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Fixed #9977 - CsrfMiddleware gets template tag added, session depende…

…ncy removed, and turned on by default.

This is a large change to CSRF protection for Django.  It includes:

 * removing the dependency on the session framework.
 * deprecating CsrfResponseMiddleware, and replacing with a core template tag.
 * turning on CSRF protection by default by adding CsrfViewMiddleware to
   the default value of MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES.
 * protecting all contrib apps (whatever is in settings.py)
   using a decorator.

For existing users of the CSRF functionality, it should be a seamless update,
but please note that it includes DEPRECATION of features in Django 1.1,
and there are upgrade steps which are detailed in the docs.

Many thanks to 'Glenn' and 'bthomas', who did a lot of the thinking and work
on the patch, and to lots of other people including Simon Willison and
Russell Keith-Magee who refined the ideas.

Details of the rationale for these changes is found here:

http://code.djangoproject.com/wiki/CsrfProtection

As of this commit, the CSRF code is mainly in 'contrib'.  The code will be
moved to core in a separate commit, to make the changeset as readable as
possible.



git-svn-id: http://code.djangoproject.com/svn/django/trunk@11660 bcc190cf-cafb-0310-a4f2-bffc1f526a37
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commit 8e70cef9b67433edd70935dcc30c621d1e7fc0a0 1 parent d1da261
@spookylukey spookylukey authored
Showing with 1,427 additions and 234 deletions.
  1. +2 −0  AUTHORS
  2. +13 −0 django/conf/global_settings.py
  3. +1 −0  django/conf/project_template/settings.py
  4. +7 −2 django/contrib/admin/options.py
  5. +5 −0 django/contrib/admin/sites.py
  6. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/auth/user/change_password.html
  7. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/change_form.html
  8. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/change_list.html
  9. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/delete_confirmation.html
  10. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/delete_selected_confirmation.html
  11. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/login.html
  12. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/template_validator.html
  13. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/registration/password_change_form.html
  14. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/registration/password_reset_confirm.html
  15. +1 −1  django/contrib/admin/templates/registration/password_reset_form.html
  16. +7 −2 django/contrib/auth/views.py
  17. +1 −1  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/approve.html
  18. +1 −1  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/delete.html
  19. +1 −1  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/flag.html
  20. +1 −1  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/form.html
  21. +1 −1  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/preview.html
  22. +3 −2 django/contrib/comments/views/comments.py
  23. +4 −0 django/contrib/comments/views/moderation.py
  24. +20 −0 django/contrib/csrf/context_processors.py
  25. +10 −0 django/contrib/csrf/decorators.py
  26. +192 −64 django/contrib/csrf/middleware.py
  27. +245 −66 django/contrib/csrf/tests.py
  28. +62 −0 django/contrib/csrf/views.py
  29. +1 −1  django/contrib/formtools/templates/formtools/form.html
  30. +2 −2 django/contrib/formtools/templates/formtools/preview.html
  31. +6 −3 django/contrib/formtools/tests.py
  32. +2 −0  django/contrib/formtools/wizard.py
  33. +9 −1 django/template/context.py
  34. +21 −0 django/template/defaulttags.py
  35. +5 −0 django/test/client.py
  36. +6 −0 docs/internals/deprecation.txt
  37. +25 −1 docs/intro/tutorial04.txt
  38. +312 −71 docs/ref/contrib/csrf.txt
  39. +1 −1  docs/ref/contrib/formtools/form-wizard.txt
  40. +39 −0 docs/ref/settings.txt
  41. +15 −0 docs/ref/templates/api.txt
  42. +7 −0 docs/ref/templates/builtins.txt
  43. +16 −0 docs/releases/1.2-alpha.txt
  44. +1 −1  docs/topics/auth.txt
  45. +1 −0  docs/topics/http/middleware.txt
  46. +369 −0 extras/csrf_migration_helper.py
  47. +3 −2 tests/regressiontests/admin_views/tests.py
View
2  AUTHORS
@@ -470,6 +470,8 @@ answer newbie questions, and generally made Django that much better:
Gasper Zejn <zejn@kiberpipa.org>
Jarek Zgoda <jarek.zgoda@gmail.com>
Cheng Zhang
+ Glenn
+ bthomas
A big THANK YOU goes to:
View
13 django/conf/global_settings.py
@@ -300,6 +300,7 @@
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
+ 'django.contrib.csrf.middleware.CsrfViewMiddleware',
'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
# 'django.middleware.http.ConditionalGetMiddleware',
# 'django.middleware.gzip.GZipMiddleware',
@@ -374,6 +375,18 @@
# The number of days a password reset link is valid for
PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT_DAYS = 3
+########
+# CSRF #
+########
+
+# Dotted path to callable to be used as view when a request is
+# rejected by the CSRF middleware.
+CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW = 'django.contrib.csrf.views.csrf_failure'
+
+# Name and domain for CSRF cookie.
+CSRF_COOKIE_NAME = 'csrftoken'
+CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN = None
+
###########
# TESTING #
###########
View
1  django/conf/project_template/settings.py
@@ -60,6 +60,7 @@
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
+ 'django.contrib.csrf.middleware.CsrfViewMiddleware',
'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
)
View
9 django/contrib/admin/options.py
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
from django.contrib.admin import widgets
from django.contrib.admin import helpers
from django.contrib.admin.util import unquote, flatten_fieldsets, get_deleted_objects, model_ngettext, model_format_dict
+from django.contrib.csrf.decorators import csrf_protect
from django.core.exceptions import PermissionDenied
from django.db import models, transaction
from django.db.models.fields import BLANK_CHOICE_DASH
@@ -701,6 +702,8 @@ def response_action(self, request, queryset):
else:
return HttpResponseRedirect(".")
+ @csrf_protect
+ @transaction.commit_on_success
def add_view(self, request, form_url='', extra_context=None):
"The 'add' admin view for this model."
model = self.model
@@ -782,8 +785,9 @@ def add_view(self, request, form_url='', extra_context=None):
}
context.update(extra_context or {})
return self.render_change_form(request, context, form_url=form_url, add=True)
- add_view = transaction.commit_on_success(add_view)
+ @csrf_protect
+ @transaction.commit_on_success
def change_view(self, request, object_id, extra_context=None):
"The 'change' admin view for this model."
model = self.model
@@ -871,8 +875,8 @@ def change_view(self, request, object_id, extra_context=None):
}
context.update(extra_context or {})
return self.render_change_form(request, context, change=True, obj=obj)
- change_view = transaction.commit_on_success(change_view)
+ @csrf_protect
def changelist_view(self, request, extra_context=None):
"The 'change list' admin view for this model."
from django.contrib.admin.views.main import ChangeList, ERROR_FLAG
@@ -985,6 +989,7 @@ def changelist_view(self, request, extra_context=None):
'admin/change_list.html'
], context, context_instance=context_instance)
+ @csrf_protect
def delete_view(self, request, object_id, extra_context=None):
"The 'delete' admin view for this model."
opts = self.model._meta
View
5 django/contrib/admin/sites.py
@@ -3,6 +3,8 @@
from django.contrib.admin import ModelAdmin
from django.contrib.admin import actions
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, login
+from django.contrib.csrf.middleware import csrf_response_exempt
+from django.contrib.csrf.decorators import csrf_protect
from django.db.models.base import ModelBase
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
@@ -186,6 +188,9 @@ def inner(request, *args, **kwargs):
return view(request, *args, **kwargs)
if not cacheable:
inner = never_cache(inner)
+ # We add csrf_protect here so this function can be used as a utility
+ # function for any view, without having to repeat 'csrf_protect'.
+ inner = csrf_response_exempt(csrf_protect(inner))
return update_wrapper(inner, view)
def get_urls(self):
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/auth/user/change_password.html
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@
</div>
{% endif %}{% endblock %}
{% block content %}<div id="content-main">
-<form action="{{ form_url }}" method="post" id="{{ opts.module_name }}_form">{% block form_top %}{% endblock %}
+<form action="{{ form_url }}" method="post" id="{{ opts.module_name }}_form">{% csrf_token %}{% block form_top %}{% endblock %}
<div>
{% if is_popup %}<input type="hidden" name="_popup" value="1" />{% endif %}
{% if form.errors %}
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/change_form.html
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@
</ul>
{% endif %}{% endif %}
{% endblock %}
-<form {% if has_file_field %}enctype="multipart/form-data" {% endif %}action="{{ form_url }}" method="post" id="{{ opts.module_name }}_form">{% block form_top %}{% endblock %}
+<form {% if has_file_field %}enctype="multipart/form-data" {% endif %}action="{{ form_url }}" method="post" id="{{ opts.module_name }}_form">{% csrf_token %}{% block form_top %}{% endblock %}
<div>
{% if is_popup %}<input type="hidden" name="_popup" value="1" />{% endif %}
{% if save_on_top %}{% submit_row %}{% endif %}
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/change_list.html
@@ -68,7 +68,7 @@
{% endif %}
{% endblock %}
- <form action="" method="post"{% if cl.formset.is_multipart %} enctype="multipart/form-data"{% endif %}>
+ <form action="" method="post"{% if cl.formset.is_multipart %} enctype="multipart/form-data"{% endif %}>{% csrf_token %}
{% if cl.formset %}
{{ cl.formset.management_form }}
{% endif %}
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/delete_confirmation.html
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
{% else %}
<p>{% blocktrans with object as escaped_object %}Are you sure you want to delete the {{ object_name }} "{{ escaped_object }}"? All of the following related items will be deleted:{% endblocktrans %}</p>
<ul>{{ deleted_objects|unordered_list }}</ul>
- <form action="" method="post">
+ <form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
<div>
<input type="hidden" name="post" value="yes" />
<input type="submit" value="{% trans "Yes, I'm sure" %}" />
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/delete_selected_confirmation.html
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@
{% for deleteable_object in deletable_objects %}
<ul>{{ deleteable_object|unordered_list }}</ul>
{% endfor %}
- <form action="" method="post">
+ <form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
<div>
{% for obj in queryset %}
<input type="hidden" name="{{ action_checkbox_name }}" value="{{ obj.pk }}" />
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/login.html
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
<p class="errornote">{{ error_message }}</p>
{% endif %}
<div id="content-main">
-<form action="{{ app_path }}" method="post" id="login-form">
+<form action="{{ app_path }}" method="post" id="login-form">{% csrf_token %}
<div class="form-row">
<label for="id_username">{% trans 'Username:' %}</label> <input type="text" name="username" id="id_username" />
</div>
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/template_validator.html
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
<div id="content-main">
-<form action="" method="post">
+<form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{% if form.errors %}
<p class="errornote">Your template had {{ form.errors|length }} error{{ form.errors|pluralize }}:</p>
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/registration/password_change_form.html
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
<p>{% trans "Please enter your old password, for security's sake, and then enter your new password twice so we can verify you typed it in correctly." %}</p>
-<form action="" method="post">
+<form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{{ form.old_password.errors }}
<p class="aligned wide"><label for="id_old_password">{% trans 'Old password:' %}</label>{{ form.old_password }}</p>
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/registration/password_reset_confirm.html
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
<p>{% trans "Please enter your new password twice so we can verify you typed it in correctly." %}</p>
-<form action="" method="post">
+<form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{{ form.new_password1.errors }}
<p class="aligned wide"><label for="id_new_password1">{% trans 'New password:' %}</label>{{ form.new_password1 }}</p>
{{ form.new_password2.errors }}
View
2  django/contrib/admin/templates/registration/password_reset_form.html
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
<p>{% trans "Forgotten your password? Enter your e-mail address below, and we'll e-mail instructions for setting a new one." %}</p>
-<form action="" method="post">
+<form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{{ form.email.errors }}
<p><label for="id_email">{% trans 'E-mail address:' %}</label> {{ form.email }} <input type="submit" value="{% trans 'Reset my password' %}" /></p>
</form>
View
9 django/contrib/auth/views.py
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
from django.contrib.auth.forms import AuthenticationForm
from django.contrib.auth.forms import PasswordResetForm, SetPasswordForm, PasswordChangeForm
from django.contrib.auth.tokens import default_token_generator
+from django.contrib.csrf.decorators import csrf_protect
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
from django.shortcuts import render_to_response, get_object_or_404
from django.contrib.sites.models import Site, RequestSite
@@ -14,6 +15,8 @@
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
from django.views.decorators.cache import never_cache
+@csrf_protect
+@never_cache
def login(request, template_name='registration/login.html',
redirect_field_name=REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME,
authentication_form=AuthenticationForm):
@@ -43,7 +46,6 @@ def login(request, template_name='registration/login.html',
'site': current_site,
'site_name': current_site.name,
}, context_instance=RequestContext(request))
-login = never_cache(login)
def logout(request, next_page=None, template_name='registration/logged_out.html', redirect_field_name=REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME):
"Logs out the user and displays 'You are logged out' message."
