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[1.5.X] Fixed #9962 - Added a testing tutorial.

Thank-you Daniele Procida for the first draft
and shaibi, Aymeric, and others for the reviews.

Backport of b052e6c from master
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commit c252ed567c9844294bbe7924de62eb747d4cc0d9 1 parent 0c3e484
@timgraham timgraham authored
View
3  docs/index.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,8 @@ Are you new to Django or to programming? This is the place to start!
:doc:`Part 1 <intro/tutorial01>` |
:doc:`Part 2 <intro/tutorial02>` |
:doc:`Part 3 <intro/tutorial03>` |
- :doc:`Part 4 <intro/tutorial04>`
+ :doc:`Part 4 <intro/tutorial04>` |
+ :doc:`Part 5 <intro/tutorial05>`
* **Advanced Tutorials:**
:doc:`How to write reusable apps <intro/reusable-apps>` |
View
1  docs/intro/index.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ place: read this material to quickly get up and running.
tutorial02
tutorial03
tutorial04
+ tutorial05
reusable-apps
whatsnext
contributing
View
4 docs/intro/reusable-apps.txt
@@ -2,11 +2,11 @@
Advanced tutorial: How to write reusable apps
=============================================
-This advanced tutorial begins where :doc:`Tutorial 4 </intro/tutorial04>` left
+This advanced tutorial begins where :doc:`Tutorial 5 </intro/tutorial05>` left
off. We'll be turning our Web-poll into a standalone Python package you can
reuse in new projects and share with other people.
-If you haven't recently completed Tutorials 1–4, we encourage you to review
+If you haven't recently completed Tutorials 1–5, we encourage you to review
these so that your example project matches the one described below.
Reusability matters
View
12 docs/intro/tutorial04.txt
@@ -275,13 +275,5 @@ Run the server, and use your new polling app based on generic views.
For full details on generic views, see the :doc:`generic views documentation
</topics/class-based-views/index>`.
-What's next?
-============
-
-The beginner tutorial ends here for the time being. In the meantime, you might
-want to check out some pointers on :doc:`where to go from here
-</intro/whatsnext>`.
-
-If you are familiar with Python packaging and interested in learning how to
-turn polls into a "reusable app", check out :doc:`Advanced tutorial: How to
-write reusable apps</intro/reusable-apps>`.
+When you're comfortable with forms and generic views, read :doc:`part 5 of this
+tutorial</intro/tutorial05>` to learn about testing our polls app.
View
650 docs/intro/tutorial05.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,650 @@
+=====================================
+Writing your first Django app, part 5
+=====================================
+
+This tutorial begins where :doc:`Tutorial 4 </intro/tutorial04>` left off.
+We've built a Web-poll application, and we'll now create some automated tests
+for it.
+
+Introducing automated testing
+=============================
+
+What are automated tests?
+-------------------------
+
+Tests are simple routines that check the operation of your code.
+
+Testing operates at different levels. Some tests might apply to a tiny detail
+- *does a particular model method return values as expected?*, while others
+examine the overall operation of the software - *does a sequence of user inputs
+on the site produce the desired result?* That's no different from the kind of
+testing you did earlier in :doc:`Tutorial 1 </intro/tutorial01>`, using the
+shell to examine the behavior of a method, or running the application and
+entering data to check how it behaves.
+
+What's different in *automated* tests is that the testing work is done for
+you by the system. You create a set of tests once, and then as you make changes
+to your app, you can check that your code still works as you originally
+intended, without having to perform time consuming manual testing.
+
+Why you need to create tests
+----------------------------
+
+So why create tests, and why now?
+
+You may feel that you have quite enough on your plate just learning
+Python/Django, and having yet another thing to learn and do may seem
+overwhelming and perhaps unnecessary. After all, our polls application is
+working quite happily now; going through the trouble of creating automated
+tests is not going to make it work any better. If creating the polls
+application is the last bit of Django programming you will ever do, then true,
+you don't need to know how to create automated tests. But, if that's not the
+case, now is an excellent time to learn.
+
+Tests will save you time
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Up to a certain point, 'checking that it seems to work' will be a satisfactory
+test. In a more sophisticated application, you might have dozens of complex
+interactions between components.
