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Form classes
import copy
from collections import OrderedDict
from django.core.exceptions import NON_FIELD_ERRORS, ValidationError
# BoundField is imported for backwards compatibility in Django 1.9
from django.forms.boundfield import BoundField # NOQA
from django.forms.fields import Field, FileField
# pretty_name is imported for backwards compatibility in Django 1.9
from django.forms.utils import ErrorDict, ErrorList, pretty_name # NOQA
from django.forms.widgets import Media, MediaDefiningClass
from django.utils.functional import cached_property
from django.utils.html import conditional_escape, html_safe
from django.utils.safestring import mark_safe
from django.utils.translation import gettext as _
from .renderers import get_default_renderer
__all__ = ('BaseForm', 'Form')
class DeclarativeFieldsMetaclass(MediaDefiningClass):
"""Collect Fields declared on the base classes."""
def __new__(mcs, name, bases, attrs):
# Collect fields from current class.
current_fields = []
for key, value in list(attrs.items()):
if isinstance(value, Field):
current_fields.append((key, value))
attrs['declared_fields'] = OrderedDict(current_fields)
new_class = super(DeclarativeFieldsMetaclass, mcs).__new__(mcs, name, bases, attrs)
# Walk through the MRO.
declared_fields = OrderedDict()
for base in reversed(new_class.__mro__):
# Collect fields from base class.
if hasattr(base, 'declared_fields'):
# Field shadowing.
for attr, value in base.__dict__.items():
if value is None and attr in declared_fields:
new_class.base_fields = declared_fields
new_class.declared_fields = declared_fields
return new_class
def __prepare__(metacls, name, bases, **kwds):
# Remember the order in which form fields are defined.
return OrderedDict()
class BaseForm:
The main implementation of all the Form logic. Note that this class is
different than Form. See the comments by the Form class for more info. Any
improvements to the form API should be made to this class, not to the Form
default_renderer = None
field_order = None
prefix = None
use_required_attribute = True
def __init__(self, data=None, files=None, auto_id='id_%s', prefix=None,
initial=None, error_class=ErrorList, label_suffix=None,
empty_permitted=False, field_order=None, use_required_attribute=None, renderer=None):
self.is_bound = data is not None or files is not None = {} if data is None else data
self.files = {} if files is None else files
self.auto_id = auto_id
if prefix is not None:
self.prefix = prefix
self.initial = initial or {}
self.error_class = error_class
# Translators: This is the default suffix added to form field labels
self.label_suffix = label_suffix if label_suffix is not None else _(':')
self.empty_permitted = empty_permitted
self._errors = None # Stores the errors after clean() has been called.
# The base_fields class attribute is the *class-wide* definition of
# fields. Because a particular *instance* of the class might want to
# alter self.fields, we create self.fields here by copying base_fields.
# Instances should always modify self.fields; they should not modify
# self.base_fields.
self.fields = copy.deepcopy(self.base_fields)
self._bound_fields_cache = {}
self.order_fields(self.field_order if field_order is None else field_order)
if use_required_attribute is not None:
self.use_required_attribute = use_required_attribute
# Initialize form renderer. Use a global default if not specified
# either as an argument or as self.default_renderer.
if renderer is None:
if self.default_renderer is None:
renderer = get_default_renderer()
renderer = self.default_renderer
if isinstance(self.default_renderer, type):
renderer = renderer()
self.renderer = renderer
def order_fields(self, field_order):
Rearrange the fields according to field_order.
field_order is a list of field names specifying the order. Append fields
not included in the list in the default order for backward compatibility
with subclasses not overriding field_order. If field_order is None,
keep all fields in the order defined in the class. Ignore unknown
fields in field_order to allow disabling fields in form subclasses
without redefining ordering.
if field_order is None:
fields = OrderedDict()
for key in field_order:
fields[key] = self.fields.pop(key)
except KeyError: # ignore unknown fields
fields.update(self.fields) # add remaining fields in original order
self.fields = fields
def __str__(self):
return self.as_table()
def __repr__(self):
if self._errors is None:
is_valid = "Unknown"
is_valid = self.is_bound and not bool(self._errors)
return '<%(cls)s bound=%(bound)s, valid=%(valid)s, fields=(%(fields)s)>' % {
'cls': self.__class__.__name__,
'bound': self.is_bound,
'valid': is_valid,
'fields': ';'.join(self.fields),
def __iter__(self):
for name in self.fields:
yield self[name]
def __getitem__(self, name):
"""Return a BoundField with the given name."""
field = self.fields[name]
except KeyError:
raise KeyError(
"Key '%s' not found in '%s'. Choices are: %s." % (
', '.join(sorted(f for f in self.fields)),
if name not in self._bound_fields_cache:
self._bound_fields_cache[name] = field.get_bound_field(self, name)
return self._bound_fields_cache[name]
def errors(self):
"""Return an ErrorDict for the data provided for the form."""
if self._errors is None:
return self._errors
def is_valid(self):
"""Return True if the form has no errors, or False otherwise."""
return self.is_bound and not self.errors
def add_prefix(self, field_name):
Return the field name with a prefix appended, if this Form has a
prefix set.
