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import ctypes
import itertools
import logging
import multiprocessing
import os
import pickle
import textwrap
import unittest
from importlib import import_module
from io import StringIO
from django.core.management import call_command
from django.db import connections
from django.test import SimpleTestCase, TestCase
from django.test.utils import (
setup_databases as _setup_databases, setup_test_environment,
teardown_databases as _teardown_databases, teardown_test_environment,
)
from django.utils.datastructures import OrderedSet
try:
import tblib.pickling_support
except ImportError:
tblib = None
class DebugSQLTextTestResult(unittest.TextTestResult):
def __init__(self, stream, descriptions, verbosity):
self.logger = logging.getLogger('django.db.backends')
self.logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
super().__init__(stream, descriptions, verbosity)
def startTest(self, test):
self.debug_sql_stream = StringIO()
self.handler = logging.StreamHandler(self.debug_sql_stream)
self.logger.addHandler(self.handler)
super().startTest(test)
def stopTest(self, test):
super().stopTest(test)
self.logger.removeHandler(self.handler)
if self.showAll:
self.debug_sql_stream.seek(0)
self.stream.write(self.debug_sql_stream.read())
self.stream.writeln(self.separator2)
def addError(self, test, err):
super().addError(test, err)
self.debug_sql_stream.seek(0)
self.errors[-1] = self.errors[-1] + (self.debug_sql_stream.read(),)
def addFailure(self, test, err):
super().addFailure(test, err)
self.debug_sql_stream.seek(0)
self.failures[-1] = self.failures[-1] + (self.debug_sql_stream.read(),)
def addSubTest(self, test, subtest, err):
super().addSubTest(test, subtest, err)
if err is not None:
self.debug_sql_stream.seek(0)
errors = self.failures if issubclass(err[0], test.failureException) else self.errors
errors[-1] = errors[-1] + (self.debug_sql_stream.read(),)
def printErrorList(self, flavour, errors):
for test, err, sql_debug in errors:
self.stream.writeln(self.separator1)
self.stream.writeln("%s: %s" % (flavour, self.getDescription(test)))
self.stream.writeln(self.separator2)
self.stream.writeln("%s" % err)
self.stream.writeln(self.separator2)
self.stream.writeln("%s" % sql_debug)
class RemoteTestResult:
"""
Record information about which tests have succeeded and which have failed.
The sole purpose of this class is to record events in the child processes
so they can be replayed in the master process. As a consequence it doesn't
inherit unittest.TestResult and doesn't attempt to implement all its API.
The implementation matches the unpythonic coding style of unittest2.
"""
def __init__(self):
if tblib is not None:
tblib.pickling_support.install()
self.events = []
self.failfast = False
self.shouldStop = False
self.testsRun = 0
@property
def test_index(self):
return self.testsRun - 1
def _confirm_picklable(self, obj):
"""
Confirm that obj can be pickled and unpickled as multiprocessing will
need to pickle the exception in the child process and unpickle it in
the parent process. Let the exception rise, if not.
"""
pickle.loads(pickle.dumps(obj))
def _print_unpicklable_subtest(self, test, subtest, pickle_exc):
print("""
Subtest failed:
test: {}
subtest: {}
Unfortunately, the subtest that failed cannot be pickled, so the parallel
test runner cannot handle it cleanly. Here is the pickling error:
> {}
You should re-run this test with --parallel=1 to reproduce the failure
with a cleaner failure message.
""".format(test, subtest, pickle_exc))
def check_picklable(self, test, err):
# Ensure that sys.exc_info() tuples are picklable. This displays a
# clear multiprocessing.pool.RemoteTraceback generated in the child
# process instead of a multiprocessing.pool.MaybeEncodingError, making
# the root cause easier to figure out for users who aren't familiar
# with the multiprocessing module. Since we're in a forked process,
# our best chance to communicate with them is to print to stdout.
try:
self._confirm_picklable(err)
except Exception as exc:
original_exc_txt = repr(err[1])
original_exc_txt = textwrap.fill(original_exc_txt, 75, initial_indent=' ', subsequent_indent=' ')
pickle_exc_txt = repr(exc)
pickle_exc_txt = textwrap.fill(pickle_exc_txt, 75, initial_indent=' ', subsequent_indent=' ')
if tblib is None:
print("""
{} failed:
{}
Unfortunately, tracebacks cannot be pickled, making it impossible for the
parallel test runner to handle this exception cleanly.
