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Added docs/design_philosophies.txt

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+===================
+Design philosophies
+===================
+
+This document explains some of the fundamental philosophies Django's developers
+have used in creating the framework. Its goal is to explain the past and guide
+the future.
+
+Overall
+=======
+
+Loose coupling
+--------------
+
+A fundamental goal of Django's stack is `loose coupling and tight cohesion`_.
+The various layers of the framework shouldn't "know" about each other unless
+absolutely necessary.
+
+For example, the template system knows nothing about Web requests, the database
+layer knows nothing about data display and the view system doesn't care which
+template system a programmer uses.
+
+.. _`loose coupling and tight cohesion`: http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?CouplingAndCohesion
+
+Less code
+---------
+
+Django apps should use as little code as possible; they should lack boilerplate.
+Django should take full advantage of Python's dynamic capabilities, such as
+introspection.
+
+Quick development
+-----------------
+
+The point of a Web framework in the 21st century is to make the tedious aspects
+of Web development fast. Django should allow for incredibly quick Web
+development.
+
+Don't repeat yourself (DRY)
+---------------------------
+
+Every distinct concept and/or piece of data should live in one, and only one,
+place. Redundancy is bad. Normalization is good.
+
+The framework, within reason, should deduce as much as possible from as little
+as possible.
+
+Explicit is better than implicit
+--------------------------------
+
+This, a `core Python principle`_, means Django shouldn't do too much "magic."
+Magic shouldn't happen unless there's a really good reason for it.
+
+.. _`core Python principle`: http://www.python.org/doc/Humor.html#zen
+
+Consistency
+-----------
+
+The framework should be consistent at all levels. Consistency applies to
+everything from low-level (the Python coding style used) to high-level (the
+"experience" of using Django).
+
+Models
+======
+
+Explicit is better than implicit
+--------------------------------
+
+Fields shouldn't assume certain behaviors based solely on the name of the
+field. This requires too much knowledge of the system and is prone to errors.
+Instead, behaviors should be based on keyword arguments and, in some cases, on
+the type of the field.
+
+Include all relevant domain logic
+---------------------------------
+
+Models should encapsulate every aspect of an "object," following Martin
+Fowler's `Active Record`_ design pattern.
+
+This is why model-specific admin options are included in the model itself; data
+related to a model should be stored *in* the model.
+
+.. _`Active Record`: http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/activeRecord.html
+
+Database API
+============
+
+The core goals of the database API are:
+
+SQL efficiency
+--------------
+
+It should execute SQL statements as few times as possible, and it should
+optimize statements internally.
+
+This is why developers need to call ``save()`` explicitly, rather than the
+framework saving things behind the scenes silently.
+
+This is also why the ``select_related`` argument exists. It's an optional
+performance booster for the common case of selecting "every related object."
+
+Terse, powerful syntax
+----------------------
+
+The database API should allow rich, expressive statements in as little syntax
+as possible. It should not rely on importing other modules or helper objects.
+
+Joins should be performed automatically, behind the scenes, when necessary.
+
+Every object should be able to access every related object, systemwide. This
+access should work both ways.
+
+Option to drop into raw SQL easily, when needed
+-----------------------------------------------
+
+The database API should realize it's a shortcut but not necessarily an
+end-all-be-all. The framework should make it easy to write custom SQL -- entire
+statements, or just custom ``WHERE`` clauses as custom parameters to API calls.
+
+URL design
+==========
+
+Loose coupling
+--------------
+
+URLs in a Django app should not be coupled to the underlying Python code. Tying
+URLs to Python function names is a Bad And Ugly Thing.
+
+Along these lines, the Django URL system should allow URLs for the same app to
+be different in different contexts. For example, one site may put stories at
+``/stories/``, while another may use ``/news/``.
+
+Infinite flexibility
+--------------------
+
+URLs should be as flexible as possible. Any conceivable URL design should be
+allowed.
+
+Encourage best practices
+------------------------
+
+The framework should make it just as easy (or even easier) for a developer to
+design pretty URLs than ugly ones.
+
+File extensions in Web-page URLs should be avoided.
+
+Definitive URLs
+---------------
+
+Technically, ``foo.com/bar`` and ``foo.com/bar/`` are two different URLs, and
+search-engine robots (and some Web traffic-analyzing tools) would treat them as
+separate pages. Django should make an effort to "normalize" URLs so that
+search-engine robots don't get confused.
+
+This is the reasoning behind the ``APPEND_SLASH`` setting.
+
+Template system
+===============
+
+Separate logic from presentation
+--------------------------------
+
+We see a template system as a tool that controls presentation and
+presentation-related logic -- and that's it. The template system shouldn't
+support functionality that goes beyond this basic goal.
+
+If we wanted to put everything in templates, we'd be using PHP. Been there,
+done that, wised up.
+
+Discourage redundancy
+---------------------
+
+The majority of dynamic Web sites use some sort of common sitewide design --
+a common header, footer, navigation bar, etc. The Django template system should
+make it easy to store those elements in a single place, eliminating duplicate
+code.
+
+This is the philosophy behind template inheritance.
+
+Be decoupled from HTML
+----------------------
+
+The template system shouldn't be designed so that it only outputs HTML. It
+should be equally good at generating other text-based formats, or just plain
+text.
+
+Assume designer competence
+--------------------------
+
+The template system shouldn't be designed so that templates are displayed
+nicely in WYSIWYG editors such as Dreamweaver. That is too severe of a
+limitation and wouldn't allow the syntax to be as nice as it is. Django expects
+some level of competence in template authors.
+
+Treat whitespace obviously
+--------------------------
+
+The template system do magic things with whitespace. If a template includes
+whitespace, the system should treat it as it treats text -- just display it.
+
+Don't invent a programming language
+-----------------------------------
+
+The template system intentionally doesn't allow the following:
+
+ * Assignment to variables
+ * Advanced logic
+
+The goal is not to invent a programming language. The goal is to offer just
+enough programming-esque functionality, such as branching and looping, that are
+essential for making presentation-related decisions.
+
+Extensibility
+-------------
+
+The template system should recognize that advanced template authors may want
+to extend its technology.
+
+This is the philosophy behind custom template tags and filters.
+
+Views
+=====
+
+Simplicity
+----------
+
+Writing a view should be as simple as writing a Python function. Developers
+shouldn't have to instantiate a class when a function will do.
+
+Use request objects
+-------------------
+
+Views should have access to a request object -- an object that stores metadata
+about the current request. The object should be passed directly to a view
+function, rather than the view function having to access the request data from
+a global variable. This makes it light, clean and easy to test views by passing
+in "fake" request objects.
+
+Loose coupling
+--------------
+
+A view shouldn't care about which template system the developer uses -- or even
+whether a template system is used at all.
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