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Fixed #21863 -- supplemented get_lookup() with get_transform()

Also fixed #22124 -- Expanded explanation of exactly what is going on in
as_sql() methods.
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1 parent a0f2525 commit 219d928852c256a81d09dbaa29ed4cec42d2fdfa @akaariai akaariai committed with mjtamlyn Mar 1, 2014
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16 django/db/models/lookups.py
@@ -9,11 +9,11 @@
class RegisterLookupMixin(object):
- def get_lookup(self, lookup_name):
+ def _get_lookup(self, lookup_name):
try:
return self.class_lookups[lookup_name]
except KeyError:
- # To allow for inheritance, check parent class class lookups.
+ # To allow for inheritance, check parent class' class_lookups.
for parent in inspect.getmro(self.__class__):
if not 'class_lookups' in parent.__dict__:
continue
@@ -26,6 +26,18 @@ def get_lookup(self, lookup_name):
return self.output_type.get_lookup(lookup_name)
return None
+ def get_lookup(self, lookup_name):
+ found = self._get_lookup(lookup_name)
+ if found is not None and not issubclass(found, Lookup):
+ return None
+ return found
+
+ def get_transform(self, lookup_name):
+ found = self._get_lookup(lookup_name)
+ if found is not None and not issubclass(found, Transform):
+ return None
+ return found
+
@classmethod
def register_lookup(cls, lookup):
if not 'class_lookups' in cls.__dict__:
View
3 django/db/models/sql/datastructures.py
@@ -24,6 +24,9 @@ def get_group_by_cols(self):
def get_lookup(self, name):
return self.output_type.get_lookup(name)
+ def get_transform(self, name):
+ return self.output_type.get_transform(name)
+
def prepare(self):
return self
View
29 django/db/models/sql/query.py
@@ -1088,24 +1088,21 @@ def build_lookup(self, lookups, lhs, rhs):
lookups = lookups[:]
while lookups:
lookup = lookups[0]
- next = lhs.get_lookup(lookup)
+ if len(lookups) == 1:
+ final_lookup = lhs.get_lookup(lookup)
+ if final_lookup:
+ return final_lookup(lhs, rhs)
+ # We didn't find a lookup, so we are going to try get_transform
+ # + get_lookup('exact').
+ lookups.append('exact')
+ next = lhs.get_transform(lookup)
if next:
- if len(lookups) == 1:
- # This was the last lookup, so return value lookup.
- if issubclass(next, Transform):
- lookups.append('exact')
- lhs = next(lhs, lookups)
- else:
- return next(lhs, rhs)
- else:
- lhs = next(lhs, lookups)
- # A field's get_lookup() can return None to opt for backwards
- # compatibility path.
- elif len(lookups) > 2:
- raise FieldError(
- "Unsupported lookup for field '%s'" % lhs.output_type.name)
+ lhs = next(lhs, lookups)
else:
- return None
+ raise FieldError(
+ "Unsupported lookup '%s' for %s or join on the field not "
+ "permitted." %
+ (lookup, lhs.output_type.__class__.__name__))
lookups = lookups[1:]
def build_filter(self, filter_expr, branch_negated=False, current_negated=False,
View
107 docs/ref/models/custom-lookups.txt
@@ -60,6 +60,14 @@ and use ``NotEqual`` to generate the SQL. By convention, these names are always
lowercase strings containing only letters, but the only hard requirement is
that it must not contain the string ``__``.
+We then need to define the ``as_sql`` method. This takes a ``SQLCompiler``
+object, called ``qn``, and the active database connection. ``SQLCompiler``
+objects are not documented, but the only thing we need to know about them is
+that they have a ``compile()`` method which returns a tuple containing a SQL
+string, and the parameters to be interpolated into that string. In most cases,
+you don't need to use it directly and can pass it on to ``process_lhs()`` and
+``process_rhs()``.
+
A ``Lookup`` works against two values, ``lhs`` and ``rhs``, standing for
left-hand side and right-hand side. The left-hand side is usually a field
reference, but it can be anything implementing the :ref:`query expression API
@@ -69,11 +77,13 @@ reference to the ``name`` field of the ``Author`` model, and ``'Jack'`` is the
right-hand side.
We call ``process_lhs`` and ``process_rhs`` to convert them into the values we
-need for SQL. In the above example, ``process_lhs`` returns
-``('"author"."name"', [])`` and ``process_rhs`` returns ``('"%s"', ['Jack'])``.
-In this example there were no parameters for the left hand side, but this would
-depend on the object we have, so we still need to include them in the
-parameters we return.