In order to see the traceback, you should install tblib:
pip install tblib
""".format(test, original_exc_txt))
else:
print("""
{} failed:
{}
Unfortunately, the exception it raised cannot be pickled, making it impossible
for the parallel test runner to handle it cleanly.
Here's the error encountered while trying to pickle the exception:
{}
You should re-run this test with the --parallel=1 option to reproduce the
failure and get a correct traceback.
""".format(test, original_exc_txt, pickle_exc_txt))
raise
def check_subtest_picklable(self, test, subtest):
try:
self._confirm_picklable(subtest)
except Exception as exc:
self._print_unpicklable_subtest(test, subtest, exc)
raise
def stop_if_failfast(self):
if self.failfast:
self.stop()
def stop(self):
self.shouldStop = True
def startTestRun(self):
self.events.append(('startTestRun',))
def stopTestRun(self):
self.events.append(('stopTestRun',))
def startTest(self, test):
self.testsRun += 1
self.events.append(('startTest', self.test_index))
def stopTest(self, test):
self.events.append(('stopTest', self.test_index))
def addError(self, test, err):
self.check_picklable(test, err)
self.events.append(('addError', self.test_index, err))
self.stop_if_failfast()
def addFailure(self, test, err):
self.check_picklable(test, err)
self.events.append(('addFailure', self.test_index, err))
self.stop_if_failfast()
def addSubTest(self, test, subtest, err):
# Follow Python 3.5's implementation of unittest.TestResult.addSubTest()
# by not doing anything when a subtest is successful.
if err is not None:
# Call check_picklable() before check_subtest_picklable() since
# check_picklable() performs the tblib check.
self.check_picklable(test, err)
self.check_subtest_picklable(test, subtest)
self.events.append(('addSubTest', self.test_index, subtest, err))
self.stop_if_failfast()
def addSuccess(self, test):
self.events.append(('addSuccess', self.test_index))
def addSkip(self, test, reason):
self.events.append(('addSkip', self.test_index, reason))
def addExpectedFailure(self, test, err):
# If tblib isn't installed, pickling the traceback will always fail.
# However we don't want tblib to be required for running the tests
# when they pass or fail as expected. Drop the traceback when an
# expected failure occurs.
if tblib is None:
err = err[0], err[1], None
self.check_picklable(test, err)
self.events.append(('addExpectedFailure', self.test_index, err))
def addUnexpectedSuccess(self, test):
self.events.append(('addUnexpectedSuccess', self.test_index))
self.stop_if_failfast()
class RemoteTestRunner:
"""
Run tests and record everything but don't display anything.
The implementation matches the unpythonic coding style of unittest2.
"""
resultclass = RemoteTestResult
def __init__(self, failfast=False, resultclass=None):
self.failfast = failfast
if resultclass is not None:
self.resultclass = resultclass
def run(self, test):
result = self.resultclass()
unittest.registerResult(result)
result.failfast = self.failfast
test(result)
return result
def default_test_processes():
"""Default number of test processes when using the --parallel option."""
# The current implementation of the parallel test runner requires
# multiprocessing to start subprocesses with fork().
if multiprocessing.get_start_method() != 'fork':
return 1
try:
return int(os.environ['DJANGO_TEST_PROCESSES'])
except KeyError:
return multiprocessing.cpu_count()
_worker_id = 0
def _init_worker(counter):
"""
Switch to databases dedicated to this worker.
This helper lives at module-level because of the multiprocessing module's
requirements.