@@ -80,6 +82,7 @@ def redirect_to_login(next, login_url=None, redirect_field_name=REDIRECT_FIELD_N
# prompts for a new password
# - password_reset_complete shows a success message for the above
+@csrf_protect
def password_reset(request, is_admin_site=False, template_name='registration/password_reset_form.html',
email_template_name='registration/password_reset_email.html',
password_reset_form=PasswordResetForm, token_generator=default_token_generator,
@@ -109,6 +112,7 @@ def password_reset(request, is_admin_site=False, template_name='registration/pas
def password_reset_done(request, template_name='registration/password_reset_done.html'):
return render_to_response(template_name, context_instance=RequestContext(request))
+# Doesn't need csrf_protect since no-one can guess the URL
def password_reset_confirm(request, uidb36=None, token=None, template_name='registration/password_reset_confirm.html',
token_generator=default_token_generator, set_password_form=SetPasswordForm,
post_reset_redirect=None):
@@ -146,6 +150,8 @@ def password_reset_complete(request, template_name='registration/password_reset_
return render_to_response(template_name, context_instance=RequestContext(request,
{'login_url': settings.LOGIN_URL}))
+@csrf_protect
+@login_required
def password_change(request, template_name='registration/password_change_form.html',
post_change_redirect=None, password_change_form=PasswordChangeForm):
if post_change_redirect is None:
@@ -160,7 +166,6 @@ def password_change(request, template_name='registration/password_change_form.ht
return render_to_response(template_name, {
'form': form,
}, context_instance=RequestContext(request))
-password_change = login_required(password_change)
def password_change_done(request, template_name='registration/password_change_done.html'):
return render_to_response(template_name, context_instance=RequestContext(request))
View
2  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/approve.html
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
{% block content %}
<h1>{% trans "Really make this comment public?" %}</h1>
<blockquote>{{ comment|linebreaks }}</blockquote>
- <form action="." method="post">
+ <form action="." method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{% if next %}<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}" id="next" />{% endif %}
<p class="submit">
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="{% trans "Approve" %}" /> or <a href="{{ comment.get_absolute_url }}">cancel</a>
View
2  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/delete.html
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
{% block content %}
<h1>{% trans "Really remove this comment?" %}</h1>
<blockquote>{{ comment|linebreaks }}</blockquote>
- <form action="." method="post">
+ <form action="." method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{% if next %}<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}" id="next" />{% endif %}
<p class="submit">
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="{% trans "Remove" %}" /> or <a href="{{ comment.get_absolute_url }}">cancel</a>
View
2  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/flag.html
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
{% block content %}
<h1>{% trans "Really flag this comment?" %}</h1>
<blockquote>{{ comment|linebreaks }}</blockquote>
- <form action="." method="post">
+ <form action="." method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{% if next %}<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}" id="next" />{% endif %}
<p class="submit">
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="{% trans "Flag" %}" /> or <a href="{{ comment.get_absolute_url }}">cancel</a>
View
2  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/form.html
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
{% load comments i18n %}
-<form action="{% comment_form_target %}" method="post">
+<form action="{% comment_form_target %}" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{% if next %}<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}" />{% endif %}
{% for field in form %}
{% if field.is_hidden %}
View
2  django/contrib/comments/templates/comments/preview.html
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
{% block content %}
{% load comments %}
- <form action="{% comment_form_target %}" method="post">
+ <form action="{% comment_form_target %}" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{% if next %}<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}" />{% endif %}
{% if form.errors %}
<h1>{% blocktrans count form.errors|length as counter %}Please correct the error below{% plural %}Please correct the errors below{% endblocktrans %}</h1>
View
5 django/contrib/comments/views/comments.py
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
from django.views.decorators.http import require_POST
from django.contrib import comments
from django.contrib.comments import signals
+from django.contrib.csrf.decorators import csrf_protect
class CommentPostBadRequest(http.HttpResponseBadRequest):
"""
@@ -22,6 +23,8 @@ def __init__(self, why):
if settings.DEBUG:
self.content = render_to_string("comments/400-debug.html", {"why": why})
+@csrf_protect
+@require_POST
def post_comment(request, next=None):
"""
Post a comment.
@@ -116,8 +119,6 @@ def post_comment(request, next=None):
return next_redirect(data, next, comment_done, c=comment._get_pk_val())
-post_comment = require_POST(post_comment)
-
comment_done = confirmation_view(
template = "comments/posted.html",
doc = """Display a "comment was posted" success page."""
View
4 django/contrib/comments/views/moderation.py
@@ -5,7 +5,9 @@
from utils import next_redirect, confirmation_view
from django.contrib import comments
from django.contrib.comments import signals
+from django.contrib.csrf.decorators import csrf_protect
+@csrf_protect
@login_required
def flag(request, comment_id, next=None):
"""
@@ -30,6 +32,7 @@ def flag(request, comment_id, next=None):
template.RequestContext(request)
)
+@csrf_protect
@permission_required("comments.can_moderate")
def delete(request, comment_id, next=None):
"""
@@ -56,6 +59,7 @@ def delete(request, comment_id, next=None):
template.RequestContext(request)
)
+@csrf_protect
@permission_required("comments.can_moderate")
def approve(request, comment_id, next=None):
"""
View
20 django/contrib/csrf/context_processors.py
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+from django.contrib.csrf.middleware import get_token
+from django.utils.functional import lazy
+
+def csrf(request):
+ """
+ Context processor that provides a CSRF token, or the string 'NOTPROVIDED' if
+ it has not been provided by either a view decorator or the middleware
+ """
+ def _get_val():
+ token = get_token(request)
+ if token is None:
+ # In order to be able to provide debugging info in the
+ # case of misconfiguration, we use a sentinel value
+ # instead of returning an empty dict.
+ return 'NOTPROVIDED'
+ else:
+ return token
+ _get_val = lazy(_get_val, str)
+
+ return {'csrf_token': _get_val() }
View
10 django/contrib/csrf/decorators.py
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+from django.contrib.csrf.middleware import CsrfViewMiddleware
+from django.utils.decorators import decorator_from_middleware
+
+csrf_protect = decorator_from_middleware(CsrfViewMiddleware)
+csrf_protect.__name__ = "csrf_protect"
+csrf_protect.__doc__ = """
+This decorator adds CSRF protection in exactly the same way as
+CsrfViewMiddleware, but it can be used on a per view basis. Using both, or
+using the decorator multiple times, is harmless and efficient.
+"""
View
256 django/contrib/csrf/middleware.py
@@ -5,94 +5,213 @@
against request forgeries from other sites.
"""
-import re
import itertools
+import re
+import random
try:
from functools import wraps
except ImportError:
from django.utils.functional import wraps # Python 2.3, 2.4 fallback.
from django.conf import settings
-from django.http import HttpResponseForbidden
+from django.core.urlresolvers import get_callable
+from django.utils.cache import patch_vary_headers
from django.utils.hashcompat import md5_constructor
from django.utils.safestring import mark_safe
-_ERROR_MSG = mark_safe('<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"><body><h1>403 Forbidden</h1><p>Cross Site Request Forgery detected. Request aborted.</p></body></html>')
-
_POST_FORM_RE = \
re.compile(r'(<form\W[^>]*\bmethod\s*=\s*(\'|"|)POST(\'|"|)\b[^>]*>)', re.IGNORECASE)
_HTML_TYPES = ('text/html', 'application/xhtml+xml')
-def _make_token(session_id):
+# Use the system (hardware-based) random number generator if it exists.
+if hasattr(random, 'SystemRandom'):
+ randrange = random.SystemRandom().randrange
+else:
+ randrange = random.randrange
+_MAX_CSRF_KEY = 18446744073709551616L # 2 << 63
+
+def _get_failure_view():
+ """
+ Returns the view to be used for CSRF rejections
+ """
+ return get_callable(settings.CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW)
+
+def _get_new_csrf_key():
+ return md5_constructor("%s%s"
+ % (randrange(0, _MAX_CSRF_KEY), settings.SECRET_KEY)).hexdigest()
+
+def _make_legacy_session_token(session_id):
return md5_constructor(settings.SECRET_KEY + session_id).hexdigest()
+def get_token(request):
+ """
+ Returns the the CSRF token required for a POST form.
