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Fixed #20876 -- Changed Poll model name in tutorial to Question

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commit d34b94b00fa817871939ea6c097621a3e4a87311 1 parent 55a1168
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  23. +69 −67 docs/intro/tutorial01.txt
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  27. +144 −128 docs/intro/tutorial05.txt
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136 docs/intro/tutorial01.txt
@@ -331,22 +331,24 @@ The first step in writing a database Web app in Django is to define your models
the :ref:`DRY Principle <dry>`. The goal is to define your data model in one
place and automatically derive things from it.
-In our simple poll app, we'll create two models: ``Poll`` and ``Choice``.
-A ``Poll`` has a question and a publication date. A ``Choice`` has two fields:
+In our simple poll app, we'll create two models: ``Question`` and ``Choice``.
+A ``Question`` has a question and a publication date. A ``Choice`` has two fields:
the text of the choice and a vote tally. Each ``Choice`` is associated with a
-``Poll``.
+``Question``.
These concepts are represented by simple Python classes. Edit the
:file:`polls/models.py` file so it looks like this::
from django.db import models
- class Poll(models.Model):
- question = models.CharField(max_length=200)
+
+ class Question(models.Model):
+ question_text = models.CharField(max_length=200)
pub_date = models.DateTimeField('date published')
+
class Choice(models.Model):
- poll = models.ForeignKey(Poll)
+ question = models.ForeignKey(Question)
choice_text = models.CharField(max_length=200)
votes = models.IntegerField(default=0)
@@ -359,7 +361,7 @@ class -- e.g., :class:`~django.db.models.CharField` for character fields and
:class:`~django.db.models.DateTimeField` for datetimes. This tells Django what
type of data each field holds.
-The name of each :class:`~django.db.models.Field` instance (e.g. ``question`` or
+The name of each :class:`~django.db.models.Field` instance (e.g. ``question_text`` or
``pub_date``) is the field's name, in machine-friendly format. You'll use this
value in your Python code, and your database will use it as the column name.
@@ -367,7 +369,7 @@ You can use an optional first positional argument to a
:class:`~django.db.models.Field` to designate a human-readable name. That's used
in a couple of introspective parts of Django, and it doubles as documentation.
If this field isn't provided, Django will use the machine-readable name. In this
-example, we've only defined a human-readable name for ``Poll.pub_date``. For all
+example, we've only defined a human-readable name for ``Question.pub_date``. For all
other fields in this model, the field's machine-readable name will suffice as
its human-readable name.
@@ -382,7 +384,7 @@ this case, we've set the :attr:`~django.db.models.Field.default` value of
Finally, note a relationship is defined, using
:class:`~django.db.models.ForeignKey`. That tells Django each ``Choice`` is related
-to a single ``Poll``. Django supports all the common database relationships:
+to a single ``Question``. Django supports all the common database relationships:
many-to-ones, many-to-manys and one-to-ones.
.. _`Python path`: http://docs.python.org/tutorial/modules.html#the-module-search-path
@@ -394,7 +396,7 @@ That small bit of model code gives Django a lot of information. With it, Django
is able to:
* Create a database schema (``CREATE TABLE`` statements) for this app.
-* Create a Python database-access API for accessing ``Poll`` and ``Choice`` objects.
+* Create a Python database-access API for accessing ``Question`` and ``Choice`` objects.
But first we need to tell our project that the ``polls`` app is installed.
@@ -430,14 +432,14 @@ statements for the polls app):
.. code-block:: sql
BEGIN;
- CREATE TABLE "polls_poll" (
+ CREATE TABLE "polls_question" (
"id" integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
- "question" varchar(200) NOT NULL,
+ "question_text" varchar(200) NOT NULL,
"pub_date" datetime NOT NULL
);
CREATE TABLE "polls_choice" (
"id" integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
- "poll_id" integer NOT NULL REFERENCES "polls_poll" ("id"),
+ "question_id" integer NOT NULL REFERENCES "polls_poll" ("id"),
"choice_text" varchar(200) NOT NULL,
"votes" integer NOT NULL
);
@@ -449,7 +451,7 @@ Note the following:
example above is generated for SQLite.
* Table names are automatically generated by combining the name of the app
- (``polls``) and the lowercase name of the model -- ``poll`` and
+ (``polls``) and the lowercase name of the model -- ``question`` and
``choice``. (You can override this behavior.)
* Primary keys (IDs) are added automatically. (You can override this, too.)
@@ -537,57 +539,57 @@ the Python import path to your :file:`mysite/settings.py` file.
Once you're in the shell, explore the :doc:`database API </topics/db/queries>`::
- >>> from polls.models import Poll, Choice # Import the model classes we just wrote.
+ >>> from polls.models import Question, Choice # Import the model classes we just wrote.
- # No polls are in the system yet.
- >>> Poll.objects.all()
+ # No questions are in the system yet.
+ >>> Question.objects.all()
[]
- # Create a new Poll.
+ # Create a new Question.
# Support for time zones is enabled in the default settings file, so
# Django expects a datetime with tzinfo for pub_date. Use timezone.now()
# instead of datetime.datetime.now() and it will do the right thing.
>>> from django.utils import timezone
- >>> p = Poll(question="What's new?", pub_date=timezone.now())
+ >>> q = Question(question_text="What's new?", pub_date=timezone.now())
# Save the object into the database. You have to call save() explicitly.
- >>> p.save()
+ >>> q.save()
# Now it has an ID. Note that this might say "1L" instead of "1", depending
# on which database you're using. That's no biggie; it just means your
# database backend prefers to return integers as Python long integer
# objects.
- >>> p.id
+ >>> q.id
1
# Access database columns via Python attributes.
- >>> p.question
+ >>> q.question_text
"What's new?"
- >>> p.pub_date
+ >>> q.pub_date
datetime.datetime(2012, 2, 26, 13, 0, 0, 775217, tzinfo=<UTC>)
# Change values by changing the attributes, then calling save().
- >>> p.question = "What's up?"
- >>> p.save()
+ >>> q.question_text = "What's up?"
+ >>> q.save()
- # objects.all() displays all the polls in the database.
- >>> Poll.objects.all()
- [<Poll: Poll object>]
+ # objects.all() displays all the questions in the database.
+ >>> Question.objects.all()
+ [<Question: Question object>]
-Wait a minute. ``<Poll: Poll object>`` is, utterly, an unhelpful representation
-of this object. Let's fix that by editing the polls model (in the
+Wait a minute. ``<Question: Question object>`` is, utterly, an unhelpful representation
+of this object. Let's fix that by editing the ``Question`` model (in the
``polls/models.py`` file) and adding a
-:meth:`~django.db.models.Model.__unicode__` method to both ``Poll`` and
+:meth:`~django.db.models.Model.__unicode__` method to both ``Question`` and
``Choice``. On Python 3, simply replace ``__unicode__`` by ``__str__`` in the
following example::
from django.db import models
- class Poll(models.Model):
+ class Question(models.Model):
# ...
def __unicode__(self): # Python 3: def __str__(self):
- return self.question
+ return self.question_text
class Choice(models.Model):
# ...
@@ -629,7 +631,7 @@ demonstration::
import datetime
from django.utils import timezone
# ...
- class Poll(models.Model):
+ class Question(models.Model):
# ...
def was_published_recently(self):
return self.pub_date >= timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(days=1)
@@ -643,80 +645,80 @@ the :doc:`time zone support docs </topics/i18n/timezones>`.