Subclasses may wish to override.
return '%s-%s' % (self.prefix, field_name) if self.prefix else field_name
def add_initial_prefix(self, field_name):
"""Add a 'initial' prefix for checking dynamic initial values."""
return 'initial-%s' % self.add_prefix(field_name)
def _html_output(self, normal_row, error_row, row_ender, help_text_html, errors_on_separate_row):
"Output HTML. Used by as_table(), as_ul(), as_p()."
top_errors = self.non_field_errors() # Errors that should be displayed above all fields.
output, hidden_fields = [], []
for name, field in self.fields.items():
html_class_attr = ''
bf = self[name]
# Escape and cache in local variable.
bf_errors = self.error_class([conditional_escape(error) for error in bf.errors])
if bf.is_hidden:
if bf_errors:
[_('(Hidden field %(name)s) %(error)s') % {'name': name, 'error': str(e)}
for e in bf_errors])
# Create a 'class="..."' attribute if the row should have any
# CSS classes applied.
css_classes = bf.css_classes()
if css_classes:
html_class_attr = ' class="%s"' % css_classes
if errors_on_separate_row and bf_errors:
output.append(error_row % str(bf_errors))
if bf.label:
label = conditional_escape(bf.label)
label = bf.label_tag(label) or ''
label = ''
if field.help_text:
help_text = help_text_html % field.help_text
help_text = ''
output.append(normal_row % {
'errors': bf_errors,
'label': label,
'field': bf,
'help_text': help_text,
'html_class_attr': html_class_attr,
'css_classes': css_classes,
'field_name': bf.html_name,
if top_errors:
output.insert(0, error_row % top_errors)
if hidden_fields: # Insert any hidden fields in the last row.
str_hidden = ''.join(hidden_fields)
if output:
last_row = output[-1]
# Chop off the trailing row_ender (e.g. '</td></tr>') and
# insert the hidden fields.
if not last_row.endswith(row_ender):
# This can happen in the as_p() case (and possibly others
# that users write): if there are only top errors, we may
# not be able to conscript the last row for our purposes,
# so insert a new, empty row.
last_row = (normal_row % {
'errors': '',
'label': '',
'field': '',
'help_text': '',
'html_class_attr': html_class_attr,
'css_classes': '',
'field_name': '',
output[-1] = last_row[:-len(row_ender)] + str_hidden + row_ender
# If there aren't any rows in the output, just append the
# hidden fields.
return mark_safe('\n'.join(output))
def as_table(self):
"Return this form rendered as HTML <tr>s -- excluding the <table></table>."
return self._html_output(
error_row='<tr><td colspan="2">%s</td></tr>',
help_text_html='<br /><span class="helptext">%s</span>',
def as_ul(self):
"Return this form rendered as HTML <li>s -- excluding the <ul></ul>."
return self._html_output(
normal_row='<li%(html_class_attr)s>%(errors)s%(label)s %(field)s%(help_text)s</li>',
help_text_html=' <span class="helptext">%s</span>',
def as_p(self):
"Return this form rendered as HTML <p>s."
return self._html_output(
normal_row='<p%(html_class_attr)s>%(label)s %(field)s%(help_text)s</p>',
help_text_html=' <span class="helptext">%s</span>',
def non_field_errors(self):
Return an ErrorList of errors that aren't associated with a particular
field -- i.e., from Form.clean(). Return an empty ErrorList if there
are none.
return self.errors.get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS, self.error_class(error_class='nonfield'))
def add_error(self, field, error):
Update the content of `self._errors`.
The `field` argument is the name of the field to which the errors
should be added. If it's None, treat the errors as NON_FIELD_ERRORS.
The `error` argument can be a single error, a list of errors, or a
dictionary that maps field names to lists of errors. An "error" can be
either a simple string or an instance of ValidationError with its
message attribute set and a "list or dictionary" can be an actual
`list` or `dict` or an instance of ValidationError with its
`error_list` or `error_dict` attribute set.