+
+A change in any of those components could have unexpected consequences on the
+application's behavior. Checking that it still 'seems to work' could mean
+running through your code's functionality with twenty different variations of
+your test data just to make sure you haven't broken something - not a good use
+of your time.
+
+That's especially true when automated tests could do this for you in seconds.
+If something's gone wrong, tests will also assist in identifying the code
+that's causing the unexpected behavior.
+
+Sometimes it may seem a chore to tear yourself away from your productive,
+creative programming work to face the unglamorous and unexciting business
+of writing tests, particularly when you know your code is working properly.
+
+However, the task of writing tests is a lot more fulfilling than spending hours
+testing your application manually or trying to identify the cause of a
+newly-introduced problem.
+
+Tests don't just identify problems, they prevent them
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+It's a mistake to think of tests merely as a negative aspect of development.
+
+Without tests, the purpose or intended behavior of an application might be
+rather opaque. Even when it's your own code, you will sometimes find yourself
+poking around in it trying to find out what exactly it's doing.
+
+Tests change that; they light up your code from the inside, and when something
+goes wrong, they focus light on the part that has gone wrong - *even if you
+hadn't even realized it had gone wrong*.
+
+Tests make your code more attractive
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You might have created a brilliant piece of software, but you will find that
+many other developers will simply refuse to look at it because it lacks tests;
+without tests, they won't trust it. Jacob Kaplan-Moss, one of Django's
+original developers, says "Code without tests is broken by design."
+
+That other developers want to see tests in your software before they take it
+seriously is yet another reason for you to start writing tests.
+
+Tests help teams work together
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The previous points are written from the point of view of a single developer
+maintaining an application. Complex applications will be maintained by teams.
+Tests guarantee that colleagues don't inadvertently break your code (and that
+you don't break theirs without knowing). If you want to make a living as a
+Django programmer, you must be good at writing tests!
+
+Basic testing strategies
+========================
+
+There are many ways to approach writing tests.
+
+Some programmers follow a discipline called "`test-driven development`_"; they
+actually write their tests before they write their code. This might seem
+counter-intuitive, but in fact it's similar to what most people will often do
+anyway: they describe a problem, then create some code to solve it. Test-driven
+development simply formalizes the problem in a Python test case.
+
+More often, a newcomer to testing will create some code and later decide that
+it should have some tests. Perhaps it would have been better to write some
+tests earlier, but it's never too late to get started.
+
+Sometimes it's difficult to figure out where to get started with writing tests.
+If you have written several thousand lines of Python, choosing something to
+test might not be easy. In such a case, it's fruitful to write your first test
+the next time you make a change, either when you add a new feature or fix a bug.
+
+So let's do that right away.
+
+.. _test-driven development: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test-driven_development/
+
+Writing our first test
+======================
+
+We identify a bug
+-----------------
+
+Fortunately, there's a little bug in the ``polls`` application for us to fix
+right away: the ``Poll.was_published_recently()`` method returns ``True`` if
+the ``Poll`` was published within the last day (which is correct) but also if
+the ``Poll``'s ``pub_date`` field is in the future (which certainly isn't).
+
+You can see this in the Admin; create a poll whose date lies in the future;
+you'll see that the ``Poll`` change list claims it was published recently.
+
+You can also see this using the shell::
+
+ >>> import datetime
+ >>> from django.utils import timezone
+ >>> from polls.models import Poll
+ >>> # create a Poll instance with pub_date 30 days in the future
+ >>> future_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30))
+ >>> # was it published recently?
+ >>> future_poll.was_published_recently()
+ True
+
+Since things in the future are not 'recent', this is clearly wrong.
+
+Create a test to expose the bug
+-------------------------------
+
+What we've just done in the shell to test for the problem is exactly what we
+can do in an automated test, so let's turn that into an automated test.
+
+The best place for an application's tests is in the application's ``tests.py``
+file - the testing system will look there for tests automatically.