Save these changes and start a new Python interactive shell by running
``python manage.py shell`` again::
- >>> from polls.models import Poll, Choice
+ >>> from polls.models import Question, Choice
# Make sure our __unicode__() addition worked.
- >>> Poll.objects.all()
- [<Poll: What's up?>]
+ >>> Question.objects.all()
+ [<Question: What's up?>]
# Django provides a rich database lookup API that's entirely driven by
# keyword arguments.
- >>> Poll.objects.filter(id=1)
- [<Poll: What's up?>]
- >>> Poll.objects.filter(question__startswith='What')
- [<Poll: What's up?>]
+ >>> Question.objects.filter(id=1)
+ [<Question: What's up?>]
+ >>> Question.objects.filter(question_text__startswith='What')
+ [<Question: What's up?>]
- # Get the poll that was published this year.
+ # Get the question that was published this year.
>>> from django.utils import timezone
>>> current_year = timezone.now().year
- >>> Poll.objects.get(pub_date__year=current_year)
- <Poll: What's up?>
+ >>> Question.objects.get(pub_date__year=current_year)
+ <Question: What's up?>
# Request an ID that doesn't exist, this will raise an exception.
- >>> Poll.objects.get(id=2)
+ >>> Question.objects.get(id=2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
- DoesNotExist: Poll matching query does not exist. Lookup parameters were {'id': 2}
+ DoesNotExist: Question matching query does not exist. Lookup parameters were {'id': 2}
# Lookup by a primary key is the most common case, so Django provides a
# shortcut for primary-key exact lookups.
- # The following is identical to Poll.objects.get(id=1).
- >>> Poll.objects.get(pk=1)
- <Poll: What's up?>
+ # The following is identical to Question.objects.get(id=1).
+ >>> Question.objects.get(pk=1)
+ <Question: What's up?>
# Make sure our custom method worked.
- >>> p = Poll.objects.get(pk=1)
- >>> p.was_published_recently()
+ >>> q = Question.objects.get(pk=1)
+ >>> q.was_published_recently()
True
- # Give the Poll a couple of Choices. The create call constructs a new
+ # Give the Question a couple of Choices. The create call constructs a new
# Choice object, does the INSERT statement, adds the choice to the set
# of available choices and returns the new Choice object. Django creates
# a set to hold the "other side" of a ForeignKey relation
- # (e.g. a poll's choices) which can be accessed via the API.
- >>> p = Poll.objects.get(pk=1)
+ # (e.g. a question's choice) which can be accessed via the API.
+ >>> q = Question.objects.get(pk=1)
# Display any choices from the related object set -- none so far.
- >>> p.choice_set.all()
+ >>> q.choice_set.all()
[]
# Create three choices.
- >>> p.choice_set.create(choice_text='Not much', votes=0)
+ >>> q.choice_set.create(choice_text='Not much', votes=0)
<Choice: Not much>
- >>> p.choice_set.create(choice_text='The sky', votes=0)
+ >>> q.choice_set.create(choice_text='The sky', votes=0)
<Choice: The sky>
- >>> c = p.choice_set.create(choice_text='Just hacking again', votes=0)
+ >>> c = q.choice_set.create(choice_text='Just hacking again', votes=0)
- # Choice objects have API access to their related Poll objects.
- >>> c.poll
- <Poll: What's up?>
+ # Choice objects have API access to their related Question objects.
+ >>> c.question
+ <Question: What's up?>
- # And vice versa: Poll objects get access to Choice objects.
- >>> p.choice_set.all()
+ # And vice versa: Question objects get access to Choice objects.
+ >>> q.choice_set.all()
[<Choice: Not much>, <Choice: The sky>, <Choice: Just hacking again>]
- >>> p.choice_set.count()
+ >>> q.choice_set.count()
3
# The API automatically follows relationships as far as you need.
# Use double underscores to separate relationships.
# This works as many levels deep as you want; there's no limit.
- # Find all Choices for any poll whose pub_date is in this year
+ # Find all Choices for any question whose pub_date is in this year
# (reusing the 'current_year' variable we created above).
- >>> Choice.objects.filter(poll__pub_date__year=current_year)
+ >>> Choice.objects.filter(question__pub_date__year=current_year)
[<Choice: Not much>, <Choice: The sky>, <Choice: Just hacking again>]
# Let's delete one of the choices. Use delete() for that.
- >>> c = p.choice_set.filter(choice_text__startswith='Just hacking')
+ >>> c = q.choice_set.filter(choice_text__startswith='Just hacking')
>>> c.delete()
For more information on model relations, see :doc:`Accessing related objects
View
124 docs/intro/tutorial02.txt
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@ tutorial, remember? If you didn't create one or forgot the password you can
You should see the Django admin index page:
-.. image:: _images/admin02t.png
+.. image:: _images/admin02.png
:alt: Django admin index page
You should see a few types of editable content: groups and users. They are
@@ -77,39 +77,39 @@ Make the poll app modifiable in the admin
But where's our poll app? It's not displayed on the admin index page.
-Just one thing to do: we need to tell the admin that ``Poll``
+Just one thing to do: we need to tell the admin that ``Question``
objects have an admin interface. To do this, open the :file:`polls/admin.py`
file, and edit it to look like this::
from django.contrib import admin
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
- admin.site.register(Poll)
+ admin.site.register(Question)
Explore the free admin functionality
====================================
-Now that we've registered ``Poll``, Django knows that it should be displayed on
+Now that we've registered ``Question``, Django knows that it should be displayed on
the admin index page:
.. image:: _images/admin03t.png
:alt: Django admin index page, now with polls displayed
-Click "Polls." Now you're at the "change list" page for polls. This page
-displays all the polls in the database and lets you choose one to change it.
-There's the "What's up?" poll we created in the first tutorial:
+Click "Questions". Now you're at the "change list" page for questions. This page
+displays all the question in the database and lets you choose one to change it.
+There's the "What's up?" question we created in the first tutorial:
.. image:: _images/admin04t.png
:alt: Polls change list page
-Click the "What's up?" poll to edit it:
+Click the "What's up?" question to edit it:
.. image:: _images/admin05t.png
- :alt: Editing form for poll object
+ :alt: Editing form for question object
Things to note here:
-* The form is automatically generated from the ``Poll`` model.
+* The form is automatically generated from the ``Question`` model.
* The different model field types (:class:`~django.db.models.DateTimeField`,
:class:`~django.db.models.CharField`) correspond to the appropriate HTML
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@ The bottom part of the page gives you a couple of options:
* Delete -- Displays a delete confirmation page.
If the value of "Date published" doesn't match the time when you created the
-poll in Tutorial 1, it probably means you forgot to set the correct value for
+question in Tutorial 1, it probably means you forgot to set the correct value for
the :setting:`TIME_ZONE` setting. Change it, reload the page and check that
the correct value appears.
@@ -144,27 +144,28 @@ You'll see a page listing all changes made to this object via the Django admin,
with the timestamp and username of the person who made the change:
.. image:: _images/admin06t.png
- :alt: History page for poll object
+ :alt: History page for question object
Customize the admin form
========================
Take a few minutes to marvel at all the code you didn't have to write. By
-registering the Poll model with ``admin.site.register(Poll)``, Django was able
-to construct a default form representation. Often, you'll want to customize how
-the admin form looks and works. You'll do this by telling Django the options
-you want when you register the object.
+registering the ``Question`` model with ``admin.site.register(Question)``,
+Django was able to construct a default form representation. Often, you'll want
+to customize how the admin form looks and works. You'll do this by telling
+Django the options you want when you register the object.
