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[1.5.X] Fixed #19582 - Added a static files tutorial.

Thanks James Pic.

Backport of c32fc79 from master
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commit 1c42a3ec736f55b79bc1a7b4cad4cbe65b9cb27e 1 parent abaab6e
@timgraham timgraham authored
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0  docs/howto/static-files.txt → docs/howto/static-files/index.txt
File renamed without changes
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3  docs/index.txt
@@ -45,7 +45,8 @@ Are you new to Django or to programming? This is the place to start!
:doc:`Part 2 <intro/tutorial02>` |
:doc:`Part 3 <intro/tutorial03>` |
:doc:`Part 4 <intro/tutorial04>` |
- :doc:`Part 5 <intro/tutorial05>`
+ :doc:`Part 5 <intro/tutorial05>` |
+ :doc:`Part 6 <intro/tutorial06>`
* **Advanced Tutorials:**
:doc:`How to write reusable apps <intro/reusable-apps>` |
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1  docs/intro/index.txt
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@ place: read this material to quickly get up and running.
tutorial03
tutorial04
tutorial05
+ tutorial06
reusable-apps
whatsnext
contributing
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12 docs/intro/reusable-apps.txt
@@ -2,11 +2,11 @@
Advanced tutorial: How to write reusable apps
=============================================
-This advanced tutorial begins where :doc:`Tutorial 5 </intro/tutorial05>` left
-off. We'll be turning our Web-poll into a standalone Python package you can
-reuse in new projects and share with other people.
+This advanced tutorial begins where :doc:`Tutorial 6 </intro/tutorial06>`
+left off. We'll be turning our Web-poll into a standalone Python package
+you can reuse in new projects and share with other people.
-If you haven't recently completed Tutorials 1–5, we encourage you to review
+If you haven't recently completed Tutorials 1–6, we encourage you to review
these so that your example project matches the one described below.
Reusability matters
@@ -67,6 +67,10 @@ After the previous tutorials, our project should look like this::
__init__.py
models.py
tests.py
+ static/
+ style.css
+ images/
+ background.gif
templates/
polls/
detail.html
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11 docs/intro/tutorial05.txt
@@ -641,10 +641,9 @@ information about testing.
What's next?
============
-The beginner tutorial ends here for the time being. In the meantime, you might
-want to check out some pointers on :doc:`where to go from here
-</intro/whatsnext>`.
+For full details on testing, see :doc:`Testing in Django
+</topics/testing/index>`.
-If you are familiar with Python packaging and interested in learning how to
-turn polls into a "reusable app", check out :doc:`Advanced tutorial: How to
-write reusable apps</intro/reusable-apps>`.
+When you're comfortable with testing Django views, read
+:doc:`part 6 of this tutorial</intro/tutorial06>` to learn about
+static files management.
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125 docs/intro/tutorial06.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,125 @@
+=====================================
+Writing your first Django app, part 6
+=====================================
+
+This tutorial begins where :doc:`Tutorial 5 </intro/tutorial05>` left off.
+We've built a tested Web-poll application, and we'll now add a stylesheet and
+an image.
+
+Aside from the HTML generated by the server, web applications generally need
+to serve additional files — such as images, JavaScript, or CSS — necessary to
+render the complete web page. In Django, we refer to these files as "static
+files".
+
+For small projects, this isn't a big deal, because you can just keep the
+static files somewhere your web server can find it. However, in bigger
+projects -- especially those comprised of multiple apps -- dealing with the
+multiple sets of static files provided by each application starts to get
+tricky.
+
+That's what ``django.contrib.staticfiles`` is for: it collects static files
+from each of your applications (and any other places you specify) into a
+single location that can easily be served in production.
+
+Customize your *app's* look and feel
+====================================
+
+First, create a directory called ``static`` in your ``polls`` directory. Django
+will look for static files there, similarly to how Django finds templates
+inside ``polls/templates/``.
+
+Django's :setting:`STATICFILES_FINDERS` setting contains a list
+of finders that know how to discover static files from various
+sources. One of the defaults is ``AppDirectoriesFinder`` which
+looks for a "static" subdirectory in each of the
+:setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`, like the one in ``polls`` we just created. The admin
+site uses the same directory structure for its static files.
+
+Within the ``static`` directory you have just created, create another directory
+called ``polls`` and within that create a file called ``style.css``. In other
+words, your stylesheet should be at ``polls/static/polls/style.css``. Because
+of how the ``AppDirectoriesFinder`` staticfile finder works, you can refer to
+this static file in Django simply as ``polls/style.css``, similar to how you
+reference the path for templates.
+
+.. admonition:: Static file namespacing
+
+ Just like templates, we *might* be able to get away with putting our static
+ files directly in ``polls/static`` (rather than creating another ``polls``
+ subdirectory), but it would actually be a bad idea. Django will choose the
+ first static file it finds whose name matches, and if you had a static file
+ with the same name in a *different* application, Django would be unable to
+ distinguish between them. We need to be able to point Django at the right
+ one, and the easiest way to ensure this is by *namespacing* them. That is,
+ by putting those static files inside *another* directory named for the
+ application itself.
+
+Put the following code in that stylesheet (``polls/static/polls/style.css``):
+
+.. code-block:: css
+
+ li a {
+ color: green;
+ }
+
+Next, add the following at the top of ``polls/templates/polls/index.html``:
+
+.. code-block:: html+django
+
+ {% load staticfiles %}
+
+ <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="{% static 'polls/style.css' %}" />
+
+``{% load staticfiles %}`` loads the :ttag:`{% static %} <staticfiles-static>`
+template tag from the ``staticfiles`` template library. The ``{% static %}``
+template tag generates the absolute URL of the static file.
+
+That's all you need to do for development. Reload
+``http://localhost:8000/polls/`` and you should see that the poll links are
+green (Django style!) which means that your stylesheet was properly loaded.
+
+Adding a background-image
+=========================
+
+Next, we'll create a subdirectory for images. Create an ``images`` subdirectory
+in the ``polls/static/polls/`` directory. Inside this directory, put an image
+called ``background.gif``. In other words, put your image in
+``polls/static/polls/images/background.gif``.
+
+Then, add to your stylesheet (``polls/static/polls/style.css``):
+
+.. code-block:: css
+
+ body {
+ background: white url("images/background.gif") no-repeat right bottom;
+ }
+
+Reload ``http://localhost:8000/polls/`` and you should see the background
+loaded in the bottom right of the screen.
+
+.. warning::
+
+ Of course the ``{% static %}`` template tag is not available for use in
+ static files like your stylesheet which aren't generated by Django. You
+ should always use **relative paths** to link your static files between each
+ other, because then you can change :setting:`STATIC_URL` (used by the
+ :ttag:`static` template tag to generate its URLs) without having to modify
+ a bunch of paths in your static files as well.
+
+These are the **basics**. For more details on settings and other bits included
+with the framework see
+:doc:`the static files howto </howto/static-files>` and the
+:doc:`the staticfiles reference </ref/contrib/staticfiles>`. :doc:`Deploying
+static files </howto/static-files/deployment>` discusses how to use static
+files on a real server.
+
+What's next?
+============
+
+The beginner tutorial ends here for the time being. In the meantime, you might
+want to check out some pointers on :doc:`where to go from here
+</intro/whatsnext>`.
+
+If you are familiar with Python packaging and interested in learning how to
+turn polls into a "reusable app", check out :doc:`Advanced tutorial: How to
+write reusable apps</intro/reusable-apps>`.
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