+
+Put the following in the ``tests.py`` file in the ``polls`` application (you'll
+notice ``tests.py`` contains some dummy tests, you can remove those)::
+
+ import datetime
+
+ from django.utils import timezone
+ from django.test import TestCase
+
+ from polls.models import Poll
+
+ class PollMethodTests(TestCase):
+
+ def test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll(self):
+ """
+ was_published_recently() should return False for polls whose
+ pub_date is in the future
+ """
+ future_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30))
+ self.assertEqual(future_poll.was_published_recently(), False)
+
+What we have done here is created a :class:`django.test.TestCase` subclass
+with a method that creates a ``Poll`` instance with a ``pub_date`` in the
+future. We then check the output of ``was_published_recently()`` - which
+*ought* to be False.
+
+Running tests
+-------------
+
+In the terminal, we can run our test::
+
+ python manage.py test polls
+
+and you'll see something like::
+
+ Creating test database for alias 'default'...
+ F
+ ======================================================================
+ FAIL: test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll (polls.tests.PollMethodTests)
+ ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Traceback (most recent call last):
+ File "/path/to/mysite/polls/tests.py", line 16, in test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll
+ self.assertEqual(future_poll.was_published_recently(), False)
+ AssertionError: True != False
+
+ ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Ran 1 test in 0.001s
+
+ FAILED (failures=1)
+ Destroying test database for alias 'default'...
+
+What happened is this:
+
+* ``python manage.py test polls`` looked for tests in the ``polls`` application
+
+* it found a subclass of the :class:`django.test.TestCase` class
+
+* it created a special database for the purpose of testing
+
+* it looked for test methods - ones whose names begin with ``test``
+
+* in ``test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll`` it created a ``Poll``
+ instance whose ``pub_date`` field is 30 days in the future
+
+* ... and using the ``assertEqual()`` method, it discovered that its
+ ``was_published_recently()`` returns ``True``, though we wanted it to return
+ ``False``
+
+The test informs us which test failed and even the line on which the failure
+occurred.
+
+Fixing the bug
+--------------
+
+We already know what the problem is: ``Poll.was_published_recently()`` should
+return ``False`` if its ``pub_date`` is in the future. Amend the method in
+``models.py``, so that it will only return ``True`` if the date is also in the
+past::
+
+ def was_published_recently(self):
+ now = timezone.now()
+ return now - datetime.timedelta(days=1) <= self.pub_date < now
+
+and run the test again::
+
+ Creating test database for alias 'default'...
+ .
+ ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Ran 1 test in 0.001s
+
+ OK
+ Destroying test database for alias 'default'...
+
+After identifying a bug, we wrote a test that exposes it and corrected the bug
+in the code so our test passes.
+
+Many other things might go wrong with our application in the future, but we can
+be sure that we won't inadvertently reintroduce this bug, because simply
+running the test will warn us immediately. We can consider this little portion
+of the application pinned down safely forever.
+
+More comprehensive tests
+------------------------
+
+While we're here, we can further pin down the ``was_published_recently()``
+method; in fact, it would be positively embarrassing if in fixing one bug we had
+introduced another.
+
+Add two more test methods to the same class, to test the behavior of the method
+more comprehensively::
+
+ def test_was_published_recently_with_old_poll(self):
+ """
+ was_published_recently() should return False for polls whose pub_date
+ is older than 1 day
+ """
+ old_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(days=30))
+ self.assertEqual(old_poll.was_published_recently(), False)
+
+ def test_was_published_recently_with_recent_poll(self):
+ """
+ was_published_recently() should return True for polls whose pub_date
+ is within the last day
+ """
+ recent_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(hours=1))
+ self.assertEqual(recent_poll.was_published_recently(), True)
+
+And now we have three tests that confirm that ``Poll.was_published_recently()``
+returns sensible values for past, recent, and future polls.
+
+Again, ``polls`` is a simple application, but however complex it grows in the
+future and whatever other code it interacts with, we now have some guarantee
+that the method we have written tests for will behave in expected ways.
+
+Test a view
+===========
+
+The polls application is fairly undiscriminating: it will publish any poll,
+including ones whose ``pub_date`` field lies in the future. We should improve
+this. Setting a ``pub_date`` in the future should mean that the Poll is
+published at that moment, but invisible until then.
