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[multi-db] Merged trunk to [4158]. Some tests still failing.

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1 parent 0162eac commit 55d7f6519c8d13a685cff3f9873b5784fc511a87 @jpellerin jpellerin committed Dec 4, 2006
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1 AUTHORS
@@ -151,6 +151,7 @@ answer newbie questions, and generally made Django that much better:
SmileyChris <smileychris@gmail.com>
sopel
Thomas Steinacher <tom@eggdrop.ch>
+ nowell strite
Radek Švarz <http://www.svarz.cz/translate/>
Swaroop C H <http://www.swaroopch.info>
Aaron Swartz <http://www.aaronsw.com/>
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2 django/conf/project_template/urls.py
@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
urlpatterns = patterns('',
# Example:
- # (r'^{{ project_name }}/', include('{{ project_name }}.apps.foo.urls.foo')),
+ # (r'^{{ project_name }}/', include('{{ project_name }}.foo.urls')),
# Uncomment this for admin:
# (r'^admin/', include('django.contrib.admin.urls')),
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2 django/contrib/sitemaps/templates/sitemap_index.xml
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<sitemapindex xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemapindex/0.9">
+<sitemapindex xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
{% for location in sitemaps %}<sitemap><loc>{{ location|escape }}</loc></sitemap>{% endfor %}
</sitemapindex>
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6 django/core/handlers/base.py
@@ -84,7 +84,11 @@ def get_response(self, request):
# Complain if the view returned None (a common error).
if response is None:
- raise ValueError, "The view %s.%s didn't return an HttpResponse object." % (callback.__module__, callback.func_name)
+ try:
+ view_name = callback.func_name # If it's a function
+ except AttributeError:
+ view_name = callback.__class__.__name__ + '.__call__' # If it's a class
+ raise ValueError, "The view %s.%s didn't return an HttpResponse object." % (callback.__module__, view_name)
return response
except http.Http404, e:
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9 django/core/handlers/wsgi.py
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ def safe_copyfileobj(fsrc, fdst, length=16*1024, size=0):
data in the body.
"""
if not size:
- return copyfileobj(fsrc, fdst, length)
+ return
while size > 0:
buf = fsrc.read(min(length, size))
if not buf:
@@ -157,8 +157,11 @@ def _get_raw_post_data(self):
return self._raw_post_data
except AttributeError:
buf = StringIO()
- # CONTENT_LENGTH might be absent if POST doesn't have content at all (lighttpd)
- content_length = int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH', 0))
+ try:
+ # CONTENT_LENGTH might be absent if POST doesn't have content at all (lighttpd)
+ content_length = int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH', 0))
+ except ValueError: # if CONTENT_LENGTH was empty string or not an integer
+ content_length = 0
safe_copyfileobj(self.environ['wsgi.input'], buf, size=content_length)
self._raw_post_data = buf.getvalue()
buf.close()
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13 django/db/models/fields/__init__.py
@@ -457,9 +457,7 @@ def get_follow(self, override=None):
def get_db_prep_save(self, value):
# Casts dates into string format for entry into database.
- if isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
- value = value.date().strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
- elif isinstance(value, datetime.date):
+ if value is not None:
value = value.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
return Field.get_db_prep_save(self, value)
@@ -489,7 +487,7 @@ def to_python(self, value):
def pre_save(self, model_instance, add):
value = super(DateField, self).pre_save(model_instance, add)
- if isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
+ if value is not None:
# MySQL will throw a warning if microseconds are given, because it
# doesn't support microseconds.
settings = model_instance._default_manager.db.connection.settings
@@ -501,13 +499,6 @@ def get_db_prep_save(self, value):
# Casts dates into string format for entry into database.
if value is not None:
value = str(value)
- elif isinstance(value, datetime.date):
- # MySQL will throw a warning if microseconds are given, because it
- # doesn't support microseconds.
- if settings.DATABASE_ENGINE == 'mysql' and hasattr(value, 'microsecond'):
- value = datetime.datetime(value.year, value.month, value.day, microsecond=0)
- value = str(value)
-
return Field.get_db_prep_save(self, value)
def get_db_prep_lookup(self, lookup_type, value):
View
2 django/http/__init__.py
@@ -208,7 +208,7 @@ def delete_cookie(self, key, path='/', domain=None):
if path is not None:
self.cookies[key]['path'] = path
if domain is not None:
- self.cookies[key]['domain'] = path
+ self.cookies[key]['domain'] = domain
self.cookies[key]['expires'] = 0
self.cookies[key]['max-age'] = 0
View
13 django/newforms/__init__.py
@@ -14,15 +14,4 @@
from widgets import *
from fields import *
from forms import Form
-
-##########################
-# DATABASE API SHORTCUTS #
-##########################
-
-def form_for_model(model):
- "Returns a Form instance for the given Django model class."
- raise NotImplementedError
-
-def form_for_fields(field_list):
- "Returns a Form instance for the given list of Django database field instances."
- raise NotImplementedError
+from models import *
View
17 django/newforms/fields.py
@@ -76,6 +76,8 @@ def clean(self, value):
of int().
"""
super(IntegerField, self).clean(value)
+ if not self.required and value in EMPTY_VALUES:
+ return u''
try:
return int(value)
except (ValueError, TypeError):
@@ -170,6 +172,8 @@ def clean(self, value):
Field.clean(self, value)
if value in EMPTY_VALUES: value = u''
value = smart_unicode(value)
+ if not self.required and value == u'':
+ return value
if not self.regex.search(value):
raise ValidationError(self.error_message)
return value
@@ -246,6 +250,8 @@ def clean(self, value):
value = Field.clean(self, value)
if value in EMPTY_VALUES: value = u''
value = smart_unicode(value)
+ if not self.required and value == u'':
+ return value
valid_values = set([str(k) for k, v in self.choices])
if value not in valid_values:
raise ValidationError(u'Select a valid choice. %s is not one of the available choices.' % value)
@@ -259,10 +265,12 @@ def clean(self, value):
"""
Validates that the input is a list or tuple.
"""
- if not isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
- raise ValidationError(u'Enter a list of values.')
if self.required and not value:
raise ValidationError(u'This field is required.')
