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Fixed #7210 -- Added F() expressions to query language. See the docum…

…entation for details on usage.

Many thanks to:
    * Nicolas Lara, who worked on this feature during the 2008 Google Summer of Code.
    * Alex Gaynor for his help debugging and fixing a number of issues.
    * Malcolm Tredinnick for his invaluable review notes.

git-svn-id: http://code.djangoproject.com/svn/django/trunk@9792 bcc190cf-cafb-0310-a4f2-bffc1f526a37
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commit cf37e4624a967f936ecbb5a4eefc9d38ed9d7892 1 parent 08dd417
@freakboy3742 freakboy3742 authored
View
1  django/db/models/__init__.py
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
from django.db import connection
from django.db.models.loading import get_apps, get_app, get_models, get_model, register_models
from django.db.models.query import Q
+from django.db.models.expressions import F
from django.db.models.manager import Manager
from django.db.models.base import Model
from django.db.models.aggregates import *
View
110 django/db/models/expressions.py
@@ -0,0 +1,110 @@
+from copy import deepcopy
+from datetime import datetime
+
+from django.utils import tree
+
+class ExpressionNode(tree.Node):
+ """
+ Base class for all query expressions.
+ """
+ # Arithmetic connectors
+ ADD = '+'
+ SUB = '-'
+ MUL = '*'
+ DIV = '/'
+ MOD = '%%' # This is a quoted % operator - it is quoted
+ # because it can be used in strings that also
+ # have parameter substitution.
+
+ # Bitwise operators
+ AND = '&'
+ OR = '|'
+
+ def __init__(self, children=None, connector=None, negated=False):
+ if children is not None and len(children) > 1 and connector is None:
+ raise TypeError('You have to specify a connector.')
+ super(ExpressionNode, self).__init__(children, connector, negated)
+
+ def _combine(self, other, connector, reversed, node=None):
+ if reversed:
+ obj = ExpressionNode([other], connector)
+ obj.add(node or self, connector)
+ else:
+ obj = node or ExpressionNode([self], connector)
+ obj.add(other, connector)
+ return obj
+
+ ###################
+ # VISITOR METHODS #
+ ###################
+
+ def prepare(self, evaluator, query, allow_joins):
+ return evaluator.prepare_node(self, query, allow_joins)
+
+ def evaluate(self, evaluator, qn):
+ return evaluator.evaluate_node(self, qn)
+
+ #############
+ # OPERATORS #
+ #############
+
+ def __add__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.ADD, False)
+
+ def __sub__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.SUB, False)
+
+ def __mul__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.MUL, False)
+
+ def __div__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.DIV, False)
+
+ def __mod__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.MOD, False)
+
+ def __and__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.AND, False)
+
+ def __or__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.OR, False)
+
+ def __radd__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.ADD, True)
+
+ def __rsub__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.SUB, True)
+
+ def __rmul__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.MUL, True)
+
+ def __rdiv__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.DIV, True)
+
+ def __rmod__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.MOD, True)
+
+ def __rand__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.AND, True)
+
+ def __ror__(self, other):
+ return self._combine(other, self.OR, True)
+
+class F(ExpressionNode):
+ """
+ An expression representing the value of the given field.
+ """
+ def __init__(self, name):
+ super(F, self).__init__(None, None, False)
+ self.name = name
+
+ def __deepcopy__(self, memodict):
+ obj = super(F, self).__deepcopy__(memodict)
+ obj.name = self.name
+ return obj
+
+ def prepare(self, evaluator, query, allow_joins):
+ return evaluator.prepare_leaf(self, query, allow_joins)
+
+ def evaluate(self, evaluator, qn):
+ return evaluator.evaluate_leaf(self, qn)
View
7 django/db/models/fields/__init__.py
@@ -194,8 +194,13 @@ def get_db_prep_save(self, value):
def get_db_prep_lookup(self, lookup_type, value):
"Returns field's value prepared for database lookup."
if hasattr(value, 'as_sql'):
+ # If the value has a relabel_aliases method, it will need to
+ # be invoked before the final SQL is evaluated
+ if hasattr(value, 'relabel_aliases'):
+ return value
sql, params = value.as_sql()
return QueryWrapper(('(%s)' % sql), params)
+
if lookup_type in ('regex', 'iregex', 'month', 'day', 'search'):
return [value]
elif lookup_type in ('exact', 'gt', 'gte', 'lt', 'lte'):
@@ -309,7 +314,7 @@ def formfield(self, form_class=forms.CharField, **kwargs):
if callable(self.default):
defaults['show_hidden_initial'] = True
if self.choices:
- # Fields with choices get special treatment.
