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+.. _ref-contrib-comments-moderation:
+
+==========================
+Generic comment moderation
+==========================
+
+.. module:: django.contrib.comments.moderation
+ :synopsis: Support for automatic comment moderation.
+
+Django's bundled comments application is extremely useful on its own,
+but the amount of comment spam circulating on the Web today
+essentially makes it necessary to have some sort of automatic
+moderation system in place for any application which makes use of
+comments. To make this easier to handle in a consistent fashion,
+``django.contrib.comments.moderation`` (based on `comment_utils`_)
+provides a generic, extensible comment-moderation system which can
+be applied to any model or set of models which want to make use of
+Django's comment system.
+
+.. _`comment_utils`: http://code.google.com/p/django-comment-utils/
+
+Overview
+========
+
+The entire system is contained within ``django.contrib.comments.moderation``,
+and uses a two-step process to enable moderation for any given model:
+
+1. A subclass of :class:`CommentModerator`
+ is defined which specifies the moderation options the model wants to
+ enable.
+
+2. The model is registered with the moderation system, passing in the
+ model class and the class which specifies its moderation options.
+
+A simple example is the best illustration of this. Suppose we have the
+following model, which would represent entries in a weblog::
+
+ from django.db import models
+
+ class Entry(models.Model):
+ title = models.CharField(maxlength=250)
+ body = models.TextField()
+ pub_date = models.DateTimeField()
+ enable_comments = models.BooleanField()
+
+Now, suppose that we want the following steps to be applied whenever a
+new comment is posted on an ``Entry``:
+
+1. If the ``Entry``'s ``enable_comments`` field is ``False``, the
+ comment will simply be disallowed (i.e., immediately deleted).
+
+2. If the ``enable_comments`` field is ``True``, the comment will be
+ allowed to save.
+
+3. Once the comment is saved, an email should be sent to site staff
+ notifying them of the new comment.
+
+Accomplishing this is fairly straightforward and requires very little
+code::
+
+ from django.contrib.comments.moderation import CommentModerator, moderator
+
+ class EntryModerator(CommentModerator):
+ email_notification = True
+ enable_field = 'enable_comments'
+
+ moderator.register(Entry, EntryModerator)
+
+The :class:`CommentModerator` class pre-defines a number of useful moderation
+options which subclasses can enable or disable as desired, and ``moderator``
+knows how to work with them to determine whether to allow a comment, whether
+to moderate a comment which will be allowed to post, and whether to email
+notifications of new comments.
+
+Built-in moderation options
+---------------------------
+
+.. class:: CommentModerator
+
+ Most common comment-moderation needs can be handled by subclassing
+ :class:`CommentModerator` and
+ changing the values of pre-defined attributes; the full range of built-in
+ options is as follows.
+
+ .. attribute:: auto_close_field
+
+ If this is set to the name of a
+ :class:`~django.db.models.fields.DateField` or
+ :class:`~django.db.models.fields.DateTimeField` on the model for which
+ comments are being moderated, new comments for objects of that model
+ will be disallowed (immediately deleted) when a certain number of days
+ have passed after the date specified in that field. Must be
+ used in conjunction with :attr:`close_after`, which specifies the
+ number of days past which comments should be
+ disallowed. Default value is ``None``.
+
+ .. attribute:: auto_moderate_field
+
+ Like :attr:`auto_close_field`, but instead of outright deleting
+ new comments when the requisite number of days have elapsed,
+ it will simply set the ``is_public`` field of new comments to
+ ``False`` before saving them. Must be used in conjunction with
+ :attr:`moderate_after`, which specifies the number of days past
+ which comments should be moderated. Default value is ``None``.
+
+ .. attribute:: close_after
+
+ If :attr:`auto_close_field` is used, this must specify the number
+ of days past the value of the field specified by
+ :attr:`auto_close_field` after which new comments for an object
+ should be disallowed. Default value is ``None``.
+
+ .. attribute:: email_notification
+
+ If ``True``, any new comment on an object of this model which
+ survives moderation (i.e., is not deleted) will generate an
+ email to site staff. Default value is ``False``.
