Skip to content
This repository

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
Fetching contributors…

Octocat-spinner-32-eaf2f5

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

file 1748 lines (1157 sloc) 58.852 kb
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747
=============================
django-admin.py and manage.py
=============================

``django-admin.py`` is Django's command-line utility for administrative tasks.
This document outlines all it can do.

In addition, ``manage.py`` is automatically created in each Django project.
``manage.py`` is a thin wrapper around ``django-admin.py`` that takes care of
two things for you before delegating to ``django-admin.py``:

* It puts your project's package on ``sys.path``.

* It sets the :envvar:`DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE` environment variable so that
  it points to your project's ``settings.py`` file.

* It calls ``django.setup()`` to initialize various internals of Django.

.. versionadded:: 1.7

    ``django.setup()`` didn't exist in previous versions of Django.

The ``django-admin.py`` script should be on your system path if you installed
Django via its ``setup.py`` utility. If it's not on your path, you can find it
in ``site-packages/django/bin`` within your Python installation. Consider
symlinking it from some place on your path, such as ``/usr/local/bin``.

For Windows users, who do not have symlinking functionality available, you can
copy ``django-admin.py`` to a location on your existing path or edit the
``PATH`` settings (under ``Settings - Control Panel - System - Advanced -
Environment...``) to point to its installed location.

Generally, when working on a single Django project, it's easier to use
``manage.py`` than ``django-admin.py``. If you need to switch between multiple
Django settings files, use ``django-admin.py`` with
:envvar:`DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE` or the :djadminopt:`--settings` command line
option.

The command-line examples throughout this document use ``django-admin.py`` to
be consistent, but any example can use ``manage.py`` just as well.

Usage
=====

.. code-block:: bash

    $ django-admin.py <command> [options]
    $ manage.py <command> [options]

``command`` should be one of the commands listed in this document.
``options``, which is optional, should be zero or more of the options available
for the given command.

Getting runtime help
--------------------

.. django-admin:: help

Run ``django-admin.py help`` to display usage information and a list of the
commands provided by each application.

Run ``django-admin.py help --commands`` to display a list of all available
commands.

Run ``django-admin.py help <command>`` to display a description of the given
command and a list of its available options.

App names
---------

Many commands take a list of "app names." An "app name" is the basename of
the package containing your models. For example, if your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
contains the string ``'mysite.blog'``, the app name is ``blog``.

Determining the version
-----------------------

.. django-admin:: version

Run ``django-admin.py version`` to display the current Django version.

The output follows the schema described in :pep:`386`::

    1.4.dev17026
    1.4a1
    1.4

Displaying debug output
-----------------------

Use :djadminopt:`--verbosity` to specify the amount of notification and debug information
that ``django-admin.py`` should print to the console. For more details, see the
documentation for the :djadminopt:`--verbosity` option.

Available commands
==================

check <appname appname ...>
---------------------------

.. django-admin:: check

.. versionchanged:: 1.7

Uses the :doc:`system check framework </ref/checks>` to inspect
the entire Django project for common problems.

The system check framework will confirm that there aren't any problems with
your installed models or your admin registrations. It will also provide warnings
of common compatibility problems introduced by upgrading Django to a new version.
Custom checks may be introduced by other libraries and applications.

By default, all apps will be checked. You can check a subset of apps by providing
a list of app labels as arguments::

    python manage.py check auth admin myapp

If you do not specify any app, all apps will be checked.

.. django-admin-option:: --tag <tagname>

The :doc:`system check framework </ref/checks>` performs many different
types of checks. These check types are categorized with tags. You can use these tags
to restrict the checks performed to just those in a particular category. For example,
to perform only security and compatibility checks, you would run::

    python manage.py check --tag security --tag compatibility

.. django-admin-option:: --list-tags

List all available tags.

compilemessages
---------------

.. django-admin:: compilemessages

Compiles .po files created by :djadmin:`makemessages` to .mo files for use with
the builtin gettext support. See :doc:`/topics/i18n/index`.

Use the :djadminopt:`--locale` option (or its shorter version ``-l``) to
specify the locale(s) to process. If not provided, all locales are processed.

Example usage::

    django-admin.py compilemessages --locale=pt_BR
    django-admin.py compilemessages --locale=pt_BR --locale=fr
    django-admin.py compilemessages -l pt_BR
    django-admin.py compilemessages -l pt_BR -l fr

createcachetable
----------------

.. django-admin:: createcachetable

Creates the cache tables for use with the database cache backend. See
:doc:`/topics/cache` for more information.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database
onto which the cachetable will be installed.

.. versionchanged:: 1.7

    It is no longer necessary to provide the cache table name or the
    :djadminopt:`--database` option. Django takes this information from your
    settings file. If you have configured multiple caches or multiple databases,
    all cache tables are created.

dbshell
-------

.. django-admin:: dbshell

Runs the command-line client for the database engine specified in your
``ENGINE`` setting, with the connection parameters specified in your
:setting:`USER`, :setting:`PASSWORD`, etc., settings.

* For PostgreSQL, this runs the ``psql`` command-line client.
* For MySQL, this runs the ``mysql`` command-line client.
* For SQLite, this runs the ``sqlite3`` command-line client.

This command assumes the programs are on your ``PATH`` so that a simple call to
the program name (``psql``, ``mysql``, ``sqlite3``) will find the program in
the right place. There's no way to specify the location of the program
manually.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database
onto which to open a shell.

diffsettings
------------

.. django-admin:: diffsettings

Displays differences between the current settings file and Django's default
settings.

Settings that don't appear in the defaults are followed by ``"###"``. For
example, the default settings don't define :setting:`ROOT_URLCONF`, so
:setting:`ROOT_URLCONF` is followed by ``"###"`` in the output of
``diffsettings``.

The :djadminopt:`--all` option may be provided to display all settings, even
if they have Django's default value. Such settings are prefixed by ``"###"``.

dumpdata <app_label app_label app_label.Model ...>
--------------------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: dumpdata

Outputs to standard output all data in the database associated with the named
application(s).

If no application name is provided, all installed applications will be dumped.

The output of ``dumpdata`` can be used as input for :djadmin:`loaddata`.