Let's see how this works by re-ordering the fields on the edit form. Replace
-the ``admin.site.register(Poll)`` line with::
+the ``admin.site.register(Question)`` line with::
from django.contrib import admin
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
- class PollAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
- fields = ['pub_date', 'question']
- admin.site.register(Poll, PollAdmin)
+ class QuestionAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+ fields = ['pub_date', 'question_text']
+
+ admin.site.register(Question, QuestionAdmin)
You'll follow this pattern -- create a model admin object, then pass it as the
second argument to ``admin.site.register()`` -- any time you need to change the
@@ -183,15 +184,16 @@ And speaking of forms with dozens of fields, you might want to split the form
up into fieldsets::
from django.contrib import admin
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
+
- class PollAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+ class QuestionAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
fieldsets = [
- (None, {'fields': ['question']}),
+ (None, {'fields': ['question_text']}),
('Date information', {'fields': ['pub_date']}),
]
- admin.site.register(Poll, PollAdmin)
+ admin.site.register(Question, QuestionAdmin)
The first element of each tuple in ``fieldsets`` is the title of the fieldset.
Here's what our form looks like now:
@@ -205,11 +207,12 @@ This is useful when you have a long form that contains a number of fields that
aren't commonly used::
from django.contrib import admin
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
+
- class PollAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+ class QuestionAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
fieldsets = [
- (None, {'fields': ['question']}),
+ (None, {'fields': ['question_text']}),
('Date information', {'fields': ['pub_date'], 'classes': ['collapse']}),
]
@@ -219,13 +222,13 @@ aren't commonly used::
Adding related objects
======================
-OK, we have our Poll admin page. But a ``Poll`` has multiple ``Choices``, and
+OK, we have our Question admin page. But a ``Question`` has multiple ``Choices``, and
the admin page doesn't display choices.
Yet.
There are two ways to solve this problem. The first is to register ``Choice``
-with the admin just as we did with ``Poll``. That's easy::
+with the admin just as we did with ``Question``. That's easy::
from django.contrib import admin
from polls.models import Choice
@@ -238,48 +241,51 @@ looks like this:
.. image:: _images/admin10.png
:alt: Choice admin page
-In that form, the "Poll" field is a select box containing every poll in the
+In that form, the "Question" field is a select box containing every question in the
database. Django knows that a :class:`~django.db.models.ForeignKey` should be
-represented in the admin as a ``<select>`` box. In our case, only one poll
+represented in the admin as a ``<select>`` box. In our case, only one question
exists at this point.
-Also note the "Add Another" link next to "Poll." Every object with a
+Also note the "Add Another" link next to "Question." Every object with a
``ForeignKey`` relationship to another gets this for free. When you click "Add
-Another," you'll get a popup window with the "Add poll" form. If you add a poll
-in that window and click "Save," Django will save the poll to the database and
+Another," you'll get a popup window with the "Add question" form. If you add a question
+in that window and click "Save," Django will save the question to the database and
dynamically add it as the selected choice on the "Add choice" form you're
looking at.
But, really, this is an inefficient way of adding ``Choice`` objects to the system.
It'd be better if you could add a bunch of Choices directly when you create the
-``Poll`` object. Let's make that happen.
+``Question`` object. Let's make that happen.
-Remove the ``register()`` call for the ``Choice`` model. Then, edit the ``Poll``
+Remove the ``register()`` call for the ``Choice`` model. Then, edit the ``Question``
registration code to read::
from django.contrib import admin
- from polls.models import Choice, Poll
+ from polls.models import Choice, Question
+
class ChoiceInline(admin.StackedInline):
model = Choice
extra = 3
- class PollAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+
+ class QuestionAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
fieldsets = [
- (None, {'fields': ['question']}),
- ('Date information', {'fields': ['pub_date'], 'classes': ['collapse']}),
+ (None, {'fields': ['question_text']}),
+ ('Date information', {'fields': ['pub_date'],
+ 'classes': ['collapse']}),
]
inlines = [ChoiceInline]
- admin.site.register(Poll, PollAdmin)
+ admin.site.register(Question, QuestionAdmin)
-This tells Django: "``Choice`` objects are edited on the ``Poll`` admin page. By
+This tells Django: "``Choice`` objects are edited on the ``Question`` admin page. By
default, provide enough fields for 3 choices."
-Load the "Add poll" page to see how that looks:
+Load the "Add question" page to see how that looks:
.. image:: _images/admin11t.png
- :alt: Add poll page now has choices on it
+ :alt: Add question page now has choices on it
It works like this: There are three slots for related Choices -- as specified
by ``extra`` -- and each time you come back to the "Change" page for an
@@ -305,7 +311,7 @@ With that ``TabularInline`` (instead of ``StackedInline``), the
related objects are displayed in a more compact, table-based format:
.. image:: _images/admin12t.png
- :alt: Add poll page now has more compact choices
+ :alt: Add question page now has more compact choices
Note that there is an extra "Delete?" column that allows removing rows added
using the "Add Another Choice" button and rows that have already been saved.
@@ -313,8 +319,8 @@ using the "Add Another Choice" button and rows that have already been saved.
Customize the admin change list
===============================
-Now that the Poll admin page is looking good, let's make some tweaks to the
-"change list" page -- the one that displays all the polls in the system.
+Now that the Question admin page is looking good, let's make some tweaks to the
+"change list" page -- the one that displays all the questions in the system.
Here's what it looks like at this point:
@@ -326,18 +332,18 @@ more helpful if we could display individual fields. To do that, use the
``list_display`` admin option, which is a tuple of field names to display, as
columns, on the change list page for the object::
- class PollAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+ class QuestionAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
# ...
- list_display = ('question', 'pub_date')
+ list_display = ('question_text', 'pub_date')
Just for good measure, let's also include the ``was_published_recently`` custom
method from Tutorial 1::
- class PollAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+ class QuestionAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
# ...
- list_display = ('question', 'pub_date', 'was_published_recently')
+ list_display = ('question_text', 'pub_date', 'was_published_recently')
-Now the poll change list page looks like this:
+Now the question change list page looks like this:
.. image:: _images/admin13t.png
:alt: Polls change list page, updated
@@ -352,7 +358,7 @@ representation of the output.
You can improve that by giving that method (in :file:`polls/models.py`) a few
attributes, as follows::
- class Poll(models.Model):
+ class Question(models.Model):
# ...
def was_published_recently(self):
return self.pub_date >= timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(days=1)
@@ -360,8 +366,8 @@ attributes, as follows::
was_published_recently.boolean = True
was_published_recently.short_description = 'Published recently?'
-Edit your :file:`polls/admin.py` file again and add an improvement to the Poll
-change list page: Filters. Add the following line to ``PollAdmin``::
+Edit your :file:`polls/admin.py` file again and add an improvement to the Question
+change list page: Filters. Add the following line to ``QuestionAdmin``::
list_filter = ['pub_date']
@@ -378,10 +384,10 @@ knows to give appropriate filter options: "Any date," "Today," "Past 7 days,"
This is shaping up well. Let's add some search capability::
- search_fields = ['question']
+ search_fields = ['question_text']
That adds a search box at the top of the change list. When somebody enters
-search terms, Django will search the ``question`` field. You can use as many
+search terms, Django will search the ``question_text`` field. You can use as many
fields as you'd like -- although because it uses a ``LIKE`` query behind the
scenes, keep it reasonable, to keep your database happy.
View
127 docs/intro/tutorial03.txt
@@ -29,15 +29,15 @@ application, you might have the following views:
In our poll application, we'll have the following four views:
-* Poll "index" page -- displays the latest few polls.
+* Question "index" page -- displays the latest few questions.
-* Poll "detail" page -- displays a poll question, with no results but
+* Question "detail" page -- displays a question text, with no results but
with a form to vote.
-* Poll "results" page -- displays results for a particular poll.
+* Question "results" page -- displays results for a particular question.
* Vote action -- handles voting for a particular choice in a particular
- poll.
+ question.
In Django, web pages and other content are delivered by views. Each view is
represented by a simple Python function (or method, in the case of class-based
@@ -66,8 +66,9 @@ and put the following Python code in it::
from django.http import HttpResponse
+
def index(request):
- return HttpResponse("Hello, world. You're at the poll index.")
