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========
Settings
========
.. contents::
:local:
:depth: 1
.. warning::
Be careful when you override settings, especially when the default value
is a non-empty list or dictionary, such as :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`
and :setting:`STATICFILES_FINDERS`. Make sure you keep the components
required by the features of Django you wish to use.
Core Settings
=============
Here's a list of settings available in Django core and their default values.
Settings provided by contrib apps are listed below, followed by a topical index
of the core settings. For introductory material, see the :doc:`settings topic
guide </topics/settings>`.
.. setting:: ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES
ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES
----------------------
Default: ``{}`` (Empty dictionary)
A dictionary mapping ``"app_label.model_name"`` strings to functions that take
a model object and return its URL. This is a way of inserting or overriding
``get_absolute_url()`` methods on a per-installation basis. Example::
ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES = {
'blogs.weblog': lambda o: "/blogs/%s/" % o.slug,
'news.story': lambda o: "/stories/%s/%s/" % (o.pub_year, o.slug),
}
Note that the model name used in this setting should be all lower-case, regardless
of the case of the actual model class name.
.. setting:: ADMINS
ADMINS
------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list of all the people who get code error notifications. When
``DEBUG=False`` and a view raises an exception, Django will email these people
with the full exception information. Each item in the list should be a tuple
of (Full name, email address). Example::
[('John', 'john@example.com'), ('Mary', 'mary@example.com')]
Note that Django will email *all* of these people whenever an error happens.
See :doc:`/howto/error-reporting` for more information.
.. setting:: ALLOWED_HOSTS
ALLOWED_HOSTS
-------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list of strings representing the host/domain names that this Django site can
serve. This is a security measure to prevent an attacker from poisoning caches
and triggering password reset emails with links to malicious hosts by submitting
requests with a fake HTTP ``Host`` header, which is possible even under many
seemingly-safe web server configurations.
Values in this list can be fully qualified names (e.g. ``'www.example.com'``),
in which case they will be matched against the request's ``Host`` header
exactly (case-insensitive, not including port). A value beginning with a period
can be used as a subdomain wildcard: ``'.example.com'`` will match
``example.com``, ``www.example.com``, and any other subdomain of
``example.com``. A value of ``'*'`` will match anything; in this case you are
responsible to provide your own validation of the ``Host`` header (perhaps in a
middleware; if so this middleware must be listed first in
:setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`).
Django also allows the `fully qualified domain name (FQDN)`_ of any entries.
Some browsers include a trailing dot in the ``Host`` header which Django
strips when performing host validation.
.. _`fully qualified domain name (FQDN)`: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fully_qualified_domain_name
If the ``Host`` header (or ``X-Forwarded-Host`` if
:setting:`USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST` is enabled) does not match any value in this
list, the :meth:`django.http.HttpRequest.get_host()` method will raise
:exc:`~django.core.exceptions.SuspiciousOperation`.
When :setting:`DEBUG` is ``True`` or when running tests, host validation is
disabled; any host will be accepted. Thus it's usually only necessary to set it
in production.
This validation only applies via :meth:`~django.http.HttpRequest.get_host()`;
if your code accesses the ``Host`` header directly from ``request.META`` you
are bypassing this security protection.
.. setting:: ALLOWED_INCLUDE_ROOTS
ALLOWED_INCLUDE_ROOTS
---------------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
.. deprecated:: 1.8
This setting, along with the :ttag:`ssi` template tag, is deprecated and
will be removed in Django 1.10.
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
You can also set the ``'allowed_include_roots'`` option in the
:setting:`OPTIONS <TEMPLATES-OPTIONS>` of a ``DjangoTemplates`` backend
instead.
A list of strings representing allowed prefixes for the ``{% ssi %}`` template
tag. This is a security measure, so that template authors can't access files
that they shouldn't be accessing.
For example, if :setting:`ALLOWED_INCLUDE_ROOTS` is ``['/home/html', '/var/www']``,
then ``{% ssi /home/html/foo.txt %}`` would work, but ``{% ssi /etc/passwd %}``
wouldn't.
.. setting:: APPEND_SLASH
APPEND_SLASH
------------
Default: ``True``
When set to ``True``, if the request URL does not match any of the patterns
in the URLconf and it doesn't end in a slash, an HTTP redirect is issued to the
same URL with a slash appended. Note that the redirect may cause any data
submitted in a POST request to be lost.
The :setting:`APPEND_SLASH` setting is only used if
:class:`~django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware` is installed
(see :doc:`/topics/http/middleware`). See also :setting:`PREPEND_WWW`.
.. setting:: CACHES
CACHES
------
Default::
{
'default': {
'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache',
}
}
A dictionary containing the settings for all caches to be used with
Django. It is a nested dictionary whose contents maps cache aliases
to a dictionary containing the options for an individual cache.
The :setting:`CACHES` setting must configure a ``default`` cache;
any number of additional caches may also be specified. If you
are using a cache backend other than the local memory cache, or
you need to define multiple caches, other options will be required.
The following cache options are available.
.. setting:: CACHES-BACKEND
BACKEND
~~~~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
The cache backend to use. The built-in cache backends are:
* ``'django.core.cache.backends.db.DatabaseCache'``
* ``'django.core.cache.backends.dummy.DummyCache'``
* ``'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache'``
* ``'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache'``
* ``'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache'``
* ``'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache'``
You can use a cache backend that doesn't ship with Django by setting
:setting:`BACKEND <CACHES-BACKEND>` to a fully-qualified path of a cache
backend class (i.e. ``mypackage.backends.whatever.WhateverCache``).
.. setting:: CACHES-KEY_FUNCTION
KEY_FUNCTION
~~~~~~~~~~~~
A string containing a dotted path to a function (or any callable) that defines how to
compose a prefix, version and key into a final cache key. The default
implementation is equivalent to the function::
def make_key(key, key_prefix, version):
return ':'.join([key_prefix, str(version), key])
You may use any key function you want, as long as it has the same
argument signature.
See the :ref:`cache documentation <cache_key_transformation>` for more
information.
.. setting:: CACHES-KEY_PREFIX
KEY_PREFIX
~~~~~~~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
A string that will be automatically included (prepended by default) to
all cache keys used by the Django server.
See the :ref:`cache documentation <cache_key_prefixing>` for more information.
.. setting:: CACHES-LOCATION
LOCATION
~~~~~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
The location of the cache to use. This might be the directory for a
file system cache, a host and port for a memcache server, or simply an
identifying name for a local memory cache. e.g.::
CACHES = {
'default': {
'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache',
'LOCATION': '/var/tmp/django_cache',
}
}
.. setting:: CACHES-OPTIONS
OPTIONS
~~~~~~~
Default: None
Extra parameters to pass to the cache backend. Available parameters
vary depending on your cache backend.
Some information on available parameters can be found in the
:doc:`Cache Backends </topics/cache>` documentation. For more information,
consult your backend module's own documentation.
.. setting:: CACHES-TIMEOUT
TIMEOUT
~~~~~~~
Default: 300
The number of seconds before a cache entry is considered stale. If the value of
this settings is ``None``, cache entries will not expire.
.. setting:: CACHES-VERSION
VERSION
~~~~~~~
Default: ``1``
The default version number for cache keys generated by the Django server.
See the :ref:`cache documentation <cache_versioning>` for more information.
.. setting:: CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_ALIAS
CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_ALIAS
----------------------
Default: ``default``
The cache connection to use for the :ref:`cache middleware
<the-per-site-cache>`.
.. setting:: CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX
CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX
---------------------------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
A string which will be prefixed to the cache keys generated by the :ref:`cache
middleware <the-per-site-cache>`. This prefix is combined with the
:setting:`KEY_PREFIX <CACHES-KEY_PREFIX>` setting; it does not replace it.
See :doc:`/topics/cache`.
.. setting:: CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS
CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS
------------------------
Default: ``600``
The default number of seconds to cache a page for the :ref:`cache middleware
<the-per-site-cache>`.
See :doc:`/topics/cache`.
.. _settings-csrf:
.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_AGE
CSRF_COOKIE_AGE
---------------
Default: ``31449600`` (approximately 1 year, in seconds)
The age of CSRF cookies, in seconds.
The reason for setting a long-lived expiration time is to avoid problems in
the case of a user closing a browser or bookmarking a page and then loading
that page from a browser cache. Without persistent cookies, the form submission
would fail in this case.
Some browsers (specifically Internet Explorer) can disallow the use of
persistent cookies or can have the indexes to the cookie jar corrupted on disk,
thereby causing CSRF protection checks to (sometimes intermittently) fail.
Change this setting to ``None`` to use session-based CSRF cookies, which
keep the cookies in-memory instead of on persistent storage.
.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN
CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN
------------------
Default: ``None``
The domain to be used when setting the CSRF cookie. This can be useful for
easily allowing cross-subdomain requests to be excluded from the normal cross
site request forgery protection. It should be set to a string such as
``".example.com"`` to allow a POST request from a form on one subdomain to be
accepted by a view served from another subdomain.
Please note that the presence of this setting does not imply that Django's CSRF
protection is safe from cross-subdomain attacks by default - please see the
:ref:`CSRF limitations <csrf-limitations>` section.
.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_HTTPONLY
CSRF_COOKIE_HTTPONLY
--------------------
Default: ``False``
Whether to use ``HttpOnly`` flag on the CSRF cookie. If this is set to
``True``, client-side JavaScript will not to be able to access the CSRF cookie.
This can help prevent malicious JavaScript from bypassing CSRF protection. If
you enable this and need to send the value of the CSRF token with Ajax requests,
your JavaScript will need to pull the value from a hidden CSRF token form input
on the page instead of from the cookie.
See :setting:`SESSION_COOKIE_HTTPONLY` for details on ``HttpOnly``.
.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_NAME
CSRF_COOKIE_NAME
----------------
Default: ``'csrftoken'``
The name of the cookie to use for the CSRF authentication token. This can be
whatever you want. See :doc:`/ref/csrf`.
.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_PATH
CSRF_COOKIE_PATH
----------------
Default: ``'/'``
The path set on the CSRF cookie. This should either match the URL path of your
Django installation or be a parent of that path.
This is useful if you have multiple Django instances running under the same
hostname. They can use different cookie paths, and each instance will only see
its own CSRF cookie.
.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_SECURE
CSRF_COOKIE_SECURE
------------------
Default: ``False``
Whether to use a secure cookie for the CSRF cookie. If this is set to ``True``,
the cookie will be marked as "secure," which means browsers may ensure that the
cookie is only sent with an HTTPS connection.
.. setting:: CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW
CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW
-----------------
Default: ``'django.views.csrf.csrf_failure'``
A dotted path to the view function to be used when an incoming request
is rejected by the CSRF protection. The function should have this signature::
def csrf_failure(request, reason=""):
...
where ``reason`` is a short message (intended for developers or logging, not for
end users) indicating the reason the request was rejected. See
:doc:`/ref/csrf`.
.. setting:: CSRF_HEADER_NAME
CSRF_HEADER_NAME
----------------
.. versionadded:: 1.9
Default: ``'HTTP_X_CSRFTOKEN'``
The name of the request header used for CSRF authentication.