Note that ``dumpdata`` uses the default manager on the model for selecting the
records to dump. If you're using a :ref:`custom manager <custom-managers>` as
the default manager and it filters some of the available records, not all of the
objects will be dumped.

The :djadminopt:`--all` option may be provided to specify that
``dumpdata`` should use Django's base manager, dumping records which
might otherwise be filtered or modified by a custom manager.

.. django-admin-option:: --format <fmt>

By default, ``dumpdata`` will format its output in JSON, but you can use the
``--format`` option to specify another format. Currently supported formats
are listed in :ref:`serialization-formats`.

.. django-admin-option:: --indent <num>

By default, ``dumpdata`` will output all data on a single line. This isn't
easy for humans to read, so you can use the ``--indent`` option to
pretty-print the output with a number of indentation spaces.

The :djadminopt:`--exclude` option may be provided to prevent specific
applications or models (specified as in the form of ``app_label.ModelName``)
from being dumped. If you specify a model name to ``dumpdata``, the dumped
output will be restricted to that model, rather than the entire application.
You can also mix application names and model names.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database
from which data will be dumped.

.. django-admin-option:: --natural-foreign

.. versionadded:: 1.7

When this option is specified, Django will use the ``natural_key()`` model
method to serialize any foreign key and many-to-many relationship to objects of
the type that defines the method. If you are dumping ``contrib.auth``
``Permission`` objects or ``contrib.contenttypes`` ``ContentType`` objects, you
should probably be using this flag. See the :ref:`natural keys
<topics-serialization-natural-keys>` documentation for more details on this
and the next option.

.. django-admin-option:: --natural-primary

.. versionadded:: 1.7

When this option is specified, Django will not provide the primary key in the
serialized data of this object since it can be calculated during
deserialization.

.. django-admin-option:: --natural

.. deprecated:: 1.7
    Equivalent to the :djadminopt:`--natural-foreign` option; use that instead.

Use :ref:`natural keys <topics-serialization-natural-keys>` to represent
any foreign key and many-to-many relationship with a model that provides
a natural key definition.

.. django-admin-option:: --pks

By default, ``dumpdata`` will output all the records of the model, but
you can use the ``--pks`` option to specify a comma separated list of
primary keys on which to filter. This is only available when dumping
one model.

.. django-admin-option:: --output

.. versionadded:: 1.8

By default ``dumpdata`` will output all the serialized data to standard output.
This options allows to specify the file to which the data is to be written.

flush
-----

.. django-admin:: flush

Removes all data from the database, re-executes any post-synchronization
handlers, and reinstalls any initial data fixtures.

The :djadminopt:`--noinput` option may be provided to suppress all user
prompts.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option may be used to specify the database
to flush.

``--no-initial-data``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Use ``--no-initial-data`` to avoid loading the initial_data fixture.


inspectdb
---------

.. django-admin:: inspectdb

Introspects the database tables in the database pointed-to by the
:setting:`NAME` setting and outputs a Django model module (a ``models.py``
file) to standard output.

Use this if you have a legacy database with which you'd like to use Django.
The script will inspect the database and create a model for each table within
it.

As you might expect, the created models will have an attribute for every field
in the table. Note that ``inspectdb`` has a few special cases in its field-name
output:

* If ``inspectdb`` cannot map a column's type to a model field type, it'll
  use ``TextField`` and will insert the Python comment
  ``'This field type is a guess.'`` next to the field in the generated
  model.

* If the database column name is a Python reserved word (such as
  ``'pass'``, ``'class'`` or ``'for'``), ``inspectdb`` will append
  ``'_field'`` to the attribute name. For example, if a table has a column
  ``'for'``, the generated model will have a field ``'for_field'``, with
  the ``db_column`` attribute set to ``'for'``. ``inspectdb`` will insert
  the Python comment
  ``'Field renamed because it was a Python reserved word.'`` next to the
  field.

This feature is meant as a shortcut, not as definitive model generation. After
you run it, you'll want to look over the generated models yourself to make
customizations. In particular, you'll need to rearrange models' order, so that
models that refer to other models are ordered properly.

Primary keys are automatically introspected for PostgreSQL, MySQL and
SQLite, in which case Django puts in the ``primary_key=True`` where
needed.

``inspectdb`` works with PostgreSQL, MySQL and SQLite. Foreign-key detection
only works in PostgreSQL and with certain types of MySQL tables.

By default, ``inspectdb`` creates unmanaged models. That is, ``managed = False``
in the model's ``Meta`` class tells Django not to manage each table's creation,
modification, and deletion. If you do want to allow Django to manage the
table's lifecycle, you'll need to change the
:attr:`~django.db.models.Options.managed` option to ``True`` (or simply remove
it because ``True`` is its default value).

The :djadminopt:`--database` option may be used to specify the
database to introspect.

loaddata <fixture fixture ...>
------------------------------

.. django-admin:: loaddata

Searches for and loads the contents of the named fixture into the database.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database
onto which the data will be loaded.

.. django-admin-option:: --ignorenonexistent

The :djadminopt:`--ignorenonexistent` option can be used to ignore fields that
may have been removed from models since the fixture was originally generated.


.. versionchanged:: 1.7

    ``--app`` was added.

.. django-admin-option:: --app

The :djadminopt:`--app` option can be used to specify a single app to look
for fixtures in rather than looking through all apps.

What's a "fixture"?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

A *fixture* is a collection of files that contain the serialized contents of
the database. Each fixture has a unique name, and the files that comprise the
fixture can be distributed over multiple directories, in multiple applications.

Django will search in three locations for fixtures:

1. In the ``fixtures`` directory of every installed application
2. In any directory named in the :setting:`FIXTURE_DIRS` setting
3. In the literal path named by the fixture

Django will load any and all fixtures it finds in these locations that match
the provided fixture names.

If the named fixture has a file extension, only fixtures of that type
will be loaded. For example::

    django-admin.py loaddata mydata.json

would only load JSON fixtures called ``mydata``. The fixture extension
must correspond to the registered name of a
:ref:`serializer <serialization-formats>` (e.g., ``json`` or ``xml``).

If you omit the extensions, Django will search all available fixture types
for a matching fixture. For example::

    django-admin.py loaddata mydata

would look for any fixture of any fixture type called ``mydata``. If a fixture
directory contained ``mydata.json``, that fixture would be loaded
as a JSON fixture.