+ # Fields with choices get special treatment.
include_blank = self.blank or not (self.has_default() or 'initial' in kwargs)
defaults['choices'] = self.get_choices(include_blank=include_blank)
defaults['coerce'] = self.to_python
View
4 django/db/models/fields/related.py
@@ -141,6 +141,10 @@ def pk_trace(value):
return v
if hasattr(value, 'as_sql'):
+ # If the value has a relabel_aliases method, it will need to
+ # be invoked before the final SQL is evaluated
+ if hasattr(value, 'relabel_aliases'):
+ return value
sql, params = value.as_sql()
return QueryWrapper(('(%s)' % sql), params)
View
3  django/db/models/query_utils.py
@@ -17,6 +17,9 @@ class QueryWrapper(object):
def __init__(self, sql, params):
self.data = sql, params
+ def as_sql(self, qn=None):
+ return self.data
+
class Q(tree.Node):
"""
Encapsulates filters as objects that can then be combined logically (using
View
92 django/db/models/sql/expressions.py
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+from django.core.exceptions import FieldError
+from django.db import connection
+from django.db.models.fields import FieldDoesNotExist
+from django.db.models.sql.constants import LOOKUP_SEP
+
+class SQLEvaluator(object):
+ def __init__(self, expression, query, allow_joins=True):
+ self.expression = expression
+ self.opts = query.get_meta()
+ self.cols = {}
+
+ self.contains_aggregate = False
+ self.expression.prepare(self, query, allow_joins)
+
+ def as_sql(self, qn=None):
+ return self.expression.evaluate(self, qn)
+
+ def relabel_aliases(self, change_map):
+ for node, col in self.cols.items():
+ self.cols[node] = (change_map.get(col[0], col[0]), col[1])
+
+ #####################################################
+ # Vistor methods for initial expression preparation #
+ #####################################################
+
+ def prepare_node(self, node, query, allow_joins):
+ for child in node.children:
+ if hasattr(child, 'prepare'):
+ child.prepare(self, query, allow_joins)
+
+ def prepare_leaf(self, node, query, allow_joins):
+ if not allow_joins and LOOKUP_SEP in node.name:
+ raise FieldError("Joined field references are not permitted in this query")
+
+ field_list = node.name.split(LOOKUP_SEP)
+ if (len(field_list) == 1 and
+ node.name in query.aggregate_select.keys()):
+ self.contains_aggregate = True
+ self.cols[node] = query.aggregate_select[node.name]
+ else:
+ try:
+ field, source, opts, join_list, last, _ = query.setup_joins(
+ field_list, query.get_meta(),
+ query.get_initial_alias(), False)
+ _, _, col, _, join_list = query.trim_joins(source, join_list, last, False)
+
+ self.cols[node] = (join_list[-1], col)
+ except FieldDoesNotExist:
+ raise FieldError("Cannot resolve keyword %r into field. "
+ "Choices are: %s" % (self.name,
+ [f.name for f in self.opts.fields]))
+
+ ##################################################
+ # Vistor methods for final expression evaluation #
+ ##################################################
+
+ def evaluate_node(self, node, qn):
+ if not qn:
+ qn = connection.ops.quote_name
+
+ expressions = []
+ expression_params = []
+ for child in node.children:
+ if hasattr(child, 'evaluate'):
+ sql, params = child.evaluate(self, qn)
+ else:
+ try:
+ sql, params = qn(child), ()
+ except:
+ sql, params = str(child), ()
+
+ if hasattr(child, 'children') > 1:
+ format = '(%s)'
+ else:
+ format = '%s'
+
+ if sql:
+ expressions.append(format % sql)
+ expression_params.extend(params)
