Skip to content
This repository

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
Fetching contributors…

Octocat-spinner-32-eaf2f5

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

file 657 lines (476 sloc) 27.301 kb
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656
=============
Sending email
=============

.. module:: django.core.mail
   :synopsis: Helpers to easily send email.

Although Python makes sending email relatively easy via the :mod:`smtplib`
module, Django provides a couple of light wrappers over it. These wrappers are
provided to make sending email extra quick, to make it easy to test email
sending during development, and to provide support for platforms that can't use
SMTP.

The code lives in the ``django.core.mail`` module.

Quick example
=============

In two lines::

    from django.core.mail import send_mail

    send_mail('Subject here', 'Here is the message.', 'from@example.com',
        ['to@example.com'], fail_silently=False)

Mail is sent using the SMTP host and port specified in the
:setting:`EMAIL_HOST` and :setting:`EMAIL_PORT` settings. The
:setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER` and :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD` settings, if
set, are used to authenticate to the SMTP server, and the
:setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS` and :setting:`EMAIL_USE_SSL` settings control whether
a secure connection is used.

.. note::

    The character set of email sent with ``django.core.mail`` will be set to
    the value of your :setting:`DEFAULT_CHARSET` setting.

send_mail()
===========

.. function:: send_mail(subject, message, from_email, recipient_list, fail_silently=False, auth_user=None, auth_password=None, connection=None, html_message=None)

The simplest way to send email is using
``django.core.mail.send_mail()``.

The ``subject``, ``message``, ``from_email`` and ``recipient_list`` parameters
are required.

* ``subject``: A string.
* ``message``: A string.
* ``from_email``: A string.
* ``recipient_list``: A list of strings, each an email address. Each
  member of ``recipient_list`` will see the other recipients in the "To:"
  field of the email message.
* ``fail_silently``: A boolean. If it's ``False``, ``send_mail`` will raise
  an :exc:`smtplib.SMTPException`. See the :mod:`smtplib` docs for a list of
  possible exceptions, all of which are subclasses of
  :exc:`~smtplib.SMTPException`.
* ``auth_user``: The optional username to use to authenticate to the SMTP
  server. If this isn't provided, Django will use the value of the
  :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER` setting.
* ``auth_password``: The optional password to use to authenticate to the
  SMTP server. If this isn't provided, Django will use the value of the
  :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD` setting.
* ``connection``: The optional email backend to use to send the mail.
  If unspecified, an instance of the default backend will be used.
  See the documentation on :ref:`Email backends <topic-email-backends>`
  for more details.
* ``html_message``: If ``html_message`` is provided, the resulting email will be a
  :mimetype:`multipart/alternative` email with ``message`` as the
  :mimetype:`text/plain` content type and ``html_message`` as the
  :mimetype:`text/html` content type.

The return value will be the number of successfully delivered messages (which
can be ``0`` or ``1`` since it can only send one message).

.. versionadded:: 1.7

    The ``html_message`` parameter was added.

send_mass_mail()
================

.. function:: send_mass_mail(datatuple, fail_silently=False, auth_user=None, auth_password=None, connection=None)

``django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()`` is intended to handle mass emailing.

``datatuple`` is a tuple in which each element is in this format::

    (subject, message, from_email, recipient_list)

``fail_silently``, ``auth_user`` and ``auth_password`` have the same functions
as in :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()`.

Each separate element of ``datatuple`` results in a separate email message.
As in :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()`, recipients in the same
``recipient_list`` will all see the other addresses in the email messages'
"To:" field.

For example, the following code would send two different messages to
two different sets of recipients; however, only one connection to the
mail server would be opened::

    message1 = ('Subject here', 'Here is the message', 'from@example.com', ['first@example.com', 'other@example.com'])
    message2 = ('Another Subject', 'Here is another message', 'from@example.com', ['second@test.com'])
    send_mass_mail((message1, message2), fail_silently=False)

The return value will be the number of successfully delivered messages.

send_mass_mail() vs. send_mail()
--------------------------------

The main difference between :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` and
:meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` is that
:meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` opens a connection to the mail server
each time it's executed, while :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` uses
a single connection for all of its messages. This makes
:meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` slightly more efficient.

mail_admins()
=============

.. function:: mail_admins(subject, message, fail_silently=False, connection=None, html_message=None)

``django.core.mail.mail_admins()`` is a shortcut for sending an email to the
site admins, as defined in the :setting:`ADMINS` setting.