+
+A test for a view
+-----------------
+
+When we fixed the bug above, we wrote the test first and then the code to fix
+it. In fact that was a simple example of test-driven development, but it
+doesn't really matter in which order we do the work.
+
+In our first test, we focused closely on the internal behavior of the code. For
+this test, we want to check its behavior as it would be experienced by a user
+through a web browser.
+
+Before we try to fix anything, let's have a look at the tools at our disposal.
+
+The Django test client
+----------------------
+
+Django provides a test :class:`~django.test.client.Client` to simulate a user
+interacting with the code at the view level. We can use it in ``tests.py``
+or even in the shell.
+
+We will start again with the shell, where we need to do a couple of things that
+won't be necessary in ``tests.py``. The first is to set up the test environment
+in the shell::
+
+ >>> from django.test.utils import setup_test_environment
+ >>> setup_test_environment()
+
+Next we need to import the test client class (later in ``tests.py`` we will use
+the :class:`django.test.TestCase` class, which comes with its own client, so
+this won't be required)::
+
+ >>> from django.test.client import Client
+ >>> # create an instance of the client for our use
+ >>> client = Client()
+
+With that ready, we can ask the client to do some work for us::
+
+ >>> # get a response from '/'
+ >>> response = client.get('/')
+ >>> # we should expect a 404 from that address
+ >>> response.status_code
+ 404
+ >>> # on the other hand we should expect to find something at '/polls/'
+ >>> # we'll use 'reverse()' rather than a harcoded URL
+ >>> from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
+ >>> response = client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
+ >>> response.status_code
+ 200
+ >>> response.content
+ '\n\n\n <p>No polls are available.</p>\n\n'
+ >>> # note - you might get unexpected results if your ``TIME_ZONE``
+ >>> # in ``settings.py`` is not correct. If you need to change it,
+ >>> # you will also need to restart your shell session
+ >>> from polls.models import Poll
+ >>> from django.utils import timezone
+ >>> # create a Poll and save it
+ >>> p = Poll(question="Who is your favorite Beatle?", pub_date=timezone.now())
+ >>> p.save()
+ >>> # check the response once again
+ >>> response = client.get('/polls/')
+ >>> response.content
+ '\n\n\n <ul>\n \n <li><a href="/polls/1/">Who is your favorite Beatle?</a></li>\n \n </ul>\n\n'
+ >>> response.context['latest_poll_list']
+ [<Poll: Who is your favorite Beatle?>]
+
+Improving our view
+------------------
+
+The list of polls shows polls that aren't published yet (i.e. those that have a
+``pub_date`` in the future). Let's fix that.
+
+In :doc:`Tutorial 4 </intro/tutorial04>` we deleted the view functions from
+``views.py`` in favor of a :class:`~django.views.generic.list.ListView` in
+``urls.py``::
+
+ url(r'^$',
+ ListView.as_view(
+ queryset=Poll.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5],
+ context_object_name='latest_poll_list',
+ template_name='polls/index.html'),
+ name='index'),
+
+``response.context_data['latest_poll_list']`` extracts the data this view
+places into the context.
+
+We need to amend the line that gives us the ``queryset``::
+
+ queryset=Poll.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5],
+
+Let's change the queryset so that it also checks the date by comparing it with
+``timezone.now()``. First we need to add an import::
+
+ from django.utils import timezone
+
+and then we must amend the existing ``url`` function to::
+
+ url(r'^$',
+ ListView.as_view(
+ queryset=Poll.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now) \
+ .order_by('-pub_date')[:5],
+ context_object_name='latest_poll_list',
+ template_name='polls/index.html'),
+ name='index'),
+
+``Poll.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now)`` returns a queryset
+containing Polls whose ``pub_date`` is less than or equal to - that is, earlier
+than or equal to - ``timezone.now``. Notice that we use a callable queryset
+argument, ``timezone.now``, which will be evaluated at request time. If we had
+included the parentheses, ``timezone.now()`` would be evaluated just once when
+the web server is started.
+
+Testing our new view
+--------------------
+
+Now you can satisfy yourself that this behaves as expected by firing up the
+runserver, loading the site in your browser, creating ``Polls`` with dates in
+the past and future, and checking that only those that have been published are
+listed. You don't want to have to do that *every single time you make any
+change that might affect this* - so let's also create a test, based on our
+shell session above.