As with other HTTP headers in ``request.META``, the header name received from
the server is normalized by converting all characters to uppercase, replacing
any hyphens with underscores, and adding an ``'HTTP_'`` prefix to the name.
For example, if your client sends a ``'X-XSRF-TOKEN'`` header, the setting
should be ``'HTTP_X_XSRF_TOKEN'``.
.. setting:: DATABASES
DATABASES
---------
Default: ``{}`` (Empty dictionary)
A dictionary containing the settings for all databases to be used with
Django. It is a nested dictionary whose contents map a database alias
to a dictionary containing the options for an individual database.
The :setting:`DATABASES` setting must configure a ``default`` database;
any number of additional databases may also be specified.
The simplest possible settings file is for a single-database setup using
SQLite. This can be configured using the following::
DATABASES = {
'default': {
'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
'NAME': 'mydatabase',
}
}
When connecting to other database backends, such as MySQL, Oracle, or
PostgreSQL, additional connection parameters will be required. See
the :setting:`ENGINE <DATABASE-ENGINE>` setting below on how to specify
other database types. This example is for PostgreSQL::
DATABASES = {
'default': {
'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2',
'NAME': 'mydatabase',
'USER': 'mydatabaseuser',
'PASSWORD': 'mypassword',
'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
'PORT': '5432',
}
}
The following inner options that may be required for more complex
configurations are available:
.. setting:: DATABASE-ATOMIC_REQUESTS
ATOMIC_REQUESTS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Default: ``False``
Set this to ``True`` to wrap each HTTP request in a transaction on this
database. See :ref:`tying-transactions-to-http-requests`.
.. setting:: DATABASE-AUTOCOMMIT
AUTOCOMMIT
~~~~~~~~~~
Default: ``True``
Set this to ``False`` if you want to :ref:`disable Django's transaction
management <deactivate-transaction-management>` and implement your own.
.. setting:: DATABASE-ENGINE
ENGINE
~~~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
The database backend to use. The built-in database backends are:
* ``'django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2'``
* ``'django.db.backends.mysql'``
* ``'django.db.backends.sqlite3'``
* ``'django.db.backends.oracle'``
You can use a database backend that doesn't ship with Django by setting
``ENGINE`` to a fully-qualified path (i.e.
``mypackage.backends.whatever``).
.. setting:: HOST
HOST
~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
Which host to use when connecting to the database. An empty string means
localhost. Not used with SQLite.
If this value starts with a forward slash (``'/'``) and you're using MySQL,
MySQL will connect via a Unix socket to the specified socket. For example::
"HOST": '/var/run/mysql'
If you're using MySQL and this value *doesn't* start with a forward slash, then
this value is assumed to be the host.
If you're using PostgreSQL, by default (empty :setting:`HOST`), the connection
to the database is done through UNIX domain sockets ('local' lines in
``pg_hba.conf``). If your UNIX domain socket is not in the standard location,
use the same value of ``unix_socket_directory`` from ``postgresql.conf``.
If you want to connect through TCP sockets, set :setting:`HOST` to 'localhost'
or '127.0.0.1' ('host' lines in ``pg_hba.conf``).
On Windows, you should always define :setting:`HOST`, as UNIX domain sockets
are not available.
.. setting:: NAME
NAME
~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
The name of the database to use. For SQLite, it's the full path to the database
file. When specifying the path, always use forward slashes, even on Windows
(e.g. ``C:/homes/user/mysite/sqlite3.db``).
.. setting:: CONN_MAX_AGE
CONN_MAX_AGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Default: ``0``
The lifetime of a database connection, in seconds. Use ``0`` to close database
connections at the end of each request — Django's historical behavior — and
``None`` for unlimited persistent connections.
.. setting:: OPTIONS
OPTIONS
~~~~~~~
Default: ``{}`` (Empty dictionary)
Extra parameters to use when connecting to the database. Available parameters
vary depending on your database backend.
Some information on available parameters can be found in the
:doc:`Database Backends </ref/databases>` documentation. For more information,
consult your backend module's own documentation.
.. setting:: PASSWORD
PASSWORD
~~~~~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
The password to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.
.. setting:: PORT
PORT
~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
The port to use when connecting to the database. An empty string means the
default port. Not used with SQLite.
.. setting:: DATABASE-TIME_ZONE
TIME_ZONE
~~~~~~~~~
.. versionadded:: 1.9
Default: ``None``
A string representing the time zone for datetimes stored in this database
(assuming that it doesn't support time zones) or ``None``. The same values are
accepted as in the general :setting:`TIME_ZONE` setting.
This allows interacting with third-party databases that store datetimes in
local time rather than UTC. To avoid issues around DST changes, you shouldn't
set this option for databases managed by Django.
Setting this option requires installing pytz_.
When :setting:`USE_TZ` is ``True`` and the database doesn't support time zones
(e.g. SQLite, MySQL, Oracle), Django reads and writes datetimes in local time
according to this option if it is set and in UTC if it isn't.
When :setting:`USE_TZ` is ``True`` and the database supports time zones (e.g.
PostgreSQL), it is an error to set this option.
.. versionchanged:: 1.9
Before Django 1.9, the PostgreSQL database backend accepted an
undocumented ``TIME_ZONE`` option, which caused data corruption.
When :setting:`USE_TZ` is ``False``, it is an error to set this option.
.. _pytz: http://pytz.sourceforge.net/
.. setting:: USER
USER
~~~~
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
The username to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.
.. setting:: DATABASE-TEST
TEST
~~~~
Default: ``{}``
A dictionary of settings for test databases; for more details about the
creation and use of test databases, see :ref:`the-test-database`. The
following entries are available:
.. setting:: TEST_CHARSET
CHARSET
^^^^^^^
Default: ``None``
The character set encoding used to create the test database. The value of this
string is passed directly through to the database, so its format is
backend-specific.
Supported for the PostgreSQL_ (``postgresql_psycopg2``) and MySQL_ (``mysql``)
backends.
.. _PostgreSQL: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/multibyte.html
.. _MySQL: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/charset-database.html
.. setting:: TEST_COLLATION
COLLATION
^^^^^^^^^
Default: ``None``
The collation order to use when creating the test database. This value is
passed directly to the backend, so its format is backend-specific.
Only supported for the ``mysql`` backend (see the `MySQL manual`_ for details).
.. _MySQL manual: MySQL_
.. setting:: TEST_DEPENDENCIES
DEPENDENCIES
^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default: ``['default']``, for all databases other than ``default``,
which has no dependencies.
The creation-order dependencies of the database. See the documentation
on :ref:`controlling the creation order of test databases
<topics-testing-creation-dependencies>` for details.
.. setting:: TEST_MIRROR
MIRROR
^^^^^^
Default: ``None``
The alias of the database that this database should mirror during
testing.
This setting exists to allow for testing of primary/replica
(referred to as master/slave by some databases)
configurations of multiple databases. See the documentation on
:ref:`testing primary/replica configurations
<topics-testing-primaryreplica>` for details.
.. setting:: TEST_NAME
NAME
^^^^
Default: ``None``
The name of database to use when running the test suite.
If the default value (``None``) is used with the SQLite database engine, the
tests will use a memory resident database. For all other database engines the
test database will use the name ``'test_' + DATABASE_NAME``.
See :ref:`the-test-database`.
.. setting:: TEST_SERIALIZE
SERIALIZE
^^^^^^^^^
Boolean value to control whether or not the default test runner serializes the
database into an in-memory JSON string before running tests (used to restore
the database state between tests if you don't have transactions). You can set
this to ``False`` to speed up creation time if you don't have any test classes
with :ref:`serialized_rollback=True <test-case-serialized-rollback>`.
.. setting:: TEST_CREATE
CREATE_DB
^^^^^^^^^
Default: ``True``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
If it is set to ``False``, the test tablespaces won't be automatically created
at the beginning of the tests or dropped at the end.
.. setting:: TEST_USER_CREATE
CREATE_USER
^^^^^^^^^^^
Default: ``True``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
If it is set to ``False``, the test user won't be automatically created at the
beginning of the tests and dropped at the end.
.. setting:: TEST_USER
USER
^^^^
Default: ``None``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The username to use when connecting to the Oracle database that will be used
when running tests. If not provided, Django will use ``'test_' + USER``.
.. setting:: TEST_PASSWD
PASSWORD
^^^^^^^^
Default: ``None``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The password to use when connecting to the Oracle database that will be used
when running tests. If not provided, Django will use a hardcoded default value.
.. setting:: TEST_TBLSPACE
TBLSPACE
^^^^^^^^
Default: ``None``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The name of the tablespace that will be used when running tests. If not
provided, Django will use ``'test_' + USER``.
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
Previously Django used ``'test_' + NAME`` if not provided.
.. setting:: TEST_TBLSPACE_TMP
TBLSPACE_TMP
^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default: ``None``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The name of the temporary tablespace that will be used when running tests. If
not provided, Django will use ``'test_' + USER + '_temp'``.
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
Previously Django used ``'test_' + NAME + '_temp'`` if not provided.
.. setting:: DATAFILE
DATAFILE
^^^^^^^^
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``None``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The name of the datafile to use for the TBLSPACE. If not provided, Django will
use ``TBLSPACE + '.dbf'``.
.. setting:: DATAFILE_TMP
DATAFILE_TMP
^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``None``
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The name of the datafile to use for the TBLSPACE_TMP. If not provided, Django
will use ``TBLSPACE_TMP + '.dbf'``.
.. setting:: DATAFILE_MAXSIZE
DATAFILE_MAXSIZE
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``'500M'``
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
The previous value was 200M and was not user customizable.
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The maximum size that the DATAFILE is allowed to grow to.
.. setting:: DATAFILE_TMP_MAXSIZE
DATAFILE_TMP_MAXSIZE
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``'500M'``
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
The previous value was 200M and was not user customizable.
This is an Oracle-specific setting.
The maximum size that the DATAFILE_TMP is allowed to grow to.
.. setting:: DATABASE_ROUTERS
DATABASE_ROUTERS
----------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
The list of routers that will be used to determine which database
to use when performing a database query.
See the documentation on :ref:`automatic database routing in multi
database configurations <topics-db-multi-db-routing>`.
.. setting:: DATE_FORMAT
DATE_FORMAT
-----------
Default: ``'N j, Y'`` (e.g. ``Feb. 4, 2003``)
The default formatting to use for displaying date fields in any part of the
system. Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the
locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See
:tfilter:`allowed date format strings <date>`.
See also :setting:`DATETIME_FORMAT`, :setting:`TIME_FORMAT` and :setting:`SHORT_DATE_FORMAT`.
.. setting:: DATE_INPUT_FORMATS
DATE_INPUT_FORMATS
------------------
Default::
[
'%Y-%m-%d', '%m/%d/%Y', '%m/%d/%y', # '2006-10-25', '10/25/2006', '10/25/06'
'%b %d %Y', '%b %d, %Y', # 'Oct 25 2006', 'Oct 25, 2006'
'%d %b %Y', '%d %b, %Y', # '25 Oct 2006', '25 Oct, 2006'
'%B %d %Y', '%B %d, %Y', # 'October 25 2006', 'October 25, 2006'
'%d %B %Y', '%d %B, %Y', # '25 October 2006', '25 October, 2006'
]
A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a date field.
Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these
format strings use Python's datetime_ module syntax, not the format strings
from the ``date`` Django template tag.
When :setting:`USE_L10N` is ``True``, the locale-dictated format has higher
precedence and will be applied instead.
See also :setting:`DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS` and :setting:`TIME_INPUT_FORMATS`.
.. _datetime: https://docs.python.org/library/datetime.html#strftime-strptime-behavior
.. setting:: DATETIME_FORMAT
DATETIME_FORMAT
---------------
Default: ``'N j, Y, P'`` (e.g. ``Feb. 4, 2003, 4 p.m.``)
The default formatting to use for displaying datetime fields in any part of the
system. Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the
locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See
:tfilter:`allowed date format strings <date>`.
See also :setting:`DATE_FORMAT`, :setting:`TIME_FORMAT` and :setting:`SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT`.
.. setting:: DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS
DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS
----------------------
Default::
[
'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', # '2006-10-25 14:30:59'
'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f', # '2006-10-25 14:30:59.000200'
'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M', # '2006-10-25 14:30'
'%Y-%m-%d', # '2006-10-25'
'%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S', # '10/25/2006 14:30:59'
'%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S.%f', # '10/25/2006 14:30:59.000200'
'%m/%d/%Y %H:%M', # '10/25/2006 14:30'
'%m/%d/%Y', # '10/25/2006'
'%m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S', # '10/25/06 14:30:59'
'%m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S.%f', # '10/25/06 14:30:59.000200'
'%m/%d/%y %H:%M', # '10/25/06 14:30'
'%m/%d/%y', # '10/25/06'
]
A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a datetime
field. Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that
these format strings use Python's datetime_ module syntax, not the format
strings from the ``date`` Django template tag.
When :setting:`USE_L10N` is ``True``, the locale-dictated format has higher
precedence and will be applied instead.
See also :setting:`DATE_INPUT_FORMATS` and :setting:`TIME_INPUT_FORMATS`.
.. _datetime: https://docs.python.org/library/datetime.html#strftime-strptime-behavior
.. setting:: DEBUG
DEBUG
-----
Default: ``False``
A boolean that turns on/off debug mode.
Never deploy a site into production with :setting:`DEBUG` turned on.
Did you catch that? NEVER deploy a site into production with :setting:`DEBUG`
turned on.
One of the main features of debug mode is the display of detailed error pages.
If your app raises an exception when :setting:`DEBUG` is ``True``, Django will
display a detailed traceback, including a lot of metadata about your
environment, such as all the currently defined Django settings (from
``settings.py``).
As a security measure, Django will *not* include settings that might be
sensitive (or offensive), such as :setting:`SECRET_KEY`. Specifically, it will
exclude any setting whose name includes any of the following:
* ``'API'``
* ``'KEY'``
* ``'PASS'``
* ``'SECRET'``
* ``'SIGNATURE'``
* ``'TOKEN'``
Note that these are *partial* matches. ``'PASS'`` will also match PASSWORD,
just as ``'TOKEN'`` will also match TOKENIZED and so on.
Still, note that there are always going to be sections of your debug output
that are inappropriate for public consumption. File paths, configuration
options and the like all give attackers extra information about your server.
It is also important to remember that when running with :setting:`DEBUG`
turned on, Django will remember every SQL query it executes. This is useful
when you're debugging, but it'll rapidly consume memory on a production server.
Finally, if :setting:`DEBUG` is ``False``, you also need to properly set
the :setting:`ALLOWED_HOSTS` setting. Failing to do so will result in all
requests being returned as "Bad Request (400)".
.. note::
The default :file:`settings.py` file created by :djadmin:`django-admin
startproject <startproject>` sets ``DEBUG = True`` for convenience.
.. _django/views/debug.py: https://github.com/django/django/blob/master/django/views/debug.py
.. setting:: DEBUG_PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS
DEBUG_PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS
--------------------------
Default: ``False``
If set to True, Django's normal exception handling of view functions
will be suppressed, and exceptions will propagate upwards. This can
be useful for some test setups, and should never be used on a live
site.
.. setting:: DECIMAL_SEPARATOR
DECIMAL_SEPARATOR
-----------------
Default: ``'.'`` (Dot)
Default decimal separator used when formatting decimal numbers.
Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the locale-dictated
format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.
See also :setting:`NUMBER_GROUPING`, :setting:`THOUSAND_SEPARATOR` and
:setting:`USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR`.
.. setting:: DEFAULT_CHARSET
DEFAULT_CHARSET
---------------
Default: ``'utf-8'``
Default charset to use for all ``HttpResponse`` objects, if a MIME type isn't
manually specified. Used with :setting:`DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE` to construct the
``Content-Type`` header.
.. setting:: DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE
DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE
--------------------
Default: ``'text/html'``
Default content type to use for all ``HttpResponse`` objects, if a MIME type
isn't manually specified. Used with :setting:`DEFAULT_CHARSET` to construct
the ``Content-Type`` header.
.. setting:: DEFAULT_EXCEPTION_REPORTER_FILTER
DEFAULT_EXCEPTION_REPORTER_FILTER
---------------------------------
Default: :class:`django.views.debug.SafeExceptionReporterFilter`
Default exception reporter filter class to be used if none has been assigned to
the :class:`~django.http.HttpRequest` instance yet.
See :ref:`Filtering error reports<filtering-error-reports>`.
.. setting:: DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE
DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE
--------------------
Default: :class:`django.core.files.storage.FileSystemStorage`
Default file storage class to be used for any file-related operations that don't
specify a particular storage system. See :doc:`/topics/files`.
.. setting:: DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL
DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL
------------------
Default: ``'webmaster@localhost'``
Default email address to use for various automated correspondence from the
site manager(s). This doesn't include error messages sent to :setting:`ADMINS`
and :setting:`MANAGERS`; for that, see :setting:`SERVER_EMAIL`.
.. setting:: DEFAULT_INDEX_TABLESPACE
DEFAULT_INDEX_TABLESPACE
------------------------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
Default tablespace to use for indexes on fields that don't specify
one, if the backend supports it (see :doc:`/topics/db/tablespaces`).
.. setting:: DEFAULT_TABLESPACE
DEFAULT_TABLESPACE
------------------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
Default tablespace to use for models that don't specify one, if the
backend supports it (see :doc:`/topics/db/tablespaces`).
.. setting:: DISALLOWED_USER_AGENTS
DISALLOWED_USER_AGENTS
----------------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
List of compiled regular expression objects representing User-Agent strings that
are not allowed to visit any page, systemwide. Use this for bad robots/crawlers.
This is only used if ``CommonMiddleware`` is installed (see
:doc:`/topics/http/middleware`).
.. setting:: EMAIL_BACKEND
EMAIL_BACKEND
-------------
Default: ``'django.core.mail.backends.smtp.EmailBackend'``
The backend to use for sending emails. For the list of available backends see
:doc:`/topics/email`.
.. setting:: EMAIL_FILE_PATH
EMAIL_FILE_PATH
---------------
Default: Not defined
The directory used by the ``file`` email backend to store output files.
.. setting:: EMAIL_HOST
EMAIL_HOST
----------
Default: ``'localhost'``
The host to use for sending email.
See also :setting:`EMAIL_PORT`.
.. setting:: EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD
EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD
-------------------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
Password to use for the SMTP server defined in :setting:`EMAIL_HOST`. This
setting is used in conjunction with :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER` when
authenticating to the SMTP server. If either of these settings is empty,
Django won't attempt authentication.
See also :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER`.
.. setting:: EMAIL_HOST_USER
EMAIL_HOST_USER
---------------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
Username to use for the SMTP server defined in :setting:`EMAIL_HOST`.
If empty, Django won't attempt authentication.
See also :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD`.
.. setting:: EMAIL_PORT
EMAIL_PORT
----------
Default: ``25``
Port to use for the SMTP server defined in :setting:`EMAIL_HOST`.
.. setting:: EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX
EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX
--------------------
Default: ``'[Django] '``
Subject-line prefix for email messages sent with ``django.core.mail.mail_admins``
or ``django.core.mail.mail_managers``. You'll probably want to include the
trailing space.
.. setting:: EMAIL_USE_TLS
EMAIL_USE_TLS
-------------
Default: ``False``
Whether to use a TLS (secure) connection when talking to the SMTP server.
This is used for explicit TLS connections, generally on port 587. If you are
experiencing hanging connections, see the implicit TLS setting
:setting:`EMAIL_USE_SSL`.
.. setting:: EMAIL_USE_SSL
EMAIL_USE_SSL
-------------
Default: ``False``
Whether to use an implicit TLS (secure) connection when talking to the SMTP
server. In most email documentation this type of TLS connection is referred
to as SSL. It is generally used on port 465. If you are experiencing problems,
see the explicit TLS setting :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS`.
Note that :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS`/:setting:`EMAIL_USE_SSL` are mutually
exclusive, so only set one of those settings to ``True``.
.. setting:: EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILE
EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILE
------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``None``
If :setting:`EMAIL_USE_SSL` or :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS` is ``True``, you can
optionally specify the path to a PEM-formatted certificate chain file to use
for the SSL connection.
.. setting:: EMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE
EMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE
-----------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``None``
If :setting:`EMAIL_USE_SSL` or :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS` is ``True``, you can
optionally specify the path to a PEM-formatted private key file to use for the
SSL connection.
Note that setting :setting:`EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILE` and :setting:`EMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE`
doesn't result in any certificate checking. They're passed to the underlying SSL
connection. Please refer to the documentation of Python's
:func:`python:ssl.wrap_socket` function for details on how the certificate chain
file and private key file are handled.
.. setting:: EMAIL_TIMEOUT
EMAIL_TIMEOUT
-------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``None``
Specifies a timeout in seconds for blocking operations like the connection
attempt.
.. setting:: FILE_CHARSET
FILE_CHARSET
------------
Default: ``'utf-8'``
The character encoding used to decode any files read from disk. This includes
template files and initial SQL data files.
.. setting:: FILE_UPLOAD_HANDLERS
FILE_UPLOAD_HANDLERS
--------------------
Default::
["django.core.files.uploadhandler.MemoryFileUploadHandler",
"django.core.files.uploadhandler.TemporaryFileUploadHandler"]
A list of handlers to use for uploading. Changing this setting allows complete
customization -- even replacement -- of Django's upload process.
See :doc:`/topics/files` for details.
.. setting:: FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE
FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE
---------------------------
Default: ``2621440`` (i.e. 2.5 MB).
The maximum size (in bytes) that an upload will be before it gets streamed to
the file system. See :doc:`/topics/files` for details.
.. setting:: FILE_UPLOAD_DIRECTORY_PERMISSIONS
FILE_UPLOAD_DIRECTORY_PERMISSIONS
---------------------------------
Default: ``None``
The numeric mode to apply to directories created in the process of uploading
files.
This setting also determines the default permissions for collected static
directories when using the :djadmin:`collectstatic` management command. See
:djadmin:`collectstatic` for details on overriding it.