+ elif not self.required and not value:
+ return []
+ if not isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
+ raise ValidationError(u'Enter a list of values.')
new_value = []
for val in value:
val = smart_unicode(val)
@@ -277,6 +285,11 @@ def clean(self, value):
class ComboField(Field):
def __init__(self, fields=(), required=True, widget=None):
Field.__init__(self, required, widget)
+ # Set 'required' to False on the individual fields, because the
+ # required validation will be handled by ComboField, not by those
+ # individual fields.
+ for f in fields:
+ f.required = False
self.fields = fields
def clean(self, value):
View
130 django/newforms/forms.py
@@ -3,8 +3,9 @@
"""
from django.utils.datastructures import SortedDict
+from django.utils.html import escape
from fields import Field
-from widgets import TextInput, Textarea
+from widgets import TextInput, Textarea, HiddenInput
from util import ErrorDict, ErrorList, ValidationError
NON_FIELD_ERRORS = '__all__'
@@ -36,6 +37,7 @@ class Form(object):
__metaclass__ = DeclarativeFieldsMetaclass
def __init__(self, data=None, auto_id=False): # TODO: prefix stuff
+ self.ignore_errors = data is None
self.data = data or {}
self.auto_id = auto_id
self.clean_data = None # Stores the data after clean() has been called.
@@ -56,69 +58,78 @@ def __getitem__(self, name):
raise KeyError('Key %r not found in Form' % name)
return BoundField(self, field, name)
- def clean(self):
- if self.__errors is None:
- self.full_clean()
- return self.clean_data
-
- def errors(self):
+ def _errors(self):
"Returns an ErrorDict for self.data"
if self.__errors is None:
self.full_clean()
return self.__errors
+ errors = property(_errors)
def is_valid(self):
"""
- Returns True if the form has no errors. Otherwise, False. This exists
- solely for convenience, so client code can use positive logic rather
- than confusing negative logic ("if not form.errors()").
+ Returns True if the form has no errors. Otherwise, False. If errors are
+ being ignored, returns False.
"""
- return not bool(self.errors())
+ return not self.ignore_errors and not bool(self.errors)
def as_table(self):
"Returns this form rendered as HTML <tr>s -- excluding the <table></table>."
- return u'\n'.join(['<tr><td>%s:</td><td>%s</td></tr>' % (pretty_name(name), BoundField(self, field, name)) for name, field in self.fields.items()])
-
- def as_ul(self):
- "Returns this form rendered as HTML <li>s -- excluding the <ul></ul>."
- return u'\n'.join(['<li>%s: %s</li>' % (pretty_name(name), BoundField(self, field, name)) for name, field in self.fields.items()])
-
- def as_table_with_errors(self):
- "Returns this form rendered as HTML <tr>s, with errors."
output = []
- if self.errors().get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
+ if self.errors.get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
# Errors not corresponding to a particular field are displayed at the top.
- output.append('<tr><td colspan="2"><ul>%s</ul></td></tr>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in self.errors()[NON_FIELD_ERRORS]]))
+ output.append(u'<tr><td colspan="2">%s</td></tr>' % self.non_field_errors())
for name, field in self.fields.items():
bf = BoundField(self, field, name)
- if bf.errors:
- output.append('<tr><td colspan="2"><ul>%s</ul></td></tr>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in bf.errors]))
- output.append('<tr><td>%s:</td><td>%s</td></tr>' % (pretty_name(name), bf))
+ if bf.is_hidden:
+ if bf.errors:
+ new_errors = ErrorList(['(Hidden field %s) %s' % (name, e) for e in bf.errors])
+ output.append(u'<tr><td colspan="2">%s</td></tr>' % new_errors)
+ output.append(str(bf))
+ else:
+ if bf.errors:
+ output.append(u'<tr><td colspan="2">%s</td></tr>' % bf.errors)
+ output.append(u'<tr><td>%s</td><td>%s</td></tr>' % (bf.label_tag(escape(bf.verbose_name+':')), bf))
return u'\n'.join(output)
- def as_ul_with_errors(self):
- "Returns this form rendered as HTML <li>s, with errors."
+ def as_ul(self):
+ "Returns this form rendered as HTML <li>s -- excluding the <ul></ul>."
output = []
- if self.errors().get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
+ if self.errors.get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
# Errors not corresponding to a particular field are displayed at the top.
- output.append('<li><ul>%s</ul></li>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in self.errors()[NON_FIELD_ERRORS]]))
+ output.append(u'<li>%s</li>' % self.non_field_errors())
for name, field in self.fields.items():
bf = BoundField(self, field, name)
- line = '<li>'
- if bf.errors:
- line += '<ul>%s</ul>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in bf.errors])
- line += '%s: %s</li>' % (pretty_name(name), bf)
- output.append(line)
+ if bf.is_hidden:
+ if bf.errors:
+ new_errors = ErrorList(['(Hidden field %s) %s' % (name, e) for e in bf.errors])
+ output.append(u'<li>%s</li>' % new_errors)
+ output.append(str(bf))
+ else:
+ output.append(u'<li>%s%s %s</li>' % (bf.errors, bf.label_tag(escape(bf.verbose_name+':')), bf))
return u'\n'.join(output)
+ def non_field_errors(self):
+ """
+ Returns an ErrorList of errors that aren't associated with a particular
+ field -- i.e., from Form.clean(). Returns an empty ErrorList if there
+ are none.
+ """
+ return self.errors.get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS, ErrorList())
+
def full_clean(self):
"""
Cleans all of self.data and populates self.__errors and self.clean_data.
"""
self.clean_data = {}
errors = ErrorDict()
+ if self.ignore_errors: # Stop further processing.
+ self.__errors = errors
+ return
for name, field in self.fields.items():
- value = self.data.get(name, None)
+ # value_from_datadict() gets the data from the dictionary.
+ # Each widget type knows how to retrieve its own data, because some
+ # widgets split data over several HTML fields.
+ value = field.widget.value_from_datadict(self.data, name)
try:
value = field.clean(value)
self.clean_data[name] = value
@@ -138,7 +149,9 @@ def full_clean(self):
def clean(self):
"""
Hook for doing any extra form-wide cleaning after Field.clean() been
- called on every field.
+ called on every field. Any ValidationError raised by this method will
+ not be associated with a particular field; it will have a special-case
+ association with the field named '__all__'.
"""
return self.clean_data
@@ -153,25 +166,31 @@ def __str__(self):
"Renders this field as an HTML widget."