"""
global _worker_id
with counter.get_lock():
counter.value += 1
_worker_id = counter.value
for alias in connections:
connection = connections[alias]
settings_dict = connection.creation.get_test_db_clone_settings(str(_worker_id))
# connection.settings_dict must be updated in place for changes to be
# reflected in django.db.connections. If the following line assigned
# connection.settings_dict = settings_dict, new threads would connect
# to the default database instead of the appropriate clone.
connection.settings_dict.update(settings_dict)
connection.close()
def _run_subsuite(args):
"""
Run a suite of tests with a RemoteTestRunner and return a RemoteTestResult.
This helper lives at module-level and its arguments are wrapped in a tuple
because of the multiprocessing module's requirements.
"""
runner_class, subsuite_index, subsuite, failfast = args
runner = runner_class(failfast=failfast)
result = runner.run(subsuite)
return subsuite_index, result.events
class ParallelTestSuite(unittest.TestSuite):
"""
Run a series of tests in parallel in several processes.
While the unittest module's documentation implies that orchestrating the
execution of tests is the responsibility of the test runner, in practice,
it appears that TestRunner classes are more concerned with formatting and
displaying test results.
Since there are fewer use cases for customizing TestSuite than TestRunner,
implementing parallelization at the level of the TestSuite improves
interoperability with existing custom test runners. A single instance of a
test runner can still collect results from all tests without being aware
that they have been run in parallel.
"""
# In case someone wants to modify these in a subclass.
init_worker = _init_worker
run_subsuite = _run_subsuite
runner_class = RemoteTestRunner
def __init__(self, suite, processes, failfast=False):
self.subsuites = partition_suite_by_case(suite)
self.processes = processes
self.failfast = failfast
super().__init__()
def run(self, result):
"""
Distribute test cases across workers.
Return an identifier of each test case with its result in order to use
imap_unordered to show results as soon as they're available.
To minimize pickling errors when getting results from workers:
- pass back numeric indexes in self.subsuites instead of tests
- make tracebacks picklable with tblib, if available
Even with tblib, errors may still occur for dynamically created
exception classes which cannot be unpickled.
"""
counter = multiprocessing.Value(ctypes.c_int, 0)
pool = multiprocessing.Pool(
processes=self.processes,
initializer=self.init_worker.__func__,
initargs=[counter])
args = [
(self.runner_class, index, subsuite, self.failfast)
for index, subsuite in enumerate(self.subsuites)
]
test_results = pool.imap_unordered(self.run_subsuite.__func__, args)
while True:
if result.shouldStop:
pool.terminate()
break
try:
subsuite_index, events = test_results.next(timeout=0.1)
except multiprocessing.TimeoutError:
continue
except StopIteration:
pool.close()
break
tests = list(self.subsuites[subsuite_index])
for event in events:
event_name = event[0]
handler = getattr(result, event_name, None)
if handler is None:
continue
test = tests[event[1]]
args = event[2:]
handler(test, *args)
pool.join()
return result
class DiscoverRunner:
"""A Django test runner that uses unittest2 test discovery."""
test_suite = unittest.TestSuite
parallel_test_suite = ParallelTestSuite
test_runner = unittest.TextTestRunner
test_loader = unittest.defaultTestLoader
reorder_by = (TestCase, SimpleTestCase)
def __init__(self, pattern=None, top_level=None, verbosity=1,
interactive=True, failfast=False, keepdb=False,
reverse=False, debug_mode=False, debug_sql=False, parallel=0,
tags=None, exclude_tags=None, **kwargs):
self.pattern = pattern
self.top_level = top_level
self.verbosity = verbosity
self.interactive = interactive
self.failfast = failfast
self.keepdb = keepdb
self.reverse = reverse
self.debug_mode = debug_mode
self.debug_sql = debug_sql
self.parallel = parallel
self.tags = set(tags or [])
self.exclude_tags = set(exclude_tags or [])
@classmethod
def add_arguments(cls, parser):
parser.add_argument(
'-t', '--top-level-directory', action='store', dest='top_level', default=None,
help='Top level of project for unittest discovery.',
)
parser.add_argument(
'-p', '--pattern', action='store', dest='pattern', default="test*.py",
help='The test matching pattern. Defaults to test*.py.',
)
parser.add_argument(
'-k', '--keepdb', action='store_true', dest='keepdb',
help='Preserves the test DB between runs.'