This value mirrors the functionality and caveats of the
:setting:`FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS` setting.
.. setting:: FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS
FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS
-----------------------
Default: ``None``
The numeric mode (i.e. ``0o644``) to set newly uploaded files to. For
more information about what these modes mean, see the documentation for
:func:`os.chmod`.
If this isn't given or is ``None``, you'll get operating-system
dependent behavior. On most platforms, temporary files will have a mode
of ``0o600``, and files saved from memory will be saved using the
system's standard umask.
For security reasons, these permissions aren't applied to the temporary files
that are stored in :setting:`FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR`.
This setting also determines the default permissions for collected static files
when using the :djadmin:`collectstatic` management command. See
:djadmin:`collectstatic` for details on overriding it.
.. warning::
**Always prefix the mode with a 0.**
If you're not familiar with file modes, please note that the leading
``0`` is very important: it indicates an octal number, which is the
way that modes must be specified. If you try to use ``644``, you'll
get totally incorrect behavior.
.. setting:: FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR
FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR
--------------------
Default: ``None``
The directory to store data to (typically files larger than
:setting:`FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE`) temporarily while uploading files.
If ``None``, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the operating
system. For example, this will default to ``/tmp`` on \*nix-style operating
systems.
See :doc:`/topics/files` for details.
.. setting:: FIRST_DAY_OF_WEEK
FIRST_DAY_OF_WEEK
-----------------
Default: ``0`` (Sunday)
A number representing the first day of the week. This is especially useful
when displaying a calendar. This value is only used when not using
format internationalization, or when a format cannot be found for the
current locale.
The value must be an integer from 0 to 6, where 0 means Sunday, 1 means
Monday and so on.
.. setting:: FIXTURE_DIRS
FIXTURE_DIRS
-------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
List of directories searched for fixture files, in addition to the
``fixtures`` directory of each application, in search order.
Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows.
See :ref:`initial-data-via-fixtures` and :ref:`topics-testing-fixtures`.
.. setting:: FORCE_SCRIPT_NAME
FORCE_SCRIPT_NAME
------------------
Default: ``None``
If not ``None``, this will be used as the value of the ``SCRIPT_NAME``
environment variable in any HTTP request. This setting can be used to override
the server-provided value of ``SCRIPT_NAME``, which may be a rewritten version
of the preferred value or not supplied at all.
.. setting:: FORMAT_MODULE_PATH
FORMAT_MODULE_PATH
------------------
Default: ``None``
A full Python path to a Python package that contains format definitions for
project locales. If not ``None``, Django will check for a ``formats.py``
file, under the directory named as the current locale, and will use the
formats defined in this file.
For example, if :setting:`FORMAT_MODULE_PATH` is set to ``mysite.formats``,
and current language is ``en`` (English), Django will expect a directory tree
like::
mysite/
formats/
__init__.py
en/
__init__.py
formats.py
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
You can also set this setting to a list of Python paths, for example::
FORMAT_MODULE_PATH = [
'mysite.formats',
'some_app.formats',
]
When Django searches for a certain format, it will go through all given
Python paths until it finds a module that actually defines the given
format. This means that formats defined in packages farther up in the list
will take precedence over the same formats in packages farther down.
Available formats are :setting:`DATE_FORMAT`, :setting:`TIME_FORMAT`,
:setting:`DATETIME_FORMAT`, :setting:`YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT`,
:setting:`MONTH_DAY_FORMAT`, :setting:`SHORT_DATE_FORMAT`,
:setting:`SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT`, :setting:`FIRST_DAY_OF_WEEK`,
:setting:`DECIMAL_SEPARATOR`, :setting:`THOUSAND_SEPARATOR` and
:setting:`NUMBER_GROUPING`.
.. setting:: IGNORABLE_404_URLS
IGNORABLE_404_URLS
------------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
List of compiled regular expression objects describing URLs that should be
ignored when reporting HTTP 404 errors via email (see
:doc:`/howto/error-reporting`). Regular expressions are matched against
:meth:`request's full paths <django.http.HttpRequest.get_full_path>` (including
query string, if any). Use this if your site does not provide a commonly
requested file such as ``favicon.ico`` or ``robots.txt``, or if it gets
hammered by script kiddies.
This is only used if
:class:`~django.middleware.common.BrokenLinkEmailsMiddleware` is enabled (see
:doc:`/topics/http/middleware`).
.. setting:: INSTALLED_APPS
INSTALLED_APPS
--------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list of strings designating all applications that are enabled in this
Django installation. Each string should be a dotted Python path to:
* an application configuration class, or
* a package containing an application.
:doc:`Learn more about application configurations </ref/applications>`.
.. admonition:: Use the application registry for introspection
Your code should never access :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` directly. Use
:attr:`django.apps.apps` instead.
.. admonition:: Application names and labels must be unique in
:setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
Application :attr:`names <django.apps.AppConfig.name>` — the dotted Python
path to the application package — must be unique. There is no way to
include the same application twice, short of duplicating its code under
another name.
Application :attr:`labels <django.apps.AppConfig.label>` — by default the
final part of the name — must be unique too. For example, you can't
include both ``django.contrib.auth`` and ``myproject.auth``. However, you
can relabel an application with a custom configuration that defines a
different :attr:`~django.apps.AppConfig.label`.
These rules apply regardless of whether :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
references application configuration classes or application packages.
When several applications provide different versions of the same resource
(template, static file, management command, translation), the application
listed first in :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` has precedence.
.. setting:: INTERNAL_IPS
INTERNAL_IPS
------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list of IP addresses, as strings, that:
* See debug comments, when :setting:`DEBUG` is ``True``
* Receive X headers in admindocs if the ``XViewMiddleware`` is installed (see
:doc:`/ref/contrib/admin/admindocs`)
.. setting:: LANGUAGE_CODE
LANGUAGE_CODE
-------------
Default: ``'en-us'``
A string representing the language code for this installation. This should be in
standard :term:`language ID format <language code>`. For example, U.S. English
is ``"en-us"``. See also the `list of language identifiers`_ and
:doc:`/topics/i18n/index`.
:setting:`USE_I18N` must be active for this setting to have any effect.
It serves two purposes:
* If the locale middleware isn't in use, it decides which translation is served
to all users.
* If the locale middleware is active, it provides a fallback language in case the
user's preferred language can't be determined or is not supported by the Web
site. It also provides the fallback translation when a translation for a
given literal doesn't exist for the user's preferred language.
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
The fallback for translation literals was added.
See :ref:`how-django-discovers-language-preference` for more details.
.. _list of language identifiers: http://www.i18nguy.com/unicode/language-identifiers.html
.. setting:: LANGUAGE_COOKIE_AGE
LANGUAGE_COOKIE_AGE
-------------------
Default: ``None`` (expires at browser close)
The age of the language cookie, in seconds.
.. setting:: LANGUAGE_COOKIE_DOMAIN
LANGUAGE_COOKIE_DOMAIN
----------------------
Default: ``None``
The domain to use for the language cookie. Set this to a string such as
``".example.com"`` (note the leading dot!) for cross-domain cookies, or use
``None`` for a standard domain cookie.
Be cautious when updating this setting on a production site. If you update
this setting to enable cross-domain cookies on a site that previously used
standard domain cookies, existing user cookies that have the old domain
will not be updated. This will result in site users being unable to switch
the language as long as these cookies persist. The only safe and reliable
option to perform the switch is to change the language cookie name
permanently (via the :setting:`LANGUAGE_COOKIE_NAME` setting) and to add
a middleware that copies the value from the old cookie to a new one and then
deletes the old one.
.. setting:: LANGUAGE_COOKIE_NAME
LANGUAGE_COOKIE_NAME
--------------------
Default: ``'django_language'``
The name of the cookie to use for the language cookie. This can be whatever
you want (but should be different from :setting:`SESSION_COOKIE_NAME`). See
:doc:`/topics/i18n/index`.
.. setting:: LANGUAGE_COOKIE_PATH
LANGUAGE_COOKIE_PATH
--------------------
Default: ``/``
The path set on the language cookie. This should either match the URL path of your
Django installation or be a parent of that path.
This is useful if you have multiple Django instances running under the same
hostname. They can use different cookie paths and each instance will only see
its own language cookie.
Be cautious when updating this setting on a production site. If you update this
setting to use a deeper path than it previously used, existing user cookies that
have the old path will not be updated. This will result in site users being
unable to switch the language as long as these cookies persist. The only safe
and reliable option to perform the switch is to change the language cookie name
permanently (via the :setting:`LANGUAGE_COOKIE_NAME` setting), and to add
a middleware that copies the value from the old cookie to a new one and then
deletes the one.
.. setting:: LANGUAGES
LANGUAGES
---------
Default: A list of all available languages. This list is continually growing
and including a copy here would inevitably become rapidly out of date. You can
see the current list of translated languages by looking in
``django/conf/global_settings.py`` (or view the `online source`_).
.. _online source: https://github.com/django/django/blob/master/django/conf/global_settings.py
The list is a list of two-tuples in the format
(:term:`language code<language code>`, ``language name``) -- for example,
``('ja', 'Japanese')``.
This specifies which languages are available for language selection. See
:doc:`/topics/i18n/index`.
Generally, the default value should suffice. Only set this setting if you want
to restrict language selection to a subset of the Django-provided languages.
If you define a custom :setting:`LANGUAGES` setting, you can mark the
language names as translation strings using the
:func:`~django.utils.translation.ugettext_lazy` function.
Here's a sample settings file::
from django.utils.translation import ugettext_lazy as _
LANGUAGES = [
('de', _('German')),
('en', _('English')),
]
.. setting:: LOCALE_PATHS
LOCALE_PATHS
------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list of directories where Django looks for translation files.
See :ref:`how-django-discovers-translations`.
Example::
LOCALE_PATHS = [
'/home/www/project/common_files/locale',
'/var/local/translations/locale',
]
Django will look within each of these paths for the ``<locale_code>/LC_MESSAGES``
directories containing the actual translation files.
.. setting:: LOGGING
LOGGING
-------
Default: A logging configuration dictionary.
A data structure containing configuration information. The contents of
this data structure will be passed as the argument to the
configuration method described in :setting:`LOGGING_CONFIG`.
Among other things, the default logging configuration passes HTTP 500 server
errors to an email log handler when :setting:`DEBUG` is ``False``. See also
:ref:`configuring-logging`.
You can see the default logging configuration by looking in
``django/utils/log.py`` (or view the `online source`__).
__ https://github.com/django/django/blob/master/django/utils/log.py
.. setting:: LOGGING_CONFIG
LOGGING_CONFIG
--------------
Default: ``'logging.config.dictConfig'``
A path to a callable that will be used to configure logging in the
Django project. Points at a instance of Python's `dictConfig`_
configuration method by default.
If you set :setting:`LOGGING_CONFIG` to ``None``, the logging
configuration process will be skipped.
.. _dictConfig: https://docs.python.org/library/logging.config.html#configuration-dictionary-schema
.. setting:: MANAGERS
MANAGERS
--------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list in the same format as :setting:`ADMINS` that specifies who should get
broken link notifications when
:class:`~django.middleware.common.BrokenLinkEmailsMiddleware` is enabled.