+ return HttpResponse("Hello, world. You're at the polls index.")
This is the simplest view possible in Django. To call the view, we need to map
it to a URL - and for this we need a URLconf.
@@ -109,7 +110,7 @@ with::
You have now wired an ``index`` view into the URLconf. Go to
http://localhost:8000/polls/ in your browser, and you should see the text
-"*Hello, world. You're at the poll index.*", which you defined in the
+"*Hello, world. You're at the polls index.*", which you defined in the
``index`` view.
The :func:`~django.conf.urls.url` function is passed four arguments, two
@@ -173,14 +174,15 @@ Writing more views
Now let's add a few more views to ``polls/views.py``. These views are
slightly different, because they take an argument::
- def detail(request, poll_id):
- return HttpResponse("You're looking at poll %s." % poll_id)
+ def detail(request, question_id):
+ return HttpResponse("You're looking at question %s." % question_id)
- def results(request, poll_id):
- return HttpResponse("You're looking at the results of poll %s." % poll_id)
+ def results(request, question_id):
+ response = "You're looking at the results of question %s."
+ return HttpResponse(response % question_id)
- def vote(request, poll_id):
- return HttpResponse("You're voting on poll %s." % poll_id)
+ def vote(request, question_id):
+ return HttpResponse("You're voting on question %s." % question_id)
Wire these new views into the ``polls.urls`` module by adding the following
:func:`~django.conf.urls.url` calls::
@@ -193,11 +195,11 @@ Wire these new views into the ``polls.urls`` module by adding the following
# ex: /polls/
url(r'^$', views.index, name='index'),
# ex: /polls/5/
- url(r'^(?P<poll_id>\d+)/$', views.detail, name='detail'),
+ url(r'^(?P<question_id>\d+)/$', views.detail, name='detail'),
# ex: /polls/5/results/
- url(r'^(?P<poll_id>\d+)/results/$', views.results, name='results'),
+ url(r'^(?P<question_id>\d+)/results/$', views.results, name='results'),
# ex: /polls/5/vote/
- url(r'^(?P<poll_id>\d+)/vote/$', views.vote, name='vote'),
+ url(r'^(?P<question_id>\d+)/vote/$', views.vote, name='vote'),
)
Take a look in your browser, at "/polls/34/". It'll run the ``detail()``
@@ -229,14 +231,14 @@ Here's what happens if a user goes to "/polls/34/" in this system:
* Then, Django will strip off the matching text (``"polls/"``) and send the
remaining text -- ``"34/"`` -- to the 'polls.urls' URLconf for
- further processing which matches ``r'^(?P<poll_id>\d+)/$'`` resulting in a
+ further processing which matches ``r'^(?P<question_id>\d+)/$'`` resulting in a
call to the ``detail()`` view like so::
- detail(request=<HttpRequest object>, poll_id='34')
+ detail(request=<HttpRequest object>, question_id='34')
-The ``poll_id='34'`` part comes from ``(?P<poll_id>\d+)``. Using parentheses
+The ``question_id='34'`` part comes from ``(?P<question_id>\d+)``. Using parentheses
around a pattern "captures" the text matched by that pattern and sends it as an
-argument to the view function; ``?P<poll_id>`` defines the name that will
+argument to the view function; ``?P<question_id>`` defines the name that will
be used to identify the matched pattern; and ``\d+`` is a regular expression to
match a sequence of digits (i.e., a number).
@@ -271,11 +273,12 @@ commas, according to publication date::
from django.http import HttpResponse
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
+
def index(request):
- latest_poll_list = Poll.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
- output = ', '.join([p.question for p in latest_poll_list])
+ latest_question_list = Question.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
+ output = ', '.join([p.question_text for p in latest_question_list])
return HttpResponse(output)
There's a problem here, though: the page's design is hard-coded in the view. If
@@ -326,10 +329,10 @@ Put the following code in that template:
.. code-block:: html+django
- {% if latest_poll_list %}
+ {% if latest_question_list %}
<ul>
- {% for poll in latest_poll_list %}
- <li><a href="/polls/{{ poll.id }}/">{{ poll.question }}</a></li>
+ {% for question in latest_question_list %}
+ <li><a href="/polls/{{ question.id }}/">{{ question.question_text }}</a></li>
{% endfor %}
</ul>
{% else %}
@@ -341,13 +344,14 @@ Now let's update our ``index`` view in ``polls/views.py`` to use the template::
from django.http import HttpResponse
from django.template import RequestContext, loader
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
+
def index(request):
- latest_poll_list = Poll.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
+ latest_question_list = Question.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
template = loader.get_template('polls/index.html')
context = RequestContext(request, {
- 'latest_poll_list': latest_poll_list,
+ 'latest_question_list': latest_question_list,
})
return HttpResponse(template.render(context))
@@ -356,8 +360,8 @@ context. The context is a dictionary mapping template variable names to Python
objects.
Load the page by pointing your browser at "/polls/", and you should see a
-bulleted-list containing the "What's up" poll from Tutorial 1. The link points
-to the poll's detail page.
+bulleted-list containing the "What's up" question from Tutorial 1. The link points
+to the question's detail page.
A shortcut: :func:`~django.shortcuts.render`
--------------------------------------------
@@ -369,11 +373,12 @@ rewritten::
from django.shortcuts import render
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
+
def index(request):
- latest_poll_list = Poll.objects.all().order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
- context = {'latest_poll_list': latest_poll_list}
+ latest_question_list = Question.objects.all().order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
+ context = {'latest_question_list': latest_question_list}
return render(request, 'polls/index.html', context)
Note that once we've done this in all these views, we no longer need to import
@@ -389,29 +394,29 @@ object of the given template rendered with the given context.
Raising a 404 error
===================
-Now, let's tackle the poll detail view -- the page that displays the question
+Now, let's tackle the question detail view -- the page that displays the question text
for a given poll. Here's the view::
from django.http import Http404
from django.shortcuts import render
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
# ...
- def detail(request, poll_id):
+ def detail(request, question_id):
try:
- poll = Poll.objects.get(pk=poll_id)
- except Poll.DoesNotExist:
+ question = Question.objects.get(pk=question_id)
+ except Question.DoesNotExist:
raise Http404
- return render(request, 'polls/detail.html', {'poll': poll})
+ return render(request, 'polls/detail.html', {'question': question})
The new concept here: The view raises the :exc:`~django.http.Http404` exception
-if a poll with the requested ID doesn't exist.
+if a question with the requested ID doesn't exist.
We'll discuss what you could put in that ``polls/detail.html`` template a bit
later, but if you'd like to quickly get the above example working, a file
containing just::
- {{ poll }}
+ {{ question }}
will get you started for now.
@@ -424,11 +429,11 @@ provides a shortcut. Here's the ``detail()`` view, rewritten::
from django.shortcuts import render, get_object_or_404
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
# ...
- def detail(request, poll_id):
- poll = get_object_or_404(Poll, pk=poll_id)
- return render(request, 'polls/detail.html', {'poll': poll})
+ def detail(request, question_id):
+ question = get_object_or_404(Question, pk=question_id)
+ return render(request, 'polls/detail.html', {'question': question})
The :func:`~django.shortcuts.get_object_or_404` function takes a Django model
as its first argument and an arbitrary number of keyword arguments, which it
@@ -458,27 +463,27 @@ Use the template system
=======================
Back to the ``detail()`` view for our poll application. Given the context
-variable ``poll``, here's what the ``polls/detail.html`` template might look
+variable ``question``, here's what the ``polls/detail.html`` template might look
like:
.. code-block:: html+django
- <h1>{{ poll.question }}</h1>
+ <h1>{{ question.question_text }}</h1>
<ul>
- {% for choice in poll.choice_set.all %}
+ {% for choice in question.choice_set.all %}
<li>{{ choice.choice_text }}</li>
{% endfor %}
</ul>
The template system uses dot-lookup syntax to access variable attributes. In
-the example of ``{{ poll.question }}``, first Django does a dictionary lookup
-on the object ``poll``. Failing that, it tries an attribute lookup -- which
+the example of ``{{ question.question_text }}``, first Django does a dictionary lookup
+on the object ``question``. Failing that, it tries an attribute lookup -- which
works, in this case. If attribute lookup had failed, it would've tried a
list-index lookup.