# Use the 'widget' attribute on the field to determine which type
# of HTML widget to use.
- return self.as_widget(self._field.widget)
+ value = self.as_widget(self._field.widget)
+ if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+ # Some Widget render() methods -- notably RadioSelect -- return a
+ # "special" object rather than a string. Call the __str__() on that
+ # object to get its rendered value.
+ value = value.__str__()
+ return value
def _errors(self):
"""
Returns an ErrorList for this field. Returns an empty ErrorList
if there are none.
"""
try:
- return self._form.errors()[self._name]
+ return self._form.errors[self._name]
except KeyError:
return ErrorList()
errors = property(_errors)
def as_widget(self, widget, attrs=None):
attrs = attrs or {}
auto_id = self.auto_id
- if not attrs.has_key('id') and not widget.attrs.has_key('id') and auto_id:
+ if auto_id and not attrs.has_key('id') and not widget.attrs.has_key('id'):
attrs['id'] = auto_id
- return widget.render(self._name, self._form.data.get(self._name, None), attrs=attrs)
+ return widget.render(self._name, self.data, attrs=attrs)
def as_text(self, attrs=None):
"""
@@ -183,6 +202,39 @@ def as_textarea(self, attrs=None):
"Returns a string of HTML for representing this as a <textarea>."
return self.as_widget(Textarea(), attrs)
+ def as_hidden(self, attrs=None):
+ """
+ Returns a string of HTML for representing this as an <input type="hidden">.
+ """
+ return self.as_widget(HiddenInput(), attrs)
+
+ def _data(self):
+ "Returns the data for this BoundField, or None if it wasn't given."
+ return self._form.data.get(self._name, None)
+ data = property(_data)
+
+ def _verbose_name(self):
+ return pretty_name(self._name)
+ verbose_name = property(_verbose_name)
+
+ def label_tag(self, contents=None):
+ """
+ Wraps the given contents in a <label>, if the field has an ID attribute.
+ Does not HTML-escape the contents. If contents aren't given, uses the
+ field's HTML-escaped verbose_name.
+ """
+ contents = contents or escape(self.verbose_name)
+ widget = self._field.widget
+ id_ = widget.attrs.get('id') or self.auto_id
+ if id_:
+ contents = '<label for="%s">%s</label>' % (widget.id_for_label(id_), contents)
+ return contents
+
+ def _is_hidden(self):
+ "Returns True if this BoundField's widget is hidden."
+ return self._field.widget.is_hidden
+ is_hidden = property(_is_hidden)
+
def _auto_id(self):
"""
Calculates and returns the ID attribute for this BoundField, if the
View
13 django/newforms/models.py
@@ -0,0 +1,13 @@
+"""
+Helper functions for creating Forms from Django models and database field objects.
+"""
+
+__all__ = ('form_for_model', 'form_for_fields')
+
+def form_for_model(model):
+ "Returns a Form instance for the given Django model class."
+ raise NotImplementedError
+
+def form_for_fields(field_list):
+ "Returns a Form instance for the given list of Django database field instances."
+ raise NotImplementedError
View
85 django/newforms/widgets.py
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
__all__ = (
'Widget', 'TextInput', 'PasswordInput', 'HiddenInput', 'FileInput',
'Textarea', 'CheckboxInput',
- 'Select', 'SelectMultiple', 'RadioSelect',
+ 'Select', 'SelectMultiple', 'RadioSelect', 'CheckboxSelectMultiple',
)
from util import smart_unicode
@@ -23,18 +23,41 @@
class Widget(object):
requires_data_list = False # Determines whether render()'s 'value' argument should be a list.
+ is_hidden = False # Determines whether this corresponds to an <input type="hidden">.
+
def __init__(self, attrs=None):
self.attrs = attrs or {}
def render(self, name, value):
raise NotImplementedError
def build_attrs(self, extra_attrs=None, **kwargs):
+ "Helper function for building an attribute dictionary."
attrs = dict(self.attrs, **kwargs)
if extra_attrs:
attrs.update(extra_attrs)
return attrs
+ def value_from_datadict(self, data, name):
+ """
+ Given a dictionary of data and this widget's name, returns the value
+ of this widget. Returns None if it's not provided.
+ """
+ return data.get(name, None)
+
+ def id_for_label(self, id_):
+ """
+ Returns the HTML ID attribute of this Widget for use by a <label>,
+ given the ID of the field. Returns None if no ID is available.
+
+ This hook is necessary because some widgets have multiple HTML
+ elements and, thus, multiple IDs. In that case, this method should
+ return an ID value that corresponds to the first ID in the widget's
+ tags.
+ """
+ return id_
+ id_for_label = classmethod(id_for_label)
+
class Input(Widget):
"""
Base class for all <input> widgets (except type='checkbox' and
@@ -55,6 +78,7 @@ class PasswordInput(Input):
class HiddenInput(Input):
input_type = 'hidden'
+ is_hidden = True
class FileInput(Input):
input_type = 'file'
@@ -67,9 +91,22 @@ def render(self, name, value, attrs=None):
return u'<textarea%s>%s</textarea>' % (flatatt(final_attrs), escape(value))
class CheckboxInput(Widget):
+ def __init__(self, attrs=None, check_test=bool):
+ # check_test is a callable that takes a value and returns True
+ # if the checkbox should be checked for that value.
+ self.attrs = attrs or {}
+ self.check_test = check_test
+
def render(self, name, value, attrs=None):
final_attrs = self.build_attrs(attrs, type='checkbox', name=name)
- if value: final_attrs['checked'] = 'checked'
+ try:
+ result = self.check_test(value)
+ except: # Silently catch exceptions
+ result = False
+ if result:
+ final_attrs['checked'] = 'checked'
+ if value not in ('', True, False, None):
+ final_attrs['value'] = smart_unicode(value) # Only add the 'value' attribute if a value is non-empty.
return u'<input%s />' % flatatt(final_attrs)
class Select(Widget):
@@ -111,10 +148,11 @@ def render(self, name, value, attrs=None, choices=()):
class RadioInput(object):
"An object used by RadioFieldRenderer that represents a single <input type='radio'>."