+
+Add the following to ``polls/tests.py``::
+
+ from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
+
+and we'll create a factory method to create polls as well as a new test class::
+
+ def create_poll(question, days):
+ """
+ Creates a poll with the given `question` published the given number of
+ `days` offset to now (negative for polls published in the past,
+ positive for polls that have yet to be published).
+ """
+ return Poll.objects.create(question=question,
+ pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=days))
+
+ class PollViewTests(TestCase):
+ def test_index_view_with_no_polls(self):
+ """
+ If no polls exist, an appropriate message should be displayed.
+ """
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
+ self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 200)
+ self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.")
+ self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_poll_list'], [])
+
+ def test_index_view_with_a_past_poll(self):
+ """
+ Polls with a pub_date in the past should be displayed on the index page.
+ """
+ create_poll(question="Past poll.", days=-30)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
+ self.assertQuerysetEqual(
+ response.context['latest_poll_list'],
+ ['<Poll: Past poll.>']
+ )
+
+ def test_index_view_with_a_future_poll(self):
+ """
+ Polls with a pub_date in the future should not be displayed on the
+ index page.
+ """
+ create_poll(question="Future poll.", days=30)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
+ self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.", status_code=200)
+ self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_poll_list'], [])
+
+ def test_index_view_with_future_poll_and_past_poll(self):
+ """
+ Even if both past and future polls exist, only past polls should be
+ displayed.
+ """
+ create_poll(question="Past poll.", days=-30)
+ create_poll(question="Future poll.", days=30)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
+ self.assertQuerysetEqual(
+ response.context['latest_poll_list'],
+ ['<Poll: Past poll.>']
+ )
+
+ def test_index_view_with_two_past_polls(self):
+ """
+ The polls index page may display multiple polls.
+ """
+ create_poll(question="Past poll 1.", days=-30)
+ create_poll(question="Past poll 2.", days=-5)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
+ self.assertQuerysetEqual(
+ response.context['latest_poll_list'],
+ ['<Poll: Past poll 2.>', '<Poll: Past poll 1.>']
+ )
+
+Let's look at some of these more closely.
+
+First is a poll factory method, ``create_poll``, to take some repetition out
+of the process of creating polls.
+
+``test_index_view_with_no_polls`` doesn't create any polls, but checks the
+message: "No polls are available." and verifies the ``latest_poll_list`` is
+empty. Note that the :class:`django.test.TestCase` class provides some
+additional assertion methods. In these examples, we use
+:meth:`~django.test.TestCase.assertContains()` and
+:meth:`~django.test.TestCase.assertQuerysetEqual()`.
+
+In ``test_index_view_with_a_past_poll``, we create a poll and verify that it
+appears in the list.
+
+In ``test_index_view_with_a_future_poll``, we create a poll with a ``pub_date``
+in the future. The database is reset for each test method, so the first poll is
+no longer there, and so again the index shouldn't have any polls in it.
+
+And so on. In effect, we are using the tests to tell a story of admin input
+and user experience on the site, and checking that at every state and for every
+new change in the state of the system, the expected results are published.
+
+Testing the ``DetailView``
+--------------------------
+
+What we have works well; however, even though future polls don't appear in the
+*index*, users can still reach them if they know or guess the right URL. So we
+need similar constraints in the ``DetailViews``, by adding::
+
+ queryset=Poll.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now)
+
+to them - for example::
+
+ url(r'^(?P<pk>\d+)/$',
+ DetailView.as_view(
+ queryset=Poll.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now),
+ model=Poll,
+ template_name='polls/detail.html'),
+ name='detail'),
+
+and of course, we will add some tests, to check that a ``Poll`` whose
+``pub_date`` is in the past can be displayed, and that one with a ``pub_date``
+in the future is not::
+
+ class PollIndexDetailTests(TestCase):
+ def test_detail_view_with_a_future_poll(self):
+ """
+ The detail view of a poll with a pub_date in the future should
+ return a 404 not found.
