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============================
How to use Django with uWSGI
============================
.. highlight:: bash
uWSGI_ is a fast, self-healing and developer/sysadmin-friendly application
container server coded in pure C.
.. _uWSGI: http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/
.. seealso::
The uWSGI docs offer a `tutorial`_ covering Django, nginx, and uWSGI (one
possible deployment setup of many). The docs below are focused on how to
integrate Django with uWSGI.
.. _tutorial: https://uwsgi.readthedocs.org/en/latest/tutorials/Django_and_nginx.html
Prerequisite: uWSGI
===================
The uWSGI wiki describes several `installation procedures`_. Using pip, the
Python package manager, you can install any uWSGI version with a single
command. For example:
.. code-block:: console
# Install current stable version.
$ pip install uwsgi
# Or install LTS (long term support).
$ pip install http://projects.unbit.it/downloads/uwsgi-lts.tar.gz
.. _installation procedures: http://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Install.html
.. warning::
Some distributions, including Debian and Ubuntu, ship an outdated version
of uWSGI that does not conform to the WSGI specification. Versions prior to
1.2.6 do not call ``close`` on the response object after handling a
request. In those cases the :data:`~django.core.signals.request_finished`
signal isn't sent. This can result in idle connections to database and
memcache servers.
uWSGI model
-----------
uWSGI operates on a client-server model. Your Web server (e.g., nginx, Apache)
communicates with a django-uwsgi "worker" process to serve dynamic content.
See uWSGI's `background documentation`_ for more detail.
.. _background documentation: http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/wiki/Background
Configuring and starting the uWSGI server for Django
----------------------------------------------------
uWSGI supports multiple ways to configure the process. See uWSGI's
`configuration documentation`_ and `examples`_.
.. _configuration documentation: https://uwsgi.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Configuration.html
.. _examples: http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/wiki/Example
Here's an example command to start a uWSGI server::
uwsgi --chdir=/path/to/your/project \
--module=mysite.wsgi:application \
--env DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=mysite.settings \
--master --pidfile=/tmp/project-master.pid \
--socket=127.0.0.1:49152 \ # can also be a file
--processes=5 \ # number of worker processes
--uid=1000 --gid=2000 \ # if root, uwsgi can drop privileges
--harakiri=20 \ # respawn processes taking more than 20 seconds
--max-requests=5000 \ # respawn processes after serving 5000 requests
--vacuum \ # clear environment on exit
--home=/path/to/virtual/env \ # optional path to a virtualenv
--daemonize=/var/log/uwsgi/yourproject.log # background the process
This assumes you have a top-level project package named ``mysite``, and
within it a module :file:`mysite/wsgi.py` that contains a WSGI ``application``
object. This is the layout you'll have if you ran ``django-admin
startproject mysite`` (using your own project name in place of ``mysite``) with
a recent version of Django. If this file doesn't exist, you'll need to create
it. See the :doc:`/howto/deployment/wsgi/index` documentation for the default
contents you should put in this file and what else you can add to it.
The Django-specific options here are:
* ``chdir``: The path to the directory that needs to be on Python's import
path -- i.e., the directory containing the ``mysite`` package.
* ``module``: The WSGI module to use -- probably the ``mysite.wsgi`` module
that :djadmin:`startproject` creates.
* ``env``: Should probably contain at least ``DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE``.
* ``home``: Optional path to your project virtualenv.
Example ini configuration file::
[uwsgi]
chdir=/path/to/your/project
module=mysite.wsgi:application
master=True
pidfile=/tmp/project-master.pid
vacuum=True
max-requests=5000
daemonize=/var/log/uwsgi/yourproject.log
Example ini configuration file usage::
uwsgi --ini uwsgi.ini
See the uWSGI docs on `managing the uWSGI process`_ for information on
starting, stopping and reloading the uWSGI workers.
.. _managing the uWSGI process: http://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Management.html
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