)
parser.add_argument(
'-r', '--reverse', action='store_true', dest='reverse',
help='Reverses test cases order.',
)
parser.add_argument(
'--debug-mode', action='store_true', dest='debug_mode',
help='Sets settings.DEBUG to True.',
)
parser.add_argument(
'-d', '--debug-sql', action='store_true', dest='debug_sql',
help='Prints logged SQL queries on failure.',
)
parser.add_argument(
'--parallel', dest='parallel', nargs='?', default=1, type=int,
const=default_test_processes(), metavar='N',
help='Run tests using up to N parallel processes.',
)
parser.add_argument(
'--tag', action='append', dest='tags',
help='Run only tests with the specified tag. Can be used multiple times.',
)
parser.add_argument(
'--exclude-tag', action='append', dest='exclude_tags',
help='Do not run tests with the specified tag. Can be used multiple times.',
)
def setup_test_environment(self, **kwargs):
setup_test_environment(debug=self.debug_mode)
unittest.installHandler()
def build_suite(self, test_labels=None, extra_tests=None, **kwargs):
suite = self.test_suite()
test_labels = test_labels or ['.']
extra_tests = extra_tests or []
discover_kwargs = {}
if self.pattern is not None:
discover_kwargs['pattern'] = self.pattern
if self.top_level is not None:
discover_kwargs['top_level_dir'] = self.top_level
for label in test_labels:
kwargs = discover_kwargs.copy()
tests = None
label_as_path = os.path.abspath(label)
# if a module, or "module.ClassName[.method_name]", just run those
if not os.path.exists(label_as_path):
tests = self.test_loader.loadTestsFromName(label)
elif os.path.isdir(label_as_path) and not self.top_level:
# Try to be a bit smarter than unittest about finding the
# default top-level for a given directory path, to avoid
# breaking relative imports. (Unittest's default is to set
# top-level equal to the path, which means relative imports
# will result in "Attempted relative import in non-package.").
# We'd be happy to skip this and require dotted module paths
# (which don't cause this problem) instead of file paths (which
# do), but in the case of a directory in the cwd, which would
# be equally valid if considered as a top-level module or as a
# directory path, unittest unfortunately prefers the latter.
top_level = label_as_path
while True:
init_py = os.path.join(top_level, '__init__.py')
if os.path.exists(init_py):
try_next = os.path.dirname(top_level)
if try_next == top_level:
# __init__.py all the way down? give up.
break
top_level = try_next
continue
break
kwargs['top_level_dir'] = top_level
if not (tests and tests.countTestCases()) and is_discoverable(label):
# Try discovery if path is a package or directory
tests = self.test_loader.discover(start_dir=label, **kwargs)
# Make unittest forget the top-level dir it calculated from this
# run, to support running tests from two different top-levels.
self.test_loader._top_level_dir = None
suite.addTests(tests)
for test in extra_tests:
suite.addTest(test)
if self.tags or self.exclude_tags:
suite = filter_tests_by_tags(suite, self.tags, self.exclude_tags)
suite = reorder_suite(suite, self.reorder_by, self.reverse)
if self.parallel > 1:
parallel_suite = self.parallel_test_suite(suite, self.parallel, self.failfast)
# Since tests are distributed across processes on a per-TestCase
# basis, there's no need for more processes than TestCases.
parallel_units = len(parallel_suite.subsuites)
if self.parallel > parallel_units:
self.parallel = parallel_units
# If there's only one TestCase, parallelization isn't needed.
if self.parallel > 1:
suite = parallel_suite
return suite
def setup_databases(self, **kwargs):
return _setup_databases(
self.verbosity, self.interactive, self.keepdb, self.debug_sql,
self.parallel, **kwargs
)
def get_resultclass(self):
return DebugSQLTextTestResult if self.debug_sql else None
def get_test_runner_kwargs(self):
return {
'failfast': self.failfast,
'resultclass': self.get_resultclass(),
'verbosity': self.verbosity,
}
def run_checks(self):
# Checks are run after database creation since some checks require
# database access.
call_command('check', verbosity=self.verbosity)
def run_suite(self, suite, **kwargs):
kwargs = self.get_test_runner_kwargs()
runner = self.test_runner(**kwargs)
return runner.run(suite)
def teardown_databases(self, old_config, **kwargs):
"""Destroy all the non-mirror databases."""