+ """
+ future_poll = create_poll(question='Future poll.', days=5)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:detail', args=(future_poll.id,)))
+ self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 404)
+
+ def test_detail_view_with_a_past_poll(self):
+ """
+ The detail view of a poll with a pub_date in the past should display
+ the poll's question.
+ """
+ past_poll = create_poll(question='Past Poll.', days=-5)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:detail', args=(past_poll.id,)))
+ self.assertContains(response, past_poll.question, status_code=200)
+
+Ideas for more tests
+--------------------
+
+We ought to add similar ``queryset`` arguments to the other ``DetailView``
+URLs, and create a new test class for each view. They'll be very similar to
+what we have just created; in fact there will be a lot of repetition.
+
+We could also improve our application in other ways, adding tests along the
+way. For example, it's silly that ``Polls`` can be published on the site that
+have no ``Choices``. So, our views could check for this, and exclude such
+``Polls``. Our tests would create a ``Poll`` without ``Choices`` and then test
+that it's not published, as well as create a similar ``Poll`` *with*
+``Choices``, and test that it *is* published.
+
+Perhaps logged-in admin users should be allowed to see unpublished ``Polls``,
+but not ordinary visitors. Again: whatever needs to be added to the software to
+accomplish this should be accompanied by a test, whether you write the test
+first and then make the code pass the test, or work out the logic in your code
+first and then write a test to prove it.
+
+At a certain point you are bound to look at your tests and wonder whether your
+code is suffering from test bloat, which brings us to:
+
+When testing, more is better
+============================
+
+It might seem that our tests are growing out of control. At this rate there will
+soon be more code in our tests than in our application, and the repetition
+is unaesthetic, compared to the elegant conciseness of the rest of our code.
+
+**It doesn't matter**. Let them grow. For the most part, you can write a test
+once and then forget about it. It will continue performing its useful function
+as you continue to develop your program.
+
+Sometimes tests will need to be updated. Suppose that we amend our views so that
+only ``Polls`` with ``Choices`` are published. In that case, many of our
+existing tests will fail - *telling us exactly which tests need to be amended to
+bring them up to date*, so to that extent tests help look after themselves.
+
+At worst, as you continue developing, you might find that you have some tests
+that are now redundant. Even that's not a problem; in testing redundancy is
+a *good* thing.
+
+As long as your tests are sensibly arranged, they won't become unmanageable.
+Good rules-of-thumb include having:
+
+* a separate ``TestClass`` for each model or view
+* a separate test method for each set of conditions you want to test
+* test method names that describe their function
+
+Further testing
+===============
+
+This tutorial only introduces some of the basics of testing. There's a great
+deal more you can do, and a number of very useful tools at your disposal to
+achieve some very clever things.
+
+For example, while our tests here have covered some of the internal logic of a
+model and the way our views publish information, you can use an "in-browser"
+framework such as Selenium_ to test the way your HTML actually renders in a
+browser. These tools allow you to check not just the behavior of your Django
+code, but also, for example, of your JavaScript. It's quite something to see
+the tests launch a browser, and start interacting with your site, as if a human
+being were driving it! Django includes :class:`~django.test.LiveServerTestCase`
+to facilitate integration with tools like Selenium.
+
+If you have a complex application, you may want to run tests automatically
+with every commit for the purposes of `continuous integration`_, so that
+quality control is itself - at least partially - automated.
+
+A good way to spot untested parts of your application is to check code
+coverage. This also helps identify fragile or even dead code. If you can't test
+a piece of code, it usually means that code should be refactored or removed.
+Coverage will help to identify dead code. See
+:ref:`topics-testing-code-coverage` for details.
+
+:doc:`Testing Django applications </topics/testing>` has comprehensive
+information about testing.
+
+.. _Selenium: http://seleniumhq.org/
+.. _continuous integration: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuous_integration
+
+What's next?
+============
+
+The beginner tutorial ends here for the time being. In the meantime, you might
+want to check out some pointers on :doc:`where to go from here
+</intro/whatsnext>`.
+
+If you are familiar with Python packaging and interested in learning how to
+turn polls into a "reusable app", check out :doc:`Advanced tutorial: How to
+write reusable apps</intro/reusable-apps>`.
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