.. setting:: MEDIA_ROOT
MEDIA_ROOT
----------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
Absolute filesystem path to the directory that will hold :doc:`user-uploaded
files </topics/files>`.
Example: ``"/var/www/example.com/media/"``
See also :setting:`MEDIA_URL`.
.. warning::
:setting:`MEDIA_ROOT` and :setting:`STATIC_ROOT` must have different
values. Before :setting:`STATIC_ROOT` was introduced, it was common to
rely or fallback on :setting:`MEDIA_ROOT` to also serve static files;
however, since this can have serious security implications, there is a
validation check to prevent it.
.. setting:: MEDIA_URL
MEDIA_URL
---------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
URL that handles the media served from :setting:`MEDIA_ROOT`, used
for :doc:`managing stored files </topics/files>`. It must end in a slash if set
to a non-empty value. You will need to :ref:`configure these files to be served
<serving-uploaded-files-in-development>` in both development and production
environments.
If you want to use ``{{ MEDIA_URL }}`` in your templates, add
``'django.template.context_processors.media'`` in the ``'context_processors'``
option of :setting:`TEMPLATES`.
Example: ``"http://media.example.com/"``
.. warning::
There are security risks if you are accepting uploaded content from
untrusted users! See the security guide's topic on
:ref:`user-uploaded-content-security` for mitigation details.
.. warning::
:setting:`MEDIA_URL` and :setting:`STATIC_URL` must have different
values. See :setting:`MEDIA_ROOT` for more details.
.. setting:: MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES
------------------
Default::
['django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware']
A list of middleware classes to use. See :doc:`/topics/http/middleware`.
.. setting:: MIGRATION_MODULES
MIGRATION_MODULES
-----------------
Default::
{} # empty dictionary
A dictionary specifying the package where migration modules can be found on a per-app basis. The default value
of this setting is an empty dictionary, but the default package name for migration modules is ``migrations``.
Example::
{'blog': 'blog.db_migrations'}
In this case, migrations pertaining to the ``blog`` app will be contained in the ``blog.db_migrations`` package.
If you provide the ``app_label`` argument, :djadmin:`makemigrations` will
automatically create the package if it doesn't already exist.
.. setting:: MONTH_DAY_FORMAT
MONTH_DAY_FORMAT
----------------
Default: ``'F j'``
The default formatting to use for date fields on Django admin change-list
pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system -- in cases when only the
month and day are displayed.
For example, when a Django admin change-list page is being filtered by a date
drilldown, the header for a given day displays the day and month. Different
locales have different formats. For example, U.S. English would say
"January 1," whereas Spanish might say "1 Enero."
Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the corresponding
locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied.
See :tfilter:`allowed date format strings <date>`. See also
:setting:`DATE_FORMAT`, :setting:`DATETIME_FORMAT`,
:setting:`TIME_FORMAT` and :setting:`YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT`.
.. setting:: NUMBER_GROUPING
NUMBER_GROUPING
----------------
Default: ``0``
Number of digits grouped together on the integer part of a number.
Common use is to display a thousand separator. If this setting is ``0``, then
no grouping will be applied to the number. If this setting is greater than
``0``, then :setting:`THOUSAND_SEPARATOR` will be used as the separator between
those groups.
Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the locale-dictated
format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.
See also :setting:`DECIMAL_SEPARATOR`, :setting:`THOUSAND_SEPARATOR` and
:setting:`USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR`.
.. setting:: PREPEND_WWW
PREPEND_WWW
-----------
Default: ``False``
Whether to prepend the "www." subdomain to URLs that don't have it. This is only
used if :class:`~django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware` is installed
(see :doc:`/topics/http/middleware`). See also :setting:`APPEND_SLASH`.
.. setting:: ROOT_URLCONF
ROOT_URLCONF
------------
Default: Not defined
A string representing the full Python import path to your root URLconf. For example:
``"mydjangoapps.urls"``. Can be overridden on a per-request basis by
setting the attribute ``urlconf`` on the incoming ``HttpRequest``
object. See :ref:`how-django-processes-a-request` for details.
.. setting:: SECRET_KEY
SECRET_KEY
----------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
A secret key for a particular Django installation. This is used to provide
:doc:`cryptographic signing </topics/signing>`, and should be set to a unique,
unpredictable value.
:djadmin:`django-admin startproject <startproject>` automatically adds a
randomly-generated ``SECRET_KEY`` to each new project.
Django will refuse to start if :setting:`SECRET_KEY` is not set.
.. warning::
**Keep this value secret.**
Running Django with a known :setting:`SECRET_KEY` defeats many of Django's
security protections, and can lead to privilege escalation and remote code
execution vulnerabilities.
The secret key is used for:
* All :doc:`sessions </topics/http/sessions>` if you are using
any other session backend than ``django.contrib.sessions.backends.cache``,
or if you use
:class:`~django.contrib.auth.middleware.SessionAuthenticationMiddleware`
and are using the default
:meth:`~django.contrib.auth.models.AbstractBaseUser.get_session_auth_hash()`.
* All :doc:`messages </ref/contrib/messages>` if you are using
:class:`~django.contrib.messages.storage.cookie.CookieStorage` or
:class:`~django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage`.
* All :func:`~django.contrib.auth.views.password_reset` tokens.
* Any usage of :doc:`cryptographic signing </topics/signing>`, unless a
different key is provided.
If you rotate your secret key, all of the above will be invalidated.
Secret keys are not used for passwords of users and key rotation will not
affect them.
.. note::
The default :file:`settings.py` file created by :djadmin:`django-admin
startproject <startproject>` creates a unique ``SECRET_KEY`` for
convenience.
.. setting:: SECURE_BROWSER_XSS_FILTER
SECURE_BROWSER_XSS_FILTER
-------------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``False``
If ``True``, the :class:`~django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware` sets
the :ref:`x-xss-protection` header on all responses that do not already have it.
.. setting:: SECURE_CONTENT_TYPE_NOSNIFF
SECURE_CONTENT_TYPE_NOSNIFF
---------------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``False``
If ``True``, the :class:`~django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware`
sets the :ref:`x-content-type-options` header on all responses that do not
already have it.
.. setting:: SECURE_HSTS_INCLUDE_SUBDOMAINS
SECURE_HSTS_INCLUDE_SUBDOMAINS
------------------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``False``
If ``True``, the :class:`~django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware` adds
the ``includeSubDomains`` tag to the :ref:`http-strict-transport-security`
header. It has no effect unless :setting:`SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS` is set to a
non-zero value.
.. warning::
Setting this incorrectly can irreversibly (for the value of
:setting:`SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS`) break your site. Read the
:ref:`http-strict-transport-security` documentation first.
.. setting:: SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS
SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS
-------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``0``
If set to a non-zero integer value, the
:class:`~django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware` sets the
:ref:`http-strict-transport-security` header on all responses that do not
already have it.
.. warning::
Setting this incorrectly can irreversibly (for some time) break your site.
Read the :ref:`http-strict-transport-security` documentation first.
.. setting:: SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER
SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER
-----------------------
Default: ``None``
A tuple representing a HTTP header/value combination that signifies a request
is secure. This controls the behavior of the request object's ``is_secure()``
method.
This takes some explanation. By default, ``is_secure()`` is able to determine
whether a request is secure by looking at whether the requested URL uses
"https://". This is important for Django's CSRF protection, and may be used
by your own code or third-party apps.
If your Django app is behind a proxy, though, the proxy may be "swallowing" the
fact that a request is HTTPS, using a non-HTTPS connection between the proxy
and Django. In this case, ``is_secure()`` would always return ``False`` -- even
for requests that were made via HTTPS by the end user.
In this situation, you'll want to configure your proxy to set a custom HTTP
header that tells Django whether the request came in via HTTPS, and you'll want
to set ``SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER`` so that Django knows what header to look
for.
You'll need to set a tuple with two elements -- the name of the header to look
for and the required value. For example::
SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER = ('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO', 'https')
Here, we're telling Django that we trust the ``X-Forwarded-Proto`` header
that comes from our proxy, and any time its value is ``'https'``, then the
request is guaranteed to be secure (i.e., it originally came in via HTTPS).
Obviously, you should *only* set this setting if you control your proxy or
have some other guarantee that it sets/strips this header appropriately.
Note that the header needs to be in the format as used by ``request.META`` --
all caps and likely starting with ``HTTP_``. (Remember, Django automatically
adds ``'HTTP_'`` to the start of x-header names before making the header
available in ``request.META``.)
.. warning::
**You will probably open security holes in your site if you set this
without knowing what you're doing. And if you fail to set it when you
should. Seriously.**
Make sure ALL of the following are true before setting this (assuming the
values from the example above):
* Your Django app is behind a proxy.
* Your proxy strips the ``X-Forwarded-Proto`` header from all incoming
requests. In other words, if end users include that header in their
requests, the proxy will discard it.
* Your proxy sets the ``X-Forwarded-Proto`` header and sends it to Django,
but only for requests that originally come in via HTTPS.
If any of those are not true, you should keep this setting set to ``None``
and find another way of determining HTTPS, perhaps via custom middleware.
.. setting:: SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT
SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT
----------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
If a URL path matches a regular expression in this list, the request will not be
redirected to HTTPS. If :setting:`SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT` is ``False``, this
setting has no effect.
.. setting:: SECURE_SSL_HOST
SECURE_SSL_HOST
---------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``None``
If a string (e.g. ``secure.example.com``), all SSL redirects will be directed
to this host rather than the originally-requested host
(e.g. ``www.example.com``). If :setting:`SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT` is ``False``, this
setting has no effect.
.. setting:: SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT
SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT
-------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``False``.
If ``True``, the :class:`~django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware`
:ref:`redirects <ssl-redirect>` all non-HTTPS requests to HTTPS (except for
those URLs matching a regular expression listed in
:setting:`SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT`).
.. note::
If turning this to ``True`` causes infinite redirects, it probably means
your site is running behind a proxy and can't tell which requests are secure
and which are not. Your proxy likely sets a header to indicate secure
requests; you can correct the problem by finding out what that header is and
configuring the :setting:`SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER` setting accordingly.
.. setting:: SERIALIZATION_MODULES
SERIALIZATION_MODULES
---------------------
Default: Not defined.
A dictionary of modules containing serializer definitions (provided as
strings), keyed by a string identifier for that serialization type. For
example, to define a YAML serializer, use::
SERIALIZATION_MODULES = {'yaml': 'path.to.yaml_serializer'}
.. setting:: SERVER_EMAIL
SERVER_EMAIL
------------
Default: ``'root@localhost'``
The email address that error messages come from, such as those sent to
:setting:`ADMINS` and :setting:`MANAGERS`.
.. admonition:: Why are my emails sent from a different address?
This address is used only for error messages. It is *not* the address that
regular email messages sent with :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()`
come from; for that, see :setting:`DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL`.
.. setting:: SHORT_DATE_FORMAT
SHORT_DATE_FORMAT
-----------------
Default: ``m/d/Y`` (e.g. ``12/31/2003``)
An available formatting that can be used for displaying date fields on
templates. Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the
corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied.