``mail_admins()`` prefixes the subject with the value of the
:setting:`EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX` setting, which is ``"[Django] "`` by default.

The "From:" header of the email will be the value of the
:setting:`SERVER_EMAIL` setting.

This method exists for convenience and readability.

If ``html_message`` is provided, the resulting email will be a
:mimetype:`multipart/alternative` email with ``message`` as the
:mimetype:`text/plain` content type and ``html_message`` as the
:mimetype:`text/html` content type.

mail_managers()
===============

.. function:: mail_managers(subject, message, fail_silently=False, connection=None, html_message=None)

``django.core.mail.mail_managers()`` is just like ``mail_admins()``, except it
sends an email to the site managers, as defined in the :setting:`MANAGERS`
setting.

Examples
========

This sends a single email to john@example.com and jane@example.com, with them
both appearing in the "To:"::

    send_mail('Subject', 'Message.', 'from@example.com',
        ['john@example.com', 'jane@example.com'])

This sends a message to john@example.com and jane@example.com, with them both
receiving a separate email::

    datatuple = (
        ('Subject', 'Message.', 'from@example.com', ['john@example.com']),
        ('Subject', 'Message.', 'from@example.com', ['jane@example.com']),
    )
    send_mass_mail(datatuple)

Preventing header injection
===========================

`Header injection`_ is a security exploit in which an attacker inserts extra
email headers to control the "To:" and "From:" in email messages that your
scripts generate.

The Django email functions outlined above all protect against header injection
by forbidding newlines in header values. If any ``subject``, ``from_email`` or
``recipient_list`` contains a newline (in either Unix, Windows or Mac style),
the email function (e.g. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()`) will raise
``django.core.mail.BadHeaderError`` (a subclass of ``ValueError``) and, hence,
will not send the email. It's your responsibility to validate all data before
passing it to the email functions.

If a ``message`` contains headers at the start of the string, the headers will
simply be printed as the first bit of the email message.

Here's an example view that takes a ``subject``, ``message`` and ``from_email``
from the request's POST data, sends that to admin@example.com and redirects to
"/contact/thanks/" when it's done::

    from django.core.mail import send_mail, BadHeaderError

    def send_email(request):
        subject = request.POST.get('subject', '')
        message = request.POST.get('message', '')
        from_email = request.POST.get('from_email', '')
        if subject and message and from_email:
            try:
                send_mail(subject, message, from_email, ['admin@example.com'])
            except BadHeaderError:
                return HttpResponse('Invalid header found.')
            return HttpResponseRedirect('/contact/thanks/')
        else:
            # In reality we'd use a form class
            # to get proper validation errors.
            return HttpResponse('Make sure all fields are entered and valid.')

.. _Header injection: http://www.nyphp.org/phundamentals/8_Preventing-Email-Header-Injection

.. _emailmessage-and-smtpconnection:

The EmailMessage class
======================

Django's :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` and
:meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` functions are actually thin
wrappers that make use of the :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class.

Not all features of the :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class are
available through the :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` and related
wrapper functions. If you wish to use advanced features, such as BCC'ed
recipients, file attachments, or multi-part email, you'll need to create
:class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instances directly.

.. note::
    This is a design feature. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` and
    related functions were originally the only interface Django provided.
    However, the list of parameters they accepted was slowly growing over
    time. It made sense to move to a more object-oriented design for email
    messages and retain the original functions only for backwards
    compatibility.

:class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` is responsible for creating the email
message itself. The :ref:`email backend <topic-email-backends>` is then
responsible for sending the email.

For convenience, :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` provides a simple
``send()`` method for sending a single email. If you need to send multiple
messages, the email backend API :ref:`provides an alternative
<topics-sending-multiple-emails>`.

EmailMessage Objects
--------------------

.. class:: EmailMessage

The :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class is initialized with the
following parameters (in the given order, if positional arguments are used).
All parameters are optional and can be set at any time prior to calling the
``send()`` method.

* ``subject``: The subject line of the email.

* ``body``: The body text. This should be a plain text message.

* ``from_email``: The sender's address. Both ``fred@example.com`` and
  ``Fred <fred@example.com>`` forms are legal. If omitted, the
  :setting:`DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL` setting is used.

* ``to``: A list or tuple of recipient addresses.