+ conn = ' %s ' % node.connector
+
+ return conn.join(expressions), expression_params
+
+ def evaluate_leaf(self, node, qn):
+ if not qn:
+ qn = connection.ops.quote_name
+
+ col = self.cols[node]
+ if hasattr(col, 'as_sql'):
+ return col.as_sql(qn), ()
+ else:
+ return '%s.%s' % (qn(col[0]), qn(col[1])), ()
View
18 django/db/models/sql/query.py
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@
from django.db.models.fields import FieldDoesNotExist
from django.db.models.query_utils import select_related_descend
from django.db.models.sql import aggregates as base_aggregates_module
+from django.db.models.sql.expressions import SQLEvaluator
from django.db.models.sql.where import WhereNode, Constraint, EverythingNode, AND, OR
from django.core.exceptions import FieldError
from datastructures import EmptyResultSet, Empty, MultiJoin
@@ -1271,6 +1272,10 @@ def add_filter(self, filter_expr, connector=AND, negate=False, trim=False,
else:
lookup_type = parts.pop()
+ # By default, this is a WHERE clause. If an aggregate is referenced
+ # in the value, the filter will be promoted to a HAVING
+ having_clause = False
+
# Interpret '__exact=None' as the sql 'is NULL'; otherwise, reject all
# uses of None as a query value.
if value is None:
@@ -1284,6 +1289,10 @@ def add_filter(self, filter_expr, connector=AND, negate=False, trim=False,
value = True
elif callable(value):
value = value()
+ elif hasattr(value, 'evaluate'):
+ # If value is a query expression, evaluate it
+ value = SQLEvaluator(value, self)
+ having_clause = value.contains_aggregate
for alias, aggregate in self.aggregate_select.items():
if alias == parts[0]:
@@ -1340,8 +1349,13 @@ def add_filter(self, filter_expr, connector=AND, negate=False, trim=False,
self.promote_alias_chain(join_it, join_promote)
self.promote_alias_chain(table_it, table_promote)
- self.where.add((Constraint(alias, col, field), lookup_type, value),
- connector)
+
+ if having_clause:
+ self.having.add((Constraint(alias, col, field), lookup_type, value),
+ connector)
+ else:
+ self.where.add((Constraint(alias, col, field), lookup_type, value),
+ connector)
if negate:
self.promote_alias_chain(join_list)
View
9 django/db/models/sql/subqueries.py
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
from django.core.exceptions import FieldError
from django.db.models.sql.constants import *
from django.db.models.sql.datastructures import Date
+from django.db.models.sql.expressions import SQLEvaluator
from django.db.models.sql.query import Query
from django.db.models.sql.where import AND, Constraint
@@ -136,7 +137,11 @@ def as_sql(self):
result.append('SET')
values, update_params = [], []
for name, val, placeholder in self.values:
- if val is not None:
+ if hasattr(val, 'as_sql'):
+ sql, params = val.as_sql(qn)
+ values.append('%s = %s' % (qn(name), sql))
+ update_params.extend(params)
+ elif val is not None:
values.append('%s = %s' % (qn(name), placeholder))
update_params.append(val)
else:
@@ -251,6 +256,8 @@ def add_update_fields(self, values_seq):
else:
placeholder = '%s'
+ if hasattr(val, 'evaluate'):
+ val = SQLEvaluator(val, self, allow_joins=False)
if model:
self.add_related_update(model, field.column, val, placeholder)
else:
View
10 django/db/models/sql/where.py
@@ -97,6 +97,7 @@ def as_sql(self, qn=None):
else:
# A leaf node in the tree.
sql, params = self.make_atom(child, qn)
+
except EmptyResultSet:
if self.connector == AND and not self.negated:
# We can bail out early in this particular case (only).
@@ -114,6 +115,7 @@ def as_sql(self, qn=None):
if self.negated:
empty = True
continue
+
empty = False
if sql:
result.append(sql)
@@ -151,8 +153,9 @@ def make_atom(self, child, qn):
else:
cast_sql = '%s'
- if isinstance(params, QueryWrapper):
- extra, params = params.data
+ if hasattr(params, 'as_sql'):
+ extra, params = params.as_sql(qn)
+ cast_sql = ''
else:
extra = ''
@@ -214,6 +217,9 @@ def relabel_aliases(self, change_map, node=None):
if elt[0] in change_map:
elt[0] = change_map[elt[0]]
node.children[pos] = (tuple(elt),) + child[1:]
+ # Check if the query value also requires relabelling
+ if hasattr(child[3], 'relabel_aliases'):
+ child[3].relabel_aliases(change_map)
class EverythingNode(object):
"""
View
59 docs/ref/databases.txt
@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ table (usually called ``django_session`` and the table
Connecting to the database
--------------------------
-Refer to the :ref:`settings documentation <ref-settings>`.
+Refer to the :ref:`settings documentation <ref-settings>`.
Connection settings are used in this order:
@@ -262,9 +262,9 @@ of whether ``unique=True`` is specified or not.
.. _sqlite-notes:
-SQLite notes
-============
-
+SQLite notes
+============
+
SQLite_ provides an excellent development alternative for applications that
are predominantly read-only or require a smaller installation footprint. As
with all database servers, though, there are some differences that are
@@ -294,21 +294,21 @@ the ``extra()`` QuerySet method. The bug can be identified by the error message
``OperationalError: ORDER BY terms must not be non-integer constants``. The
problem can be solved updating SQLite to version 3.3.6 or newer, possibly also
updating the ``pysqlite2`` Python module in the process.
-
-.. _contain a bug: http://www.sqlite.org/cvstrac/tktview?tn=1768
-
-This has a very low impact because 3.3.6 was released in April 2006, so most
-current binary distributions for different platforms include newer version of
-SQLite usable from Python through either the ``pysqlite2`` or the ``sqlite3``
-modules.
-
-However, in the case of Windows, the official binary distribution of the stable
-release of Python 2.5 (2.5.2, as of this writing) includes SQLite 3.3.4, so the bug can
-make itself evident in that platform. There are (as of Django 1.0) even three
-tests in the Django test suite that will fail when run under this setup. As
-described above, this can be solved by downloading and installing a newer
-version of ``pysqlite2`` (``pysqlite-2.x.x.win32-py2.5.exe``) that includes and
-uses a newer version of SQLite. Python 2.6 ships with a newer version of
+
+.. _contain a bug: http://www.sqlite.org/cvstrac/tktview?tn=1768
+
+This has a very low impact because 3.3.6 was released in April 2006, so most
+current binary distributions for different platforms include newer version of
+SQLite usable from Python through either the ``pysqlite2`` or the ``sqlite3``
+modules.
+
+However, in the case of Windows, the official binary distribution of the stable
+release of Python 2.5 (2.5.2, as of this writing) includes SQLite 3.3.4, so the bug can
+make itself evident in that platform. There are (as of Django 1.0) even three
+tests in the Django test suite that will fail when run under this setup. As
+described above, this can be solved by downloading and installing a newer
+version of ``pysqlite2`` (``pysqlite-2.x.x.win32-py2.5.exe``) that includes and
+uses a newer version of SQLite. Python 2.6 ships with a newer version of
SQLite and is not affected by this issue.
If you are in such platform and find yourself in the need to update
@@ -317,6 +317,23 @@ If you are in such platform and find yourself in the need to update
attempts to import ``pysqlite2`` before than ``sqlite3`` and so it can take
advantage of the new ``pysqlite2``/SQLite versions.
+Version 3.5.9
+-------------
+
+The Ubuntu "Intrepid Ibex" SQLite 3.5.9-3 package contains a bug that causes
+problems with the evaluation of query expressions. If you are using Ubuntu
+"Intrepid Ibex", you will need to find an alternate source for SQLite
+packages, or install SQLite from source.
+
+At one time, Debian Lenny shipped with the same malfunctioning SQLite 3.5.9-3
+package. However the Debian project has subsequently issued updated versions
+of the SQLite package that correct these bugs. If you find you are getting
+unexpected results under Debian, ensure you have updated your SQLite package
+to 3.5.9-5 or later.