See :tfilter:`allowed date format strings <date>`.
See also :setting:`DATE_FORMAT` and :setting:`SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT`.
.. setting:: SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT
SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT
---------------------
Default: ``m/d/Y P`` (e.g. ``12/31/2003 4 p.m.``)
An available formatting that can be used for displaying datetime fields on
templates. Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the
corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied.
See :tfilter:`allowed date format strings <date>`.
See also :setting:`DATE_FORMAT` and :setting:`SHORT_DATE_FORMAT`.
.. setting:: SIGNING_BACKEND
SIGNING_BACKEND
---------------
Default: ``'django.core.signing.TimestampSigner'``
The backend used for signing cookies and other data.
See also the :doc:`/topics/signing` documentation.
.. setting:: SILENCED_SYSTEM_CHECKS
SILENCED_SYSTEM_CHECKS
----------------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list of identifiers of messages generated by the system check framework
(i.e. ``["models.W001"]``) that you wish to permanently acknowledge and ignore.
Silenced warnings will no longer be output to the console; silenced errors
will still be printed, but will not prevent management commands from running.
See also the :doc:`/ref/checks` documentation.
.. setting:: TEMPLATES
TEMPLATES
---------
.. versionadded:: 1.8
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
A list containing the settings for all template engines to be used with
Django. Each item of the list is a dictionary containing the options for an
individual engine.
Here's a simple setup that tells the Django template engine to load templates
from the ``templates`` subdirectory inside each installed application::
TEMPLATES = [
{
'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
'APP_DIRS': True,
},
]
The following options are available for all backends.
.. setting:: TEMPLATES-BACKEND
BACKEND
~~~~~~~
Default: not defined
The template backend to use. The built-in template backends are:
* ``'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates'``
* ``'django.template.backends.jinja2.Jinja2'``
You can use a template backend that doesn't ship with Django by setting
``BACKEND`` to a fully-qualified path (i.e. ``'mypackage.whatever.Backend'``).
.. setting:: TEMPLATES-NAME
NAME
~~~~
Default: see below
The alias for this particular template engine. It's an identifier that allows
selecting an engine for rendering. Aliases must be unique across all
configured template engines.
It defaults to the name of the module defining the engine class, i.e. the
next to last piece of :setting:`BACKEND <TEMPLATES-BACKEND>`, when it isn't
provided. For example if the backend is ``'mypackage.whatever.Backend'`` then
its default name is ``'whatever'``.
.. setting:: TEMPLATES-DIRS
DIRS
~~~~
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
Directories where the engine should look for template source files, in search
order.
.. setting:: TEMPLATES-APP_DIRS
APP_DIRS
~~~~~~~~
Default: ``False``
Whether the engine should look for template source files inside installed
applications.
.. note::
The default :file:`settings.py` file created by :djadmin:`django-admin
startproject <startproject>` sets ``'APP_DIRS': True``.
.. setting:: TEMPLATES-OPTIONS
OPTIONS
~~~~~~~
Default: ``{}`` (Empty dict)
Extra parameters to pass to the template backend. Available parameters vary
depending on the template backend.
.. setting:: TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS
TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS
---------------------------
Default::
["django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth",
"django.template.context_processors.debug",
"django.template.context_processors.i18n",
"django.template.context_processors.media",
"django.template.context_processors.static",
"django.template.context_processors.tz",
"django.contrib.messages.context_processors.messages"]
.. deprecated:: 1.8
Set the ``'context_processors'`` option in the :setting:`OPTIONS
<TEMPLATES-OPTIONS>` of a ``DjangoTemplates`` backend instead.
A list of callables that are used to populate the context in ``RequestContext``.
These callables take a request object as their argument and return a dictionary
of items to be merged into the context.
.. versionchanged:: 1.8
Built-in template context processors were moved from
``django.core.context_processors`` to
``django.template.context_processors`` in Django 1.8.
.. setting:: TEMPLATE_DEBUG
TEMPLATE_DEBUG
--------------
Default: ``False``
.. deprecated:: 1.8
Set the ``'debug'`` option in the :setting:`OPTIONS <TEMPLATES-OPTIONS>`
of a ``DjangoTemplates`` backend instead.
A boolean that turns on/off template debug mode. If this is ``True``, the fancy
error page will display a detailed report for any exception raised during
template rendering. This report contains the relevant snippet of the template,
with the appropriate line highlighted.
Note that Django only displays fancy error pages if :setting:`DEBUG` is ``True``, so
you'll want to set that to take advantage of this setting.
See also :setting:`DEBUG`.
.. setting:: TEMPLATE_DIRS
TEMPLATE_DIRS
-------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
.. deprecated:: 1.8
Set the :setting:`DIRS <TEMPLATES-DIRS>` option of a ``DjangoTemplates``
backend instead.
List of locations of the template source files searched by
:class:`django.template.loaders.filesystem.Loader`, in search order.
Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows.
See :doc:`/ref/templates/language`.
.. setting:: TEMPLATE_LOADERS
TEMPLATE_LOADERS
----------------
Default::
['django.template.loaders.filesystem.Loader',
'django.template.loaders.app_directories.Loader']
.. deprecated:: 1.8
Set the ``'loaders'`` option in the :setting:`OPTIONS <TEMPLATES-OPTIONS>`
of a ``DjangoTemplates`` backend instead.
A list of template loader classes, specified as strings. Each ``Loader`` class
knows how to import templates from a particular source. Optionally, a tuple can be
used instead of a string. The first item in the tuple should be the ``Loader``’s
module, subsequent items are passed to the ``Loader`` during initialization. See
:doc:`/ref/templates/api`.
.. setting:: TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID
TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID
--------------------------
Default: ``''`` (Empty string)
.. deprecated:: 1.8
Set the ``'string_if_invalid'`` option in the :setting:`OPTIONS
<TEMPLATES-OPTIONS>` of a ``DjangoTemplates`` backend instead.
Output, as a string, that the template system should use for invalid (e.g.
misspelled) variables. See :ref:`invalid-template-variables`.
.. setting:: TEST_RUNNER
TEST_RUNNER
-----------
Default: ``'django.test.runner.DiscoverRunner'``
The name of the class to use for starting the test suite. See
:ref:`other-testing-frameworks`.
.. setting:: TEST_NON_SERIALIZED_APPS
TEST_NON_SERIALIZED_APPS
------------------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
In order to restore the database state between tests for
``TransactionTestCase``\s and database backends without transactions, Django
will :ref:`serialize the contents of all apps <test-case-serialized-rollback>`
when it starts the test run so it can then reload from that copy before running
tests that need it.
This slows down the startup time of the test runner; if you have apps that
you know don't need this feature, you can add their full names in here (e.g.
``'django.contrib.contenttypes'``) to exclude them from this serialization
process.
.. setting:: THOUSAND_SEPARATOR
THOUSAND_SEPARATOR
------------------
Default: ``,`` (Comma)
Default thousand separator used when formatting numbers. This setting is
used only when :setting:`USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR` is ``True`` and
:setting:`NUMBER_GROUPING` is greater than ``0``.
Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the locale-dictated
format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.
See also :setting:`NUMBER_GROUPING`, :setting:`DECIMAL_SEPARATOR` and
:setting:`USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR`.
.. setting:: TIME_FORMAT
TIME_FORMAT
-----------
Default: ``'P'`` (e.g. ``4 p.m.``)
The default formatting to use for displaying time fields in any part of the
system. Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the
locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See
:tfilter:`allowed date format strings <date>`.
See also :setting:`DATE_FORMAT` and :setting:`DATETIME_FORMAT`.
.. setting:: TIME_INPUT_FORMATS
TIME_INPUT_FORMATS
------------------
Default::
[
'%H:%M:%S', # '14:30:59'
'%H:%M:%S.%f', # '14:30:59.000200'
'%H:%M', # '14:30'
]
A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a time field.
Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these
format strings use Python's datetime_ module syntax, not the format strings
from the ``date`` Django template tag.
When :setting:`USE_L10N` is ``True``, the locale-dictated format has higher
precedence and will be applied instead.
See also :setting:`DATE_INPUT_FORMATS` and :setting:`DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS`.
.. _datetime: https://docs.python.org/library/datetime.html#strftime-strptime-behavior
.. setting:: TIME_ZONE
TIME_ZONE
---------
Default: ``'America/Chicago'``
A string representing the time zone for this installation, or ``None``. See
the `list of time zones`_.
.. note::
Since Django was first released with the :setting:`TIME_ZONE` set to
``'America/Chicago'``, the global setting (used if nothing is defined in
your project's ``settings.py``) remains ``'America/Chicago'`` for backwards
compatibility. New project templates default to ``'UTC'``.
Note that this isn't necessarily the time zone of the server. For example, one
server may serve multiple Django-powered sites, each with a separate time zone
setting.
When :setting:`USE_TZ` is ``False``, this is the time zone in which Django
will store all datetimes. When :setting:`USE_TZ` is ``True``, this is the
default time zone that Django will use to display datetimes in templates and
to interpret datetimes entered in forms.
Django sets the ``os.environ['TZ']`` variable to the time zone you specify in
the :setting:`TIME_ZONE` setting. Thus, all your views and models will
automatically operate in this time zone. However, Django won't set the ``TZ``
environment variable under the following conditions:
* If you're using the manual configuration option as described in
:ref:`manually configuring settings
<settings-without-django-settings-module>`, or
* If you specify ``TIME_ZONE = None``. This will cause Django to fall back to
using the system timezone. However, this is discouraged when :setting:`USE_TZ
= True <USE_TZ>`, because it makes conversions between local time and UTC
less reliable.
If Django doesn't set the ``TZ`` environment variable, it's up to you
to ensure your processes are running in the correct environment.
.. note::
Django cannot reliably use alternate time zones in a Windows environment.
If you're running Django on Windows, :setting:`TIME_ZONE` must be set to
match the system time zone.
.. _list of time zones: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tz_database_time_zones
.. setting:: USE_ETAGS
USE_ETAGS
---------
Default: ``False``
A boolean that specifies whether to output the "Etag" header. This saves
bandwidth but slows down performance. This is used by the ``CommonMiddleware``
(see :doc:`/topics/http/middleware`) and in the``Cache Framework``
(see :doc:`/topics/cache`).
.. setting:: USE_I18N
USE_I18N
--------
Default: ``True``
A boolean that specifies whether Django's translation system should be enabled.
This provides an easy way to turn it off, for performance. If this is set to
``False``, Django will make some optimizations so as not to load the
translation machinery.
See also :setting:`LANGUAGE_CODE`, :setting:`USE_L10N` and :setting:`USE_TZ`.
.. note::
The default :file:`settings.py` file created by :djadmin:`django-admin
startproject <startproject>` includes ``USE_I18N = True`` for convenience.
.. setting:: USE_L10N
USE_L10N
--------
Default: ``False``
A boolean that specifies if localized formatting of data will be enabled by
default or not. If this is set to ``True``, e.g. Django will display numbers and
dates using the format of the current locale.
See also :setting:`LANGUAGE_CODE`, :setting:`USE_I18N` and :setting:`USE_TZ`.