+
+ A side effect of calling this function is to make the the csrf_protect
+ decorator and the CsrfViewMiddleware add a CSRF cookie and a 'Vary: Cookie'
+ header to the outgoing response. For this reason, you may need to use this
+ function lazily, as is done by the csrf context processor.
+ """
+ request.META["CSRF_COOKIE_USED"] = True
+ return request.META.get("CSRF_COOKIE", None)
+
class CsrfViewMiddleware(object):
"""
Middleware that requires a present and correct csrfmiddlewaretoken
- for POST requests that have an active session.
+ for POST requests that have a CSRF cookie, and sets an outgoing
+ CSRF cookie.
+
+ This middleware should be used in conjunction with the csrf_token template
+ tag.
"""
def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
+ if getattr(callback, 'csrf_exempt', False):
+ return None
+
+ if getattr(request, 'csrf_processing_done', False):
+ return None
+
+ reject = lambda s: _get_failure_view()(request, reason=s)
+ def accept():
+ # Avoid checking the request twice by adding a custom attribute to
+ # request. This will be relevant when both decorator and middleware
+ # are used.
+ request.csrf_processing_done = True
+ return None
+
+ # If the user doesn't have a CSRF cookie, generate one and store it in the
+ # request, so it's available to the view. We'll store it in a cookie when
+ # we reach the response.
+ try:
+ request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"] = request.COOKIES[settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME]
+ cookie_is_new = False
+ except KeyError:
+ # No cookie, so create one.
+ request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"] = _get_new_csrf_key()
+ cookie_is_new = True
+
if request.method == 'POST':
- if getattr(callback, 'csrf_exempt', False):
- return None
+ if getattr(request, '_dont_enforce_csrf_checks', False):
+ # Mechanism to turn off CSRF checks for test suite. It comes after
+ # the creation of CSRF cookies, so that everything else continues to
+ # work exactly the same (e.g. cookies are sent etc), but before the
+ # any branches that call reject()
+ return accept()
if request.is_ajax():
- return None
+ # .is_ajax() is based on the presence of X-Requested-With. In
+ # the context of a browser, this can only be sent if using
+ # XmlHttpRequest. Browsers implement careful policies for
+ # XmlHttpRequest:
+ #
+ # * Normally, only same-domain requests are allowed.
+ #
+ # * Some browsers (e.g. Firefox 3.5 and later) relax this
+ # carefully:
+ #
+ # * if it is a 'simple' GET or POST request (which can
+ # include no custom headers), it is allowed to be cross
+ # domain. These requests will not be recognized as AJAX.
+ #
+ # * if a 'preflight' check with the server confirms that the
+ # server is expecting and allows the request, cross domain
+ # requests even with custom headers are allowed. These
+ # requests will be recognized as AJAX, but can only get
+ # through when the developer has specifically opted in to
+ # allowing the cross-domain POST request.
+ #
+ # So in all cases, it is safe to allow these requests through.
+ return accept()
- try:
- session_id = request.COOKIES[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME]
- except KeyError:
- # No session, no check required
- return None
+ if request.is_secure():
+ # Strict referer checking for HTTPS
+ referer = request.META.get('HTTP_REFERER')
+ if referer is None:
+ return reject("Referer checking failed - no Referer.")
- csrf_token = _make_token(session_id)
- # check incoming token
- try:
- request_csrf_token = request.POST['csrfmiddlewaretoken']
- except KeyError:
- return HttpResponseForbidden(_ERROR_MSG)
+ # The following check ensures that the referer is HTTPS,
+ # the domains match and the ports match. This might be too strict.
+ good_referer = 'https://%s/' % request.get_host()
+ if not referer.startswith(good_referer):
+ return reject("Referer checking failed - %s does not match %s." %
+ (referer, good_referer))
+
+ # If the user didn't already have a CSRF key, then accept the
+ # session key for the middleware token, so CSRF protection isn't lost
+ # for the period between upgrading to CSRF cookes to the first time
+ # each user comes back to the site to receive one.
+ if cookie_is_new:
+ try:
+ session_id = request.COOKIES[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME]
+ csrf_token = _make_legacy_session_token(session_id)
+ except KeyError:
+ # No CSRF cookie and no session cookie. For POST requests,
+ # we insist on a CSRF cookie, and in this way we can avoid
+ # all CSRF attacks, including login CSRF.
+ return reject("No CSRF cookie.")
+ else:
+ csrf_token = request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"]
+ # check incoming token
+ request_csrf_token = request.POST.get('csrfmiddlewaretoken', None)
if request_csrf_token != csrf_token:
- return HttpResponseForbidden(_ERROR_MSG)
+ return reject("CSRF token missing or incorrect.")
+
+ return accept()
+
+ def process_response(self, request, response):
+ if getattr(response, 'csrf_processing_done', False):
+ return response
- return None
+ # If CSRF_COOKIE is unset, then CsrfViewMiddleware.process_view was
+ # never called, probaby because a request middleware returned a response
+ # (for example, contrib.auth redirecting to a login page).
+ if request.META.get("CSRF_COOKIE") is None:
+ return response
+
+ if not request.META.get("CSRF_COOKIE_USED", False):
+ return response
+
+ # Set the CSRF cookie even if it's already set, so we renew the expiry timer.
+ response.set_cookie(settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME,
+ request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"], max_age = 60 * 60 * 24 * 7 * 52,
+ domain=settings.CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN)
+ # Content varies with the CSRF cookie, so set the Vary header.
+ patch_vary_headers(response, ('Cookie',))
+ response.csrf_processing_done = True
+ return response
class CsrfResponseMiddleware(object):
"""
- Middleware that post-processes a response to add a
- csrfmiddlewaretoken if the response/request have an active
- session.
+ DEPRECATED
+ Middleware that post-processes a response to add a csrfmiddlewaretoken.
+
+ This exists for backwards compatibility and as an interim measure until
+ applications are converted to using use the csrf_token template tag
+ instead. It will be removed in Django 1.4.
"""
+ def __init__(self):
+ import warnings
+ warnings.warn(
+ "CsrfResponseMiddleware and CsrfMiddleware are deprecated; use CsrfViewMiddleware and the template tag instead (see CSRF documentation).",
+ PendingDeprecationWarning
+ )
+
def process_response(self, request, response):
if getattr(response, 'csrf_exempt', False):
return response
- csrf_token = None
- try:
- # This covers a corner case in which the outgoing response
- # both contains a form and sets a session cookie. This
- # really should not be needed, since it is best if views
- # that create a new session (login pages) also do a
- # redirect, as is done by all such view functions in
- # Django.
- cookie = response.cookies[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME]
- csrf_token = _make_token(cookie.value)
- except KeyError:
- # Normal case - look for existing session cookie
- try:
- session_id = request.COOKIES[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME]
- csrf_token = _make_token(session_id)
- except KeyError:
- # no incoming or outgoing cookie
- pass
-
- if csrf_token is not None and \
- response['Content-Type'].split(';')[0] in _HTML_TYPES:
+ if response['Content-Type'].split(';')[0] in _HTML_TYPES:
+ csrf_token = get_token(request)
+ # If csrf_token is None, we have no token for this request, which probably
+ # means that this is a response from a request middleware.
+ if csrf_token is None:
+ return response
# ensure we don't add the 'id' attribute twice (HTML validity)
idattributes = itertools.chain(("id='csrfmiddlewaretoken'",),
- itertools.repeat(''))
+ itertools.repeat(''))
def add_csrf_field(match):
"""Returns the matched <form> tag plus the added <input> element"""
return mark_safe(match.group() + "<div style='display:none;'>" + \
@@ -103,34 +222,43 @@ def add_csrf_field(match):
# Modify any POST forms
response.content, n = _POST_FORM_RE.subn(add_csrf_field, response.content)
if n > 0:
+ # Content varies with the CSRF cookie, so set the Vary header.
+ patch_vary_headers(response, ('Cookie',))
+
# Since the content has been modified, any Etag will now be
- # incorrect. We could recalculate, but only is we assume that
+ # incorrect. We could recalculate, but only if we assume that
# the Etag was set by CommonMiddleware. The safest thing is just
# to delete. See bug #9163
del response['ETag']
return response
-class CsrfMiddleware(CsrfViewMiddleware, CsrfResponseMiddleware):
- """Django middleware that adds protection against Cross Site
+class CsrfMiddleware(object):
+ """
+ Django middleware that adds protection against Cross Site
Request Forgeries by adding hidden form fields to POST forms and
checking requests for the correct value.
- In the list of middlewares, SessionMiddleware is required, and
- must come after this middleware. CsrfMiddleWare must come after
- compression middleware.
-
- If a session ID cookie is present, it is hashed with the
- SECRET_KEY setting to create an authentication token. This token
- is added to all outgoing POST forms and is expected on all
- incoming POST requests that have a session ID cookie.
+ CsrfMiddleware uses two middleware, CsrfViewMiddleware and
+ CsrfResponseMiddleware, which can be used independently. It is recommended
+ to use only CsrfViewMiddleware and use the csrf_token template tag in
+ templates for inserting the token.
+ """
+ # We can't just inherit from CsrfViewMiddleware and CsrfResponseMiddleware
+ # because both have process_response methods.
+ def __init__(self):
+ self.response_middleware = CsrfResponseMiddleware()
+ self.view_middleware = CsrfViewMiddleware()
- If you are setting cookies directly, instead of using Django's
- session framework, this middleware will not work.
+ def process_response(self, request, resp):
+ # We must do the response post-processing first, because that calls
+ # get_token(), which triggers a flag saying that the CSRF cookie needs
+ # to be sent (done in CsrfViewMiddleware.process_response)
+ resp2 = self.response_middleware.process_response(request, resp)
+ return self.view_middleware.process_response(request, resp2)
- CsrfMiddleWare is composed of two middleware, CsrfViewMiddleware
- and CsrfResponseMiddleware which can be used independently.