+
+The problem does not appear to exist with other versions of SQLite packaged
+with other operating systems.
+
Version 3.6.2
--------------
@@ -348,14 +365,14 @@ database user must have privileges to run the following commands:
* CREATE SEQUENCE
* CREATE PROCEDURE
* CREATE TRIGGER
-
+
To run Django's test suite, the user needs these *additional* privileges:
* CREATE USER
* DROP USER
* CREATE TABLESPACE
* DROP TABLESPACE
-
+
Connecting to the database
--------------------------
View
100 docs/topics/db/queries.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ Making queries
Once you've created your :ref:`data models <topics-db-models>`, Django
automatically gives you a database-abstraction API that lets you create,
-retrieve, update and delete objects. This document explains how to use this
-API. Refer to the :ref:`data model reference <ref-models-index>` for full
+retrieve, update and delete objects. This document explains how to use this
+API. Refer to the :ref:`data model reference <ref-models-index>` for full
details of all the various model lookup options.
Throughout this guide (and in the reference), we'll refer to the following
@@ -39,6 +39,9 @@ models, which comprise a weblog application:
body_text = models.TextField()
pub_date = models.DateTimeField()
authors = models.ManyToManyField(Author)
+ n_comments = models.IntegerField()
+ n_pingbacks = models.IntegerField()
+ rating = models.IntegerField()
def __unicode__(self):
return self.headline
@@ -94,11 +97,11 @@ Saving ``ForeignKey`` and ``ManyToManyField`` fields
----------------------------------------------------
Updating ``ForeignKey`` fields works exactly the same way as saving a normal
-field; simply assign an object of the right type to the field in question::
+field; simply assign an object of the right type to the field in question::
- >>> cheese_blog = Blog.objects.get(name="Cheddar Talk")
- >>> entry.blog = cheese_blog
- >>> entry.save()
+ >>> cheese_blog = Blog.objects.get(name="Cheddar Talk")
+ >>> entry.blog = cheese_blog
+ >>> entry.save()
Updating a ``ManyToManyField`` works a little differently; use the ``add()``
method on the field to add a record to the relation::
@@ -245,7 +248,7 @@ this example::
>>> q = q.filter(pub_date__lte=datetime.now())
>>> q = q.exclude(body_text__icontains="food")
>>> print q
-
+
Though this looks like three database hits, in fact it hits the database only
once, at the last line (``print q``). In general, the results of a ``QuerySet``
aren't fetched from the database until you "ask" for them. When you do, the
@@ -333,15 +336,15 @@ you'll probably use:
:lookup:`exact`
An "exact" match. For example::
-
+
>>> Entry.objects.get(headline__exact="Man bites dog")
Would generate SQL along these lines:
-
+
.. code-block:: sql
SELECT ... WHERE headline = 'Man bites dog';
-
+
If you don't provide a lookup type -- that is, if your keyword argument
doesn't contain a double underscore -- the lookup type is assumed to be
``exact``.
@@ -352,36 +355,36 @@ you'll probably use:
>>> Blog.objects.get(id=14) # __exact is implied
This is for convenience, because ``exact`` lookups are the common case.
-
+
:lookup:`iexact`
A case-insensitive match. So, the query::
-
+
>>> Blog.objects.get(name__iexact="beatles blog")
-
+
Would match a ``Blog`` titled "Beatles Blog", "beatles blog", or even
"BeAtlES blOG".
-
+
:lookup:`contains`
Case-sensitive containment test. For example::
Entry.objects.get(headline__contains='Lennon')
Roughly translates to this SQL:
-
+
.. code-block:: sql
SELECT ... WHERE headline LIKE '%Lennon%';
Note this will match the headline ``'Today Lennon honored'`` but not
``'today lennon honored'``.
-
+
There's also a case-insensitive version, :lookup:`icontains`.
-
+
:lookup:`startswith`, :lookup:`endswith`
Starts-with and ends-with search, respectively. There are also
case-insensitive versions called :lookup:`istartswith` and
:lookup:`iendswith`.