The fixtures that are named can include directory components. These
directories will be included in the search path. For example::

    django-admin.py loaddata foo/bar/mydata.json

would search ``<app_label>/fixtures/foo/bar/mydata.json`` for each installed
application, ``<dirname>/foo/bar/mydata.json`` for each directory in
:setting:`FIXTURE_DIRS`, and the literal path ``foo/bar/mydata.json``.

When fixture files are processed, the data is saved to the database as is.
Model defined :meth:`~django.db.models.Model.save` methods are not called, and
any :data:`~django.db.models.signals.pre_save` or
:data:`~django.db.models.signals.post_save` signals will be called with
``raw=True`` since the instance only contains attributes that are local to the
model. You may, for example, want to disable handlers that access
related fields that aren't present during fixture loading and would otherwise
raise an exception::

    from django.db.models.signals import post_save
    from .models import MyModel

    def my_handler(**kwargs):
        # disable the handler during fixture loading
        if kwargs['raw']:
            return
        ...

    post_save.connect(my_handler, sender=MyModel)

You could also write a simple decorator to encapsulate this logic::

    from functools import wraps

    def disable_for_loaddata(signal_handler):
        """
        Decorator that turns off signal handlers when loading fixture data.
        """
        @wraps(signal_handler)
        def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
            if kwargs['raw']:
                return
            signal_handler(*args, **kwargs)
        return wrapper

    @disable_for_loaddata
    def my_handler(**kwargs):
        ...

Just be aware that this logic will disable the signals whenever fixtures are
deserialized, not just during ``loaddata``.

Note that the order in which fixture files are processed is undefined. However,
all fixture data is installed as a single transaction, so data in
one fixture can reference data in another fixture. If the database backend
supports row-level constraints, these constraints will be checked at the
end of the transaction.

The :djadmin:`dumpdata` command can be used to generate input for ``loaddata``.

Compressed fixtures
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Fixtures may be compressed in ``zip``, ``gz``, or ``bz2`` format. For example::

    django-admin.py loaddata mydata.json

would look for any of ``mydata.json``, ``mydata.json.zip``,
``mydata.json.gz``, or ``mydata.json.bz2``. The first file contained within a
zip-compressed archive is used.

Note that if two fixtures with the same name but different
fixture type are discovered (for example, if ``mydata.json`` and
``mydata.xml.gz`` were found in the same fixture directory), fixture
installation will be aborted, and any data installed in the call to
``loaddata`` will be removed from the database.

.. admonition:: MySQL with MyISAM and fixtures

    The MyISAM storage engine of MySQL doesn't support transactions or
    constraints, so if you use MyISAM, you won't get validation of fixture
    data, or a rollback if multiple transaction files are found.

Database-specific fixtures
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If you're in a multi-database setup, you might have fixture data that
you want to load onto one database, but not onto another. In this
situation, you can add database identifier into the names of your fixtures.

For example, if your :setting:`DATABASES` setting has a 'master' database
defined, name the fixture ``mydata.master.json`` or
``mydata.master.json.gz`` and the fixture will only be loaded when you
specify you want to load data into the ``master`` database.

makemessages
------------

.. django-admin:: makemessages

Runs over the entire source tree of the current directory and pulls out all
strings marked for translation. It creates (or updates) a message file in the
conf/locale (in the Django tree) or locale (for project and application)
directory. After making changes to the messages files you need to compile them
with :djadmin:`compilemessages` for use with the builtin gettext support. See
the :ref:`i18n documentation <how-to-create-language-files>` for details.

.. django-admin-option:: --all

Use the ``--all`` or ``-a`` option to update the message files for all
available languages.

Example usage::

    django-admin.py makemessages --all

.. django-admin-option:: --extension

Use the ``--extension`` or ``-e`` option to specify a list of file extensions
to examine (default: ".html", ".txt").

Example usage::

    django-admin.py makemessages --locale=de --extension xhtml

Separate multiple extensions with commas or use -e or --extension multiple times::

    django-admin.py makemessages --locale=de --extension=html,txt --extension xml

Use the :djadminopt:`--locale` option (or its shorter version ``-l``) to
specify the locale(s) to process.

Example usage::

    django-admin.py makemessages --locale=pt_BR
    django-admin.py makemessages --locale=pt_BR --locale=fr
    django-admin.py makemessages -l pt_BR
    django-admin.py makemessages -l pt_BR -l fr

.. versionchanged:: 1.7

    Added the ``--previous`` option to the ``msgmerge`` command when merging
    with existing po files.

.. django-admin-option:: --domain

Use the ``--domain`` or ``-d`` option to change the domain of the messages files.
Currently supported:

* ``django`` for all ``*.py``, ``*.html`` and ``*.txt`` files (default)
* ``djangojs`` for ``*.js`` files

.. django-admin-option:: --symlinks

Use the ``--symlinks`` or ``-s`` option to follow symlinks to directories when
looking for new translation strings.

Example usage::

    django-admin.py makemessages --locale=de --symlinks

.. django-admin-option:: --ignore

Use the ``--ignore`` or ``-i`` option to ignore files or directories matching
the given :mod:`glob`-style pattern. Use multiple times to ignore more.

These patterns are used by default: ``'CVS'``, ``'.*'``, ``'*~'``, ``'*.pyc'``

Example usage::

    django-admin.py makemessages --locale=en_US --ignore=apps/* --ignore=secret/*.html

.. django-admin-option:: --no-default-ignore

Use the ``--no-default-ignore`` option to disable the default values of
:djadminopt:`--ignore`.

.. django-admin-option:: --no-wrap

Use the ``--no-wrap`` option to disable breaking long message lines into
several lines in language files.

.. django-admin-option:: --no-location

Use the ``--no-location`` option to not write '``#: filename:line``’
comment lines in language files. Note that using this option makes it harder
for technically skilled translators to understand each message's context.

.. django-admin-option:: --keep-pot

Use the ``--keep-pot`` option to prevent Django from deleting the temporary
.pot files it generates before creating the .po file. This is useful for
debugging errors which may prevent the final language files from being created.

makemigrations [<app_label>]
----------------------------

.. django-admin:: makemigrations

.. versionadded:: 1.7

Creates new migrations based on the changes detected to your models.
Migrations, their relationship with apps and more are covered in depth in
:doc:`the migrations documentation</topics/migrations>`.