- def __init__(self, name, value, attrs, choice):
+ def __init__(self, name, value, attrs, choice, index):
self.name, self.value = name, value
- self.attrs = attrs or {}
+ self.attrs = attrs
self.choice_value, self.choice_label = choice
+ self.index = index
def __str__(self):
return u'<label>%s %s</label>' % (self.tag(), self.choice_label)
@@ -123,6 +161,8 @@ def is_checked(self):
return self.value == smart_unicode(self.choice_value)
def tag(self):
+ if self.attrs.has_key('id'):
+ self.attrs['id'] = '%s_%s' % (self.attrs['id'], self.index)
final_attrs = dict(self.attrs, type='radio', name=self.name, value=self.choice_value)
if self.is_checked():
final_attrs['checked'] = 'checked'
@@ -135,8 +175,8 @@ def __init__(self, name, value, attrs, choices):
self.choices = choices
def __iter__(self):
- for choice in self.choices:
- yield RadioInput(self.name, self.value, self.attrs, choice)
+ for i, choice in enumerate(self.choices):
+ yield RadioInput(self.name, self.value, self.attrs.copy(), choice, i)
def __str__(self):
"Outputs a <ul> for this set of radio fields."
@@ -147,7 +187,36 @@ def render(self, name, value, attrs=None, choices=()):
"Returns a RadioFieldRenderer instance rather than a Unicode string."
if value is None: value = ''
str_value = smart_unicode(value) # Normalize to string.
+ attrs = attrs or {}
return RadioFieldRenderer(name, str_value, attrs, list(chain(self.choices, choices)))
-class CheckboxSelectMultiple(Widget):
- pass
+ def id_for_label(self, id_):
+ # RadioSelect is represented by multiple <input type="radio"> fields,
+ # each of which has a distinct ID. The IDs are made distinct by a "_X"
+ # suffix, where X is the zero-based index of the radio field. Thus,
+ # the label for a RadioSelect should reference the first one ('_0').
+ if id_:
+ id_ += '_0'
+ return id_
+ id_for_label = classmethod(id_for_label)
+
+class CheckboxSelectMultiple(SelectMultiple):
+ def render(self, name, value, attrs=None, choices=()):
+ if value is None: value = []
+ final_attrs = self.build_attrs(attrs, name=name)
+ output = [u'<ul>']
+ str_values = set([smart_unicode(v) for v in value]) # Normalize to strings.
+ cb = CheckboxInput(final_attrs, check_test=lambda value: value in str_values)
+ for option_value, option_label in chain(self.choices, choices):
+ option_value = smart_unicode(option_value)
+ rendered_cb = cb.render(name, option_value)
+ output.append(u'<li><label>%s %s</label></li>' % (rendered_cb, escape(smart_unicode(option_label))))
+ output.append(u'</ul>')
+ return u'\n'.join(output)
+
+ def id_for_label(self, id_):
+ # See the comment for RadioSelect.id_for_label()
+ if id_:
+ id_ += '_0'
+ return id_
+ id_for_label = classmethod(id_for_label)
View
2 django/views/generic/list_detail.py
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ def object_detail(request, queryset, object_id=None, slug=None,
context_processors=None, template_object_name='object',
mimetype=None):
"""
- Generic list of objects.
+ Generic detail of an object.
Templates: ``<app_label>/<model_name>_detail.html``
Context:
View
2 docs/sessions.txt
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ Do this after you've verified that the test cookie worked.
Here's a typical usage example::
def login(request):
- if request.POST:
+ if request.method == 'POST':
if request.session.test_cookie_worked():
request.session.delete_test_cookie()
return HttpResponse("You're logged in.")
View
2 docs/testing.txt
@@ -133,7 +133,7 @@ together, picking the test system to match the type of tests you need to
write.
For developers new to testing, however, this choice can seem
-confusing, so here are a few key differences to help you decide weather
+confusing, so here are a few key differences to help you decide whether
doctests or unit tests are right for you.
If you've been using Python for a while, ``doctest`` will probably feel more
View
10 setup.py
@@ -11,13 +11,17 @@
# Compile the list of packages available, because distutils doesn't have
# an easy way to do this.
packages, data_files = [], []
-root_dir = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'django')
-for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(root_dir):
+root_dir = os.path.dirname(__file__)
+len_root_dir = len(root_dir)
+django_dir = os.path.join(root_dir, 'django')
+
+for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(django_dir):
# Ignore dirnames that start with '.'
for i, dirname in enumerate(dirnames):
if dirname.startswith('.'): del dirnames[i]
if '__init__.py' in filenames:
- packages.append(dirpath.replace('/', '.'))
+ package = dirpath[len_root_dir:].lstrip('/').replace('/', '.')
+ packages.append(package)
else:
data_files.append((dirpath, [os.path.join(dirpath, f) for f in filenames]))
View
907 tests/regressiontests/forms/tests.py
@@ -4,6 +4,14 @@
>>> import datetime
>>> import re
+###########
+# Widgets #
+###########
+
+Each Widget class corresponds to an HTML form widget. A Widget knows how to
+render itself, given a field name and some data. Widgets don't perform
+validation.
+
# TextInput Widget ############################################################
>>> w = TextInput()
@@ -156,10 +164,18 @@
>>> w = CheckboxInput()
>>> w.render('is_cool', '')
u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
+>>> w.render('is_cool', None)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
>>> w.render('is_cool', False)
u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
>>> w.render('is_cool', True)
u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
+
+Using any value that's not in ('', None, False, True) will check the checkbox
+and set the 'value' attribute.
+>>> w.render('is_cool', 'foo')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="is_cool" value="foo" />'
+
>>> w.render('is_cool', False, attrs={'class': 'pretty'})
u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" class="pretty" />'
@@ -173,6 +189,29 @@
>>> w.render('is_cool', '', attrs={'class': 'special'})
u'<input type="checkbox" class="special" name="is_cool" />'
+You can pass 'check_test' to the constructor. This is a callable that takes the
+value and returns True if the box should be checked.
+>>> w = CheckboxInput(check_test=lambda value: value.startswith('hello'))
+>>> w.render('greeting', '')
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', 'hello')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="greeting" value="hello" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', 'hello there')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="greeting" value="hello there" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', 'hello & goodbye')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="greeting" value="hello &amp; goodbye" />'
+
+A subtlety: If the 'check_test' argument cannot handle a value and raises any
+exception during its __call__, then the exception will be swallowed and the box
+will not be checked. In this example, the 'check_test' assumes the value has a
+startswith() method, which fails for the values True, False and None.