If `error` is a dictionary, the `field` argument *must* be None and
errors will be added to the fields that correspond to the keys of the
if not isinstance(error, ValidationError):
# Normalize to ValidationError and let its constructor
# do the hard work of making sense of the input.
error = ValidationError(error)
if hasattr(error, 'error_dict'):
if field is not None:
raise TypeError(
"The argument `field` must be `None` when the `error` "
"argument contains errors for multiple fields."
error = error.error_dict
error = {field or NON_FIELD_ERRORS: error.error_list}
for field, error_list in error.items():
if field not in self.errors:
if field != NON_FIELD_ERRORS and field not in self.fields:
raise ValueError(
"'%s' has no field named '%s'." % (self.__class__.__name__, field))
if field == NON_FIELD_ERRORS:
self._errors[field] = self.error_class(error_class='nonfield')
self._errors[field] = self.error_class()
if field in self.cleaned_data:
del self.cleaned_data[field]
def has_error(self, field, code=None):
if code is None:
return field in self.errors
if field in self.errors:
for error in self.errors.as_data()[field]:
if error.code == code:
return True
return False
def full_clean(self):
Clean all of and populate self._errors and self.cleaned_data.
self._errors = ErrorDict()
if not self.is_bound: # Stop further processing.
self.cleaned_data = {}
# If the form is permitted to be empty, and none of the form data has
# changed from the initial data, short circuit any validation.
if self.empty_permitted and not self.has_changed():
def _clean_fields(self):
for name, field in self.fields.items():
# value_from_datadict() gets the data from the data dictionaries.
# Each widget type knows how to retrieve its own data, because some
# widgets split data over several HTML fields.
if field.disabled:
value = self.get_initial_for_field(field, name)
value = field.widget.value_from_datadict(, self.files, self.add_prefix(name))
if isinstance(field, FileField):
initial = self.get_initial_for_field(field, name)
value = field.clean(value, initial)
value = field.clean(value)
self.cleaned_data[name] = value
if hasattr(self, 'clean_%s' % name):
value = getattr(self, 'clean_%s' % name)()
self.cleaned_data[name] = value
except ValidationError as e:
self.add_error(name, e)
def _clean_form(self):
cleaned_data = self.clean()
except ValidationError as e:
self.add_error(None, e)
if cleaned_data is not None:
self.cleaned_data = cleaned_data
def _post_clean(self):
An internal hook for performing additional cleaning after form cleaning
is complete. Used for model validation in model forms.
def clean(self):
Hook for doing any extra form-wide cleaning after Field.clean() has been
called on every field. Any ValidationError raised by this method will
not be associated with a particular field; it will have a special-case
association with the field named '__all__'.
return self.cleaned_data
def has_changed(self):
"""Return True if data differs from initial."""
return bool(self.changed_data)
def changed_data(self):
data = []
for name, field in self.fields.items():
prefixed_name = self.add_prefix(name)
data_value = field.widget.value_from_datadict(, self.files, prefixed_name)
if not field.show_hidden_initial:
# Use the BoundField's initial as this is the value passed to
# the widget.
initial_value = self[name].initial
initial_prefixed_name = self.add_initial_prefix(name)
hidden_widget = field.hidden_widget()
initial_value = field.to_python(hidden_widget.value_from_datadict(, self.files, initial_prefixed_name))
except ValidationError:
# Always assume data has changed if validation fails.
if field.has_changed(initial_value, data_value):
return data
def media(self):
"""Return all media required to render the widgets on this form."""
media = Media()
for field in self.fields.values():
media = media +
return media
def is_multipart(self):
Return True if the form needs to be multipart-encoded, i.e. it has
FileInput, or False otherwise.
for field in self.fields.values():
if field.widget.needs_multipart_form:
return True
return False
def hidden_fields(self):
Return a list of all the BoundField objects that are hidden fields.
Useful for manual form layout in templates.
return [field for field in self if field.is_hidden]
def visible_fields(self):
Return a list of BoundField objects that aren't hidden fields.
The opposite of the hidden_fields() method.
return [field for field in self if not field.is_hidden]
def get_initial_for_field(self, field, field_name):
Return initial data for field on form. Use initial data from the form
or the field, in that order. Evaluate callable values.
value = self.initial.get(field_name, field.initial)
if callable(value):
value = value()
return value
class Form(BaseForm, metaclass=DeclarativeFieldsMetaclass):
"A collection of Fields, plus their associated data."
# This is a separate class from BaseForm in order to abstract the way
# self.fields is specified. This class (Form) is the one that does the
# fancy metaclass stuff purely for the semantic sugar -- it allows one
# to define a form using declarative syntax.
# BaseForm itself has no way of designating self.fields.