Providing one or more app names as arguments will limit the migrations created
to the app(s) specified and any dependencies needed (the table at the other end
of a ``ForeignKey``, for example).

.. django-admin-option:: --empty

The ``--empty`` option will cause ``makemigrations`` to output an empty
migration for the specified apps, for manual editing. This option is only
for advanced users and should not be used unless you are familiar with
the migration format, migration operations, and the dependencies between
your migrations.

migrate [<app_label> [<migrationname>]]
---------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: migrate

.. versionadded:: 1.7

Synchronizes the database state with the current set of models and migrations.
Migrations, their relationship with apps and more are covered in depth in
:doc:`the migrations documentation</topics/migrations>`.

The behavior of this command changes depending on the arguments provided:

* No arguments: All migrated apps have all of their migrations run,
  and all unmigrated apps are synchronized with the database,
* ``<app_label>``: The specified app has its migrations run, up to the most
  recent migration. This may involve running other apps' migrations too, due
  to dependencies.
* ``<app_label> <migrationname>``: Brings the database schema to a state where it
  would have just run the given migration, but no further - this may involve
  unapplying migrations if you have previously migrated past the named
  migration. Use the name `zero` to unapply all migrations for an app.

runfcgi [options]
-----------------

.. django-admin:: runfcgi

.. deprecated:: 1.7
    FastCGI support is deprecated and will be removed in Django 1.9.

Starts a set of FastCGI processes suitable for use with any Web server that
supports the FastCGI protocol. See the :doc:`FastCGI deployment documentation
</howto/deployment/fastcgi>` for details. Requires the Python FastCGI module from
`flup`_.

Internally, this wraps the WSGI application object specified by the
:setting:`WSGI_APPLICATION` setting.

.. _flup: http://www.saddi.com/software/flup/

The options accepted by this command are passed to the FastCGI library and
don't use the ``'--'`` prefix as is usual for other Django management commands.

.. django-admin-option:: protocol

``protocol=PROTOCOL``

Protocol to use. *PROTOCOL* can be ``fcgi``, ``scgi``, ``ajp``, etc.
(default is ``fcgi``)

.. django-admin-option:: host

``host=HOSTNAME``

Hostname to listen on.

.. django-admin-option:: port

``port=PORTNUM``

Port to listen on.

.. django-admin-option:: socket

``socket=FILE``

UNIX socket to listen on.

.. django-admin-option:: method

``method=IMPL``

Possible values: ``prefork`` or ``threaded`` (default ``prefork``)

.. django-admin-option:: maxrequests

``maxrequests=NUMBER``

Number of requests a child handles before it is killed and a new child is
forked (0 means no limit).

.. django-admin-option:: maxspare

``maxspare=NUMBER``

Max number of spare processes / threads.

.. django-admin-option:: minspare

``minspare=NUMBER``

Min number of spare processes / threads.

.. django-admin-option:: maxchildren

``maxchildren=NUMBER``

Hard limit number of processes / threads.

.. django-admin-option:: daemonize

``daemonize=BOOL``

Whether to detach from terminal.

.. django-admin-option:: pidfile

``pidfile=FILE``

Write the spawned process-id to file *FILE*.

.. django-admin-option:: workdir

``workdir=DIRECTORY``

Change to directory *DIRECTORY* when daemonizing.

.. django-admin-option:: debug

``debug=BOOL``

Set to true to enable flup tracebacks.

.. django-admin-option:: outlog

``outlog=FILE``

Write stdout to the *FILE* file.

.. django-admin-option:: errlog

``errlog=FILE``

Write stderr to the *FILE* file.

.. django-admin-option:: umask

``umask=UMASK``

Umask to use when daemonizing. The value is interpreted as an octal number
(default value is ``022``).

Example usage::

    django-admin.py runfcgi socket=/tmp/fcgi.sock method=prefork daemonize=true \
        pidfile=/var/run/django-fcgi.pid

Run a FastCGI server as a daemon and write the spawned PID in a file.

runserver [port or address:port]
--------------------------------

.. django-admin:: runserver

Starts a lightweight development Web server on the local machine. By default,
the server runs on port 8000 on the IP address ``127.0.0.1``. You can pass in an
IP address and port number explicitly.

If you run this script as a user with normal privileges (recommended), you
might not have access to start a port on a low port number. Low port numbers
are reserved for the superuser (root).

This server uses the WSGI application object specified by the
:setting:`WSGI_APPLICATION` setting.

DO NOT USE THIS SERVER IN A PRODUCTION SETTING. It has not gone through
security audits or performance tests. (And that's how it's gonna stay. We're in
the business of making Web frameworks, not Web servers, so improving this
server to be able to handle a production environment is outside the scope of
Django.)

The development server automatically reloads Python code for each request, as
needed. You don't need to restart the server for code changes to take effect.
However, some actions like adding files don't trigger a restart, so you'll
have to restart the server in these cases.

.. versionchanged:: 1.7

    Compiling translation files now also restarts the development server.

If you are using Linux and install `pyinotify`_, kernel signals will be used to
autoreload the server (rather than polling file modification timestamps each
second). This offers better scaling to large projects, reduction in response
time to code modification, more robust change detection, and battery usage
reduction.

.. _pyinotify: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pyinotify/

.. versionadded:: 1.7

    ``pyinotify`` support was added.

When you start the server, and each time you change Python code while the
server is running, the server will check your entire Django project for errors (see
the :djadmin:`check` command). If any errors are found, they will be printed
to standard output, but it won't stop the server.

You can run as many servers as you want, as long as they're on separate ports.
Just execute ``django-admin.py runserver`` more than once.

Note that the default IP address, ``127.0.0.1``, is not accessible from other
machines on your network. To make your development server viewable to other
machines on the network, use its own IP address (e.g. ``192.168.2.1``) or
``0.0.0.0`` or ``::`` (with IPv6 enabled).

You can provide an IPv6 address surrounded by brackets
(e.g. ``[200a::1]:8000``). This will automatically enable IPv6 support.