Method-calling happens in the :ttag:`{% for %}<for>` loop:
-``poll.choice_set.all`` is interpreted as the Python code
-``poll.choice_set.all()``, which returns an iterable of ``Choice`` objects and is
+``question.choice_set.all`` is interpreted as the Python code
+``question.choice_set.all()``, which returns an iterable of ``Choice`` objects and is
suitable for use in the :ttag:`{% for %}<for>` tag.
See the :doc:`template guide </topics/templates>` for more about templates.
@@ -486,12 +491,12 @@ See the :doc:`template guide </topics/templates>` for more about templates.
Removing hardcoded URLs in templates
====================================
-Remember, when we wrote the link to a poll in the ``polls/index.html``
+Remember, when we wrote the link to a question in the ``polls/index.html``
template, the link was partially hardcoded like this:
.. code-block:: html+django
- <li><a href="/polls/{{ poll.id }}/">{{ poll.question }}</a></li>
+ <li><a href="/polls/{{ question.id }}/">{{ question.question_text }}</a></li>
The problem with this hardcoded, tightly-coupled approach is that it becomes
challenging to change URLs on projects with a lot of templates. However, since
@@ -501,12 +506,12 @@ defined in your url configurations by using the ``{% url %}`` template tag:
.. code-block:: html+django
- <li><a href="{% url 'detail' poll.id %}">{{ poll.question }}</a></li>
+ <li><a href="{% url 'detail' question.id %}">{{ question.question_text }}</a></li>
.. note::
- If ``{% url 'detail' poll.id %}`` (with quotes) doesn't work, but
- ``{% url detail poll.id %}`` (without quotes) does, that means you're
+ If ``{% url 'detail' question.id %}`` (with quotes) doesn't work, but
+ ``{% url detail question.id %}`` (without quotes) does, that means you're
using a version of Django < 1.5. In this case, add the following
declaration at the top of your template:
@@ -520,7 +525,7 @@ defined below::
...
# the 'name' value as called by the {% url %} template tag
- url(r'^(?P<poll_id>\d+)/$', views.detail, name='detail'),
+ url(r'^(?P<question_id>\d+)/$', views.detail, name='detail'),
...
If you want to change the URL of the polls detail view to something else,
@@ -529,7 +534,7 @@ template (or templates) you would change it in ``polls/urls.py``::
...
# added the word 'specifics'
- url(r'^specifics/(?P<poll_id>\d+)/$', views.detail, name='detail'),
+ url(r'^specifics/(?P<question_id>\d+)/$', views.detail, name='detail'),
...
Namespacing URL names
@@ -560,13 +565,13 @@ Now change your ``polls/index.html`` template from:
.. code-block:: html+django
- <li><a href="{% url 'detail' poll.id %}">{{ poll.question }}</a></li>
+ <li><a href="{% url 'detail' question.id %}">{{ question.question_text }}</a></li>
to point at the namespaced detail view:
.. code-block:: html+django
- <li><a href="{% url 'polls:detail' poll.id %}">{{ poll.question }}</a></li>
+ <li><a href="{% url 'polls:detail' question.id %}">{{ question.question_text }}</a></li>
When you're comfortable with writing views, read :doc:`part 4 of this tutorial
</intro/tutorial04>` to learn about simple form processing and generic views.
View
77 docs/intro/tutorial04.txt
@@ -14,13 +14,13 @@ tutorial, so that the template contains an HTML ``<form>`` element:
.. code-block:: html+django
- <h1>{{ poll.question }}</h1>
+ <h1>{{ question.question_text }}</h1>
{% if error_message %}<p><strong>{{ error_message }}</strong></p>{% endif %}
- <form action="{% url 'polls:vote' poll.id %}" method="post">
+ <form action="{% url 'polls:vote' question.id %}" method="post">
{% csrf_token %}
- {% for choice in poll.choice_set.all %}
+ {% for choice in question.choice_set.all %}
<input type="radio" name="choice" id="choice{{ forloop.counter }}" value="{{ choice.id }}" />
<label for="choice{{ forloop.counter }}">{{ choice.choice_text }}</label><br />
{% endfor %}
@@ -29,13 +29,13 @@ tutorial, so that the template contains an HTML ``<form>`` element:
A quick rundown:
-* The above template displays a radio button for each poll choice. The
- ``value`` of each radio button is the associated poll choice's ID. The
+* The above template displays a radio button for each question choice. The
+ ``value`` of each radio button is the associated question choice's ID. The
``name`` of each radio button is ``"choice"``. That means, when somebody
selects one of the radio buttons and submits the form, it'll send the
POST data ``choice=3``. This is the basic concept of HTML forms.
-* We set the form's ``action`` to ``{% url 'polls:vote' poll.id %}``, and we
+* We set the form's ``action`` to ``{% url 'polls:vote' question.id %}``, and we
set ``method="post"``. Using ``method="post"`` (as opposed to
``method="get"``) is very important, because the act of submitting this
form will alter data server-side. Whenever you create a form that alters
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ Now, let's create a Django view that handles the submitted data and does
something with it. Remember, in :doc:`Tutorial 3 </intro/tutorial03>`, we
created a URLconf for the polls application that includes this line::
- url(r'^(?P<poll_id>\d+)/vote/$', views.vote, name='vote'),
+ url(r'^(?P<question_id>\d+)/vote/$', views.vote, name='vote'),
We also created a dummy implementation of the ``vote()`` function. Let's
create a real version. Add the following to ``polls/views.py``::
@@ -64,16 +64,16 @@ create a real version. Add the following to ``polls/views.py``::
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404, render
from django.http import HttpResponseRedirect, HttpResponse
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
- from polls.models import Choice, Poll
+ from polls.models import Choice, Question
# ...
- def vote(request, poll_id):
- p = get_object_or_404(Poll, pk=poll_id)
+ def vote(request, question_id):
+ p = get_object_or_404(Question, pk=question_id)
try:
selected_choice = p.choice_set.get(pk=request.POST['choice'])
except (KeyError, Choice.DoesNotExist):
- # Redisplay the poll voting form.
+ # Redisplay the question voting form.
return render(request, 'polls/detail.html', {
- 'poll': p,
+ 'question': p,
'error_message': "You didn't select a choice.",
})
else:
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@ This code includes a few things we haven't covered yet in this tutorial:
* ``request.POST['choice']`` will raise :exc:`~exceptions.KeyError` if
``choice`` wasn't provided in POST data. The above code checks for
- :exc:`~exceptions.KeyError` and redisplays the poll form with an error
+ :exc:`~exceptions.KeyError` and redisplays the question form with an error
message if ``choice`` isn't given.
* After incrementing the choice count, the code returns an
@@ -133,14 +133,15 @@ As mentioned in Tutorial 3, ``request`` is a :class:`~django.http.HttpRequest`
object. For more on :class:`~django.http.HttpRequest` objects, see the
:doc:`request and response documentation </ref/request-response>`.