* ``bcc``: A list or tuple of addresses used in the "Bcc" header when
  sending the email.

* ``connection``: An email backend instance. Use this parameter if
  you want to use the same connection for multiple messages. If omitted, a
  new connection is created when ``send()`` is called.

* ``attachments``: A list of attachments to put on the message. These can
  be either ``email.MIMEBase.MIMEBase`` instances, or ``(filename,
  content, mimetype)`` triples.

* ``headers``: A dictionary of extra headers to put on the message. The
  keys are the header name, values are the header values. It's up to the
  caller to ensure header names and values are in the correct format for
  an email message. The corresponding attribute is ``extra_headers``.

* ``cc``: A list or tuple of recipient addresses used in the "Cc" header
  when sending the email.

For example::

    email = EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', 'from@example.com',
                ['to1@example.com', 'to2@example.com'], ['bcc@example.com'],
                headers = {'Reply-To': 'another@example.com'})

The class has the following methods:

* ``send(fail_silently=False)`` sends the message. If a connection was
  specified when the email was constructed, that connection will be used.
  Otherwise, an instance of the default backend will be instantiated and
  used. If the keyword argument ``fail_silently`` is ``True``, exceptions
  raised while sending the message will be quashed.

* ``message()`` constructs a ``django.core.mail.SafeMIMEText`` object (a
  subclass of Python's ``email.MIMEText.MIMEText`` class) or a
  ``django.core.mail.SafeMIMEMultipart`` object holding the message to be
  sent. If you ever need to extend the
  :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class, you'll probably want to
  override this method to put the content you want into the MIME object.

* ``recipients()`` returns a list of all the recipients of the message,
  whether they're recorded in the ``to``, ``cc`` or ``bcc`` attributes. This
  is another method you might need to override when subclassing, because the
  SMTP server needs to be told the full list of recipients when the message
  is sent. If you add another way to specify recipients in your class, they
  need to be returned from this method as well.

* ``attach()`` creates a new file attachment and adds it to the message.
  There are two ways to call ``attach()``:

  * You can pass it a single argument that is an
    ``email.MIMEBase.MIMEBase`` instance. This will be inserted directly
    into the resulting message.

  * Alternatively, you can pass ``attach()`` three arguments:
    ``filename``, ``content`` and ``mimetype``. ``filename`` is the name
    of the file attachment as it will appear in the email, ``content`` is
    the data that will be contained inside the attachment and
    ``mimetype`` is the optional MIME type for the attachment. If you
    omit ``mimetype``, the MIME content type will be guessed from the
    filename of the attachment.

    For example::

       message.attach('design.png', img_data, 'image/png')

    .. versionchanged:: 1.7

      If you specify a ``mimetype`` of ``message/rfc822``, it will also accept
      :class:`django.core.mail.EmailMessage` and :py:class:`email.message.Message`.

      In addition, ``message/rfc822`` attachments will no longer be
      base64-encoded in violation of :rfc:`2046#section-5.2.1`, which can cause
      issues with displaying the attachments in `Evolution`__ and `Thunderbird`__.

      __ https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=651197
      __ https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=333880

* ``attach_file()`` creates a new attachment using a file from your
  filesystem. Call it with the path of the file to attach and, optionally,
  the MIME type to use for the attachment. If the MIME type is omitted, it
  will be guessed from the filename. The simplest use would be::

    message.attach_file('/images/weather_map.png')

Sending alternative content types
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

It can be useful to include multiple versions of the content in an email; the
classic example is to send both text and HTML versions of a message. With
Django's email library, you can do this using the ``EmailMultiAlternatives``
class. This subclass of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` has an
``attach_alternative()`` method for including extra versions of the message
body in the email. All the other methods (including the class initialization)
are inherited directly from :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage`.

To send a text and HTML combination, you could write::

    from django.core.mail import EmailMultiAlternatives

    subject, from_email, to = 'hello', 'from@example.com', 'to@example.com'
    text_content = 'This is an important message.'
    html_content = '<p>This is an <strong>important</strong> message.</p>'
    msg = EmailMultiAlternatives(subject, text_content, from_email, [to])
    msg.attach_alternative(html_content, "text/html")
    msg.send()

By default, the MIME type of the ``body`` parameter in an
:class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` is ``"text/plain"``. It is good
practice to leave this alone, because it guarantees that any recipient will be
able to read the email, regardless of their mail client. However, if you are
confident that your recipients can handle an alternative content type, you can
use the ``content_subtype`` attribute on the
:class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class to change the main content type.
The major type will always be ``"text"``, but you can change the
subtype. For example::

    msg = EmailMessage(subject, html_content, from_email, [to])
    msg.content_subtype = "html" # Main content is now text/html
    msg.send()

.. _topic-email-backends:

Email backends
==============

The actual sending of an email is handled by the email backend.