- """
- pass
+ def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
+ return self.view_middleware.process_view(request, callback, callback_args,
+ callback_kwargs)
def csrf_response_exempt(view_func):
"""
View
311 django/contrib/csrf/tests.py
@@ -1,144 +1,323 @@
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from django.test import TestCase
-from django.http import HttpRequest, HttpResponse, HttpResponseForbidden
-from django.contrib.csrf.middleware import CsrfMiddleware, _make_token, csrf_exempt
+from django.http import HttpRequest, HttpResponse
+from django.contrib.csrf.middleware import CsrfMiddleware, CsrfViewMiddleware, csrf_exempt
+from django.contrib.csrf.context_processors import csrf
+from django.contrib.sessions.middleware import SessionMiddleware
+from django.utils.importlib import import_module
from django.conf import settings
+from django.template import RequestContext, Template
-
+# Response/views used for CsrfResponseMiddleware and CsrfViewMiddleware tests
def post_form_response():
resp = HttpResponse(content="""
<html><body><form method="POST"><input type="text" /></form></body></html>
""", mimetype="text/html")
return resp
-def test_view(request):
+def post_form_response_non_html():
+ resp = post_form_response()
+ resp["Content-Type"] = "application/xml"
+ return resp
+
+def post_form_view(request):
+ """A view that returns a POST form (without a token)"""
return post_form_response()
+# Response/views used for template tag tests
+def _token_template():
+ return Template("{% csrf_token %}")
+
+def _render_csrf_token_template(req):
+ context = RequestContext(req, processors=[csrf])
+ template = _token_template()
+ return template.render(context)
+
+def token_view(request):
+ """A view that uses {% csrf_token %}"""
+ return HttpResponse(_render_csrf_token_template(request))
+
+def non_token_view_using_request_processor(request):
+ """
+ A view that doesn't use the token, but does use the csrf view processor.
+ """
+ context = RequestContext(request, processors=[csrf])
+ template = Template("")
+ return HttpResponse(template.render(context))
+
+class TestingHttpRequest(HttpRequest):
+ """
+ A version of HttpRequest that allows us to change some things
+ more easily
+ """
+ def is_secure(self):
+ return getattr(self, '_is_secure', False)
+
class CsrfMiddlewareTest(TestCase):
+ _csrf_id = "1"
+ # This is a valid session token for this ID and secret key. This was generated using
+ # the old code that we're to be backwards-compatible with. Don't use the CSRF code
+ # to generate this hash, or we're merely testing the code against itself and not
+ # checking backwards-compatibility. This is also the output of (echo -n test1 | md5sum).
+ _session_token = "5a105e8b9d40e1329780d62ea2265d8a"
_session_id = "1"
+ _secret_key_for_session_test= "test"
- def _get_GET_no_session_request(self):
- return HttpRequest()
+ def _get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request(self):
+ return TestingHttpRequest()
- def _get_GET_session_request(self):
- req = self._get_GET_no_session_request()
- req.COOKIES[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME] = self._session_id
+ def _get_GET_csrf_cookie_request(self):
+ req = TestingHttpRequest()
+ req.COOKIES[settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME] = self._csrf_id
return req
- def _get_POST_session_request(self):
- req = self._get_GET_session_request()
+ def _get_POST_csrf_cookie_request(self):
+ req = self._get_GET_csrf_cookie_request()
req.method = "POST"
return req
- def _get_POST_no_session_request(self):
- req = self._get_GET_no_session_request()
+ def _get_POST_no_csrf_cookie_request(self):
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
req.method = "POST"
return req
- def _get_POST_session_request_with_token(self):
- req = self._get_POST_session_request()
- req.POST['csrfmiddlewaretoken'] = _make_token(self._session_id)
+ def _get_POST_request_with_token(self):
+ req = self._get_POST_csrf_cookie_request()
+ req.POST['csrfmiddlewaretoken'] = self._csrf_id
return req
- def _get_post_form_response(self):
- return post_form_response()
-
- def _get_new_session_response(self):
- resp = self._get_post_form_response()
- resp.cookies[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME] = self._session_id
- return resp
+ def _get_POST_session_request_with_token(self):
+ req = self._get_POST_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ req.COOKIES[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME] = self._session_id
+ req.POST['csrfmiddlewaretoken'] = self._session_token
+ return req
- def _check_token_present(self, response):
- self.assertContains(response, "name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='%s'" % _make_token(self._session_id))
+ def _get_POST_session_request_no_token(self):
+ req = self._get_POST_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ req.COOKIES[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME] = self._session_id
+ return req
- def get_view(self):
- return test_view
+ def _check_token_present(self, response, csrf_id=None):
+ self.assertContains(response, "name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='%s'" % (csrf_id or self._csrf_id))
- # Check the post processing
- def test_process_response_no_session(self):
+ # Check the post processing and outgoing cookie
+ def test_process_response_no_csrf_cookie(self):
"""
- Check the post-processor does nothing if no session active
+ When no prior CSRF cookie exists, check that the cookie is created and a
+ token is inserted.
"""
- req = self._get_GET_no_session_request()
- resp = self._get_post_form_response()
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+
+ resp = post_form_response()
resp_content = resp.content # needed because process_response modifies resp
resp2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
- self.assertEquals(resp_content, resp2.content)
- def test_process_response_existing_session(self):
+ csrf_cookie = resp2.cookies.get(settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME, False)
+ self.assertNotEqual(csrf_cookie, False)
+ self.assertNotEqual(resp_content, resp2.content)
+ self._check_token_present(resp2, csrf_cookie.value)
+ # Check the Vary header got patched correctly
+ self.assert_('Cookie' in resp2.get('Vary',''))
+
+ def test_process_response_no_csrf_cookie_view_only_get_token_used(self):
+ """
+ When no prior CSRF cookie exists, check that the cookie is created, even
+ if only CsrfViewMiddleware is used.
+ """
+ # This is checking that CsrfViewMiddleware has the cookie setting
+ # code. Most of the other tests use CsrfMiddleware.
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ # token_view calls get_token() indirectly
+ CsrfViewMiddleware().process_view(req, token_view, (), {})
+ resp = token_view(req)
+ resp2 = CsrfViewMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
+
+ csrf_cookie = resp2.cookies.get(settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME, False)
+ self.assertNotEqual(csrf_cookie, False)
+
+ def test_process_response_get_token_not_used(self):
"""
- Check that the token is inserted if there is an existing session
+ Check that if get_token() is not called, the view middleware does not
+ add a cookie.
"""
- req = self._get_GET_session_request()
- resp = self._get_post_form_response()
+ # This is important to make pages cacheable. Pages which do call
+ # get_token(), assuming they use the token, are not cacheable because
+ # the token is specific to the user
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ # non_token_view_using_request_processor does not call get_token(), but
+ # does use the csrf request processor. By using this, we are testing
+ # that the view processor is properly lazy and doesn't call get_token()
+ # until needed.
+ CsrfViewMiddleware().process_view(req, non_token_view_using_request_processor, (), {})
+ resp = non_token_view_using_request_processor(req)
+ resp2 = CsrfViewMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
+
+ csrf_cookie = resp2.cookies.get(settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME, False)
+ self.assertEqual(csrf_cookie, False)
+
+ def test_process_response_existing_csrf_cookie(self):
+ """
+ Check that the token is inserted when a prior CSRF cookie exists
+ """
+ req = self._get_GET_csrf_cookie_request()
+ CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+
+ resp = post_form_response()
resp_content = resp.content # needed because process_response modifies resp
resp2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
self.assertNotEqual(resp_content, resp2.content)
self._check_token_present(resp2)
- def test_process_response_new_session(self):
+ def test_process_response_non_html(self):
"""
- Check that the token is inserted if there is a new session being started
+ Check the the post-processor does nothing for content-types not in _HTML_TYPES.
"""
- req = self._get_GET_no_session_request() # no session in request
- resp = self._get_new_session_response() # but new session started
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+ resp = post_form_response_non_html()
resp_content = resp.content # needed because process_response modifies resp
resp2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
- self.assertNotEqual(resp_content, resp2.content)
- self._check_token_present(resp2)
+ self.assertEquals(resp_content, resp2.content)
def test_process_response_exempt_view(self):
"""
Check that no post processing is done for an exempt view
"""
- req = self._get_POST_session_request()
- resp = csrf_exempt(self.get_view())(req)
+ req = self._get_POST_csrf_cookie_request()
+ resp = csrf_exempt(post_form_view)(req)
resp_content = resp.content
resp2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
self.assertEquals(resp_content, resp2.content)
# Check the request processing
- def test_process_request_no_session(self):
+ def test_process_request_no_session_no_csrf_cookie(self):
"""
- Check that if no session is present, the middleware does nothing.
- to the incoming request.
+ Check that if neither a CSRF cookie nor a session cookie are present,
+ the middleware rejects the incoming request. This will stop login CSRF.
"""
- req = self._get_POST_no_session_request()
- req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, self.get_view(), (), {})
- self.assertEquals(None, req2)
+ req = self._get_POST_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+ self.assertEquals(403, req2.status_code)
- def test_process_request_session_no_token(self):
+ def test_process_request_csrf_cookie_no_token(self):
"""
- Check that if a session is present but no token, we get a 'forbidden'
+ Check that if a CSRF cookie is present but no token, the middleware
+ rejects the incoming request.
"""
- req = self._get_POST_session_request()
- req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, self.get_view(), (), {})
- self.assertEquals(HttpResponseForbidden, req2.__class__)
+ req = self._get_POST_csrf_cookie_request()
+ req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+ self.assertEquals(403, req2.status_code)
- def test_process_request_session_and_token(self):
+ def test_process_request_csrf_cookie_and_token(self):
"""
- Check that if a session is present and a token, the middleware lets it through
+ Check that if both a cookie and a token is present, the middleware lets it through.
"""
- req = self._get_POST_session_request_with_token()
- req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, self.get_view(), (), {})
+ req = self._get_POST_request_with_token()
+ req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
self.assertEquals(None, req2)
- def test_process_request_session_no_token_exempt_view(self):
+ def test_process_request_session_cookie_no_csrf_cookie_token(self):
+ """
+ When no CSRF cookie exists, but the user has a session, check that a token
+ using the session cookie as a legacy CSRF cookie is accepted.
+ """
+ orig_secret_key = settings.SECRET_KEY
+ settings.SECRET_KEY = self._secret_key_for_session_test
+ try:
+ req = self._get_POST_session_request_with_token()
+ req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+ self.assertEquals(None, req2)
+ finally:
+ settings.SECRET_KEY = orig_secret_key
+
+ def test_process_request_session_cookie_no_csrf_cookie_no_token(self):
+ """
+ Check that if a session cookie is present but no token and no CSRF cookie,
+ the request is rejected.