+>>> w.render('greeting', True)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', False)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', None)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+
# Select Widget ###############################################################
>>> w = Select()
@@ -475,22 +514,164 @@
beatle J G George False
beatle J R Ringo False
+# CheckboxSelectMultiple Widget ###############################################
+
+>>> w = CheckboxSelectMultiple()
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J', 'P'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J', 'P', 'R'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If the value is None, none of the options are selected:
+>>> print w.render('beatles', None, choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If the value corresponds to a label (but not to an option value), none of the options are selected:
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['John'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If multiple values are given, but some of them are not valid, the valid ones are selected:
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J', 'G', 'foo'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+The value is compared to its str():
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2'), ('3', '3')])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('nums', ['2'], choices=[(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=[(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+The 'choices' argument can be any iterable:
+>>> def get_choices():
+... for i in range(5):
+... yield (i, i)
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=get_choices())
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="0" /> 0</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="4" /> 4</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+You can also pass 'choices' to the constructor:
+>>> w = CheckboxSelectMultiple(choices=[(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)])
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If 'choices' is passed to both the constructor and render(), then they'll both be in the output:
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=[(4, 4), (5, 5)])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="4" /> 4</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="5" /> 5</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+>>> w.render('nums', ['ŠĐĆŽćžšđ'], choices=[('ŠĐĆŽćžšđ', 'ŠĐabcĆŽćžšđ'), ('ćžšđ', 'abcćžšđ')])
+u'<ul>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>\n<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /> \u0160\u0110abc\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111</label></li>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /> abc\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111</label></li>\n</ul>'
+
+##########
+# Fields #
+##########
+
+Each Field class does some sort of validation. Each Field has a clean() method,
+which either raises django.newforms.ValidationError or returns the "clean"
+data -- usually a Unicode object, but, in some rare cases, a list.
+
+Each Field's __init__() takes at least these parameters:
+ required -- Boolean that specifies whether the field is required.
+ True by default.
+ widget -- A Widget class, or instance of a Widget class, that should be
+ used for this Field when displaying it. Each Field has a default
+ Widget that it'll use if you don't specify this. In most cases,
+ the default widget is TextInput.
+
+Other than that, the Field subclasses have class-specific options for
+__init__(). For example, CharField has a max_length option.
+
# CharField ###################################################################
+>>> f = CharField()
+>>> f.clean(1)
+u'1'
+>>> f.clean('hello')
+u'hello'
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean([1, 2, 3])
+u'[1, 2, 3]'
+
>>> f = CharField(required=False)
>>> f.clean(1)
u'1'
>>> f.clean('hello')
u'hello'
>>> f.clean(None)
u''
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
>>> f.clean([1, 2, 3])
u'[1, 2, 3]'
CharField accepts an optional max_length parameter:
>>> f = CharField(max_length=10, required=False)
->>> f.clean('')
-u''
>>> f.clean('12345')
u'12345'
>>> f.clean('1234567890')
@@ -518,6 +699,40 @@
# IntegerField ################################################################
>>> f = IntegerField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('1')
+1
+>>> isinstance(f.clean('1'), int)
+True
+>>> f.clean('23')
+23
+>>> f.clean('a')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a whole number.']
+>>> f.clean('1 ')
+1
+>>> f.clean(' 1')
+1
+>>> f.clean(' 1 ')
+1
+>>> f.clean('1a')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a whole number.']
+
+>>> f = IntegerField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
>>> f.clean('1')
1
>>> isinstance(f.clean('1'), int)
@@ -681,6 +896,14 @@
...
ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid date/time.']
+>>> f = DateTimeField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean(None)
+>>> repr(f.clean(None))
+'None'
+>>> f.clean('')
+>>> repr(f.clean(''))
+'None'
+
# RegexField ##################################################################
>>> f = RegexField('^\d[A-F]\d$')
@@ -700,6 +923,22 @@
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid value.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+
+>>> f = RegexField('^\d[A-F]\d$', required=False)
+>>> f.clean('2A2')
+u'2A2'
+>>> f.clean('3F3')
+u'3F3'
+>>> f.clean('3G3')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid value.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
Alternatively, RegexField can take a compiled regular expression:
>>> f = RegexField(re.compile('^\d[A-F]\d$'))
@@ -736,6 +975,34 @@
# EmailField ##################################################################
>>> f = EmailField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('person@example.com')
+u'person@example.com'
+>>> f.clean('foo')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+>>> f.clean('foo@')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+>>> f.clean('foo@bar')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+
+>>> f = EmailField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
>>> f.clean('person@example.com')
u'person@example.com'
>>> f.clean('foo')
@@ -754,6 +1021,48 @@
# URLField ##################################################################
>>> f = URLField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('http://example.com')
+u'http://example.com'
+>>> f.clean('http://www.example.com')
+u'http://www.example.com'
+>>> f.clean('foo')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('example.com')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://example')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://example.')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://.com')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+
+>>> f = URLField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
>>> f.clean('http://example.com')
u'http://example.com'
>>> f.clean('http://www.example.com')
@@ -804,6 +1113,30 @@
# BooleanField ################################################################
>>> f = BooleanField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(True)
+True
+>>> f.clean(False)
+False
+>>> f.clean(1)
+True
+>>> f.clean(0)
+False
+>>> f.clean('Django rocks')
+True
+
+>>> f = BooleanField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+False
+>>> f.clean(None)
+False
>>> f.clean(True)
True
>>> f.clean(False)
@@ -818,18 +1151,32 @@
# ChoiceField #################################################################
>>> f = ChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')])
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
>>> f.clean(1)
u'1'
>>> f.clean('1')
u'1'
->>> f.clean(None)
+>>> f.clean('3')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
-ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 3 is not one of the available choices.']
+
+>>> f = ChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')], required=False)
>>> f.clean('')
-Traceback (most recent call last):
-...
-ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
+>>> f.clean(1)
+u'1'
+>>> f.clean('1')
+u'1'
>>> f.clean('3')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
@@ -846,6 +1193,14 @@
# MultipleChoiceField #########################################################
>>> f = MultipleChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')])
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
>>> f.clean([1])
[u'1']
>>> f.clean(['1'])
@@ -873,10 +1228,38 @@
...
ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 3 is not one of the available choices.']
