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# This code was mostly based on ipaddr-py
# Copyright 2007 Google Inc.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License").
import re
from django.core.exceptions import ValidationError
from django.utils.six.moves import range
from django.utils.translation import ugettext_lazy as _
def clean_ipv6_address(ip_str, unpack_ipv4=False,
error_message=_("This is not a valid IPv6 address.")):
Cleans an IPv6 address string.
Validity is checked by calling is_valid_ipv6_address() - if an
invalid address is passed, ValidationError is raised.
Replaces the longest continuous zero-sequence with "::" and
removes leading zeroes and makes sure all hextets are lowercase.
ip_str: A valid IPv6 address.
unpack_ipv4: if an IPv4-mapped address is found,
return the plain IPv4 address (default=False).
error_message: An error message used in the ValidationError.
A compressed IPv6 address, or the same value
best_doublecolon_start = -1
best_doublecolon_len = 0
doublecolon_start = -1
doublecolon_len = 0
if not is_valid_ipv6_address(ip_str):
raise ValidationError(error_message, code='invalid')
# This algorithm can only handle fully exploded
# IP strings
ip_str = _explode_shorthand_ip_string(ip_str)
ip_str = _sanitize_ipv4_mapping(ip_str)
# If needed, unpack the IPv4 and return straight away
# - no need in running the rest of the algorithm
if unpack_ipv4:
ipv4_unpacked = _unpack_ipv4(ip_str)
if ipv4_unpacked:
return ipv4_unpacked
hextets = ip_str.split(":")
for index in range(len(hextets)):
# Remove leading zeroes
if '.' not in hextets[index]:
hextets[index] = hextets[index].lstrip('0')
if not hextets[index]:
hextets[index] = '0'
# Determine best hextet to compress
if hextets[index] == '0':
doublecolon_len += 1
if doublecolon_start == -1:
# Start of a sequence of zeros.
doublecolon_start = index
if doublecolon_len > best_doublecolon_len:
# This is the longest sequence of zeros so far.
best_doublecolon_len = doublecolon_len
best_doublecolon_start = doublecolon_start
doublecolon_len = 0
doublecolon_start = -1
# Compress the most suitable hextet
if best_doublecolon_len > 1:
best_doublecolon_end = (best_doublecolon_start +
# For zeros at the end of the address.
if best_doublecolon_end == len(hextets):
hextets += ['']
hextets[best_doublecolon_start:best_doublecolon_end] = ['']
# For zeros at the beginning of the address.
if best_doublecolon_start == 0:
hextets = [''] + hextets
result = ":".join(hextets)
return result.lower()
def _sanitize_ipv4_mapping(ip_str):
Sanitize IPv4 mapping in an expanded IPv6 address.
This converts ::ffff:0a0a:0a0a to ::ffff:
If there is nothing to sanitize, returns an unchanged
ip_str: A string, the expanded IPv6 address.
The sanitized output string, if applicable.
if not ip_str.lower().startswith('0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:ffff:'):
# not an ipv4 mapping
return ip_str
hextets = ip_str.split(':')
if '.' in hextets[-1]:
# already sanitized
return ip_str
ipv4_address = "%d.%d.%d.%d" % (
int(hextets[6][0:2], 16),
int(hextets[6][2:4], 16),
int(hextets[7][0:2], 16),
int(hextets[7][2:4], 16),
result = ':'.join(hextets[0:6])
result += ':' + ipv4_address
return result
def _unpack_ipv4(ip_str):
Unpack an IPv4 address that was mapped in a compressed IPv6 address.
This converts 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:ffff: to
If there is nothing to sanitize, returns None.
ip_str: A string, the expanded IPv6 address.
The unpacked IPv4 address, or None if there was nothing to unpack.
if not ip_str.lower().startswith('0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:ffff:'):
return None
return ip_str.rsplit(':', 1)[1]
def is_valid_ipv6_address(ip_str):
Ensure we have a valid IPv6 address.
ip_str: A string, the IPv6 address.
A boolean, True if this is a valid IPv6 address.
from django.core.validators import validate_ipv4_address
symbols_re = re.compile(r'^[0-9a-fA-F:.]+$')
if not symbols_re.match(ip_str):
return False
# We need to have at least one ':'.
if ':' not in ip_str:
return False
# We can only have one '::' shortener.
if ip_str.count('::') > 1:
return False
# '::' should be encompassed by start, digits or end.
if ':::' in ip_str:
return False
# A single colon can neither start nor end an address.
if ((ip_str.startswith(':') and not ip_str.startswith('::')) or
(ip_str.endswith(':') and not ip_str.endswith('::'))):
return False
# We can never have more than 7 ':' (1::2:3:4:5:6:7:8 is invalid)
if ip_str.count(':') > 7:
return False
# If we have no concatenation, we need to have 8 fields with 7 ':'.
if '::' not in ip_str and ip_str.count(':') != 7:
# We might have an IPv4 mapped address.
if ip_str.count('.') != 3:
return False
ip_str = _explode_shorthand_ip_string(ip_str)
# Now that we have that all squared away, let's check that each of the
# hextets are between 0x0 and 0xFFFF.
for hextet in ip_str.split(':'):
if hextet.count('.') == 3:
# If we have an IPv4 mapped address, the IPv4 portion has to
# be at the end of the IPv6 portion.
if not ip_str.split(':')[-1] == hextet:
return False
except ValidationError:
return False
# a value error here means that we got a bad hextet,
# something like 0xzzzz
if int(hextet, 16) < 0x0 or int(hextet, 16) > 0xFFFF:
return False
except ValueError:
return False
return True
def _explode_shorthand_ip_string(ip_str):
Expand a shortened IPv6 address.
ip_str: A string, the IPv6 address.
A string, the expanded IPv6 address.
if not _is_shorthand_ip(ip_str):
# We've already got a longhand ip_str.
return ip_str
new_ip = []
hextet = ip_str.split('::')
# If there is a ::, we need to expand it with zeroes
# to get to 8 hextets - unless there is a dot in the last hextet,
# meaning we're doing v4-mapping
if '.' in ip_str.split(':')[-1]:
fill_to = 7
fill_to = 8
if len(hextet) > 1:
sep = len(hextet[0].split(':')) + len(hextet[1].split(':'))
new_ip = hextet[0].split(':')
for __ in range(fill_to - sep):
new_ip += hextet[1].split(':')
new_ip = ip_str.split(':')
# Now need to make sure every hextet is 4 lower case characters.
# If a hextet is < 4 characters, we've got missing leading 0's.
ret_ip = []
for hextet in new_ip:
ret_ip.append(('0' * (4 - len(hextet)) + hextet).lower())
return ':'.join(ret_ip)
def _is_shorthand_ip(ip_str):
"""Determine if the address is shortened.
ip_str: A string, the IPv6 address.
A boolean, True if the address is shortened.
if ip_str.count('::') == 1:
return True
if any(len(x) < 4 for x in ip_str.split(':')):
return True
return False