The email backend class has the following methods:

* ``open()`` instantiates an long-lived email-sending connection.

* ``close()`` closes the current email-sending connection.

* ``send_messages(email_messages)`` sends a list of
  :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` objects. If the connection is
  not open, this call will implicitly open the connection, and close the
  connection afterwards. If the connection is already open, it will be
  left open after mail has been sent.

It can also be used as a context manager, which will automatically call
``open()`` and ``close()`` as needed::

    from django.core import mail

    with mail.get_connection() as connection:
        mail.EmailMessage(subject1, body1, from1, [to1],
                          connection=connection).send()
        mail.EmailMessage(subject2, body2, from2, [to2],
                          connection=connection).send()

.. versionadded:: 1.8

    The context manager protocol was added.

Obtaining an instance of an email backend
-----------------------------------------

The :meth:`get_connection` function in ``django.core.mail`` returns an
instance of the email backend that you can use.

.. currentmodule:: django.core.mail

.. function:: get_connection(backend=None, fail_silently=False, *args, **kwargs)

By default, a call to ``get_connection()`` will return an instance of the
email backend specified in :setting:`EMAIL_BACKEND`. If you specify the
``backend`` argument, an instance of that backend will be instantiated.

The ``fail_silently`` argument controls how the backend should handle errors.
If ``fail_silently`` is True, exceptions during the email sending process
will be silently ignored.

All other arguments are passed directly to the constructor of the
email backend.

Django ships with several email sending backends. With the exception of the
SMTP backend (which is the default), these backends are only useful during
testing and development. If you have special email sending requirements, you
can :ref:`write your own email backend <topic-custom-email-backend>`.

.. _topic-email-smtp-backend:

SMTP backend
~~~~~~~~~~~~

.. class:: backends.smtp.EmailBackend([host=None, port=None, username=None, password=None, use_tls=None, fail_silently=False, use_ssl=None, timeout=None, **kwargs])

    This is the default backend. Email will be sent through a SMTP server.
    The server address and authentication credentials are set in the
    :setting:`EMAIL_HOST`, :setting:`EMAIL_PORT`, :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER`,
    :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD`, :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS` and
    :setting:`EMAIL_USE_SSL` settings in your settings file.

    The SMTP backend is the default configuration inherited by Django. If you
    want to specify it explicitly, put the following in your settings::

        EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.smtp.EmailBackend'

    Here is an attribute which doesn't have a corresponding setting like the
    others described above:

    .. attribute:: timeout

        .. versionadded:: 1.7

        This backend contains a ``timeout`` parameter, which can be set with
        the following sample code::

            from django.core.mail.backends import smtp

            class MyEmailBackend(smtp.EmailBackend):
              def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
                  kwargs.setdefault('timeout', 42)
                  super(MyEmailBackend, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

        Then point the :setting:`EMAIL_BACKEND` setting at your custom backend as
        described above.

        If unspecified, the default ``timeout`` will be the one provided by
        :func:`socket.getdefaulttimeout()`, which defaults to ``None`` (no timeout).

.. _topic-email-console-backend:

Console backend
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Instead of sending out real emails the console backend just writes the
emails that would be sent to the standard output. By default, the console
backend writes to ``stdout``. You can use a different stream-like object by
providing the ``stream`` keyword argument when constructing the connection.

To specify this backend, put the following in your settings::

    EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.console.EmailBackend'

This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
convenience that can be used during development.

.. _topic-email-file-backend:

File backend
~~~~~~~~~~~~

The file backend writes emails to a file. A new file is created for each new
session that is opened on this backend. The directory to which the files are
written is either taken from the :setting:`EMAIL_FILE_PATH` setting or from
the ``file_path`` keyword when creating a connection with
:meth:`~django.core.mail.get_connection`.

To specify this backend, put the following in your settings::

    EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.filebased.EmailBackend'
    EMAIL_FILE_PATH = '/tmp/app-messages' # change this to a proper location

This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
convenience that can be used during development.