"""
- Check that if a session is present and no token, but the csrf_exempt
+ req = self._get_POST_session_request_no_token()
+ req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+ self.assertEquals(403, req2.status_code)
+
+ def test_process_request_csrf_cookie_no_token_exempt_view(self):
+ """
+ Check that if a CSRF cookie is present and no token, but the csrf_exempt
decorator has been applied to the view, the middleware lets it through
"""
- req = self._get_POST_session_request()
- req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, csrf_exempt(self.get_view()), (), {})
+ req = self._get_POST_csrf_cookie_request()
+ req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, csrf_exempt(post_form_view), (), {})
self.assertEquals(None, req2)
def test_ajax_exemption(self):
"""
Check that AJAX requests are automatically exempted.
"""
- req = self._get_POST_session_request()
+ req = self._get_POST_csrf_cookie_request()
req.META['HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH'] = 'XMLHttpRequest'
- req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, self.get_view(), (), {})
+ req2 = CsrfMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+ self.assertEquals(None, req2)
+
+ # Tests for the template tag method
+ def test_token_node_no_csrf_cookie(self):
+ """
+ Check that CsrfTokenNode works when no CSRF cookie is set
+ """
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ resp = token_view(req)
+ self.assertEquals(u"", resp.content)
+
+ def test_token_node_with_csrf_cookie(self):
+ """
+ Check that CsrfTokenNode works when a CSRF cookie is set
+ """
+ req = self._get_GET_csrf_cookie_request()
+ CsrfViewMiddleware().process_view(req, token_view, (), {})
+ resp = token_view(req)
+ self._check_token_present(resp)
+
+ def test_token_node_with_new_csrf_cookie(self):
+ """
+ Check that CsrfTokenNode works when a CSRF cookie is created by
+ the middleware (when one was not already present)
+ """
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ CsrfViewMiddleware().process_view(req, token_view, (), {})
+ resp = token_view(req)
+ resp2 = CsrfViewMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
+ csrf_cookie = resp2.cookies[settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME]
+ self._check_token_present(resp, csrf_id=csrf_cookie.value)
+
+ def test_response_middleware_without_view_middleware(self):
+ """
+ Check that CsrfResponseMiddleware finishes without error if the view middleware
+ has not been called, as is the case if a request middleware returns a response.
+ """
+ req = self._get_GET_no_csrf_cookie_request()
+ resp = post_form_view(req)
+ CsrfMiddleware().process_response(req, resp)
+
+ def test_https_bad_referer(self):
+ """
+ Test that a POST HTTPS request with a bad referer is rejected
+ """
+ req = self._get_POST_request_with_token()
+ req._is_secure = True
+ req.META['HTTP_HOST'] = 'www.example.com'
+ req.META['HTTP_REFERER'] = 'https://www.evil.org/somepage'
+ req2 = CsrfViewMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
+ self.assertNotEqual(None, req2)
+ self.assertEquals(403, req2.status_code)
+
+ def test_https_good_referer(self):
+ """
+ Test that a POST HTTPS request with a good referer is accepted
+ """
+ req = self._get_POST_request_with_token()
+ req._is_secure = True
+ req.META['HTTP_HOST'] = 'www.example.com'
+ req.META['HTTP_REFERER'] = 'https://www.example.com/somepage'
+ req2 = CsrfViewMiddleware().process_view(req, post_form_view, (), {})
self.assertEquals(None, req2)
View
62 django/contrib/csrf/views.py
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+from django.http import HttpResponseForbidden
+from django.template import Context, Template
+from django.conf import settings
+
+# We include the template inline since we need to be able to reliably display
+# this error message, especially for the sake of developers, and there isn't any
+# other way of making it available independent of what is in the settings file.
+
+CSRF_FAILRE_TEMPLATE = """
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+<html lang="en">
+<head>
+ <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
+ <title>403 Forbidden</title>
+</head>
+<body>
+ <h1>403 Forbidden</h1>
+ <p>CSRF verification failed. Request aborted.</p>
+ {% if DEBUG %}
+ <h2>Help</h2>
+ {% if reason %}
+ <p>Reason given for failure:</p>
+ <pre>
+ {{ reason }}
+ </pre>
+ {% endif %}
+
+ <p>In general, this can occur when there is a genuine Cross Site Request Forgery, or when
+ <a
+ href='http://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/ref/contrib/csrf/#ref-contrib-csrf'>Django's
+ CSRF mechanism</a> has not been used correctly. For POST forms, you need to
+ ensure:</p>
+
+ <ul>
+ <li>The view function uses <a
+ href='http://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/ref/templates/api/#subclassing-context-requestcontext'><tt>RequestContext</tt></a>
+ for the template, instead of <tt>Context</tt>.</li>
+
+ <li>In the template, there is a <tt>{% templatetag openblock %} csrf_token
+ {% templatetag closeblock %}</tt> template tag inside each POST form that
+ targets an internal URL.</li>
+ </ul>
+
+ <p>You're seeing the help section of this page because you have <code>DEBUG =
+ True</code> in your Django settings file. Change that to <code>False</code>,
+ and only the initial error message will be displayed. </p>
+
+ <p>You can customize this page using the CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW setting.</p>
+
+ {% endif %}
+</body>
+</html>
+"""
+
+def csrf_failure(request, reason=""):
+ """
+ Default view used when request fails CSRF protection
+ """
+ t = Template(CSRF_FAILRE_TEMPLATE)
+ c = Context({'DEBUG': settings.DEBUG,
+ 'reason': reason})
+ return HttpResponseForbidden(t.render(c), mimetype='text/html')
View
2  django/contrib/formtools/templates/formtools/form.html
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
{% if form.errors %}<h1>Please correct the following errors</h1>{% else %}<h1>Submit</h1>{% endif %}
-<form action="" method="post">
+<form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
<table>
{{ form }}
</table>
View
4 django/contrib/formtools/templates/formtools/preview.html
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@
<p>Security hash: {{ hash_value }}</p>
-<form action="" method="post">
+<form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
{% for field in form %}{{ field.as_hidden }}
{% endfor %}
<input type="hidden" name="{{ stage_field }}" value="2" />
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@
<h1>Or edit it again</h1>
-<form action="" method="post">
+<form action="" method="post">{% csrf_token %}
<table>
{{ form }}
</table>
View
9 django/contrib/formtools/tests.py
@@ -147,15 +147,18 @@ class WizardPageTwoForm(forms.Form):
class WizardClass(wizard.FormWizard):
def render_template(self, *args, **kw):
- return ""
+ return http.HttpResponse("")
def done(self, request, cleaned_data):
return http.HttpResponse(success_string)
-class DummyRequest(object):
+class DummyRequest(http.HttpRequest):
def __init__(self, POST=None):
+ super(DummyRequest, self).__init__()
self.method = POST and "POST" or "GET"
- self.POST = POST
+ if POST is not None:
+ self.POST.update(POST)
+ self._dont_enforce_csrf_checks = True
class WizardTests(TestCase):
def test_step_starts_at_zero(self):
View
2  django/contrib/formtools/wizard.py
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@
from django.utils.hashcompat import md5_constructor
from django.utils.translation import ugettext_lazy as _
from django.contrib.formtools.utils import security_hash
+from django.contrib.csrf.decorators import csrf_protect
class FormWizard(object):
# Dictionary of extra template context variables.
@@ -44,6 +45,7 @@ def num_steps(self):
# hook methods might alter self.form_list.
return len(self.form_list)
+ @csrf_protect
def __call__(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
"""
Main method that does all the hard work, conforming to the Django view
View
10 django/template/context.py
@@ -1,7 +1,12 @@
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.utils.importlib import import_module
+# Cache of actual callables.
_standard_context_processors = None
+# We need the CSRF processor no matter what the user has in their settings,
+# because otherwise it is a security vulnerability, and we can't afford to leave
+# this to human error or failure to read migration instructions.
+_builtin_context_processors = ('django.contrib.csrf.context_processors.csrf',)
class ContextPopException(Exception):
"pop() has been called more times than push()"
@@ -75,7 +80,10 @@ def get_standard_processors():
global _standard_context_processors
if _standard_context_processors is None:
processors = []
- for path in settings.TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS:
+ collect = []
+ collect.extend(_builtin_context_processors)
+ collect.extend(settings.TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS)
+ for path in collect:
i = path.rfind('.')
module, attr = path[:i], path[i+1:]
try:
View
21 django/template/defaulttags.py
@@ -37,6 +37,23 @@ class CommentNode(Node):
def render(self, context):
return ''
+class CsrfTokenNode(Node):
+ def render(self, context):
+ csrf_token = context.get('csrf_token', None)
+ if csrf_token:
+ if csrf_token == 'NOTPROVIDED':
+ return mark_safe(u"")
+ else:
+ return mark_safe(u"<div style='display:none'><input type='hidden' name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='%s' /></div>" % (csrf_token))
+ else:
+ # It's very probable that the token is missing because of
+ # misconfiguration, so we raise a warning
+ from django.conf import settings
+ if settings.DEBUG:
+ import warnings
+ warnings.warn("A {% csrf_token %} was used in a template, but the context did not provide the value. This is usually caused by not using RequestContext.")
+ return u''
+
class CycleNode(Node):
def __init__(self, cyclevars, variable_name=None):
self.cycle_iter = itertools_cycle(cyclevars)
@@ -523,6 +540,10 @@ def cycle(parser, token):
return node
cycle = register.tag(cycle)
+def csrf_token(parser, token):
+ return CsrfTokenNode()
+register.tag(csrf_token)
+
def debug(parser, token):
"""
Outputs a whole load of debugging information, including the current
View
5 django/test/client.py
@@ -66,6 +66,11 @@ def __call__(self, environ):
signals.request_started.send(sender=self.__class__)
try:
request = WSGIRequest(environ)
+ # sneaky little hack so that we can easily get round
+ # CsrfViewMiddleware. This makes life easier, and is probably
+ # required for backwards compatibility with external tests against
+ # admin views.
+ request._dont_enforce_csrf_checks = True
response = self.get_response(request)
# Apply response middleware.
View
6 docs/internals/deprecation.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,12 @@ their deprecation, as per the :ref:`Django deprecation policy
hooking up admin URLs. This has been deprecated since the 1.1
release.
+ * 1.4
+ * ``CsrfResponseMiddleware``. This has been deprecated since the 1.2
+ release, in favour of the template tag method for inserting the CSRF
+ token. ``CsrfMiddleware``, which combines ``CsrfResponseMiddleware``
+ and ``CsrfViewMiddleware``, is also deprecated.