-After somebody votes in a poll, the ``vote()`` view redirects to the results
-page for the poll. Let's write that view::
+After somebody votes in a question, the ``vote()`` view redirects to the results
+page for the question. Let's write that view::
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404, render
- def results(request, poll_id):
- poll = get_object_or_404(Poll, pk=poll_id)
- return render(request, 'polls/results.html', {'poll': poll})
+
+ def results(request, question_id):
+ question = get_object_or_404(Question, pk=question_id)
+ return render(request, 'polls/results.html', {'question': question})
This is almost exactly the same as the ``detail()`` view from :doc:`Tutorial 3
</intro/tutorial03>`. The only difference is the template name. We'll fix this
@@ -150,17 +151,17 @@ Now, create a ``polls/results.html`` template:
.. code-block:: html+django
- <h1>{{ poll.question }}</h1>
+ <h1>{{ question.question_text }}</h1>
<ul>
- {% for choice in poll.choice_set.all %}
+ {% for choice in question.choice_set.all %}
<li>{{ choice.choice_text }} -- {{ choice.votes }} vote{{ choice.votes|pluralize }}</li>
{% endfor %}
</ul>
- <a href="{% url 'polls:detail' poll.id %}">Vote again?</a>
+ <a href="{% url 'polls:detail' question.id %}">Vote again?</a>
-Now, go to ``/polls/1/`` in your browser and vote in the poll. You should see a
+Now, go to ``/polls/1/`` in your browser and vote in the question. You should see a
results page that gets updated each time you vote. If you submit the form
without having chosen a choice, you should see the error message.
@@ -214,7 +215,7 @@ First, open the ``polls/urls.py`` URLconf and change it like so::
url(r'^$', views.IndexView.as_view(), name='index'),
url(r'^(?P<pk>\d+)/$', views.DetailView.as_view(), name='detail'),
url(r'^(?P<pk>\d+)/results/$', views.ResultsView.as_view(), name='results'),
- url(r'^(?P<poll_id>\d+)/vote/$', views.vote, name='vote'),
+ url(r'^(?P<question_id>\d+)/vote/$', views.vote, name='vote'),
)
Amend views
@@ -229,27 +230,29 @@ views and use Django's generic views instead. To do so, open the
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
from django.views import generic
- from polls.models import Choice, Poll
+ from polls.models import Choice, Question
+
class IndexView(generic.ListView):
template_name = 'polls/index.html'
- context_object_name = 'latest_poll_list'
+ context_object_name = 'latest_question_list'
def get_queryset(self):
- """Return the last five published polls."""
- return Poll.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
+ """Return the last five published questions."""
+ return Question.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
class DetailView(generic.DetailView):
- model = Poll
+ model = Question
template_name = 'polls/detail.html'
class ResultsView(generic.DetailView):
- model = Poll
+ model = Question
template_name = 'polls/results.html'
- def vote(request, poll_id):
+
+ def vote(request, question_id):
....
We're using two generic views here:
@@ -263,12 +266,12 @@ two views abstract the concepts of "display a list of objects" and
* The :class:`~django.views.generic.detail.DetailView` generic view
expects the primary key value captured from the URL to be called
- ``"pk"``, so we've changed ``poll_id`` to ``pk`` for the generic
+ ``"pk"``, so we've changed ``question_id`` to ``pk`` for the generic
views.
By default, the :class:`~django.views.generic.detail.DetailView` generic
view uses a template called ``<app name>/<model name>_detail.html``.
-In our case, it'll use the template ``"polls/poll_detail.html"``. The
+In our case, it'll use the template ``"polls/question_detail.html"``. The
``template_name`` attribute is used to tell Django to use a specific
template name instead of the autogenerated default template name. We
also specify the ``template_name`` for the ``results`` list view --
@@ -283,13 +286,13 @@ name>_list.html``; we use ``template_name`` to tell
``"polls/index.html"`` template.
In previous parts of the tutorial, the templates have been provided
-with a context that contains the ``poll`` and ``latest_poll_list``
-context variables. For ``DetailView`` the ``poll`` variable is provided
-automatically -- since we're using a Django model (``Poll``), Django
+with a context that contains the ``question`` and ``latest_question_list``
+context variables. For ``DetailView`` the ``question`` variable is provided
+automatically -- since we're using a Django model (``Question``), Django
is able to determine an appropriate name for the context variable.
However, for ListView, the automatically generated context variable is
-``poll_list``. To override this we provide the ``context_object_name``
-attribute, specifying that we want to use ``latest_poll_list`` instead.
+``question_list``. To override this we provide the ``context_object_name``
+attribute, specifying that we want to use ``latest_question_list`` instead.
As an alternative approach, you could change your templates to match
the new default context variables -- but it's a lot easier to just
tell Django to use the variable you want.
View
272 docs/intro/tutorial05.txt
@@ -130,22 +130,22 @@ We identify a bug
-----------------
Fortunately, there's a little bug in the ``polls`` application for us to fix
-right away: the ``Poll.was_published_recently()`` method returns ``True`` if
-the ``Poll`` was published within the last day (which is correct) but also if
-the ``Poll``’s ``pub_date`` field is in the future (which certainly isn't).
+right away: the ``Question.was_published_recently()`` method returns ``True`` if
+the ``Question`` was published within the last day (which is correct) but also if
+the ``Question``’s ``pub_date`` field is in the future (which certainly isn't).
-You can see this in the Admin; create a poll whose date lies in the future;
-you'll see that the ``Poll`` change list claims it was published recently.
+You can see this in the Admin; create a question whose date lies in the future;
+you'll see that the ``Question`` change list claims it was published recently.
You can also see this using the shell::
>>> import datetime
>>> from django.utils import timezone
- >>> from polls.models import Poll
- >>> # create a Poll instance with pub_date 30 days in the future
- >>> future_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30))
+ >>> from polls.models import Question
+ >>> # create a Question instance with pub_date 30 days in the future
+ >>> future_question = Question(pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30))
>>> # was it published recently?
- >>> future_poll.was_published_recently()
+ >>> future_question.was_published_recently()
True
Since things in the future are not 'recent', this is clearly wrong.
@@ -167,20 +167,21 @@ Put the following in the ``tests.py`` file in the ``polls`` application::
from django.utils import timezone
from django.test import TestCase
- from polls.models import Poll
+ from polls.models import Question
- class PollMethodTests(TestCase):
+ class QuestionMethodTests(TestCase):
- def test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll(self):
+ def test_was_published_recently_with_future_question(self):
"""
- was_published_recently() should return False for polls whose
+ was_published_recently() should return False for questions whose
pub_date is in the future
"""
- future_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30))
- self.assertEqual(future_poll.was_published_recently(), False)
+ time = timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30)
+ future_question = Question(pub_date=time)
+ self.assertEqual(future_question.was_published_recently(), False)
What we have done here is created a :class:`django.test.TestCase` subclass
-with a method that creates a ``Poll`` instance with a ``pub_date`` in the
+with a method that creates a ``Question`` instance with a ``pub_date`` in the
future. We then check the output of ``was_published_recently()`` - which
*ought* to be False.
@@ -196,11 +197,11 @@ and you'll see something like::
Creating test database for alias 'default'...
F
======================================================================
- FAIL: test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll (polls.tests.PollMethodTests)
+ FAIL: test_was_published_recently_with_future_question (polls.tests.QuestionMethodTests)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
- File "/path/to/mysite/polls/tests.py", line 16, in test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll
- self.assertEqual(future_poll.was_published_recently(), False)
+ File "/path/to/mysite/polls/tests.py", line 16, in test_was_published_recently_with_future_question
+ self.assertEqual(future_question.was_published_recently(), False)
AssertionError: True != False
----------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -219,7 +220,7 @@ What happened is this:
* it looked for test methods - ones whose names begin with ``test``
-* in ``test_was_published_recently_with_future_poll`` it created a ``Poll``
+* in ``test_was_published_recently_with_future_question`` it created a ``Question``
instance whose ``pub_date`` field is 30 days in the future
* ... and using the ``assertEqual()`` method, it discovered that its
@@ -232,14 +233,14 @@ occurred.