+>>> f = MultipleChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')], required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+[]
+>>> f.clean(None)
+[]
+>>> f.clean([1])
+[u'1']
+>>> f.clean(['1'])
+[u'1']
+>>> f.clean(['1', '2'])
+[u'1', u'2']
+>>> f.clean([1, '2'])
+[u'1', u'2']
+>>> f.clean((1, '2'))
+[u'1', u'2']
+>>> f.clean('hello')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a list of values.']
+>>> f.clean([])
+[]
+>>> f.clean(())
+[]
+>>> f.clean(['3'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 3 is not one of the available choices.']
+
# ComboField ##################################################################
ComboField takes a list of fields that should be used to validate a value,
-in that order:
+in that order.
>>> f = ComboField(fields=[CharField(max_length=20), EmailField()])
>>> f.clean('test@example.com')
u'test@example.com'
@@ -897,47 +1280,48 @@
...
ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f = ComboField(fields=[CharField(max_length=20), EmailField()], required=False)
+>>> f.clean('test@example.com')
+u'test@example.com'
+>>> f.clean('longemailaddress@example.com')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Ensure this value has at most 20 characters.']
+>>> f.clean('not an e-mail')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
+
+#########
+# Forms #
+#########
+
+A Form is a collection of Fields. It knows how to validate a set of data and it
+knows how to render itself in a couple of default ways (e.g., an HTML table).
+You can pass it data in __init__(), as a dictionary.
+
# Form ########################################################################
>>> class Person(Form):
... first_name = CharField()
... last_name = CharField()
... birthday = DateField()
->>> p = Person()
->>> print p
-<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
->>> print p.as_table()
-<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
->>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
-<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
-<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
->>> print p.as_table_with_errors()
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
->>> print p.as_ul_with_errors()
-<li><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
-<li><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
-<li><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
+Pass a dictionary to a Form's __init__().
>>> p = Person({'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'Lennon', 'birthday': u'1940-10-9'})
->>> p.errors()
+>>> p.errors
{}
>>> p.is_valid()
True
->>> p.errors().as_ul()
+>>> p.errors.as_ul()
u''
->>> p.errors().as_text()
+>>> p.errors.as_text()
u''
->>> p.clean()
+>>> p.clean_data
{'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'Lennon', 'birthday': datetime.date(1940, 10, 9)}
>>> print p['first_name']
<input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" />
@@ -950,25 +1334,83 @@
<input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" />
<input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" />
<input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" />
+>>> for boundfield in p:
+... print boundfield.verbose_name, boundfield.data
+First name John
+Last name Lennon
+Birthday 1940-10-9
>>> print p
<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></td></tr>
<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" /></td></tr>
<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></td></tr>
+Empty dictionaries are valid, too.
+>>> p = Person({})
+>>> p.errors
+{'first_name': [u'This field is required.'], 'last_name': [u'This field is required.'], 'birthday': [u'This field is required.']}
+>>> p.is_valid()
+False
+>>> print p
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_table()
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
+
+If you don't pass any values to the Form's __init__(), or if you pass None,
+the Form won't do any validation. Form.errors will be an empty dictionary *but*
+Form.is_valid() will return False.
+>>> p = Person()
+>>> p.errors
+{}
+>>> p.is_valid()
+False
+>>> print p
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_table()
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
+<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
+
+Unicode values are handled properly.
+>>> p = Person({'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111', 'birthday': '1940-10-9'})
+>>> p.as_table()
+u'<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></td></tr>\n<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" value="\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /></td></tr>\n<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></td></tr>'
+>>> p.as_ul()
+u'<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></li>\n<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" value="\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /></li>\n<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></li>'
+
>>> p = Person({'last_name': u'Lennon'})
->>> p.errors()
+>>> p.errors
{'first_name': [u'This field is required.'], 'birthday': [u'This field is required.']}
>>> p.is_valid()
False
->>> p.errors().as_ul()
+>>> p.errors.as_ul()
u'<ul class="errorlist"><li>first_name<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></li><li>birthday<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></li></ul>'
->>> print p.errors().as_text()
+>>> print p.errors.as_text()
* first_name
* This field is required.
* birthday
* This field is required.
->>> p.clean()
->>> repr(p.clean())
+>>> p.clean_data
+>>> repr(p.clean_data)
'None'
>>> p['first_name'].errors
[u'This field is required.']
@@ -987,20 +1429,25 @@
"auto_id" tells the Form to add an "id" attribute to each form element.
If it's a string that contains '%s', Django will use that as a format string
-into which the field's name will be inserted.
+into which the field's name will be inserted. It will also put a <label> around
+the human-readable labels for a field.
>>> p = Person(auto_id='id_%s')
>>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></li>
-<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></li>
-<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label> <input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></li>
+>>> print p.as_table()
+<tr><td><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></td></tr>
If auto_id is any True value whose str() does not contain '%s', the "id"
attribute will be the name of the field.
>>> p = Person(auto_id=True)
>>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" id="first_name" /></li>
-<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
-<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
+<li><label for="first_name">First name:</label> <input type="text" name="first_name" id="first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
If auto_id is any False value, an "id" attribute won't be output unless it
was manually entered.
@@ -1011,24 +1458,24 @@
<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
In this example, auto_id is False, but the "id" attribute for the "first_name"
-field is given.
+field is given. Also note that field gets a <label>, while the others don't.
>>> class PersonNew(Form):
... first_name = CharField(widget=TextInput(attrs={'id': 'first_name_id'}))
... last_name = CharField()
... birthday = DateField()
>>> p = PersonNew(auto_id=False)
>>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="first_name_id">First name:</label> <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
If the "id" attribute is specified in the Form and auto_id is True, the "id"
attribute in the Form gets precedence.