+
* 2.0
* ``django.views.defaults.shortcut()``. This function has been moved
to ``django.contrib.contenttypes.views.shortcut()`` as part of the
View
26 docs/intro/tutorial04.txt
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@ tutorial, so that the template contains an HTML ``<form>`` element:
{% if error_message %}<p><strong>{{ error_message }}</strong></p>{% endif %}
<form action="/polls/{{ poll.id }}/vote/" method="post">
+ {% csrf_token %}
{% for choice in poll.choice_set.all %}
<input type="radio" name="choice" id="choice{{ forloop.counter }}" value="{{ choice.id }}" />
<label for="choice{{ forloop.counter }}">{{ choice.choice }}</label><br />
@@ -46,6 +47,28 @@ A quick rundown:
* ``forloop.counter`` indicates how many times the :ttag:`for` tag has gone
through its loop
+ * Since we are creating a POST form (which can have the effect of modifying
+ data), we unfortunately need to worry about Cross Site Request Forgeries.
+ Thankfully, you don't have to worry too hard, because Django comes with
+ very easy-to-use system for protecting against it. In short, all POST
+ forms that are targetted at internal URLs need the ``{% csrf_token %}``
+ template tag adding.
+
+The ``{% csrf_token %}`` tag requires information from the request object, which
+is not normally accessible from within the template context. To fix this, a
+small adjustment needs to be made to the ``detail`` view, so that it looks like
+the following::
+
+ from django.template import RequestContext
+ # ...
+ def detail(request, poll_id):
+ p = get_object_or_404(Poll, pk=poll_id)
+ return render_to_response('polls/detail.html', {'poll': p},
+ context_instance=RequestContext(request))
+
+The details of how this works are explained in the documentation for
+:ref:`RequestContext <subclassing-context-requestcontext>`.
+
Now, let's create a Django view that handles the submitted data and does
something with it. Remember, in :ref:`Tutorial 3 <intro-tutorial03>`, we
created a URLconf for the polls application that includes this line::
@@ -58,6 +81,7 @@ create a real version. Add the following to ``mysite/polls/views.py``::
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404, render_to_response
from django.http import HttpResponseRedirect, HttpResponse
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
+ from django.template import RequestContext
from mysite.polls.models import Choice, Poll
# ...
def vote(request, poll_id):
@@ -69,7 +93,7 @@ create a real version. Add the following to ``mysite/polls/views.py``::
return render_to_response('polls/detail.html', {
'poll': p,
'error_message': "You didn't select a choice.",
- })
+ }, context_instance=RequestContext(request))
else:
selected_choice.votes += 1
selected_choice.save()
View
383 docs/ref/contrib/csrf.txt
@@ -7,46 +7,186 @@ Cross Site Request Forgery protection
.. module:: django.contrib.csrf
:synopsis: Protects against Cross Site Request Forgeries
-The CsrfMiddleware class provides easy-to-use protection against
+The CSRF middleware and template tag provides easy-to-use protection against
`Cross Site Request Forgeries`_. This type of attack occurs when a malicious
-Web site creates a link or form button that is intended to perform some action
-on your Web site, using the credentials of a logged-in user who is tricked
-into clicking on the link in their browser.
+Web site contains a link, a form button or some javascript that is intended to
+perform some action on your Web site, using the credentials of a logged-in user
+who visits the malicious site in their browser. A related type of attack,
+'login CSRF', where an attacking site tricks a user's browser into logging into
+a site with someone else's credentials, is also covered.
-The first defense against CSRF attacks is to ensure that GET requests
-are side-effect free. POST requests can then be protected by adding this
-middleware into your list of installed middleware.
+The first defense against CSRF attacks is to ensure that GET requests are
+side-effect free. POST requests can then be protected by following the steps
+below.
+
+.. versionadded:: 1.2
+ The 'contrib' apps, including the admin, use the functionality described
+ here. Because it is security related, a few things have been added to core
+ functionality to allow this to happen without any required upgrade steps.
.. _Cross Site Request Forgeries: http://www.squarefree.com/securitytips/web-developers.html#CSRF
How to use it
=============
-Add the middleware ``'django.contrib.csrf.middleware.CsrfMiddleware'`` to your
-list of middleware classes, :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`. It needs to process
-the response after the SessionMiddleware, so must come before it in the list. It
-also must process the response before things like compression or setting of
-ETags happen to the response, so it must come after GZipMiddleware,
-CommonMiddleware and ConditionalGetMiddleware in the list.
+.. versionchanged:: 1.2
+ The template tag functionality (the recommended way to use this) was added
+ in version 1.2. The previous method (still available) is described under
+ `Legacy method`_.
+
+To enable CSRF protection for your views, follow these steps:
+
+ 1. Add the middleware
+ ``'django.contrib.csrf.middleware.CsrfViewMiddleware'`` to your list of
+ middleware classes, :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`. (It should come
+ before ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` if that is being used, and before any
+ view middleware that assume that CSRF attacks have been dealt with.)
+
+ Alternatively, you can use the decorator
+ ``django.contrib.csrf.decorators.csrf_protect`` on particular views you
+ want to protect. This is **not recommended** by itself, since if you
+ forget to use it, you will have a security hole. The 'belt and braces'
+ strategy of using both is fine, and will incur minimal overhead.
+
+ 2. In any template that uses a POST form, use the ``csrf_token`` tag inside
+ the ``<form>`` element if the form is for an internal URL, e.g.::
+
+ <form action="" method="POST">{% csrf_token %}
+
+ This should not be done for POST forms that target external URLs, since
+ that would cause the CSRF token to be leaked, leading to a vulnerability.
+
+ 3. In the corresponding view functions, ensure that the
+ ``'django.contrib.csrf.context_processors.csrf'`` context processor is
+ being used. Usually, this can be done in one of two ways:
+
+ 1. Use RequestContext, which always uses
+ ``'django.contrib.csrf.context_processors.csrf'`` (no matter what your
+ TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS setting). If you are using
+ generic views or contrib apps, you are covered already, since these
+ apps use RequestContext throughout.
+
+ 2. Manually import and use the processor to generate the CSRF token and
+ add it to the template context. e.g.::
+
+ from django.contrib.csrf.context_processors import csrf
+ from django.shortcuts import render_to_response
+
+ def my_view(request):
+ c = {}
+ c.update(csrf(request))
+ # ... view code here
+ return render_to_response("a_template.html", c)
+
+ You may want to write your own ``render_to_response`` wrapper that
+ takes care of this step for you.
+
+The utility script ``extras/csrf_migration_helper.py`` can help to automate the
+finding of code and templates that may need to be upgraded. It contains full
+help on how to use it.
+
+Legacy method
+-------------
+
+In Django 1.1, the template tag did not exist. Instead, a post-processing
+middleware that re-wrote POST forms to include the CRSF token was used. If you
+are upgrading a site from version 1.1 or earlier, please read this section and
+the `Upgrading notes`_ below. The post-processing middleware is still available
+as ``CsrfResponseMiddleware``, and it can be used by following these steps:
+
+ 1. Follow step 1 above to install ``CsrfViewMiddleware``.
+
+ 2. Add ``'django.contrib.csrf.middleware.CsrfResponseMiddleware'`` to your
+ :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES` setting.
+
+ ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` needs to process the response before things
+ like compression or setting ofETags happen to the response, so it must
+ come after ``GZipMiddleware``, ``CommonMiddleware`` and
+ ``ConditionalGetMiddleware`` in the list. It also must come after
+ ``CsrfViewMiddleware``.
+
+Use of the ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` is not recommended because of the
+performance hit it imposes, and because of a potential security problem (see
+below). It can be used as an interim measure until applications have been
+updated to use the ``{% crsf_token %}`` tag. It is deprecated and will be
+removed in Django 1.4.
+
+Django 1.1 and earlier provided a single ``CsrfMiddleware`` class. This is also
+still available for backwards compatibility. It combines the functions of the
+two middleware.
+
+Note also that previous versions of these classes depended on the sessions
+framework, but this dependency has now been removed, with backward compatibility
+support so that upgrading will not produce any issues.
+
+Security of legacy method
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The post-processing ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` adds the CSRF token to all POST
+forms (unless the view has been decorated with ``csrf_response_exempt``). If
+the POST form has an external untrusted site as its target, rather than an
+internal page, that site will be sent the CSRF token when the form is submitted.
+Armed with this leaked information, that site will then be able to successfully
+launch a CSRF attack on your site against that user. The
+``@csrf_response_exempt`` decorator can be used to fix this, but only if the
+page doesn't also contain internal forms that require the token.
+
+Upgrading notes
+---------------
+
+When upgrading to version 1.2 or later, you may have applications that rely on
+the old post-processing functionality for CSRF protection, or you may not have
+enabled any CSRF protection. This section outlines the steps necessary for a
+smooth upgrade, without having to fix all the applications to use the new
+template tag method immediately.
+
+If you have ``CsrfMiddleware`` in your :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`, you will now
+have a working installation with CSRF protection. It is recommended at this
+point that you replace ``CsrfMiddleware`` with its two components,
+``CsrfViewMiddleware`` and ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` (in that order).
+
+If you do not have any of the middleware in your :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`,
+you will have a working installation but without any CSRF protection for your
+views (just as you had before). It is strongly recommended to install
+``CsrfViewMiddleware`` and ``CsrfResponseMiddleware``, as described above.
-The ``CsrfMiddleware`` class is actually composed of two middleware:
-``CsrfViewMiddleware`` which performs the checks on incoming requests,
-and ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` which performs post-processing of the
-result. This allows the individual components to be used and/or
-replaced instead of using ``CsrfMiddleware``.
+(Note that contrib apps, such as the admin, have been updated to use the
+``csrf_protect`` decorator, so that they are secured even if you do not add the
+``CsrfViewMiddleware`` to your settings).
-.. versionchanged:: 1.1
- (previous versions of Django did not provide these two components
- of ``CsrfMiddleware`` as described above)
+Assuming you have followed the above, all views in your Django site will now be
+protected by the ``CsrfViewMiddleware``. Contrib apps meet the requirements
+imposed by the ``CsrfViewMiddleware`` using the template tag, and other
+applications in your project will meet its requirements by virtue of the
+``CsrfResponseMiddleware``.
+
+The next step is to update all your applications to use the template tag, as
+described in `How to use it`_, steps 2-3. This can be done as soon as is
+practical. Any applications that are updated will now require Django 1.2 or
+later, since they will use the CSRF template tag which was not available in
+earlier versions.
+
+The utility script ``extras/csrf_migration_helper.py`` can help to automate the
+finding of code and templates that may need to be upgraded. It contains full
+help on how to use it.
+
+Finally, once all applications are upgraded, ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` can be
+removed from your settings.