+
+ .. attribute:: enable_field
+
+ If this is set to the name of a
+ :class:`~django.db.models.fields.BooleanField` on the model
+ for which comments are being moderated, new comments on
+ objects of that model will be disallowed (immediately deleted)
+ whenever the value of that field is ``False`` on the object
+ the comment would be attached to. Default value is ``None``.
+
+ .. attribute:: moderate_after
+
+ If :attr:`auto_moderate_field` is used, this must specify the number
+ of days past the value of the field specified by
+ :attr:`auto_moderate_field` after which new comments for an object
+ should be marked non-public. Default value is ``None``.
+
+Simply subclassing :class:`CommentModerator` and changing the values of these
+options will automatically enable the various moderation methods for any
+models registered using the subclass.
+
+Adding custom moderation methods
+--------------------------------
+
+For situations where the built-in options listed above are not
+sufficient, subclasses of
+:class:`CommentModerator` can also
+override the methods which actually perform the moderation, and apply any
+logic they desire.
+:class:`CommentModerator` defines three
+methods which determine how moderation will take place; each method will be
+called by the moderation system and passed two arguments: ``comment``, which
+is the new comment being posted, and ``content_object``, which is the
+object the comment will be attached to:
+
+.. method:: CommentModerator.allow(comment, content_object)
+
+ Should return ``True`` if the comment should be allowed to
+ post on the content object, and ``False`` otherwise (in which
+ case the comment will be immediately deleted).
+
+.. method:: CommentModerator.email(comment, content_object)
+
+ If email notification of the new comment should be sent to
+ site staff or moderators, this method is responsible for
+ sending the email.
+
+.. method:: CommentModerator.moderate(comment, content_object)
+
+ Should return ``True`` if the comment should be moderated (in
+ which case its ``is_public`` field will be set to ``False``
+ before saving), and ``False`` otherwise (in which case the
+ ``is_public`` field will not be changed).
+
+
+Registering models for moderation
+---------------------------------
+
+The moderation system, represented by
+``django.contrib.comments.moderation.moderator`` is an instance of the class
+:class:`Moderator`, which allows registration and "unregistration" of models
+via two methods:
+
+.. function:: moderator.register(model_or_iterable, moderation_class)
+
+ Takes two arguments: the first should be either a model class
+ or list of model classes, and the second should be a subclass
+ of ``CommentModerator``, and register the model or models to
+ be moderated using the options defined in the
+ ``CommentModerator`` subclass. If any of the models are
+ already registered for moderation, the exception
+ :exc:`AlreadyModerated` will be raised.
+
+.. function:: moderator.unregister(model_or_iterable)
+
+ Takes one argument: a model class or list of model classes,
+ and removes the model or models from the set of models which
+ are being moderated. If any of the models are not currently
+ being moderated, the exception
+ :exc:`NotModerated` will be raised.
+
+
+Customizing the moderation system
+---------------------------------
+
+Most use cases will work easily with simple subclassing of
+:class:`CommentModerator` and registration with the provided
+:class:`Moderator` instance, but customization of global moderation behavior
+can be achieved by subclassing :class:`Moderator` and instead registering
+models with an instance of the subclass.
+
+.. class:: Moderator
+
+ In addition to the :meth:`Moderator.register` and
+ :meth:`Moderator.unregister` methods detailed above, the following methods
+ on :class:`Moderator` can be overridden to achieve customized behavior:
+
+ .. method:: connect
+
+ Determines how moderation is set up globally. The base
+ implementation in
+ :class:`Moderator` does this by
+ attaching listeners to the :data:`~django.db.models.signals.pre_save`
+ and :data:`~django.db.models.signals.post_save` signals from the
+ comment models.
+
+ .. method:: pre_save_moderation(sender, instance, **kwargs)
+
+ In the base implementation, applies all pre-save moderation
+ steps (such as determining whether the comment needs to be
+ deleted, or whether it needs to be marked as non-public or
+ generate an email).
+
+ .. method:: post_save_moderation(sender, instance, **kwargs)
+
+ In the base implementation, applies all post-save moderation
+ steps (currently this consists entirely of deleting comments
+ which were disallowed).
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