.. note::
The default :file:`settings.py` file created by :djadmin:`django-admin
startproject <startproject>` includes ``USE_L10N = True`` for convenience.
.. setting:: USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR
USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR
----------------------
Default: ``False``
A boolean that specifies whether to display numbers using a thousand separator.
When :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True`` and if this is also set to
``True``, Django will use the values of :setting:`THOUSAND_SEPARATOR` and
:setting:`NUMBER_GROUPING` to format numbers.
See also :setting:`DECIMAL_SEPARATOR`, :setting:`NUMBER_GROUPING` and
:setting:`THOUSAND_SEPARATOR`.
.. setting:: USE_TZ
USE_TZ
------
Default: ``False``
A boolean that specifies if datetimes will be timezone-aware by default or not.
If this is set to ``True``, Django will use timezone-aware datetimes internally.
Otherwise, Django will use naive datetimes in local time.
See also :setting:`TIME_ZONE`, :setting:`USE_I18N` and :setting:`USE_L10N`.
.. note::
The default :file:`settings.py` file created by
:djadmin:`django-admin startproject <startproject>` includes
``USE_TZ = True`` for convenience.
.. setting:: USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST
USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST
--------------------
Default: ``False``
A boolean that specifies whether to use the X-Forwarded-Host header in
preference to the Host header. This should only be enabled if a proxy
which sets this header is in use.
.. setting:: WSGI_APPLICATION
WSGI_APPLICATION
----------------
Default: ``None``
The full Python path of the WSGI application object that Django's built-in
servers (e.g. :djadmin:`runserver`) will use. The :djadmin:`django-admin
startproject <startproject>` management command will create a simple
``wsgi.py`` file with an ``application`` callable in it, and point this setting
to that ``application``.
If not set, the return value of ``django.core.wsgi.get_wsgi_application()``
will be used. In this case, the behavior of :djadmin:`runserver` will be
identical to previous Django versions.
.. setting:: YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT
YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT
-----------------
Default: ``'F Y'``
The default formatting to use for date fields on Django admin change-list
pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system -- in cases when only the
year and month are displayed.
For example, when a Django admin change-list page is being filtered by a date
drilldown, the header for a given month displays the month and the year.
Different locales have different formats. For example, U.S. English would say
"January 2006," whereas another locale might say "2006/January."
Note that if :setting:`USE_L10N` is set to ``True``, then the corresponding
locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied.
See :tfilter:`allowed date format strings <date>`. See also
:setting:`DATE_FORMAT`, :setting:`DATETIME_FORMAT`, :setting:`TIME_FORMAT`
and :setting:`MONTH_DAY_FORMAT`.
.. setting:: X_FRAME_OPTIONS
X_FRAME_OPTIONS
---------------
Default: ``'SAMEORIGIN'``
The default value for the X-Frame-Options header used by
:class:`~django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware`. See the
:doc:`clickjacking protection </ref/clickjacking/>` documentation.
Auth
====
Settings for :mod:`django.contrib.auth`.
.. setting:: AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS
AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS
-----------------------
Default: ``['django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend']``
A list of authentication backend classes (as strings) to use when attempting to
authenticate a user. See the :ref:`authentication backends documentation
<authentication-backends>` for details.
.. setting:: AUTH_USER_MODEL
AUTH_USER_MODEL
---------------
Default: 'auth.User'
The model to use to represent a User. See :ref:`auth-custom-user`.
.. warning::
You cannot change the AUTH_USER_MODEL setting during the lifetime of
a project (i.e. once you have made and migrated models that depend on it)
without serious effort. It is intended to be set at the project start,
and the model it refers to must be available in the first migration of
the app that it lives in.
See :ref:`auth-custom-user` for more details.
.. setting:: LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL
LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL
------------------
Default: ``'/accounts/profile/'``
The URL where requests are redirected after login when the
``contrib.auth.login`` view gets no ``next`` parameter.
This is used by the :func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.login_required`
decorator, for example.
This setting also accepts view function names and :ref:`named URL patterns
<naming-url-patterns>` which can be used to reduce configuration duplication
since you don't have to define the URL in two places (``settings`` and URLconf).
.. setting:: LOGIN_URL
LOGIN_URL
---------
Default: ``'/accounts/login/'``
The URL where requests are redirected for login, especially when using the
:func:`~django.contrib.auth.decorators.login_required` decorator.
This setting also accepts view function names and :ref:`named URL patterns
<naming-url-patterns>` which can be used to reduce configuration duplication
since you don't have to define the URL in two places (``settings`` and URLconf).
.. setting:: LOGOUT_URL
LOGOUT_URL
----------
Default: ``'/accounts/logout/'``
LOGIN_URL counterpart.
.. setting:: PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT_DAYS
PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT_DAYS
---------------------------
Default: ``3``
The number of days a password reset link is valid for. Used by the
:mod:`django.contrib.auth` password reset mechanism.
.. setting:: PASSWORD_HASHERS
PASSWORD_HASHERS
----------------
See :ref:`auth_password_storage`.
Default::
['django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptPasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.SHA1PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.MD5PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.UnsaltedMD5PasswordHasher',
'django.contrib.auth.hashers.CryptPasswordHasher']
.. setting:: AUTH_PASSWORD_VALIDATORS
AUTH_PASSWORD_VALIDATORS
------------------------
.. versionadded:: 1.9
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
The list of validators that are used to check the strength of user's passwords.
See :ref:`password-validation` for more details. By default, no validation is
performed and all passwords are accepted.
.. _settings-messages:
Messages
========
Settings for :mod:`django.contrib.messages`.
.. setting:: MESSAGE_LEVEL
MESSAGE_LEVEL
-------------
Default: ``messages.INFO``
Sets the minimum message level that will be recorded by the messages
framework. See :ref:`message levels <message-level>` for more details.
.. admonition:: Important
If you override ``MESSAGE_LEVEL`` in your settings file and rely on any of
the built-in constants, you must import the constants module directly to
avoid the potential for circular imports, e.g.::
from django.contrib.messages import constants as message_constants
MESSAGE_LEVEL = message_constants.DEBUG
If desired, you may specify the numeric values for the constants directly
according to the values in the above :ref:`constants table
<message-level-constants>`.
.. setting:: MESSAGE_STORAGE
MESSAGE_STORAGE
---------------
Default: ``'django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage'``
Controls where Django stores message data. Valid values are:
* ``'django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage'``
* ``'django.contrib.messages.storage.session.SessionStorage'``
* ``'django.contrib.messages.storage.cookie.CookieStorage'``
See :ref:`message storage backends <message-storage-backends>` for more details.
The backends that use cookies --
:class:`~django.contrib.messages.storage.cookie.CookieStorage` and
:class:`~django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage` --
use the value of :setting:`SESSION_COOKIE_DOMAIN`, :setting:`SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE`
and :setting:`SESSION_COOKIE_HTTPONLY` when setting their cookies.
.. setting:: MESSAGE_TAGS
MESSAGE_TAGS
------------
Default::
{messages.DEBUG: 'debug',
messages.INFO: 'info',
messages.SUCCESS: 'success',
messages.WARNING: 'warning',
messages.ERROR: 'error'}
This sets the mapping of message level to message tag, which is typically
rendered as a CSS class in HTML. If you specify a value, it will extend
the default. This means you only have to specify those values which you need
to override. See :ref:`message-displaying` above for more details.
.. admonition:: Important
If you override ``MESSAGE_TAGS`` in your settings file and rely on any of
the built-in constants, you must import the ``constants`` module directly to
avoid the potential for circular imports, e.g.::
from django.contrib.messages import constants as message_constants
MESSAGE_TAGS = {message_constants.INFO: ''}
If desired, you may specify the numeric values for the constants directly
according to the values in the above :ref:`constants table
<message-level-constants>`.
.. _settings-sessions:
Sessions
========
Settings for :mod:`django.contrib.sessions`.
.. setting:: SESSION_CACHE_ALIAS
SESSION_CACHE_ALIAS
-------------------
Default: ``default``
If you're using :ref:`cache-based session storage <cached-sessions-backend>`,
this selects the cache to use.
.. setting:: SESSION_COOKIE_AGE
SESSION_COOKIE_AGE
------------------
Default: ``1209600`` (2 weeks, in seconds)
The age of session cookies, in seconds.
.. setting:: SESSION_COOKIE_DOMAIN
SESSION_COOKIE_DOMAIN
---------------------
Default: ``None``
The domain to use for session cookies. Set this to a string such as
``".example.com"`` (note the leading dot!) for cross-domain cookies, or use
``None`` for a standard domain cookie.
Be cautious when updating this setting on a production site. If you update
this setting to enable cross-domain cookies on a site that previously used
standard domain cookies, existing user cookies will be set to the old
domain. This may result in them being unable to log in as long as these cookies
persist.
This setting also affects cookies set by :mod:`django.contrib.messages`.
.. setting:: SESSION_COOKIE_HTTPONLY
SESSION_COOKIE_HTTPONLY
-----------------------
Default: ``True``
Whether to use ``HTTPOnly`` flag on the session cookie. If this is set to
``True``, client-side JavaScript will not to be able to access the
session cookie.
HTTPOnly_ is a flag included in a Set-Cookie HTTP response header. It
is not part of the :rfc:`2109` standard for cookies, and it isn't honored
consistently by all browsers. However, when it is honored, it can be a
useful way to mitigate the risk of client side script accessing the
protected cookie data.
Turning it on makes it less trivial for an attacker to escalate a cross-site
scripting vulnerability into full hijacking of a user's session. There's not
much excuse for leaving this off, either: if your code depends on reading
session cookies from JavaScript, you're probably doing it wrong.
.. _HTTPOnly: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/HTTPOnly
.. setting:: SESSION_COOKIE_NAME
SESSION_COOKIE_NAME
-------------------
Default: ``'sessionid'``
The name of the cookie to use for sessions. This can be whatever you want (but
should be different from :setting:`LANGUAGE_COOKIE_NAME`).
.. setting:: SESSION_COOKIE_PATH
SESSION_COOKIE_PATH
-------------------
Default: ``'/'``
The path set on the session cookie. This should either match the URL path of your
Django installation or be parent of that path.
This is useful if you have multiple Django instances running under the same
hostname. They can use different cookie paths, and each instance will only see
its own session cookie.
.. setting:: SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE
SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE
---------------------
Default: ``False``
Whether to use a secure cookie for the session cookie. If this is set to
``True``, the cookie will be marked as "secure," which means browsers may
ensure that the cookie is only sent under an HTTPS connection.
Since it's trivial for a packet sniffer (e.g. `Firesheep`_) to hijack a user's
session if the session cookie is sent unencrypted, there's really no good
excuse to leave this off. It will prevent you from using sessions on insecure
requests and that's a good thing.
.. _Firesheep: http://codebutler.com/firesheep
.. setting:: SESSION_ENGINE
SESSION_ENGINE
--------------
Default: ``django.contrib.sessions.backends.db``
Controls where Django stores session data. Included engines are:
* ``'django.contrib.sessions.backends.db'``
* ``'django.contrib.sessions.backends.file'``
* ``'django.contrib.sessions.backends.cache'``
* ``'django.contrib.sessions.backends.cached_db'``
* ``'django.contrib.sessions.backends.signed_cookies'``
See :ref:`configuring-sessions` for more details.
