasattr(param, 'input_size'):
# If parameter has `input_size` attribute, use that.
self.input_size = param.input_size
elif string_size > 4000:
# Mark any string param greater than 4000 characters as a CLOB.
self.input_size = Database.CLOB
else:
self.input_size = None
class VariableWrapper(object):
"""
An adapter class for cursor variables that prevents the wrapped object
from being converted into a string when used to instantiate an OracleParam.
This can be used generally for any other object that should be passed into
Cursor.execute as-is.
"""
def __init__(self, var):
self.var = var
def bind_parameter(self, cursor):
return self.var
def __getattr__(self, key):
return getattr(self.var, key)
def __setattr__(self, key, value):
if key == 'var':
self.__dict__[key] = value
else:
setattr(self.var, key, value)
class FormatStylePlaceholderCursor(object):
"""
Django uses "format" (e.g. '%s') style placeholders, but Oracle uses ":var"
style. This fixes it -- but note that if you want to use a literal "%s" in
a query, you'll need to use "%%s".
We also do automatic conversion between Unicode on the Python side and
UTF-8 -- for talking to Oracle -- in here.
"""
charset = 'utf-8'
def __init__(self, connection):
self.cursor = connection.cursor()
# Necessary to retrieve decimal values without rounding error.
self.cursor.numbersAsStrings = True
# Default arraysize of 1 is highly sub-optimal.
self.cursor.arraysize = 100
def _format_params(self, params):
try:
return {k: OracleParam(v, self, True) for k, v in params.items()}
except AttributeError:
return tuple(OracleParam(p, self, True) for p in params)
def _guess_input_sizes(self, params_list):
# Try dict handling; if that fails, treat as sequence
if hasattr(params_list[0], 'keys'):
sizes = {}
for params in params_list:
for k, value in params.items():
if value.input_size:
sizes[k] = value.input_size
self.setinputsizes(**sizes)
else:
# It's not a list of dicts; it's a list of sequences
sizes = [None] * len(params_list[0])
for params in params_list:
for i, value in enumerate(params):
if value.input_size:
sizes[i] = value.input_size
self.setinputsizes(*sizes)
def _param_generator(self, params):
# Try dict handling; if that fails, treat as sequence
if hasattr(params, 'items'):
return {k: v.force_bytes for k, v in params.items()}
else:
return [p.force_bytes for p in params]
def _fix_for_params(self, query, params):
# cx_Oracle wants no trailing ';' for SQL statements. For PL/SQL, it
# it does want a trailing ';' but not a trailing '/'. However, these
# characters must be included in the original query in case the query
# is being passed to SQL*Plus.
if query.endswith(';') or query.endswith('/'):
query = query[:-1]
if params is None:
params = []
query = convert_unicode(query, self.charset)
elif hasattr(params, 'keys'):
# Handle params as dict
args = {k: ":%s" % k for k in params.keys()}
query = convert_unicode(query % args, self.charset)
else:
# Handle params as sequence
args = [(':arg%d' % i) for i in range(len(params))]
query = convert_unicode(query % tuple(args), self.charset)
return query, self._format_params(params)
def execute(self, query, params=None):
query, params = self._fix_for_params(query, params)
self._guess_input_sizes([params])
try:
return self.cursor.execute(query, self._param_generator(params))
except Database.DatabaseError as e:
# cx_Oracle <= 4.4.0 wrongly raises a DatabaseError for ORA-01400.
if hasattr(e.args[0], 'code') and e.args[0].code == 1400 and not isinstance(e, IntegrityError):
six.reraise(utils.IntegrityError, utils.IntegrityError(*tuple(e.args)), sys.exc_info()[2])
raise
def executemany(self, query, params=None):
if not params:
# No params given, nothing to do
return None
# uniform treatment for sequences and iterables
params_iter = iter(params)
query, firstparams = self._fix_for_params(query, next(params_iter))
# we build a list of formatted params; as we're going to traverse it
# more than once, we can't make it lazy by using a generator
formatted = [firstparams] + [self._format_params(p) for p in params_iter]
self._guess_input_sizes(formatted)
try:
return self.cursor.executemany(query,
[self._param_generator(p) for p in formatted])
except Database.DatabaseError as e:
# cx_Oracle <= 4.4.0 wrongly raises a DatabaseError for ORA-01400.
if hasattr(e.args[0], 'code') and e.args[0].code == 1400 and not isinstance(e, IntegrityError):
six.reraise(utils.IntegrityError, utils.IntegrityError(*tuple(e.args)), sys.exc_info()[2])
raise
def fetchone(self):
row = self.cursor.fetchone()
if row is None:
return row
return _rowfactory(row, self.cursor)
def fetchmany(self, size=None):
if size is None:
size = self.arraysize
return tuple(_rowfactory(r, self.cursor) for r in self.cursor.fetchmany(size))
def fetchall(self):
return tuple(_rowfactory(r, self.cursor) for r in self.cursor.fetchall())
def close(self):
try:
self.cursor.close()
except Database.InterfaceError:
# already closed
pass
def var(self, *args):
return VariableWrapper(self.cursor.var(*args))
def arrayvar(self, *args):
return VariableWrapper(self.cursor.arrayvar(*args))
def __getattr__(self, attr):
if attr in self.__dict__:
return self.__dict__[attr]
else:
return getattr(self.cursor, attr)
def __iter__(self):
return CursorIterator(self.cursor)
class CursorIterator(six.Iterator):
"""Cursor iterator wrapper that invokes our custom row factory."""
def __init__(self, cursor):
self.cursor = cursor
self.iter = iter(cursor)
def __iter__(self):
return self
def __next__(self):
return _rowfactory(next(self.iter), self.cursor)
def _rowfactory(row, cursor):
# Cast numeric values as the appropriate Python type based upon the
# cursor description, and convert strings to unicode.
casted = []
for value, desc in zip(row, cursor.description):
if value is not None and desc[1] is Database.NUMBER:
precision, scale = desc[4:6]
if scale == -127:
if precision == 0:
# NUMBER column: decimal-precision floating point
# This will normally be an integer from a sequence,
# but it could be a decimal value.
if '.' in value:
value = decimal.Decimal(value)
else:
value = int(value)
else:
# FLOAT column: binary-precision floating point.
# This comes from FloatField columns.
value = float(value)
elif precision > 0:
# NUMBER(p,s) column: decimal-precision fixed point.
# This comes from IntField and DecimalField columns.
if scale == 0:
value = int(value)
else:
value = decimal.Decimal(value)
elif '.' in value:
# No type information. This normally comes from a
# mathematical expression in the SELECT list. Guess int
# or Decimal based on whether it has a decimal point.
value = decimal.Decimal(value)
else:
value = int(value)
elif desc[1] in (Database.STRING, Database.FIXED_CHAR,
Database.LONG_STRING):
value = to_unicode(value)
casted.append(value)
return tuple(casted)
def to_unicode(s):
"""
Convert strings to Unicode objects (and return all other data types
unchanged).
"""
if isinstance(s, six.string_types):
return force_text(s)
return s
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