Fixing the bug
--------------
-We already know what the problem is: ``Poll.was_published_recently()`` should
+We already know what the problem is: ``Question.was_published_recently()`` should
return ``False`` if its ``pub_date`` is in the future. Amend the method in
``models.py``, so that it will only return ``True`` if the date is also in the
past::
def was_published_recently(self):
now = timezone.now()
- return now - datetime.timedelta(days=1) <= self.pub_date < now
+ return now - datetime.timedelta(days=1) <= self.pub_date < now
and run the test again::
@@ -269,24 +270,26 @@ introduced another.
Add two more test methods to the same class, to test the behavior of the method
more comprehensively::
- def test_was_published_recently_with_old_poll(self):
+ def test_was_published_recently_with_old_question(self):
"""
- was_published_recently() should return False for polls whose pub_date
- is older than 1 day
+ was_published_recently() should return False for questions whose
+ pub_date is older than 1 day
"""
- old_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(days=30))
- self.assertEqual(old_poll.was_published_recently(), False)
+ time = timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(days=30)
+ old_question = Question(pub_date=time)
+ self.assertEqual(old_question.was_published_recently(), False)
- def test_was_published_recently_with_recent_poll(self):
+ def test_was_published_recently_with_recent_question(self):
"""
- was_published_recently() should return True for polls whose pub_date
- is within the last day
+ was_published_recently() should return True for questions whose
+ pub_date is within the last day
"""
- recent_poll = Poll(pub_date=timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(hours=1))
- self.assertEqual(recent_poll.was_published_recently(), True)
+ time = timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(hours=1)
+ recent_question = Question(pub_date=time)
+ self.assertEqual(recent_question.was_published_recently(), True)
-And now we have three tests that confirm that ``Poll.was_published_recently()``
-returns sensible values for past, recent, and future polls.
+And now we have three tests that confirm that ``Question.was_published_recently()``
+returns sensible values for past, recent, and future questions.
Again, ``polls`` is a simple application, but however complex it grows in the
future and whatever other code it interacts with, we now have some guarantee
@@ -295,9 +298,9 @@ that the method we have written tests for will behave in expected ways.
Test a view
===========
-The polls application is fairly undiscriminating: it will publish any poll,
+The polls application is fairly undiscriminating: it will publish any question,
including ones whose ``pub_date`` field lies in the future. We should improve
-this. Setting a ``pub_date`` in the future should mean that the Poll is
+this. Setting a ``pub_date`` in the future should mean that the Question is
published at that moment, but invisible until then.
A test for a view
@@ -332,7 +335,7 @@ which will allow us to examine some additional attributes on responses such as
``response.context`` that otherwise wouldn't be available. Note that this
method *does not* setup a test database, so the following will be run against
the existing database and the output may differ slightly depending on what
-polls you already created.
+questions you already created.
Next we need to import the test client class (later in ``tests.py`` we will use
the :class:`django.test.TestCase` class, which comes with its own client, so
@@ -360,17 +363,17 @@ With that ready, we can ask the client to do some work for us::
>>> # note - you might get unexpected results if your ``TIME_ZONE``
>>> # in ``settings.py`` is not correct. If you need to change it,
>>> # you will also need to restart your shell session
- >>> from polls.models import Poll
+ >>> from polls.models import Question
>>> from django.utils import timezone
- >>> # create a Poll and save it
- >>> p = Poll(question="Who is your favorite Beatle?", pub_date=timezone.now())
- >>> p.save()
+ >>> # create a Question and save it
+ >>> q = Question(question_text="Who is your favorite Beatle?", pub_date=timezone.now())
+ >>> q.save()
>>> # check the response once again
>>> response = client.get('/polls/')
>>> response.content
'\n\n\n <ul>\n \n <li><a href="/polls/1/">Who is your favorite Beatle?</a></li>\n \n </ul>\n\n'
- >>> response.context['latest_poll_list']
- [<Poll: Who is your favorite Beatle?>]
+ >>> response.context['latest_question_list']
+ [<Question: Who is your favorite Beatle?>]
Improving our view
------------------
@@ -383,13 +386,13 @@ based on :class:`~django.views.generic.list.ListView`::
class IndexView(generic.ListView):
template_name = 'polls/index.html'
- context_object_name = 'latest_poll_list'
+ context_object_name = 'latest_question_list'
def get_queryset(self):
- """Return the last five published polls."""
- return Poll.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
+ """Return the last five published questions."""
+ return Question.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
-``response.context_data['latest_poll_list']`` extracts the data this view
+``response.context_data['latest_question_list']`` extracts the data this view
places into the context.
We need to amend the ``get_queryset`` method and change it so that it also
@@ -402,24 +405,24 @@ and then we must amend the ``get_queryset`` method like so::
def get_queryset(self):
"""
- Return the last five published polls (not including those set to be
+ Return the last five published questions (not including those set to be
published in the future).
"""
- return Poll.objects.filter(
+ return Question.objects.filter(
pub_date__lte=timezone.now()
).order_by('-pub_date')[:5]
-``Poll.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now())`` returns a queryset
-containing Polls whose ``pub_date`` is less than or equal to - that is, earlier
-than or equal to - ``timezone.now``.
+``Question.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now())`` returns a queryset
+containing ``Question``\s whose ``pub_date`` is less than or equal to - that
+is, earlier than or equal to - ``timezone.now``.
Testing our new view
--------------------
Now you can satisfy yourself that this behaves as expected by firing up the
-runserver, loading the site in your browser, creating ``Polls`` with dates in
-the past and future, and checking that only those that have been published are
-listed. You don't want to have to do that *every single time you make any
+runserver, loading the site in your browser, creating ``Questions`` with dates
+in the past and future, and checking that only those that have been published
+are listed. You don't want to have to do that *every single time you make any
change that might affect this* - so let's also create a test, based on our
shell session above.
@@ -427,91 +430,98 @@ Add the following to ``polls/tests.py``::
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
-and we'll create a factory method to create polls as well as a new test class::
+and we'll create a factory method to create questions as well as a new test
+class::
- def create_poll(question, days):
+ def create_question(question_text, days):
"""
- Creates a poll with the given `question` published the given number of
- `days` offset to now (negative for polls published in the past,
- positive for polls that have yet to be published).
+ Creates a question with the given `question_text` published the given
+ number of `days` offset to now (negative for questions published
+ in the past, positive for questions that have yet to be published).
"""
- return Poll.objects.create(question=question,
- pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=days))
+ time = timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=days)
+ return Question.objects.create(question_text=question_text,
+ pub_date=time)
- class PollViewTests(TestCase):
- def test_index_view_with_no_polls(self):
+
+ class QuestionViewTests(TestCase):
+ def test_index_view_with_no_questions(self):
"""
- If no polls exist, an appropriate message should be displayed.
+ If no questions exist, an appropriate message should be displayed.
"""
response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 200)
self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.")
- self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_poll_list'], [])
+ self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_question_list'], [])
- def test_index_view_with_a_past_poll(self):
+ def test_index_view_with_a_past_question(self):
"""
- Polls with a pub_date in the past should be displayed on the index page.
+ Questions with a pub_date in the past should be displayed on the
+ index page
"""
- create_poll(question="Past poll.", days=-30)
+ create_question(question_text="Past question.", days=-30)
response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
self.assertQuerysetEqual(
- response.context['latest_poll_list'],
- ['<Poll: Past poll.>']
+ response.context['latest_question_list'],
+ ['<Question: Past question.>']
)
- def test_index_view_with_a_future_poll(self):
+ def test_index_view_with_a_future_question(self):
"""
- Polls with a pub_date in the future should not be displayed on the
- index page.