+need for SQL using the ``qn`` object described before. These methods return
+tuples containing some SQL and the parameters to be interpolated into that SQL,
+just as we need to return from our ``as_sql`` method. In the above example,
+``process_lhs`` returns ``('"author"."name"', [])`` and ``process_rhs`` returns
+``('"%s"', ['Jack'])``. In this example there were no parameters for the left
+hand side, but this would depend on the object we have, so we still need to
+include them in the parameters we return.
Finally we combine the parts into a SQL expression with ``<>``, and supply all
the parameters for the query. We then return a tuple containing the generated
@@ -216,6 +226,52 @@ When compiling a query, Django first looks for ``as_%s % connection.vendor``
methods, and then falls back to ``as_sql``. The vendor names for the in-built
backends are ``sqlite``, ``postgresql``, ``oracle`` and ``mysql``.
+How Django determines the lookups and transforms which are used
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In some cases you may which to dynamically change which ``Transform`` or
+``Lookup`` is returned based on the name passed in, rather than fixing it. As
+an example, you could have a field which stores coordinates or an arbitrary
+dimension, and wish to allow a syntax like ``.filter(coords__x7=4)`` to return
+the objects where the 7th coordinate has value 4. In order to do this, you
+would override ``get_lookup`` with something like::
+
+ class CoordinatesField(Field):
+ def get_lookup(self, lookup_name):
+ if lookup_name.startswith('x'):
+ try:
+ dimension = int(lookup_name[1:])
+ except ValueError:
+ pass
+ finally:
+ return get_coordinate_lookup(dimension)
+ return super(CoordinatesField, self).get_lookup(lookup_name)
+
+You would then define ``get_coordinate_lookup`` appropriately to return a
+``Lookup`` subclass which handles the relevant value of ``dimension``.
+
+There is a similarly named method called ``get_transform()``. ``get_lookup()``
+should always return a ``Lookup`` subclass, and ``get_transform()`` a
+``Transform`` subclass. It is important to remember that ``Transform``
+objects can be further filtered on, and ``Lookup`` objects cannot.
+
+When filtering, if there is only one lookup name remaining to be resolved, we
+will look for a ``Lookup``. If there are multiple names, it will look for a
+``Transform``. In the situation where there is only one name and a ``Lookup``
+is not found, we look for a ``Transform`` and then the ``exact`` lookup on that
+``Transform``. All call sequences always end with a ``Lookup``. To clarify:
+
+- ``.filter(myfield__mylookup)`` will call ``myfield.get_lookup('mylookup')``.
+- ``.filter(myfield__mytransform__mylookup)`` will call
+ ``myfield.get_transform('mytransform')``, and then
+ ``mytransform.get_lookup('mylookup')``.
+- ``.filter(myfield__mytransform)`` will first call
+ ``myfield.get_lookup('mytransform')``, which will fail, so it will fall back
+ to calling ``myfield.get_transform('mytransform')`` and then
+ ``mytransform.get_lookup('exact')``.
+
+Lookups and transforms are registered using the same API - ``register_lookup``.
+
.. _query-expression:
The Query Expression API
@@ -228,28 +284,36 @@ to this API.
.. method:: as_sql(qn, connection)
Responsible for producing the query string and parameters for the
- expression. The ``qn`` has a ``compile()`` method that can be used to
- compile other expressions. The ``connection`` is the connection used to
- execute the query.
+ expression. The ``qn`` is a ``SQLCompiler`` object, which has a
+ ``compile()`` method that can be used to compile other expressions. The
+ ``connection`` is the connection used to execute the query.
Calling expression.as_sql() directly is usually incorrect - instead
``qn.compile(expression)`` should be used. The ``qn.compile()`` method will
take care of calling vendor-specific methods of the expression.
+.. method:: as_vendorname(qn, connection)
+
+ Works like ``as_sql()`` method. When an expression is compiled by
+ ``qn.compile()``, Django will first try to call ``as_vendorname()``, where
+ vendorname is the vendor name of the backend used for executing the query.
+ The vendorname is one of ``postgresql``, ``oracle``, ``sqlite`` or
+ ``mysql`` for Django's built-in backends.
+
.. method:: get_lookup(lookup_name)
The ``get_lookup()`` method is used to fetch lookups. By default the
lookup is fetched from the expression's output type in the same way
described in registering and fetching lookup documentation below.
It is possible to override this method to alter that behavior.
-.. method:: as_vendorname(qn, connection)
+.. method:: get_transform(lookup_name)
- Works like ``as_sql()`` method. When an expression is compiled by
- ``qn.compile()``, Django will first try to call ``as_vendorname()``, where
- vendorname is the vendor name of the backend used for executing the query.
- The vendorname is one of ``postgresql``, ``oracle``, ``sqlite`` or
- ``mysql`` for Django's built-in backends.