-
+
Again, this only scratches the surface. A complete reference can be found in the
:ref:`field lookup reference <field-lookups>`.
@@ -485,6 +488,48 @@ are talking about the same multi-valued relation). Conditions in subsequent
``filter()`` or ``exclude()`` calls that refer to the same relation may end up
filtering on different linked objects.
+.. _query-expressions:
+
+Filters can reference fields on the model
+-----------------------------------------
+
+.. versionadded:: 1.1
+
+In the examples given so far, we have constructed filters that compare
+the value of a model field with a constant. But what if you want to compare
+the value of a model field with another field on the same model?
+
+Django provides the ``F()`` object to allow such comparisons. Instances
+of ``F()`` act as a reference to a model field within a query. These
+references can then be used in query filters to compare the values of two
+different fields on the same model instance.
+
+For example, to find a list of all blog entries that have had more comments
+than pingbacks, we construct an ``F()`` object to reference the comment count,
+and use that ``F()`` object in the query::
+
+ >>> Entry.objects.filter(n_pingbacks__lt=F('n_comments'))
+
+Django supports the use of addition, subtraction, multiplication,
+division and modulo arithmetic with ``F()`` objects, both with constants
+and with other ``F()`` objects. To find all the blog entries with *twice* as
+many comments as pingbacks, we modify the query::
+
+ >>> Entry.objects.filter(n_pingbacks__lt=F('n_comments') * 2)
+
+To find all the entries where the sum of the pingback count and comment count
+is greater than the rating of the entry, we would issue the query::
+
+ >>> Entry.objects.filter(rating__lt=F('n_comments') + F('n_pingbacks'))
+
+You can also use the double underscore notation to span relationships in
+an ``F()`` object. An ``F()`` object with a double underscore will introduce
+any joins needed to access the related object. For example, to retrieve all
+the entries where the author's name is the same as the blog name, we could
+issue the query:
+
+ >>> Entry.objects.filter(author__name=F('blog__name'))
+
The pk lookup shortcut
----------------------
@@ -503,7 +548,7 @@ can be combined with ``pk`` to perform a query on the primary key of a model::
# Get blogs entries with id 1, 4 and 7
>>> Blog.objects.filter(pk__in=[1,4,7])
-
+
# Get all blog entries with id > 14
>>> Blog.objects.filter(pk__gt=14)
@@ -728,7 +773,7 @@ To update ``ForeignKey`` fields, set the new value to be the new model
instance you want to point to. Example::
>>> b = Blog.objects.get(pk=1)
-
+
# Change every Entry so that it belongs to this Blog.
>>> Entry.objects.all().update(blog=b)
@@ -749,6 +794,21 @@ Just loop over them and call ``save()``::
for item in my_queryset:
item.save()
+Calls to update can also use :ref:`F() objects <query-expressions>` to update
+one field based on the value of another field in the model. This is especially
+useful for incrementing counters based upon their current value. For example, to
+increment the pingback count for every entry in the blog::
+
+ >>> Entry.objects.all().update(n_pingbacks=F('n_pingbacks') + 1)
+
+However, unlike ``F()`` objects in filter and exclude clauses, you can't
+introduce joins when you use ``F()`` objects in an update -- you can only
+reference fields local to the model being updated. If you attempt to introduce
+a join with an ``F()`` object, a ``FieldError`` will be raised::
+
+ # THIS WILL RAISE A FieldError
+ >>> Entry.objects.update(headline=F('blog__name'))
+
Related objects
===============
View
0  tests/modeltests/expressions/__init__.py
No changes.
View
71 tests/modeltests/expressions/models.py
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+"""
+Tests for F() query expression syntax.