+ Questions with a pub_date in the future should not be displayed on
+ the index page.
"""
- create_poll(question="Future poll.", days=30)
+ create_question(question_text="Future question.", days=30)
response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
- self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.", status_code=200)
- self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_poll_list'], [])
+ self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.",
+ status_code=200)
+ self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_question_list'], [])
- def test_index_view_with_future_poll_and_past_poll(self):
+ def test_index_view_with_future_question_and_past_question(self):
"""
- Even if both past and future polls exist, only past polls should be
- displayed.
+ Even if both past and future questions exist, only past questions
+ should be displayed.
"""
- create_poll(question="Past poll.", days=-30)
- create_poll(question="Future poll.", days=30)
+ create_question(question_text="Past question.", days=-30)
+ create_question(question_text="Future question.", days=30)
response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
self.assertQuerysetEqual(
- response.context['latest_poll_list'],
- ['<Poll: Past poll.>']
+ response.context['latest_question_list'],
+ ['<Question: Past question.>']
)
- def test_index_view_with_two_past_polls(self):
+ def test_index_view_with_two_past_questions(self):
"""
- The polls index page may display multiple polls.
+ The questions index page may display multiple questions.
"""
- create_poll(question="Past poll 1.", days=-30)
- create_poll(question="Past poll 2.", days=-5)
+ create_question(question_text="Past quesiton 1.", days=-30)
+ create_question(question_text="Past question 2.", days=-5)
response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
self.assertQuerysetEqual(
- response.context['latest_poll_list'],
- ['<Poll: Past poll 2.>', '<Poll: Past poll 1.>']
+ response.context['latest_question_list'],
+ ['<Question: Past question 2.>', '<Question: Past question 1.>']
)
+
Let's look at some of these more closely.
-First is a poll factory method, ``create_poll``, to take some repetition out
-of the process of creating polls.
+First is a question factory method, ``create_question``, to take some
+repetition out of the process of creating questions.
-``test_index_view_with_no_polls`` doesn't create any polls, but checks the
-message: "No polls are available." and verifies the ``latest_poll_list`` is
-empty. Note that the :class:`django.test.TestCase` class provides some
+``test_index_view_with_no_questions`` doesn't create any questions, but checks
+the message: "No polls are available." and verifies the ``latest_question_list``
+is empty. Note that the :class:`django.test.TestCase` class provides some
additional assertion methods. In these examples, we use
:meth:`~django.test.SimpleTestCase.assertContains()` and
:meth:`~django.test.TransactionTestCase.assertQuerysetEqual()`.
-In ``test_index_view_with_a_past_poll``, we create a poll and verify that it
+In ``test_index_view_with_a_past_question``, we create a question and verify that it
appears in the list.
-In ``test_index_view_with_a_future_poll``, we create a poll with a ``pub_date``
-in the future. The database is reset for each test method, so the first poll is
-no longer there, and so again the index shouldn't have any polls in it.
+In ``test_index_view_with_a_future_question``, we create a question with a
+``pub_date`` in the future. The database is reset for each test method, so the
+first question is no longer there, and so again the index shouldn't have any
+questions in it.
And so on. In effect, we are using the tests to tell a story of admin input
and user experience on the site, and checking that at every state and for every
@@ -520,41 +530,47 @@ new change in the state of the system, the expected results are published.
Testing the ``DetailView``
--------------------------
-What we have works well; however, even though future polls don't appear in the
-*index*, users can still reach them if they know or guess the right URL. So we
-need to add a similar constraint to ``DetailView``::
+What we have works well; however, even though future questions don't appear in
+the *index*, users can still reach them if they know or guess the right URL. So
+we need to add a similar constraint to ``DetailView``::
class DetailView(generic.DetailView):
...
def get_queryset(self):
"""
- Excludes any polls that aren't published yet.
+ Excludes any questions that aren't published yet.
"""
- return Poll.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now())
+ return Question.objects.filter(pub_date__lte=timezone.now())
-And of course, we will add some tests, to check that a ``Poll`` whose
+And of course, we will add some tests, to check that a ``Question`` whose
``pub_date`` is in the past can be displayed, and that one with a ``pub_date``
in the future is not::
- class PollIndexDetailTests(TestCase):
- def test_detail_view_with_a_future_poll(self):
+ class QuestionIndexDetailTests(TestCase):
+ def test_detail_view_with_a_future_question(self):
"""
- The detail view of a poll with a pub_date in the future should
+ The detail view of a question with a pub_date in the future should
return a 404 not found.
"""
- future_poll = create_poll(question='Future poll.', days=5)
- response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:detail', args=(future_poll.id,)))
+ future_question = create_question(question_text='Future question.',
+ days=5)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:detail',
+ args=(future_question.id,)))
self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 404)
- def test_detail_view_with_a_past_poll(self):
+ def test_detail_view_with_a_past_question(self):
"""
- The detail view of a poll with a pub_date in the past should display
- the poll's question.
+ The detail view of a question with a pub_date in the past should
+ display the question's text.
"""
- past_poll = create_poll(question='Past Poll.', days=-5)
- response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:detail', args=(past_poll.id,)))
- self.assertContains(response, past_poll.question, status_code=200)
+ past_question = create_question(question_text='Past Question.',
+ days=-5)
+ response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:detail',
+ args=(past_question.id,)))
+ self.assertContains(response, past_question.question_text,
+ status_code=200)
+
Ideas for more tests
--------------------
@@ -564,17 +580,17 @@ create a new test class for that view. It'll be very similar to what we have
just created; in fact there will be a lot of repetition.
We could also improve our application in other ways, adding tests along the
-way. For example, it's silly that ``Polls`` can be published on the site that
-have no ``Choices``. So, our views could check for this, and exclude such
-``Polls``. Our tests would create a ``Poll`` without ``Choices`` and then test
-that it's not published, as well as create a similar ``Poll`` *with*
-``Choices``, and test that it *is* published.
-
-Perhaps logged-in admin users should be allowed to see unpublished ``Polls``,
-but not ordinary visitors. Again: whatever needs to be added to the software to
-accomplish this should be accompanied by a test, whether you write the test
-first and then make the code pass the test, or work out the logic in your code
-first and then write a test to prove it.
+way. For example, it's silly that ``Questions`` can be published on the site
+that have no ``Choices``. So, our views could check for this, and exclude such
+``Questions``. Our tests would create a ``Question`` without ``Choices`` and
+then test that it's not published, as well as create a similar ``Question``
+*with* ``Choices``, and test that it *is* published.
+
+Perhaps logged-in admin users should be allowed to see unpublished
+``Questions``, but not ordinary visitors. Again: whatever needs to be added to
+the software to accomplish this should be accompanied by a test, whether you
+write the test first and then make the code pass the test, or work out the
+logic in your code first and then write a test to prove it.
At a certain point you are bound to look at your tests and wonder whether your
code is suffering from test bloat, which brings us to:
@@ -591,7 +607,7 @@ once and then forget about it. It will continue performing its useful function
as you continue to develop your program.
Sometimes tests will need to be updated. Suppose that we amend our views so that
-only ``Polls`` with ``Choices`` are published. In that case, many of our
+only ``Questions`` with ``Choices`` are published. In that case, many of our
existing tests will fail - *telling us exactly which tests need to be amended to
bring them up to date*, so to that extent tests help look after themselves.
View
2  docs/intro/tutorial06.txt
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ template tag from the ``staticfiles`` template library. The ``{% static %}``
template tag generates the absolute URL of the static file.
That's all you need to do for development. Reload
-``http://localhost:8000/polls/`` and you should see that the poll links are
+``http://localhost:8000/polls/`` and you should see that the question links are
green (Django style!) which means that your stylesheet was properly loaded.
Adding a background-image
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