+ The ``get_transform()`` method is used when a transform is needed rather
+ than a lookup, or if a lookup is not found. This is a more complex
+ situation which is useful when there arbitrary possible lookups for a
+ field. Generally speaking, you will not need to override ``get_lookup()``
+ or ``get_transform()``, and can use ``register_lookup()`` instead.
.. attribute:: output_type
@@ -325,12 +389,19 @@ The lookup registration API is explained below.
Registers the Lookup or Transform for the class. For example
``DateField.register_lookup(YearExact)`` will register ``YearExact`` for
all ``DateFields`` in the project, but also for fields that are instances
- of a subclass of ``DateField`` (for example ``DateTimeField``).
+ of a subclass of ``DateField`` (for example ``DateTimeField``). You can
+ register a Lookup or a Transform using the same class method.
.. method:: get_lookup(lookup_name)
- Django uses ``get_lookup(lookup_name)`` to fetch lookups or transforms.
- The implementation of ``get_lookup()`` fetches lookups or transforms
- registered for the current class based on their lookup_name attribute.
+ Django uses ``get_lookup(lookup_name)`` to fetch lookups. The
+ implementation of ``get_lookup()`` looks for a subclass which is registered
+ for the current class with the correct ``lookup_name``.
+
+.. method:: get_transform(lookup_name)
+
+ Django uses ``get_transform(lookup_name)`` to fetch lookups. The
+ implementation of ``get_transform()`` looks for a subclass which is registered
+ for the current class with the correct ``transform_name``.
The lookup registration API is available for ``Transform`` and ``Field`` classes.
View
56 tests/custom_lookups/tests.py
@@ -3,10 +3,11 @@
from datetime import date
import unittest
-from django.test import TestCase
-from .models import Author
+from django.core.exceptions import FieldError
from django.db import models
from django.db import connection
+from django.test import TestCase
+from .models import Author
class Div3Lookup(models.Lookup):
@@ -289,3 +290,54 @@ def as_custom_sql(self, qn, connection):
finally:
YearTransform._unregister_lookup(CustomYearExact)
YearTransform.register_lookup(YearExact)
+
+
+class TrackCallsYearTransform(YearTransform):
+ lookup_name = 'year'
+ call_order = []
+
+ def as_sql(self, qn, connection):
+ lhs_sql, params = qn.compile(self.lhs)
+ return connection.ops.date_extract_sql('year', lhs_sql), params
+
+ @property
+ def output_type(self):
+ return models.IntegerField()
+
+ def get_lookup(self, lookup_name):
+ self.call_order.append('lookup')
+ return super(TrackCallsYearTransform, self).get_lookup(lookup_name)
+
+ def get_transform(self, lookup_name):
+ self.call_order.append('transform')
+ return super(TrackCallsYearTransform, self).get_transform(lookup_name)
+
+
+class LookupTransformCallOrderTests(TestCase):
+ def test_call_order(self):
+ models.DateField.register_lookup(TrackCallsYearTransform)
+ try:
+ # junk lookup - tries lookup, then transform, then fails
+ with self.assertRaises(FieldError):
+ Author.objects.filter(birthdate__year__junk=2012)
+ self.assertEqual(TrackCallsYearTransform.call_order,
+ ['lookup', 'transform'])
+ TrackCallsYearTransform.call_order = []
+ # junk transform - tries transform only, then fails
+ with self.assertRaises(FieldError):
+ Author.objects.filter(birthdate__year__junk__more_junk=2012)
+ self.assertEqual(TrackCallsYearTransform.call_order,
+ ['transform'])
+ TrackCallsYearTransform.call_order = []
+ # Just getting the year (implied __exact) - lookup only
+ Author.objects.filter(birthdate__year=2012)
+ self.assertEqual(TrackCallsYearTransform.call_order,
+ ['lookup'])
+ TrackCallsYearTransform.call_order = []
+ # Just getting the year (explicit __exact) - lookup only
+ Author.objects.filter(birthdate__year__exact=2012)
+ self.assertEqual(TrackCallsYearTransform.call_order,
+ ['lookup'])
+
+ finally:
+ models.DateField._unregister_lookup(TrackCallsYearTransform)
View
5 tests/lookup/tests.py
@@ -476,8 +476,9 @@ def test_error_messages(self):
Article.objects.filter(headline__starts='Article')
self.fail('FieldError not raised')
except FieldError as ex:
- self.assertEqual(str(ex), "Join on field 'headline' not permitted. "
- "Did you misspell 'starts' for the lookup type?")
+ self.assertEqual(
+ str(ex), "Unsupported lookup 'starts' for CharField "
+ "or join on the field not permitted.")
def test_regex(self):
# Create some articles with a bit more interesting headlines for testing field lookups:

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