+
+While ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` is still in use, the ``csrf_response_exempt``
+decorator, described in `Exceptions`_, may be useful. The post-processing
+middleware imposes a performance hit and a potential vulnerability, and any
+views that have been upgraded to use the new template tag method no longer need
+it.
Exceptions
----------
.. versionadded:: 1.1
-To manually exclude a view function from being handled by the
-CsrfMiddleware, you can use the ``csrf_exempt`` decorator, found in
-the ``django.contrib.csrf.middleware`` module. For example::
+To manually exclude a view function from being handled by either of the two CSRF
+middleware, you can use the ``csrf_exempt`` decorator, found in the
+``django.contrib.csrf.middleware`` module. For example::
from django.contrib.csrf.middleware import csrf_exempt
@@ -54,71 +194,172 @@ the ``django.contrib.csrf.middleware`` module. For example::
return HttpResponse('Hello world')
my_view = csrf_exempt(my_view)
-Like the middleware itself, the ``csrf_exempt`` decorator is composed
-of two parts: a ``csrf_view_exempt`` decorator and a
-``csrf_response_exempt`` decorator, found in the same module. These
-disable the view protection mechanism (``CsrfViewMiddleware``) and the
-response post-processing (``CsrfResponseMiddleware``) respectively.
-They can be used individually if required.
+Like the middleware, the ``csrf_exempt`` decorator is composed of two parts: a
+``csrf_view_exempt`` decorator and a ``csrf_response_exempt`` decorator, found
+in the same module. These disable the view protection mechanism
+(``CsrfViewMiddleware``) and the response post-processing
+(``CsrfResponseMiddleware``) respectively. They can be used individually if
+required.
+
+You don't have to worry about doing this for most AJAX views. Any request sent
+with "X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest" is automatically exempt. (See the `How
+it works`_ section.)
+
+Subdomains
+----------
+
+By default, CSRF cookies are specific to the subdomain they are set for. This
+means that a form served from one subdomain (e.g. server1.example.com) will not
+be able to have a target on another subdomain (e.g. server2.example.com). This
+restriction can be removed by setting :setting:`CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN` to be
+something like ``".example.com"``.
+
+Please note that, with or without use of this setting, this CSRF protection
+mechanism is not safe against cross-subdomain attacks -- see `Limitations`_.
+
+Rejected requests
+=================
+
+By default, a '403 Forbidden' response is sent to the user if an incoming
+request fails the checks performed by ``CsrfViewMiddleware``. This should
+usually only be seen when there is a genuine Cross Site Request Forgery, or
+when, due to a programming error, the CSRF token has not been included with a
+POST form.
-You don't have to worry about doing this for most AJAX views. Any
-request sent with "X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest" is automatically
-exempt. (See the next section.)
+No logging is done, and the error message is not very friendly, so you may want
+to provide your own page for handling this condition. To do this, simply set
+the :setting:`CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW` setting to a dotted path to your own view
+function, which should have the following signature::
+
+ def csrf_failure(request, reason="")
+
+where ``reason`` is a short message (intended for developers or logging, not for
+end users) indicating the reason the request was rejected.
How it works
============
-CsrfMiddleware does two things:
+The CSRF protection is based on the following things:
+
+1. A CSRF cookie that is set to a random value (a session independent nonce, as
+ it is called), which other sites will not have access to.
-1. It modifies outgoing requests by adding a hidden form field to all
- 'POST' forms, with the name 'csrfmiddlewaretoken' and a value which is
- a hash of the session ID plus a secret. If there is no session ID set,
- this modification of the response isn't done, so there is very little
- performance penalty for those requests that don't have a session.
- (This is done by ``CsrfResponseMiddleware``).
+ This cookie is set by ``CsrfViewMiddleware``. It is meant to be permanent,
+ but since there is no way to set a cookie that never expires, it is sent with
+ every response that has called ``django.contrib.csrf.middleware.get_token()``
+ (the function used internally to retrieve the CSRF token).
-2. On all incoming POST requests that have the session cookie set, it
- checks that the 'csrfmiddlewaretoken' is present and correct. If it
- isn't, the user will get a 403 error. (This is done by
- ``CsrfViewMiddleware``)
+2. A hidden form field with the name 'csrfmiddlewaretoken' present in all
+ outgoing POST forms. The value of this field is the value of the CSRF
+ cookie.
-This ensures that only forms that have originated from your Web site
-can be used to POST data back.
+ This part is done by the template tag (and with the legacy method, it is done
+ by ``CsrfResponseMiddleware``).
+
+3. For all incoming POST requests, a CSRF cookie must be present, and the
+ 'csrfmiddlewaretoken' field must be present and correct. If it isn't, the
+ user will get a 403 error.
+
+ This check is done by ``CsrfViewMiddleware``.
+
+4. In addition, for HTTPS requests, strict referer checking is done by
+ ``CsrfViewMiddleware``. This is necessary to address a Man-In-The-Middle
+ attack that is possible under HTTPS when using a session independent nonce,
+ due to the fact that HTTP 'Set-Cookie' headers are (unfortunately) accepted
+ by clients that are talking to a site under HTTPS. (Referer checking is not
+ done for HTTP requests because the presence of the Referer header is not
+ reliable enough under HTTP.)
+
+This ensures that only forms that have originated from your Web site can be used
+to POST data back.
It deliberately only targets HTTP POST requests (and the corresponding POST
-forms). GET requests ought never to have any potentially dangerous side
-effects (see `9.1.1 Safe Methods, HTTP 1.1, RFC 2616`_), and so a
-CSRF attack with a GET request ought to be harmless.
+forms). GET requests ought never to have any potentially dangerous side effects
+(see `9.1.1 Safe Methods, HTTP 1.1, RFC 2616`_), and so a CSRF attack with a GET
+request ought to be harmless.
-POST requests that are not accompanied by a session cookie are not protected,
-but they do not need to be protected, since the 'attacking' Web site
-could make these kind of requests anyway.
+``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` checks the Content-Type before modifying the
+response, and only pages that are served as 'text/html' or
+'application/xml+xhtml' are modified.
-The Content-Type is checked before modifying the response, and only
-pages that are served as 'text/html' or 'application/xml+xhtml'
-are modified.
+AJAX
+----
-The middleware tries to be smart about requests that come in via AJAX. Many
-JavaScript toolkits send an "X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest" HTTP header;
-these requests are detected and automatically *not* handled by this middleware.
-We can do this safely because, in the context of a browser, the header can only
-be added by using ``XMLHttpRequest``, and browsers already implement a
-same-domain policy for ``XMLHttpRequest``. (Note that this is not secure if you
-don't trust content within the same domain or subdomains.)
+The middleware tries to be smart about requests that come in via AJAX. Most
+modern JavaScript toolkits send an "X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest" HTTP
+header; these requests are detected and automatically *not* handled by this
+middleware. We can do this safely because, in the context of a browser, the
+header can only be added by using ``XMLHttpRequest``, and browsers already
+implement a same-domain policy for ``XMLHttpRequest``.
+For the more recent browsers that relax this same-domain policy, custom headers
+like "X-Requested-With" are only allowed after the browser has done a
+'preflight' check to the server to see if the cross-domain request is allowed,
+using a strictly 'opt in' mechanism, so the exception for AJAX is still safe—if
+the developer has specifically opted in to allowing cross-site AJAX POST
+requests on a specific URL, they obviously don't want the middleware to disallow
+exactly that.
.. _9.1.1 Safe Methods, HTTP 1.1, RFC 2616: http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec9.html
+Caching
+=======
+
+If the ``csrf_token`` template tag is used by a template (or the ``get_token``
+function is called some other way), ``CsrfViewMiddleware`` will add a cookie and
+a ``Vary: Cookie`` header to the response. Similarly,
+``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` will send the ``Vary: Cookie`` header if it inserted
+a token. This means that these middleware will play well with the cache
+middleware if it is used as instructed (``UpdateCacheMiddleware`` goes before
+all other middleware).
+
+However, if you use cache decorators on individual views, the CSRF middleware
+will not yet have been able to set the Vary header. In this case, on any views
+that will require a CSRF token to be inserted you should use the
+:func:`django.views.decorators.vary.vary_on_cookie` decorator first::
+
+ from django.views.decorators.cache import cache_page
+ from django.views.decorators.vary import vary_on_cookie
+
+ @cache_page(60 * 15)
+ @vary_on_cookie
+ def my_view(request):
+ # ...
+
+
+Testing
+=======
+
+The ``CsrfViewMiddleware`` will usually be a big hindrance to testing view
+functions, due to the need for the CSRF token which must be sent with every POST
+request. For this reason, Django's HTTP client for tests has been modified to
+set a flag on requests which relaxes the middleware and the ``csrf_protect``
+decorator so that they no longer rejects requests. In every other respect
+(e.g. sending cookies etc.), they behave the same.
+
Limitations
===========
-CsrfMiddleware requires Django's session framework to work. If you have
-a custom authentication system that manually sets cookies and the like,
-it won't help you.
+Subdomains within a site will be able to set cookies on the client for the whole
+domain. By setting the cookie and using a corresponding token, subdomains will
+be able to circumvent the CSRF protection. The only way to avoid this is to
+ensure that subdomains are controlled by trusted users (or, are at least unable
+to set cookies). Note that even without CSRF, there are other vulnerabilities,
+such as session fixation, that make giving subdomains to untrusted parties a bad
+idea, and these vulnerabilities cannot easily be fixed with current browsers.
+
+If you are using ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` and your app creates HTML pages and
+forms in some unusual way, (e.g. it sends fragments of HTML in JavaScript
+document.write statements) you might bypass the filter that adds the hidden
+field to the form, in which case form submission will always fail. You should
+use the template tag or :meth:`django.contrib.csrf.middleware.get_token` to get
+the CSRF token and ensure it is included when your form is submitted.
+
+Contrib and reusable apps
+=========================
-If your app creates HTML pages and forms in some unusual way, (e.g.
-it sends fragments of HTML in JavaScript document.write statements)
-you might bypass the filter that adds the hidden field to the form,
-in which case form submission will always fail. It may still be possible
-to use the middleware, provided you can find some way to get the
-CSRF token and ensure that is included when your form is submitted.
+Because it is possible for the developer to turn off the ``CsrfViewMiddleware``,
+all relevant views in contrib apps use the ``csrf_protect`` decorator to ensure
+the security of these applications against CSRF. It is recommended that the
+developers of other reusable apps that want the same guarantees also use the
+``csrf_protect`` decorator on their views.