A hostname containing ASCII-only characters can also be used.

If the :doc:`staticfiles</ref/contrib/staticfiles>` contrib app is enabled
(default in new projects) the :djadmin:`runserver` command will be overridden
with its own :ref:`runserver<staticfiles-runserver>` command.

.. django-admin-option:: --noreload

Use the ``--noreload`` option to disable the use of the auto-reloader. This
means any Python code changes you make while the server is running will *not*
take effect if the particular Python modules have already been loaded into
memory.

Example usage::

    django-admin.py runserver --noreload

.. django-admin-option:: --nothreading

The development server is multithreaded by default. Use the ``--nothreading``
option to disable the use of threading in the development server.

.. django-admin-option:: --ipv6, -6

Use the ``--ipv6`` (or shorter ``-6``) option to tell Django to use IPv6 for
the development server. This changes the default IP address from
``127.0.0.1`` to ``::1``.

Example usage::

    django-admin.py runserver --ipv6

Examples of using different ports and addresses
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Port 8000 on IP address ``127.0.0.1``::

    django-admin.py runserver

Port 8000 on IP address ``1.2.3.4``::

    django-admin.py runserver 1.2.3.4:8000

Port 7000 on IP address ``127.0.0.1``::

    django-admin.py runserver 7000

Port 7000 on IP address ``1.2.3.4``::

    django-admin.py runserver 1.2.3.4:7000

Port 8000 on IPv6 address ``::1``::

    django-admin.py runserver -6

Port 7000 on IPv6 address ``::1``::

    django-admin.py runserver -6 7000

Port 7000 on IPv6 address ``2001:0db8:1234:5678::9``::

    django-admin.py runserver [2001:0db8:1234:5678::9]:7000

Port 8000 on IPv4 address of host ``localhost``::

    django-admin.py runserver localhost:8000

Port 8000 on IPv6 address of host ``localhost``::

    django-admin.py runserver -6 localhost:8000

Serving static files with the development server
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

By default, the development server doesn't serve any static files for your site
(such as CSS files, images, things under :setting:`MEDIA_URL` and so forth). If
you want to configure Django to serve static media, read
:doc:`/howto/static-files/index`.

shell
-----

.. django-admin:: shell

Starts the Python interactive interpreter.

Django will use IPython_ or bpython_ if either is installed. If you have a
rich shell installed but want to force use of the "plain" Python interpreter,
use the ``--plain`` option, like so::

    django-admin.py shell --plain

If you would like to specify either IPython or bpython as your interpreter if
you have both installed you can specify an alternative interpreter interface
with the ``-i`` or ``--interface`` options like so:

IPython::

    django-admin.py shell -i ipython
    django-admin.py shell --interface ipython


bpython::

    django-admin.py shell -i bpython
    django-admin.py shell --interface bpython


.. _IPython: http://ipython.scipy.org/
.. _bpython: http://bpython-interpreter.org/

When the "plain" Python interactive interpreter starts (be it because
``--plain`` was specified or because no other interactive interface is
available) it reads the script pointed to by the :envvar:`PYTHONSTARTUP`
environment variable and the ``~/.pythonrc.py`` script. If you don't wish this
behavior you can use the ``--no-startup`` option. e.g.::

    django-admin.py shell --plain --no-startup

sql <app_label app_label ...>
-----------------------------

.. django-admin:: sql

Prints the CREATE TABLE SQL statements for the given app name(s).

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

sqlall <app_label app_label ...>
--------------------------------

.. django-admin:: sqlall

Prints the CREATE TABLE and initial-data SQL statements for the given app name(s).

Refer to the description of :djadmin:`sqlcustom` for an explanation of how to
specify initial data.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

sqlclear <app_label app_label ...>
----------------------------------

.. django-admin:: sqlclear

Prints the DROP TABLE SQL statements for the given app name(s).

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

sqlcustom <app_label app_label ...>
-----------------------------------

.. django-admin:: sqlcustom

Prints the custom SQL statements for the given app name(s).

For each model in each specified app, this command looks for the file
``<app_label>/sql/<modelname>.sql``, where ``<app_label>`` is the given app
name and ``<modelname>`` is the model's name in lowercase. For example, if you
have an app ``news`` that includes a ``Story`` model, ``sqlcustom`` will
attempt to read a file ``news/sql/story.sql`` and append it to the output of
this command.

Each of the SQL files, if given, is expected to contain valid SQL. The SQL
files are piped directly into the database after all of the models'
table-creation statements have been executed. Use this SQL hook to make any
table modifications, or insert any SQL functions into the database.

Note that the order in which the SQL files are processed is undefined.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

sqldropindexes <app_label app_label ...>
----------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: sqldropindexes

Prints the DROP INDEX SQL statements for the given app name(s).

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

sqlflush
--------

.. django-admin:: sqlflush

Prints the SQL statements that would be executed for the :djadmin:`flush`
command.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

sqlindexes <app_label app_label ...>
------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: sqlindexes

Prints the CREATE INDEX SQL statements for the given app name(s).

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

sqlmigrate <app_label> <migrationname>
--------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: sqlmigrate

Prints the SQL for the named migration. This requires an active database
connection, which it will use to resolve constraint names; this means you must
generate the SQL against a copy of the database you wish to later apply it on.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to generate the SQL.

.. django-admin-option:: --backwards

By default, the SQL created is for running the migration in the forwards
direction. Pass ``--backwards`` to generate the SQL for
unapplying the migration instead.

sqlsequencereset <app_label app_label ...>
------------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: sqlsequencereset

Prints the SQL statements for resetting sequences for the given app name(s).

Sequences are indexes used by some database engines to track the next available
number for automatically incremented fields.

Use this command to generate SQL which will fix cases where a sequence is out
of sync with its automatically incremented field data.

The :djadminopt:`--database` option can be used to specify the database for
which to print the SQL.

squashmigrations <app_label> <migration_name>
---------------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: squashmigrations

Squashes the migrations for ``app_label`` up to and including ``migration_name``
down into fewer migrations, if possible. The resulting squashed migrations
can live alongside the unsquashed ones safely. For more information,
please read :ref:`migration-squashing`.