+"""
+
+from django.db import models
+
+class Employee(models.Model):
+ firstname = models.CharField(max_length=50)
+ lastname = models.CharField(max_length=50)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return u'%s %s' % (self.firstname, self.lastname)
+
+class Company(models.Model):
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ num_employees = models.PositiveIntegerField()
+ num_chairs = models.PositiveIntegerField()
+ ceo = models.ForeignKey(
+ Employee,
+ related_name='company_ceo_set')
+ point_of_contact = models.ForeignKey(
+ Employee,
+ related_name='company_point_of_contact_set',
+ null=True)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return self.name
+
+
+__test__ = {'API_TESTS': """
+>>> from django.db.models import F
+
+>>> Company(name='Example Inc.', num_employees=2300, num_chairs=5,
+... ceo=Employee.objects.create(firstname='Joe', lastname='Smith')).save()
+>>> Company(name='Foobar Ltd.', num_employees=3, num_chairs=3,
+... ceo=Employee.objects.create(firstname='Frank', lastname='Meyer')).save()
+>>> Company(name='Test GmbH', num_employees=32, num_chairs=1,
+... ceo=Employee.objects.create(firstname='Max', lastname='Mustermann')).save()
+
+# We can filter for companies where the number of employees is greater than the
+# number of chairs.
+
+>>> Company.objects.filter(num_employees__gt=F('num_chairs'))
+[<Company: Example Inc.>, <Company: Test GmbH>]
+
+# The relation of a foreign key can become copied over to an other foreign key.
+
+>>> Company.objects.update(point_of_contact=F('ceo'))
+3
+
+>>> [c.point_of_contact for c in Company.objects.all()]
+[<Employee: Joe Smith>, <Employee: Frank Meyer>, <Employee: Max Mustermann>]
+
+>>> c = Company.objects.all()[0]
+>>> c.point_of_contact = Employee.objects.create(firstname="Guido", lastname="van Rossum")
+>>> c.save()
+
+# F Expressions can also span joins
+>>> Company.objects.filter(ceo__firstname=F('point_of_contact__firstname')).distinct()
+[<Company: Foobar Ltd.>, <Company: Test GmbH>]
+
+>>> _ = Company.objects.exclude(ceo__firstname=F('point_of_contact__firstname')).update(name='foo')
+>>> Company.objects.exclude(ceo__firstname=F('point_of_contact__firstname')).get().name
+u'foo'
+
+>>> _ = Company.objects.exclude(ceo__firstname=F('point_of_contact__firstname')).update(name=F('point_of_contact__lastname'))
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+FieldError: Joined field references are not permitted in this query
+
+"""}
View
17 tests/regressiontests/aggregation_regress/models.py
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ def __unicode__(self):
#Extra does not play well with values. Modify the tests if/when this is fixed.
__test__ = {'API_TESTS': """
>>> from django.core import management
->>> from django.db.models import get_app
+>>> from django.db.models import get_app, F
# Reset the database representation of this app.
# This will return the database to a clean initial state.
@@ -164,6 +164,21 @@ def __unicode__(self):
>>> len(Book.objects.annotate(num_authors=Count('authors')).exclude(num_authors__lt=2).filter(num_authors__lt=3))
2
+# Aggregates can be used with F() expressions
+# ... where the F() is pushed into the HAVING clause
+>>> Publisher.objects.annotate(num_books=Count('book')).filter(num_books__lt=F('num_awards')/2).values('name','num_books','num_awards')
+[{'num_books': 2, 'name': u'Prentice Hall', 'num_awards': 7}, {'num_books': 1, 'name': u'Morgan Kaufmann', 'num_awards': 9}]
+
+>>> Publisher.objects.annotate(num_books=Count('book')).exclude(num_books__lt=F('num_awards')/2).values('name','num_books','num_awards')
+[{'num_books': 2, 'name': u'Apress', 'num_awards': 3}, {'num_books': 1, 'name': u'Sams', 'num_awards': 1}, {'num_books': 0, 'name': u"Jonno's House of Books", 'num_awards': 0}]
+
+# ... and where the F() references an aggregate
+>>> Publisher.objects.annotate(num_books=Count('book')).filter(num_awards__gt=2*F('num_books')).values('name','num_books','num_awards')
+[{'num_books': 2, 'name': u'Prentice Hall', 'num_awards': 7}, {'num_books': 1, 'name': u'Morgan Kaufmann', 'num_awards': 9}]
+
+>>> Publisher.objects.annotate(num_books=Count('book')).exclude(num_books__lt=F('num_awards')/2).values('name','num_books','num_awards')
+[{'num_books': 2, 'name': u'Apress', 'num_awards': 3}, {'num_books': 1, 'name': u'Sams', 'num_awards': 1}, {'num_books': 0, 'name': u"Jonno's House of Books", 'num_awards': 0}]
+
# Regression for #10089: Check handling of empty result sets with aggregates
>>> Book.objects.filter(id__in=[]).count()
0
View
0  tests/regressiontests/expressions_regress/__init__.py
No changes.