View
2  docs/ref/contrib/formtools/form-wizard.txt
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@ Here's a full example template:
{% block content %}
<p>Step {{ step }} of {{ step_count }}</p>
- <form action="." method="post">
+ <form action="." method="post">{% csrf_token %}
<table>
{{ form }}
</table>
View
39 docs/ref/settings.txt
@@ -144,6 +144,44 @@ Default: ``600``
The default number of seconds to cache a page when the caching middleware or
``cache_page()`` decorator is used.
+.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_NAME
+
+CSRF_COOKIE_NAME
+----------------
+Default: ``'csrftoken'``
+
+The name of the cookie to use for the CSRF authentication token. This can be whatever you
+want. See :ref:`ref-contrib-csrf`.
+
+.. setting:: CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN
+
+CSRF_COOKIE_DOMAIN
+------------------
+
+Default: ``None``
+
+The domain to be used when setting the CSRF cookie. This can be useful for
+allowing cross-subdomain requests to be exluded from the normal cross site
+request forgery protection. It should be set to a string such as
+``".lawrence.com"`` to allow a POST request from a form on one subdomain to be
+accepted by accepted by a view served from another subdomain.
+
+.. setting:: CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW
+
+CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW
+-----------------
+
+Default: ``'django.contrib.csrf.views.csrf_failure'``
+
+A dotted path to the view function to be used when an incoming request
+is rejected by the CSRF protection. The function should have this signature::
+
+ def csrf_failure(request, reason="")
+
+where ``reason`` is a short message (intended for developers or logging, not for
+end users) indicating the reason the request was rejected. See
+:ref:`ref-contrib-csrf`.
+
.. setting:: DATABASE_ENGINE
DATABASE_ENGINE
@@ -751,6 +789,7 @@ Default::
('django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
+ 'django.contrib.csrf.middleware.CsrfViewMiddleware',
'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',)
A tuple of middleware classes to use. See :ref:`topics-http-middleware`.
View
15 docs/ref/templates/api.txt
@@ -313,6 +313,13 @@ and return a dictionary of items to be merged into the context. By default,
"django.core.context_processors.i18n",
"django.core.context_processors.media")
+.. versionadded:: 1.2
+ In addition to these, ``RequestContext`` always uses
+ ``'django.contrib.csrf.context_processors.csrf'``. This is a security
+ related context processor required by the admin and other contrib apps, and,
+ in case of accidental misconfiguration, it is deliberately hardcoded in and
+ cannot be turned off by the :setting:`TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS` setting.
+
Each processor is applied in order. That means, if one processor adds a
variable to the context and a second processor adds a variable with the same
name, the second will override the first. The default processors are explained
@@ -404,6 +411,14 @@ If :setting:`TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS` contains this processor, every
``RequestContext`` will contain a variable ``MEDIA_URL``, providing the
value of the :setting:`MEDIA_URL` setting.
+django.contrib.csrf.context_processors.csrf
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. versionadded:: 1.2
+
+This processor adds a token that is needed by the ``csrf_token`` template tag
+for protection against :ref:`Cross Site Request Forgeries <ref-contrib-csrf>`.
+
django.core.context_processors.request
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
View
7 docs/ref/templates/builtins.txt
@@ -53,6 +53,13 @@ Ignore everything between ``{% comment %}`` and ``{% endcomment %}``
.. templatetag:: cycle
+csrf_token
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. versionadded:: 1.2
+
+This is described in the documentation for :ref:`Cross Site Request Forgeries <ref-contrib-csrf>`.
+
cycle
~~~~~
View
16 docs/releases/1.2-alpha.txt
@@ -2,6 +2,22 @@
Backwards-incompatible changes
==============================
+CSRF Protection
+---------------
+
+There have been large changes to the way that CSRF protection works, detailed in
+:ref:`the CSRF documentaton <ref-contrib-csrf>`. The following are the major
+changes that developers must be aware of:
+
+ * ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` and ``CsrfMiddleware`` have been deprecated, and
+ will be removed completely in Django 1.4, in favour of a template tag that
+ should be inserted into forms.
+
+ * ``CsrfViewMiddleware`` is included in :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES` by
+ default. This turns on CSRF protection by default, so that views that accept
+ POST requests need to be written to work with the middleware. Instructions
+ on how to do this are found in the CSRF docs.
+
LazyObject
----------
View
2  docs/topics/auth.txt
@@ -767,7 +767,7 @@ the following line to your URLconf::
<p>Your username and password didn't match. Please try again.</p>
{% endif %}
- <form method="post" action="{% url django.contrib.auth.views.login %}">
+ <form method="post" action="{% url django.contrib.auth.views.login %}">{% csrf_token %}
<table>
<tr>
<td>{{ form.username.label_tag }}</td>
View
1  docs/topics/http/middleware.txt
@@ -29,6 +29,7 @@ created by :djadmin:`django-admin.py startproject <startproject>`::
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
+ 'django.contrib.csrf.middleware.CsrfViewMiddleware',
'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
)
View
369 extras/csrf_migration_helper.py
@@ -0,0 +1,369 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python
+
+# This script aims to help developers locate forms and view code that needs to
+# use the new CSRF protection in Django 1.2. It tries to find all the code that
+# may need the steps described in the CSRF documentation. It does not modify
+# any code directly, it merely attempts to locate it. Developers should be
+# aware of its limitations, described below.
+#
+# For each template that contains at least one POST form, the following info is printed:
+#
+# <Absolute path to template>
+# AKA: <Aliases (relative to template directory/directories that contain it)>
+# POST forms: <Number of POST forms>
+# With token: <Number of POST forms with the CSRF token already added>
+# Without token:
+# <File name and line number of form without token>
+#
+# Searching for:
+# <Template names that need to be searched for in view code
+# (includes templates that 'include' current template)>
+#
+# Found:
+# <File name and line number of any view code found>
+#
+# The format used allows this script to be used in Emacs grep mode:
+# M-x grep
+# Run grep (like this): /path/to/my/virtualenv/python /path/to/django/src/extras/csrf_migration_helper.py --settings=mysettings /path/to/my/srcs
+
+
+# Limitations
+# ===========
+#
+# - All templates must be stored on disk in '.html' or '.htm' files.
+# (extensions configurable below)
+#
+# - All Python code must be stored on disk in '.py' files. (extensions
+# configurable below)
+#
+# - All templates must be accessible from TEMPLATE_DIRS or from the 'templates/'
+# directory in apps specified in INSTALLED_APPS. Non-file based template
+# loaders are out of the picture, because there is no way to ask them to
+# return all templates.
+#
+# - If you put the {% csrf_token %} tag on the same line as the <form> tag it
+# will be detected, otherwise it will be assumed that the form does not have
+# the token.
+#
+# - It's impossible to programmatically determine which forms should and should
+# not have the token added. The developer must decide when to do this,
+# ensuring that the token is only added to internally targetted forms.
+#
+# - It's impossible to programmatically work out when a template is used. The
+# attempts to trace back to view functions are guesses, and could easily fail
+# in the following ways:
+#
+# * If the 'include' template tag is used with a variable
+# i.e. {% include tname %} where tname is a variable containing the actual
+# template name, rather than {% include "my_template.html" %}.
+#
+# * If the template name has been built up by view code instead of as a simple
+# string. For example, generic views and the admin both do this. (These
+# apps are both contrib and both use RequestContext already, as it happens).
+#
+# * If the 'ssl' tag (or any template tag other than 'include') is used to
+# include the template in another template.
+#
+# - All templates belonging to apps referenced in INSTALLED_APPS will be
+# searched, which may include third party apps or Django contrib. In some
+# cases, this will be a good thing, because even if the templates of these
+# apps have been fixed by someone else, your own view code may reference the
+# same template and may need to be updated.
+#
+# You may, however, wish to comment out some entries in INSTALLED_APPS or
+# TEMPLATE_DIRS before running this script.
+
+# Improvements to this script are welcome!
+
+# Configuration
+# =============
+
+TEMPLATE_EXTENSIONS = [
+ ".html",
+ ".htm",
+ ]
+
+PYTHON_SOURCE_EXTENSIONS = [
+ ".py",
+ ]
+
+TEMPLATE_ENCODING = "UTF-8"
+
+PYTHON_ENCODING = "UTF-8"
+
+# Method
+# ======
+
+# Find templates:
+# - template dirs
+# - installed apps
+#
+# Search for POST forms
+# - Work out what the name of the template is, as it would appear in an
+# 'include' or get_template() call. This can be done by comparing template
+# filename to all template dirs. Some templates can have more than one
+# 'name' e.g. if a directory and one of its child directories are both in
+# TEMPLATE_DIRS. This is actually a common hack used for
+# overriding-and-extending admin templates.
+#
+# For each POST form,
+# - see if it already contains '{% csrf_token %}' immediately after <form>
+# - work back to the view function(s):
+# - First, see if the form is included in any other templates, then
+# recursively compile a list of affected templates.
+# - Find any code function that references that template. This is just a
+# brute force text search that can easily return false positives
+# and fail to find real instances.
+
+
+import os
+import sys
+import re
+try:
+ set
+except NameError:
+ from sets import Set as set
+
+
+USAGE = """
+This tool helps to locate forms that need CSRF tokens added and the
+corresponding view code. This processing is NOT fool proof, and you should read
+the help contained in the script itself. Also, this script may need configuring
+(by editing the script) before use.
+
+Usage:
+
+python csrf_migration_helper.py [--settings=path.to.your.settings] /path/to/python/code [more paths...]
+
+ Paths can be specified as relative paths.
+
+ With no arguments, this help is printed.
+"""
+
+_POST_FORM_RE = \
+ re.compile(r'(<form\W[^>]*\bmethod\s*=\s*(\'|"|)POST(\'|"|)\b[^>]*>)', re.IGNORECASE)
+_TOKEN_RE = re.compile('\{% csrf_token')
+
+def get_template_dirs():
+ """
+ Returns a set of all directories that contain project templates.
+ """
+ from django.conf import settings
+ dirs = set()
+ if 'django.template.loaders.filesystem.load_template_source' in settings.TEMPLATE_LOADERS:
+ dirs.update(map(unicode, settings.TEMPLATE_DIRS))
+
+ if 'django.template.loaders.app_directories.load_template_source' in settings.TEMPLATE_LOADERS:
+ from django.template.loaders.app_directories import app_template_dirs
+ dirs.update(app_template_dirs)
+ return dirs
+
+def make_template_info(filename, root_dirs):
+ """
+ Creates a Template object for a filename, calculating the possible
+ relative_filenames from the supplied filename and root template directories
+ """