>>> p = PersonNew(auto_id=True)
>>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
-<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
-<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
+<li><label for="first_name_id">First name:</label> <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
>>> class SignupForm(Form):
... email = EmailField()
@@ -1055,11 +1502,14 @@
>>> print f['message']
<textarea name="message"></textarea>
-as_textarea() and as_text() are shortcuts for changing the output widget type:
+as_textarea(), as_text() and as_hidden() are shortcuts for changing the output
+widget type:
>>> f['subject'].as_textarea()
u'<textarea name="subject"></textarea>'
>>> f['message'].as_text()
u'<input type="text" name="message" />'
+>>> f['message'].as_hidden()
+u'<input type="hidden" name="message" />'
The 'widget' parameter to a Field can also be an instance:
>>> class ContactForm(Form):
@@ -1069,14 +1519,17 @@
>>> print f['message']
<textarea rows="80" cols="20" name="message"></textarea>
-Instance-level attrs are *not* carried over to as_textarea() and as_text():
+Instance-level attrs are *not* carried over to as_textarea(), as_text() and
+as_hidden():
>>> f['message'].as_text()
u'<input type="text" name="message" />'
>>> f = ContactForm({'subject': 'Hello', 'message': 'I love you.'})
>>> f['subject'].as_textarea()
u'<textarea name="subject">Hello</textarea>'
>>> f['message'].as_text()
u'<input type="text" name="message" value="I love you." />'
+>>> f['message'].as_hidden()
+u'<input type="hidden" name="message" value="I love you." />'
For a form with a <select>, use ChoiceField:
>>> class FrameworkForm(Form):
@@ -1095,6 +1548,55 @@
<option value="J">Java</option>
</select>
+Add widget=RadioSelect to use that widget with a ChoiceField.
+>>> class FrameworkForm(Form):
+... name = CharField()
+... language = ChoiceField(choices=[('P', 'Python'), ('J', 'Java')], widget=RadioSelect)
+>>> f = FrameworkForm()
+>>> print f['language']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="P" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="J" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print f
+<tr><td>Name:</td><td><input type="text" name="name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Language:</td><td><ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="P" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="J" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></td></tr>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Name: <input type="text" name="name" /></li>
+<li>Language: <ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="P" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="J" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></li>
+
+Regarding auto_id and <label>, RadioSelect is a special case. Each radio button
+gets a distinct ID, formed by appending an underscore plus the button's
+zero-based index.
+>>> f = FrameworkForm(auto_id='id_%s')
+>>> print f['language']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_0" value="P" name="language" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_1" value="J" name="language" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+When RadioSelect is used with auto_id, and the whole form is printed using
+either as_table() or as_ul(), the label for the RadioSelect will point to the
+ID of the *first* radio button.
+>>> print f
+<tr><td><label for="id_name">Name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="name" id="id_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_language_0">Language:</label></td><td><ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_0" value="P" name="language" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_1" value="J" name="language" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></td></tr>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li><label for="id_name">Name:</label> <input type="text" name="name" id="id_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_language_0">Language:</label> <ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_0" value="P" name="language" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_1" value="J" name="language" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></li>
+
MultipleChoiceField is a special case, as its data is required to be a list:
>>> class SongForm(Form):
... name = CharField()
@@ -1121,10 +1623,52 @@
<option value="P" selected="selected">Paul McCartney</option>
</select>
+MultipleChoiceField can also be used with the CheckboxSelectMultiple widget.
+>>> class SongForm(Form):
+... name = CharField()
+... composers = MultipleChoiceField(choices=[('J', 'John Lennon'), ('P', 'Paul McCartney')], widget=CheckboxSelectMultiple)
+>>> f = SongForm()
+>>> print f['composers']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="composers" value="J" /> John Lennon</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="composers" value="P" /> Paul McCartney</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> f = SongForm({'composers': ['J']})
+>>> print f['composers']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="composers" value="J" /> John Lennon</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="composers" value="P" /> Paul McCartney</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> f = SongForm({'composers': ['J', 'P']})
+>>> print f['composers']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="composers" value="J" /> John Lennon</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="composers" value="P" /> Paul McCartney</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+When using CheckboxSelectMultiple, the framework expects a list of input and
+returns a list of input.
+>>> f = SongForm({'name': 'Yesterday'})
+>>> f.errors
+{'composers': [u'This field is required.']}
+>>> f = SongForm({'name': 'Yesterday', 'composers': ['J']})
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f.clean_data
+{'composers': [u'J'], 'name': u'Yesterday'}
+>>> f = SongForm({'name': 'Yesterday', 'composers': ['J', 'P']})
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f.clean_data
+{'composers': [u'J', u'P'], 'name': u'Yesterday'}
+
There are a couple of ways to do multiple-field validation. If you want the
validation message to be associated with a particular field, implement the
clean_XXX() method on the Form, where XXX is the field name. As in
-Field.clean(), the clean_XXX() method should return the cleaned value:
+Field.clean(), the clean_XXX() method should return the cleaned value. In the
+clean_XXX() method, you have access to self.clean_data, which is a dictionary
+of all the data that has been cleaned *so far*, in order by the fields,
+including the current field (e.g., the field XXX if you're in clean_XXX()).
>>> class UserRegistration(Form):
... username = CharField(max_length=10)
... password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
@@ -1134,22 +1678,27 @@
... raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
... return self.clean_data['password2']
>>> f = UserRegistration()
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f = UserRegistration({})
+>>> f.errors
{'username': [u'This field is required.'], 'password1': [u'This field is required.'], 'password2': [u'This field is required.']}
>>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
{'password2': [u'Please make sure your passwords match.']}
>>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'foo'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
{}
->>> f.clean()
+>>> f.clean_data
{'username': u'adrian', 'password1': u'foo', 'password2': u'foo'}
Another way of doing multiple-field validation is by implementing the
Form's clean() method. If you do this, any ValidationError raised by that
method will not be associated with a particular field; it will have a
-special-case association with the field named '__all__'. Note that
-Form.clean() still needs to return a dictionary of all clean data:
+special-case association with the field named '__all__'.
+Note that in Form.clean(), you have access to self.clean_data, a dictionary of
+all the fields/values that have *not* raised a ValidationError. Also note
+Form.clean() is required to return a dictionary of all clean data.
>>> class UserRegistration(Form):
... username = CharField(max_length=10)
... password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
@@ -1159,33 +1708,35 @@
... raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
... return self.clean_data
>>> f = UserRegistration()
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f = UserRegistration({})
>>> print f.as_table()
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" /></td></tr>
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
{'username': [u'This field is required.'], 'password1': [u'This field is required.'], 'password2': [u'This field is required.']}
>>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
{'__all__': [u'Please make sure your passwords match.']}
>>> print f.as_table()
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></td></tr>
<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" value="adrian" /></td></tr>
<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></td></tr>
<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></td></tr>
->>> print f.as_table_with_errors()
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" value="adrian" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></td></tr>
->>> print f.as_ul_with_errors()
-<li><ul><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></li>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></li>
<li>Username: <input type="text" name="username" value="adrian" /></li>
<li>Password1: <input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></li>
<li>Password2: <input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></li>
>>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'foo'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
{}
->>> f.clean()
+>>> f.clean_data
{'username': u'adrian', 'password1': u'foo', 'password2': u'foo'}
It's possible to construct a Form dynamically by adding to the self.fields
@@ -1203,6 +1754,56 @@
<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+HiddenInput widgets are displayed differently in the as_table() and as_ul()
+output of a Form -- their verbose names are not displayed, and a separate
+<tr>/<li> is not displayed.