.. django-admin-option:: --no-optimize

By default, Django will try to optimize the operations in your migrations
to reduce the size of the resulting file. Pass ``--no-optimize`` if this
process is failing for you or creating incorrect migrations, though please
also file a Django bug report about the behavior, as optimization is meant
to be safe.


startapp <app_label> [destination]
----------------------------------

.. django-admin:: startapp

Creates a Django app directory structure for the given app name in the current
directory or the given destination.

By default the directory created contains a ``models.py`` file and other app
template files. (See the `source`_ for more details.) If only the app
name is given, the app directory will be created in the current working
directory.

If the optional destination is provided, Django will use that existing
directory rather than creating a new one. You can use '.' to denote the current
working directory.

For example::

    django-admin.py startapp myapp /Users/jezdez/Code/myapp

.. _custom-app-and-project-templates:

.. django-admin-option:: --template

With the ``--template`` option, you can use a custom app template by providing
either the path to a directory with the app template file, or a path to a
compressed file (``.tar.gz``, ``.tar.bz2``, ``.tgz``, ``.tbz``, ``.zip``)
containing the app template files.

For example, this would look for an app template in the given directory when
creating the ``myapp`` app::

    django-admin.py startapp --template=/Users/jezdez/Code/my_app_template myapp

Django will also accept URLs (``http``, ``https``, ``ftp``) to compressed
archives with the app template files, downloading and extracting them on the
fly.

For example, taking advantage of Github's feature to expose repositories as
zip files, you can use a URL like::

    django-admin.py startapp --template=https://github.com/githubuser/django-app-template/archive/master.zip myapp

When Django copies the app template files, it also renders certain files
through the template engine: the files whose extensions match the
``--extension`` option (``py`` by default) and the files whose names are passed
with the ``--name`` option. The :class:`template context
<django.template.Context>` used is:

- Any option passed to the ``startapp`` command (among the command's supported
  options)
- ``app_name`` -- the app name as passed to the command
- ``app_directory`` -- the full path of the newly created app
- ``docs_version`` -- the version of the documentation: ``'dev'`` or ``'1.x'``

.. _render_warning:

.. warning::

    When the app template files are rendered with the Django template
    engine (by default all ``*.py`` files), Django will also replace all
    stray template variables contained. For example, if one of the Python files
    contains a docstring explaining a particular feature related
    to template rendering, it might result in an incorrect example.

    To work around this problem, you can use the :ttag:`templatetag`
    templatetag to "escape" the various parts of the template syntax.

.. _source: https://github.com/django/django/tree/master/django/conf/app_template/

startproject <projectname> [destination]
----------------------------------------

.. django-admin:: startproject

Creates a Django project directory structure for the given project name in
the current directory or the given destination.

By default, the new directory contains ``manage.py`` and a project package
(containing a ``settings.py`` and other files). See the `template source`_ for
details.

If only the project name is given, both the project directory and project
package will be named ``<projectname>`` and the project directory
will be created in the current working directory.

If the optional destination is provided, Django will use that existing
directory as the project directory, and create ``manage.py`` and the project
package within it. Use '.' to denote the current working directory.

For example::

    django-admin.py startproject myproject /Users/jezdez/Code/myproject_repo

As with the :djadmin:`startapp` command, the ``--template`` option lets you
specify a directory, file path or URL of a custom project template. See the
:djadmin:`startapp` documentation for details of supported project template
formats.

For example, this would look for a project template in the given directory
when creating the ``myproject`` project::

    django-admin.py startproject --template=/Users/jezdez/Code/my_project_template myproject

Django will also accept URLs (``http``, ``https``, ``ftp``) to compressed
archives with the project template files, downloading and extracting them on the
fly.

For example, taking advantage of Github's feature to expose repositories as
zip files, you can use a URL like::

    django-admin.py startproject --template=https://github.com/githubuser/django-project-template/archive/master.zip myproject

When Django copies the project template files, it also renders certain files
through the template engine: the files whose extensions match the
``--extension`` option (``py`` by default) and the files whose names are passed
with the ``--name`` option. The :class:`template context
<django.template.Context>` used is:

- Any option passed to the ``startproject`` command (among the command's
  supported options)
- ``project_name`` -- the project name as passed to the command
- ``project_directory`` -- the full path of the newly created project
- ``secret_key`` -- a random key for the :setting:`SECRET_KEY` setting
- ``docs_version`` -- the version of the documentation: ``'dev'`` or ``'1.x'``

Please also see the :ref:`rendering warning <render_warning>` as mentioned
for :djadmin:`startapp`.

.. _`template source`: https://github.com/django/django/tree/master/django/conf/project_template/

syncdb
------

.. django-admin:: syncdb

.. deprecated:: 1.7

    This command has been deprecated in favor of the :djadmin:`migrate`
    command, which performs both the old behavior as well as executing
    migrations. It is now just an alias to that command.

Alias for :djadmin:`migrate`.

test <app or test identifier>
-----------------------------

.. django-admin:: test

Runs tests for all installed models. See :doc:`/topics/testing/index` for more
information.

.. django-admin-option:: --failfast

The ``--failfast`` option can be used to stop running tests and report the
failure immediately after a test fails.

.. django-admin-option:: --testrunner

The ``--testrunner`` option can be used to control the test runner class that
is used to execute tests. If this value is provided, it overrides the value
provided by the :setting:`TEST_RUNNER` setting.

.. django-admin-option:: --liveserver

The ``--liveserver`` option can be used to override the default address where
the live server (used with :class:`~django.test.LiveServerTestCase`) is
expected to run from. The default value is ``localhost:8081``.

testserver <fixture fixture ...>
--------------------------------

.. django-admin:: testserver

Runs a Django development server (as in :djadmin:`runserver`) using data from
the given fixture(s).

For example, this command::

    django-admin.py testserver mydata.json

...would perform the following steps:

1. Create a test database, as described in :ref:`the-test-database`.
2. Populate the test database with fixture data from the given fixtures.
   (For more on fixtures, see the documentation for :djadmin:`loaddata` above.)
3. Runs the Django development server (as in :djadmin:`runserver`), pointed at
   this newly created test database instead of your production database.

This is useful in a number of ways:

* When you're writing :doc:`unit tests </topics/testing/overview>` of how your views
  act with certain fixture data, you can use ``testserver`` to interact with
  the views in a Web browser, manually.