_teardown_databases(
old_config,
verbosity=self.verbosity,
parallel=self.parallel,
keepdb=self.keepdb,
)
def teardown_test_environment(self, **kwargs):
unittest.removeHandler()
teardown_test_environment()
def suite_result(self, suite, result, **kwargs):
return len(result.failures) + len(result.errors)
def run_tests(self, test_labels, extra_tests=None, **kwargs):
"""
Run the unit tests for all the test labels in the provided list.
Test labels should be dotted Python paths to test modules, test
classes, or test methods.
A list of 'extra' tests may also be provided; these tests
will be added to the test suite.
Return the number of tests that failed.
"""
self.setup_test_environment()
suite = self.build_suite(test_labels, extra_tests)
old_config = self.setup_databases()
self.run_checks()
result = self.run_suite(suite)
self.teardown_databases(old_config)
self.teardown_test_environment()
return self.suite_result(suite, result)
def is_discoverable(label):
"""
Check if a test label points to a python package or file directory.
Relative labels like "." and ".." are seen as directories.
"""
try:
mod = import_module(label)
except (ImportError, TypeError):
pass
else:
return hasattr(mod, '__path__')
return os.path.isdir(os.path.abspath(label))
def reorder_suite(suite, classes, reverse=False):
"""
Reorder a test suite by test type.
`classes` is a sequence of types
All tests of type classes[0] are placed first, then tests of type
classes[1], etc. Tests with no match in classes are placed last.
If `reverse` is True, sort tests within classes in opposite order but
don't reverse test classes.
"""
class_count = len(classes)
suite_class = type(suite)
bins = [OrderedSet() for i in range(class_count + 1)]
partition_suite_by_type(suite, classes, bins, reverse=reverse)
reordered_suite = suite_class()
for i in range(class_count + 1):
reordered_suite.addTests(bins[i])
return reordered_suite
def partition_suite_by_type(suite, classes, bins, reverse=False):
"""
Partition a test suite by test type. Also prevent duplicated tests.
classes is a sequence of types
bins is a sequence of TestSuites, one more than classes
reverse changes the ordering of tests within bins
Tests of type classes[i] are added to bins[i],
tests with no match found in classes are place in bins[-1]
"""
suite_class = type(suite)
if reverse:
suite = reversed(tuple(suite))
for test in suite:
if isinstance(test, suite_class):
partition_suite_by_type(test, classes, bins, reverse=reverse)
else:
for i in range(len(classes)):
if isinstance(test, classes[i]):
bins[i].add(test)
break
else:
bins[-1].add(test)
def partition_suite_by_case(suite):
"""Partition a test suite by test case, preserving the order of tests."""
groups = []
suite_class = type(suite)
for test_type, test_group in itertools.groupby(suite, type):
if issubclass(test_type, unittest.TestCase):
groups.append(suite_class(test_group))
else:
for item in test_group:
groups.extend(partition_suite_by_case(item))
return groups
def filter_tests_by_tags(suite, tags, exclude_tags):
suite_class = type(suite)
filtered_suite = suite_class()
for test in suite:
if isinstance(test, suite_class):
filtered_suite.addTests(filter_tests_by_tags(test, tags, exclude_tags))
else:
test_tags = set(getattr(test, 'tags', set()))
test_fn_name = getattr(test, '_testMethodName', str(test))
test_fn = getattr(test, test_fn_name, test)
test_fn_tags = set(getattr(test_fn, 'tags', set()))
all_tags = test_tags.union(test_fn_tags)
matched_tags = all_tags.intersection(tags)
if (matched_tags or not tags) and not all_tags.intersection(exclude_tags):
filtered_suite.addTest(test)
return filtered_suite