+>>> class Person(Form):
+... first_name = CharField()
+... last_name = CharField()
+... hidden_text = CharField(widget=HiddenInput)
+... birthday = DateField()
+>>> p = Person()
+>>> print p
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
+
+With auto_id set, a HiddenInput still gets an ID, but it doesn't get a label.
+>>> p = Person(auto_id='id_%s')
+>>> print p
+<tr><td><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></td></tr>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" id="id_hidden_text" />
+<tr><td><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label> <input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></li>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" id="id_hidden_text" />
+<li><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></li>
+
+If a field with a HiddenInput has errors, the as_table() and as_ul() output
+will include the error message(s) with the text "(Hidden field [fieldname]) "
+prepended.
+>>> p = Person({'first_name': 'John', 'last_name': 'Lennon', 'birthday': '1940-10-9'})
+>>> print p
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>(Hidden field hidden_text) This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></li>
+<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" /></li>
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>(Hidden field hidden_text) This field is required.</li></ul></li>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></li>
+
A Form's fields are displayed in the same order in which they were defined.
>>> class TestForm(Form):
... field1 = CharField()
@@ -1235,6 +1836,166 @@
<tr><td>Field12:</td><td><input type="text" name="field12" /></td></tr>
<tr><td>Field13:</td><td><input type="text" name="field13" /></td></tr>
<tr><td>Field14:</td><td><input type="text" name="field14" /></td></tr>
+
+# Basic form processing in a view #############################################
+
+>>> from django.template import Template, Context
+>>> class UserRegistration(Form):
+... username = CharField(max_length=10)
+... password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+... password2 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+... def clean(self):
+... if self.clean_data.get('password1') and self.clean_data.get('password2') and self.clean_data['password1'] != self.clean_data['password2']:
+... raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
+... return self.clean_data
+>>> def my_function(method, post_data):
+... if method == 'POST':
+... form = UserRegistration(post_data)
+... else:
+... form = UserRegistration()
+... if form.is_valid():
+... return 'VALID: %r' % form.clean_data
+... t = Template('<form action="" method="post">\n<table>\n{{ form }}\n</table>\n<input type="submit" />\n</form>')
+... return t.render(Context({'form': form}))
+
+Case 1: GET (an empty form, with no errors).
+>>> print my_function('GET', {})
+<form action="" method="post">
+<table>
+<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" /></td></tr>
+</table>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+Case 2: POST with erroneous data (a redisplayed form, with errors).
+>>> print my_function('POST', {'username': 'this-is-a-long-username', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})
+<form action="" method="post">
+<table>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>Ensure this value has at most 10 characters.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" value="this-is-a-long-username" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></td></tr>
+</table>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+Case 3: POST with valid data (the success message).
+>>> print my_function('POST', {'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'secret', 'password2': 'secret'})
+VALID: {'username': u'adrian', 'password1': u'secret', 'password2': u'secret'}
+
+# Some ideas for using templates with forms ###################################
+
+>>> class UserRegistration(Form):
+... username = CharField(max_length=10)
+... password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+... password2 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+... def clean(self):
+... if self.clean_data.get('password1') and self.clean_data.get('password2') and self.clean_data['password1'] != self.clean_data['password2']:
+... raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
+... return self.clean_data
+
+You have full flexibility in displaying form fields in a template. Just pass a
+Form instance to the template, and use "dot" access to refer to individual
+fields. Note, however, that this flexibility comes with the responsibility of
+displaying all the errors, including any that might not be associated with a
+particular field.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... {{ form.username.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Your username: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password1.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password2.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password (again): {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration()}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration({'username': 'django'})}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" value="django" /></label></p>
+<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul><p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" /></label></p>
+<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul><p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+Use form.[field].verbose_name to output a field's "verbose name" -- its field
+name with underscores converted to spaces, and the initial letter capitalized.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... <p><label>{{ form.username.verbose_name }}: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... <p><label>{{ form.password1.verbose_name }}: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... <p><label>{{ form.password2.verbose_name }}: {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration()}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Username: <input type="text" name="username" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password1: <input type="password" name="password1" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password2: <input type="password" name="password2" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+User form.[field].label_tag to output a field's verbose_name with a <label>
+tag wrapped around it, but *only* if the given field has an "id" attribute.
+Recall from above that passing the "auto_id" argument to a Form gives each
+field an "id" attribute.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... <p>{{ form.username.label_tag }}: {{ form.username }}</p>
+... <p>{{ form.password1.label_tag }}: {{ form.password1 }}</p>
+... <p>{{ form.password2.label_tag }}: {{ form.password2 }}</p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration()}))
+<form action="">
+<p>Username: <input type="text" name="username" /></p>
+<p>Password1: <input type="password" name="password1" /></p>
+<p>Password2: <input type="password" name="password2" /></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration(auto_id='id_%s')}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label for="id_username">Username</label>: <input type="text" name="username" id="id_username" /></p>
+<p><label for="id_password1">Password1</label>: <input type="password" name="password1" id="id_password1" /></p>
+<p><label for="id_password2">Password2</label>: <input type="password" name="password2" id="id_password2" /></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+To display the errors that aren't associated with a particular field -- e.g.,
+the errors caused by Form.clean() -- use {{ form.non_field_errors }} in the
+template. If used on its own, it is displayed as a <ul> (or an empty string, if
+the list of errors is empty). You can also use it in {% if %} statements.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... {{ form.username.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Your username: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password1.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password2.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password (again): {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration({'username': 'django', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" value="django" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... {{ form.non_field_errors }}
+... {{ form.username.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Your username: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password1.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password2.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password (again): {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration({'username': 'django', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})}))
+<form action="">
+<ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul>
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" value="django" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
"""
if __name__ == "__main__":

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