* Let's say you're developing your Django application and have a "pristine"
  copy of a database that you'd like to interact with. You can dump your
  database to a fixture (using the :djadmin:`dumpdata` command, explained
  above), then use ``testserver`` to run your Web application with that data.
  With this arrangement, you have the flexibility of messing up your data
  in any way, knowing that whatever data changes you're making are only
  being made to a test database.

Note that this server does *not* automatically detect changes to your Python
source code (as :djadmin:`runserver` does). It does, however, detect changes to
templates.

.. django-admin-option:: --addrport [port number or ipaddr:port]

Use ``--addrport`` to specify a different port, or IP address and port, from
the default of ``127.0.0.1:8000``. This value follows exactly the same format and
serves exactly the same function as the argument to the :djadmin:`runserver`
command.

Examples:

To run the test server on port 7000 with ``fixture1`` and ``fixture2``::

    django-admin.py testserver --addrport 7000 fixture1 fixture2
    django-admin.py testserver fixture1 fixture2 --addrport 7000

(The above statements are equivalent. We include both of them to demonstrate
that it doesn't matter whether the options come before or after the fixture
arguments.)

To run on 1.2.3.4:7000 with a ``test`` fixture::

    django-admin.py testserver --addrport 1.2.3.4:7000 test

The :djadminopt:`--noinput` option may be provided to suppress all user
prompts.

validate
--------

.. django-admin:: validate

.. deprecated:: 1.7
    Replaced by the :djadmin:`check` command.

Validates all installed models (according to the :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
setting) and prints validation errors to standard output.

Commands provided by applications
=================================

Some commands are only available when the ``django.contrib`` application that
:doc:`implements </howto/custom-management-commands>` them has been
:setting:`enabled <INSTALLED_APPS>`. This section describes them grouped by
their application.

``django.contrib.auth``
-----------------------

changepassword
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.. django-admin:: changepassword

This command is only available if Django's :doc:`authentication system
</topics/auth/index>` (``django.contrib.auth``) is installed.

Allows changing a user's password. It prompts you to enter twice the password of
the user given as parameter. If they both match, the new password will be
changed immediately. If you do not supply a user, the command will attempt to
change the password whose username matches the current user.

Use the ``--database`` option to specify the database to query for the user. If
it's not supplied, Django will use the ``default`` database.

Example usage::

    django-admin.py changepassword ringo

createsuperuser
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.. django-admin:: createsuperuser

This command is only available if Django's :doc:`authentication system
</topics/auth/index>` (``django.contrib.auth``) is installed.

Creates a superuser account (a user who has all permissions). This is
useful if you need to create an initial superuser account but did not
do so during the first :djadmin:`migrate`, or if you need to programmatically
generate superuser accounts for your site(s).

When run interactively, this command will prompt for a password for
the new superuser account. When run non-interactively, no password
will be set, and the superuser account will not be able to log in until
a password has been manually set for it.

.. django-admin-option:: --username
.. django-admin-option:: --email

The username and email address for the new account can be supplied by
using the ``--username`` and ``--email`` arguments on the command
line. If either of those is not supplied, ``createsuperuser`` will prompt for
it when running interactively.

Use the ``--database`` option to specify the database into which the superuser
object will be saved.

``django.contrib.gis``
----------------------

ogrinspect
~~~~~~~~~~

This command is only available if :doc:`GeoDjango </ref/contrib/gis/index>`
(``django.contrib.gis``) is installed.

Please refer to its :djadmin:`description <ogrinspect>` in the GeoDjango
documentation.

``django.contrib.sessions``
---------------------------

clearsessions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.. django-admin:: clearsessions

Can be run as a cron job or directly to clean out expired sessions.

``django.contrib.sitemaps``
---------------------------

ping_google
~~~~~~~~~~~

This command is only available if the :doc:`Sitemaps framework
</ref/contrib/sitemaps>` (``django.contrib.sitemaps``) is installed.

Please refer to its :djadmin:`description <ping_google>` in the Sitemaps
documentation.

``django.contrib.staticfiles``
------------------------------

collectstatic
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This command is only available if the :doc:`static files application
</howto/static-files/index>` (``django.contrib.staticfiles``) is installed.

Please refer to its :djadmin:`description <collectstatic>` in the
:doc:`staticfiles </ref/contrib/staticfiles>` documentation.