View
133 tests/regressiontests/expressions_regress/models.py
@@ -0,0 +1,133 @@
+"""
+Spanning tests for all the operations that F() expressions can perform.
+"""
+
+from django.db import models
+
+#
+# Model for testing arithmetic expressions.
+#
+
+class Number(models.Model):
+ integer = models.IntegerField()
+ float = models.FloatField(null=True)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return u'%i, %.3f' % (self.integer, self.float)
+
+
+__test__ = {'API_TESTS': """
+>>> from django.db.models import F
+
+>>> Number(integer=-1).save()
+>>> Number(integer=42).save()
+>>> Number(integer=1337).save()
+
+We can fill a value in all objects with an other value of the same object.
+
+>>> Number.objects.update(float=F('integer'))
+3
+>>> Number.objects.all()
+[<Number: -1, -1.000>, <Number: 42, 42.000>, <Number: 1337, 1337.000>]
+
+We can increment a value of all objects in a query set.
+
+>>> Number.objects.filter(integer__gt=0).update(integer=F('integer') + 1)
+2
+>>> Number.objects.all()
+[<Number: -1, -1.000>, <Number: 43, 42.000>, <Number: 1338, 1337.000>]
+
+We can filter for objects, where a value is not equals the value of an other field.
+
+>>> Number.objects.exclude(float=F('integer'))
+[<Number: 43, 42.000>, <Number: 1338, 1337.000>]
+
+Complex expressions of different connection types are possible.
+
+>>> n = Number.objects.create(integer=10, float=123.45)
+
+>>> Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(float=F('integer') + F('float') * 2)
+1
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk)
+<Number: 10, 256.900>
+
+# All supported operators work as expected.
+
+>>> n = Number.objects.create(integer=42, float=15.5)
+
+# Left hand operators
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=F('integer') + 15, float=F('float') + 42.7)
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # LH Addition of floats and integers
+<Number: 57, 58.200>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=F('integer') - 15, float=F('float') - 42.7)
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # LH Subtraction of floats and integers
+<Number: 27, -27.200>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=F('integer') * 15, float=F('float') * 42.7)
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # Multiplication of floats and integers
+<Number: 630, 661.850>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=F('integer') / 2, float=F('float') / 42.7)
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # LH Division of floats and integers
+<Number: 21, 0.363>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=F('integer') % 20)
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # LH Modulo arithmetic on integers
+<Number: 2, 15.500>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=F('integer') & 56)
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # LH Bitwise ands on integers
+<Number: 40, 15.500>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=F('integer') | 48)
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # LH Bitwise or on integers
+<Number: 58, 15.500>
+
+# Right hand operators
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=15 + F('integer'), float=42.7 + F('float'))
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # RH Addition of floats and integers
+<Number: 57, 58.200>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=15 - F('integer'), float=42.7 - F('float'))
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # RH Subtraction of floats and integers
+<Number: -27, 27.200>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=15 * F('integer'), float=42.7 * F('float'))
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # RH Multiplication of floats and integers
+<Number: 630, 661.850>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=640 / F('integer'), float=42.7 / F('float'))
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # RH Division of floats and integers
+<Number: 15, 2.755>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=69 % F('integer'))
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # RH Modulo arithmetic on integers
+<Number: 27, 15.500>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=15 & F('integer'))
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # RH Bitwise ands on integers
+<Number: 10, 15.500>
+
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=42, float=15.5)
+>>> _ = Number.objects.filter(pk=n.pk).update(integer=15 | F('integer'))
+>>> Number.objects.get(pk=n.pk) # RH Bitwise or on integers
+<Number: 47, 15.500>
+
+
+"""}
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