.. _topic-email-memory-backend:

In-memory backend
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The ``'locmem'`` backend stores messages in a special attribute of the
``django.core.mail`` module. The ``outbox`` attribute is created when the
first message is sent. It's a list with an
:class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instance for each message that would
be sent.

To specify this backend, put the following in your settings::

  EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.locmem.EmailBackend'

This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
convenience that can be used during development and testing.

.. _topic-email-dummy-backend:

Dummy backend
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

As the name suggests the dummy backend does nothing with your messages. To
specify this backend, put the following in your settings::

   EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.dummy.EmailBackend'

This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
convenience that can be used during development.

.. _topic-custom-email-backend:

Defining a custom email backend
-------------------------------

If you need to change how emails are sent you can write your own email
backend. The :setting:`EMAIL_BACKEND` setting in your settings file is then
the Python import path for your backend class.

Custom email backends should subclass ``BaseEmailBackend`` that is located in
the ``django.core.mail.backends.base`` module. A custom email backend must
implement the ``send_messages(email_messages)`` method. This method receives a
list of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instances and returns the
number of successfully delivered messages. If your backend has any concept of
a persistent session or connection, you should also implement the ``open()``
and ``close()`` methods. Refer to ``smtp.EmailBackend`` for a reference
implementation.

.. _topics-sending-multiple-emails:

Sending multiple emails
-----------------------

Establishing and closing an SMTP connection (or any other network connection,
for that matter) is an expensive process. If you have a lot of emails to send,
it makes sense to reuse an SMTP connection, rather than creating and
destroying a connection every time you want to send an email.

There are two ways you tell an email backend to reuse a connection.

Firstly, you can use the ``send_messages()`` method. ``send_messages()`` takes
a list of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instances (or subclasses),
and sends them all using a single connection.

For example, if you have a function called ``get_notification_email()`` that
returns a list of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` objects representing
some periodic email you wish to send out, you could send these emails using
a single call to send_messages::

    from django.core import mail
    connection = mail.get_connection() # Use default email connection
    messages = get_notification_email()
    connection.send_messages(messages)

In this example, the call to ``send_messages()`` opens a connection on the
backend, sends the list of messages, and then closes the connection again.

The second approach is to use the ``open()`` and ``close()`` methods on the
email backend to manually control the connection. ``send_messages()`` will not
manually open or close the connection if it is already open, so if you
manually open the connection, you can control when it is closed. For example::

    from django.core import mail
    connection = mail.get_connection()

    # Manually open the connection
    connection.open()

    # Construct an email message that uses the connection
    email1 = mail.EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', 'from@example.com',
                              ['to1@example.com'], connection=connection)
    email1.send() # Send the email

    # Construct two more messages
    email2 = mail.EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', 'from@example.com',
                              ['to2@example.com'])
    email3 = mail.EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', 'from@example.com',
                              ['to3@example.com'])

    # Send the two emails in a single call -
    connection.send_messages([email2, email3])
    # The connection was already open so send_messages() doesn't close it.
    # We need to manually close the connection.
    connection.close()


Configuring email for development
=================================

There are times when you do not want Django to send emails at
all. For example, while developing a Web site, you probably don't want
to send out thousands of emails -- but you may want to validate that
emails will be sent to the right people under the right conditions,
and that those emails will contain the correct content.

The easiest way to configure email for local development is to use the
:ref:`console <topic-email-console-backend>` email backend. This backend
redirects all email to stdout, allowing you to inspect the content of mail.

The :ref:`file <topic-email-file-backend>` email backend can also be useful
during development -- this backend dumps the contents of every SMTP connection
to a file that can be inspected at your leisure.

Another approach is to use a "dumb" SMTP server that receives the emails
locally and displays them to the terminal, but does not actually send
anything. Python has a built-in way to accomplish this with a single command::

    python -m smtpd -n -c DebuggingServer localhost:1025

This command will start a simple SMTP server listening on port 1025 of
localhost. This server simply prints to standard output all email headers and
the email body. You then only need to set the :setting:`EMAIL_HOST` and
:setting:`EMAIL_PORT` accordingly. For a more detailed discussion of SMTP
server options, see the Python documentation for the :mod:`smtpd` module.

For information about unit-testing the sending of emails in your application,
see the :ref:`topics-testing-email` section of the testing documentation.
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.