findstatic
~~~~~~~~~~

This command is only available if the :doc:`static files application
</howto/static-files/index>` (``django.contrib.staticfiles``) is installed.

Please refer to its :djadmin:`description <findstatic>` in the :doc:`staticfiles
</ref/contrib/staticfiles>` documentation.

Default options
===============

Although some commands may allow their own custom options, every command
allows for the following options:

.. django-admin-option:: --pythonpath

Example usage::

    django-admin.py migrate --pythonpath='/home/djangoprojects/myproject'

Adds the given filesystem path to the Python `import search path`_. If this
isn't provided, ``django-admin.py`` will use the ``PYTHONPATH`` environment
variable.

Note that this option is unnecessary in ``manage.py``, because it takes care of
setting the Python path for you.

.. _import search path: http://diveintopython.net/getting_to_know_python/everything_is_an_object.html

.. django-admin-option:: --settings

Example usage::

    django-admin.py migrate --settings=mysite.settings

Explicitly specifies the settings module to use. The settings module should be
in Python package syntax, e.g. ``mysite.settings``. If this isn't provided,
``django-admin.py`` will use the ``DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE`` environment
variable.

Note that this option is unnecessary in ``manage.py``, because it uses
``settings.py`` from the current project by default.

.. django-admin-option:: --traceback

Example usage::

    django-admin.py migrate --traceback

By default, ``django-admin.py`` will show a simple error message whenever an
:class:`~django.core.management.CommandError` occurs, but a full stack trace
for any other exception. If you specify ``--traceback``, ``django-admin.py``
will also output a full stack trace when a ``CommandError`` is raised.

.. django-admin-option:: --verbosity

Example usage::

    django-admin.py migrate --verbosity 2

Use ``--verbosity`` to specify the amount of notification and debug information
that ``django-admin.py`` should print to the console.

* ``0`` means no output.
* ``1`` means normal output (default).
* ``2`` means verbose output.
* ``3`` means *very* verbose output.

.. django-admin-option:: --no-color

.. versionadded:: 1.7

Example usage::

    django-admin.py sqlall --no-color

By default, ``django-admin.py`` will format the output to be colorized. For
example, errors will be printed to the console in red and SQL statements will
be syntax highlighted. To prevent this and have a plain text output, pass the
``--no-color`` option when running your command.

Common options
==============

The following options are not available on every command, but they are common
to a number of commands.

.. django-admin-option:: --database

Used to specify the database on which a command will operate. If not
specified, this option will default to an alias of ``default``.

For example, to dump data from the database with the alias ``master``::

    django-admin.py dumpdata --database=master

.. django-admin-option:: --exclude

Exclude a specific application from the applications whose contents is
output. For example, to specifically exclude the ``auth`` application from
the output of dumpdata, you would call::

    django-admin.py dumpdata --exclude=auth

If you want to exclude multiple applications, use multiple ``--exclude``
directives::

    django-admin.py dumpdata --exclude=auth --exclude=contenttypes

.. django-admin-option:: --locale

Use the ``--locale`` or ``-l`` option to specify the locale to process.
If not provided all locales are processed.

.. django-admin-option:: --noinput

Use the ``--noinput`` option to suppress all user prompting, such as "Are
you sure?" confirmation messages. This is useful if ``django-admin.py`` is
being executed as an unattended, automated script.

Extra niceties
==============

.. _syntax-coloring:

Syntax coloring
---------------

The ``django-admin.py`` / ``manage.py`` commands will use pretty
color-coded output if your terminal supports ANSI-colored output. It
won't use the color codes if you're piping the command's output to
another program.

Under Windows, the native console doesn't support ANSI escape sequences so by
default there is no color output. But you can install the `ANSICON`_
third-party tool, the Django commands will detect its presence and will make
use of its services to color output just like on Unix-based platforms.

The colors used for syntax highlighting can be customized. Django
ships with three color palettes:

* ``dark``, suited to terminals that show white text on a black
  background. This is the default palette.

* ``light``, suited to terminals that show black text on a white
  background.

* ``nocolor``, which disables syntax highlighting.

You select a palette by setting a ``DJANGO_COLORS`` environment
variable to specify the palette you want to use. For example, to
specify the ``light`` palette under a Unix or OS/X BASH shell, you
would run the following at a command prompt::

    export DJANGO_COLORS="light"

You can also customize the colors that are used. Django specifies a
number of roles in which color is used:

* ``error`` - A major error.
* ``notice`` - A minor error.
* ``sql_field`` - The name of a model field in SQL.
* ``sql_coltype`` - The type of a model field in SQL.
* ``sql_keyword`` - An SQL keyword.
* ``sql_table`` - The name of a model in SQL.
* ``http_info`` - A 1XX HTTP Informational server response.
* ``http_success`` - A 2XX HTTP Success server response.
* ``http_not_modified`` - A 304 HTTP Not Modified server response.
* ``http_redirect`` - A 3XX HTTP Redirect server response other than 304.
* ``http_not_found`` - A 404 HTTP Not Found server response.
* ``http_bad_request`` - A 4XX HTTP Bad Request server response other than 404.
* ``http_server_error`` - A 5XX HTTP Server Error response.

Each of these roles can be assigned a specific foreground and
background color, from the following list:

* ``black``
* ``red``
* ``green``
* ``yellow``
* ``blue``
* ``magenta``
* ``cyan``
* ``white``

Each of these colors can then be modified by using the following
display options:

* ``bold``
* ``underscore``
* ``blink``
* ``reverse``
* ``conceal``

A color specification follows one of the following patterns:

* ``role=fg``
* ``role=fg/bg``
* ``role=fg,option,option``
* ``role=fg/bg,option,option``

where ``role`` is the name of a valid color role, ``fg`` is the
foreground color, ``bg`` is the background color and each ``option``
is one of the color modifying options. Multiple color specifications
are then separated by semicolon. For example::

    export DJANGO_COLORS="error=yellow/blue,blink;notice=magenta"

would specify that errors be displayed using blinking yellow on blue,
and notices displayed using magenta. All other color roles would be
left uncolored.

Colors can also be specified by extending a base palette. If you put
a palette name in a color specification, all the colors implied by that
palette will be loaded. So::

    export DJANGO_COLORS="light;error=yellow/blue,blink;notice=magenta"

would specify the use of all the colors in the light color palette,
*except* for the colors for errors and notices which would be
overridden as specified.

.. versionadded:: 1.7

Support for color-coded output from ``django-admin.py`` / ``manage.py``
utilities on Windows by relying on the ANSICON application was added in Django
1.7.

.. _ANSICON: http://adoxa.hostmyway.net/ansicon/

Bash completion
---------------

If you use the Bash shell, consider installing the Django bash completion
script, which lives in ``extras/django_bash_completion`` in the Django
distribution. It enables tab-completion of ``django-admin.py`` and
``manage.py`` commands, so you can, for instance...

* Type ``django-admin.py``.
* Press [TAB] to see all available options.
* Type ``sql``, then [TAB], to see all available options whose names start
  with ``sql``.


See :doc:`/howto/custom-management-commands` for how to add customized actions.


==========================================
Running management commands from your code
==========================================

.. _call-command:

.. function:: django.core.management.call_command(name, *args, **options)

To call a management command from code use ``call_command``.

``name``
  the name of the command to call.

``*args``
  a list of arguments accepted by the command.

``**options``
  named options accepted on the command-line.

Examples::

      from django.core import management
      management.call_command('flush', verbosity=0, interactive=False)
      management.call_command('loaddata', 'test_data', verbosity=0)

Note that command options that take no arguments are passed as keywords
with ``True`` or ``False``::

      management.call_command('dumpdata', use_natural_keys=True)

Command options which take multiple options are passed a list::

      management.call_command('dumpdata', exclude=['contenttypes', 'auth'])

Output redirection
==================

Note that you can redirect standard output and error streams as all commands
support the ``stdout`` and ``stderr`` options. For example, you could write::

    with open('/tmp/command_output') as f:
        management.call_command('dumpdata', stdout=f)
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.