.. setting:: SESSION_EXPIRE_AT_BROWSER_CLOSE
SESSION_EXPIRE_AT_BROWSER_CLOSE
-------------------------------
Default: ``False``
Whether to expire the session when the user closes their browser. See
:ref:`browser-length-vs-persistent-sessions`.
.. setting:: SESSION_FILE_PATH
SESSION_FILE_PATH
-----------------
Default: ``None``
If you're using file-based session storage, this sets the directory in
which Django will store session data. When the default value (``None``) is
used, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the system.
.. setting:: SESSION_SAVE_EVERY_REQUEST
SESSION_SAVE_EVERY_REQUEST
--------------------------
Default: ``False``
Whether to save the session data on every request. If this is ``False``
(default), then the session data will only be saved if it has been modified --
that is, if any of its dictionary values have been assigned or deleted.
.. setting:: SESSION_SERIALIZER
SESSION_SERIALIZER
------------------
Default: ``'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.JSONSerializer'``
Full import path of a serializer class to use for serializing session data.
Included serializers are:
* ``'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.PickleSerializer'``
* ``'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.JSONSerializer'``
See :ref:`session_serialization` for details, including a warning regarding
possible remote code execution when using
:class:`~django.contrib.sessions.serializers.PickleSerializer`.
Sites
=====
Settings for :mod:`django.contrib.sites`.
.. setting:: SITE_ID
SITE_ID
-------
Default: Not defined
The ID, as an integer, of the current site in the ``django_site`` database
table. This is used so that application data can hook into specific sites
and a single database can manage content for multiple sites.
.. _settings-staticfiles:
Static Files
============
Settings for :mod:`django.contrib.staticfiles`.
.. setting:: STATIC_ROOT
STATIC_ROOT
-----------
Default: ``None``
The absolute path to the directory where :djadmin:`collectstatic` will collect
static files for deployment.
Example: ``"/var/www/example.com/static/"``
If the :doc:`staticfiles</ref/contrib/staticfiles>` contrib app is enabled
(default) the :djadmin:`collectstatic` management command will collect static
files into this directory. See the howto on :doc:`managing static
files</howto/static-files/index>` for more details about usage.
.. warning::
This should be an initially empty destination directory for collecting
your static files from their permanent locations into one directory for
ease of deployment; it is **not** a place to store your static files
permanently. You should do that in directories that will be found by
:doc:`staticfiles</ref/contrib/staticfiles>`’s
:setting:`finders<STATICFILES_FINDERS>`, which by default, are
``'static/'`` app sub-directories and any directories you include in
:setting:`STATICFILES_DIRS`).
.. setting:: STATIC_URL
STATIC_URL
----------
Default: ``None``
URL to use when referring to static files located in :setting:`STATIC_ROOT`.
Example: ``"/static/"`` or ``"http://static.example.com/"``
If not ``None``, this will be used as the base path for
:ref:`asset definitions<form-asset-paths>` (the ``Media`` class) and the
:doc:`staticfiles app</ref/contrib/staticfiles>`.
It must end in a slash if set to a non-empty value.
You may need to :ref:`configure these files to be served in development
<serving-static-files-in-development>` and will definitely need to do so
:doc:`in production </howto/static-files/deployment>`.
.. setting:: STATICFILES_DIRS
STATICFILES_DIRS
----------------
Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
This setting defines the additional locations the staticfiles app will traverse
if the ``FileSystemFinder`` finder is enabled, e.g. if you use the
:djadmin:`collectstatic` or :djadmin:`findstatic` management command or use the
static file serving view.
This should be set to a list of strings that contain full paths to
your additional files directory(ies) e.g.::
STATICFILES_DIRS = [
"/home/special.polls.com/polls/static",
"/home/polls.com/polls/static",
"/opt/webfiles/common",
]
Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows
(e.g. ``"C:/Users/user/mysite/extra_static_content"``).
Prefixes (optional)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In case you want to refer to files in one of the locations with an additional
namespace, you can **optionally** provide a prefix as ``(prefix, path)``
tuples, e.g.::
STATICFILES_DIRS = [
# ...
("downloads", "/opt/webfiles/stats"),
]
For example, assuming you have :setting:`STATIC_URL` set to ``'/static/'``, the
:djadmin:`collectstatic` management command would collect the "stats" files
in a ``'downloads'`` subdirectory of :setting:`STATIC_ROOT`.
This would allow you to refer to the local file
``'/opt/webfiles/stats/polls_20101022.tar.gz'`` with
``'/static/downloads/polls_20101022.tar.gz'`` in your templates, e.g.:
.. code-block:: html+django
<a href="{% static "downloads/polls_20101022.tar.gz" %}">
.. setting:: STATICFILES_STORAGE
STATICFILES_STORAGE
-------------------
Default: ``'django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.StaticFilesStorage'``
The file storage engine to use when collecting static files with the
:djadmin:`collectstatic` management command.
A ready-to-use instance of the storage backend defined in this setting
can be found at ``django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.staticfiles_storage``.
For an example, see :ref:`staticfiles-from-cdn`.
.. setting:: STATICFILES_FINDERS
STATICFILES_FINDERS
-------------------
Default::
["django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder",
"django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder"]
The list of finder backends that know how to find static files in
various locations.
The default will find files stored in the :setting:`STATICFILES_DIRS` setting
(using ``django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder``) and in a
``static`` subdirectory of each app (using
``django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder``). If multiple
files with the same name are present, the first file that is found will be
used.
One finder is disabled by default:
``django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.DefaultStorageFinder``. If added to
your :setting:`STATICFILES_FINDERS` setting, it will look for static files in
the default file storage as defined by the :setting:`DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE`
setting.
.. note::
When using the ``AppDirectoriesFinder`` finder, make sure your apps
can be found by staticfiles. Simply add the app to the
:setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` setting of your site.
Static file finders are currently considered a private interface, and this
interface is thus undocumented.
Core Settings Topical Index
===========================
Cache
-----
* :setting:`CACHES`
* :setting:`CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_ALIAS`
* :setting:`CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX`
* :setting:`CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS`
Database
--------
* :setting:`DATABASES`
* :setting:`DATABASE_ROUTERS`
* :setting:`DEFAULT_INDEX_TABLESPACE`
* :setting:`DEFAULT_TABLESPACE`
Debugging
---------
* :setting:`DEBUG`
* :setting:`DEBUG_PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS`
Email
-----
* :setting:`ADMINS`
* :setting:`DEFAULT_CHARSET`
* :setting:`DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL`
* :setting:`EMAIL_BACKEND`
* :setting:`EMAIL_FILE_PATH`
* :setting:`EMAIL_HOST`
* :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD`
* :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER`
* :setting:`EMAIL_PORT`
* :setting:`EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILE`
* :setting:`EMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE`
* :setting:`EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX`
* :setting:`EMAIL_TIMEOUT`
* :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS`
* :setting:`MANAGERS`
* :setting:`SERVER_EMAIL`
Error reporting
---------------
* :setting:`DEFAULT_EXCEPTION_REPORTER_FILTER`
* :setting:`IGNORABLE_404_URLS`
* :setting:`MANAGERS`
* :setting:`SILENCED_SYSTEM_CHECKS`
.. _file-upload-settings:
File uploads
------------
* :setting:`DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE`
* :setting:`FILE_CHARSET`
* :setting:`FILE_UPLOAD_HANDLERS`
* :setting:`FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE`
* :setting:`FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS`
* :setting:`FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR`
* :setting:`MEDIA_ROOT`
* :setting:`MEDIA_URL`
Globalization (i18n/l10n)
-------------------------
* :setting:`DATE_FORMAT`
* :setting:`DATE_INPUT_FORMATS`
* :setting:`DATETIME_FORMAT`
* :setting:`DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS`
* :setting:`DECIMAL_SEPARATOR`
* :setting:`FIRST_DAY_OF_WEEK`
* :setting:`FORMAT_MODULE_PATH`
* :setting:`LANGUAGE_CODE`
* :setting:`LANGUAGE_COOKIE_AGE`
* :setting:`LANGUAGE_COOKIE_DOMAIN`
* :setting:`LANGUAGE_COOKIE_NAME`
* :setting:`LANGUAGE_COOKIE_PATH`
* :setting:`LANGUAGES`
* :setting:`LOCALE_PATHS`
* :setting:`MONTH_DAY_FORMAT`
* :setting:`NUMBER_GROUPING`
* :setting:`SHORT_DATE_FORMAT`
* :setting:`SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT`
* :setting:`THOUSAND_SEPARATOR`
* :setting:`TIME_FORMAT`
* :setting:`TIME_INPUT_FORMATS`
* :setting:`TIME_ZONE`
* :setting:`USE_I18N`
* :setting:`USE_L10N`
* :setting:`USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR`
* :setting:`USE_TZ`
* :setting:`YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT`
HTTP
----
* :setting:`DEFAULT_CHARSET`
* :setting:`DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE`
* :setting:`DISALLOWED_USER_AGENTS`
* :setting:`FORCE_SCRIPT_NAME`
* :setting:`INTERNAL_IPS`
* :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`
* Security
* :setting:`SECURE_BROWSER_XSS_FILTER`
* :setting:`SECURE_CONTENT_TYPE_NOSNIFF`
* :setting:`SECURE_HSTS_INCLUDE_SUBDOMAINS`
* :setting:`SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS`
* :setting:`SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER`
* :setting:`SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT`
* :setting:`SECURE_SSL_HOST`
* :setting:`SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT`
* :setting:`SIGNING_BACKEND`
* :setting:`USE_ETAGS`
* :setting:`USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST`
* :setting:`WSGI_APPLICATION`
Logging
-------
* :setting:`LOGGING`
* :setting:`LOGGING_CONFIG`
Models
------
* :setting:`ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES`
* :setting:`FIXTURE_DIRS`
* :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
Security
--------
* Cross Site Request Forgery Protection
* :setting:`CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN`
* :setting:`CSRF_COOKIE_NAME`
* :setting:`CSRF_COOKIE_PATH`
* :setting:`CSRF_COOKIE_SECURE`
* :setting:`CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW`
* :setting:`CSRF_HEADER_NAME`
* :setting:`SECRET_KEY`
* :setting:`X_FRAME_OPTIONS`
Serialization
-------------
* :setting:`DEFAULT_CHARSET`
* :setting:`SERIALIZATION_MODULES`
Templates
---------
* :setting:`ALLOWED_INCLUDE_ROOTS`
* :setting:`TEMPLATES`
* :setting:`TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS`
* :setting:`TEMPLATE_DEBUG`
* :setting:`TEMPLATE_DIRS`
* :setting:`TEMPLATE_LOADERS`
* :setting:`TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID`
Testing
-------
* Database: :setting:`TEST <DATABASE-TEST>`
* :setting:`TEST_NON_SERIALIZED_APPS`
* :setting:`TEST_RUNNER`
URLs
----
* :setting:`APPEND_SLASH`
* :setting:`PREPEND_WWW`
* :setting:`ROOT_URLCONF`
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