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Refs #2333 - Added more documentation for testing framework, and clar…

…ified some code as a result of trying to describe it.

git-svn-id: bcc190cf-cafb-0310-a4f2-bffc1f526a37
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1 parent d9883e1 commit fc2d5f461f398bf048e8b821142019ddba9a677d @freakboy3742 freakboy3742 committed Aug 31, 2006
Showing with 171 additions and 31 deletions.
  1. +2 −1 django/test/
  2. +0 −3 django/test/
  3. +22 −0 docs/django-admin.txt
  4. +12 −0 docs/settings.txt
  5. +135 −27 docs/testing.txt
@@ -61,7 +61,8 @@ def run_tests(module_list, verbosity=1, extra_tests=[]):
for test in extra_tests:
- old_name = create_test_db(verbosity)
+ old_name = settings.DATABASE_NAME
+ create_test_db(verbosity)
management.syncdb(verbosity, interactive=False)
destroy_test_db(old_name, verbosity)
@@ -50,14 +50,11 @@ def create_test_db(verbosity=1, autoclobber=False):
- old_database_name = settings.DATABASE_NAME
# Get a cursor (even though we don't need one yet). This has
# the side effect of initializing the test database.
cursor = connection.cursor()
- return old_database_name
def destroy_test_db(old_database_name, verbosity=1):
# Unless we're using SQLite, remove the test database to clean up after
@@ -345,6 +345,17 @@ setting the Python path for you.
Displays a help message that includes a terse list of all available actions and
+Inform django-admin that the user should NOT be prompted for any input. Useful if
+the django-admin script will be executed as an unattended, automated script.
+Disable the use of the auto-reloader when running the development server.
@@ -355,6 +366,17 @@ Example output::
0.9.1 (SVN)
+Example usage::
+ syncdb --verbosity=2
+Verbosity determines the amount of notification and debug information that
+will be printed to the console. '0' is no output, '1' is normal output,
+and `2` is verbose output.
Extra niceties
@@ -754,6 +754,18 @@ misspelled) variables. See `How invalid variables are handled`_.
.. _How invalid variables are handled:
+**New in Django development version**
+Default: ``'django.test.simple.run_tests'``
+The name of the method to use for starting the test suite. See
+`Testing Django Applications`_.
+.. _Testing Django Applications: ../testing/
@@ -4,13 +4,21 @@ Testing Django applications
**New in Django development version**.
-.. XXX insert quick introduction to testing (and why you'd want to do it)
+Automated testing is an extremely useful weapon in the bug-killing arsenal
+of the modern developer. When initially writing code, a test suite can be
+used to validate that code behaves as expected. When refactoring or
+modifying code, tests serve as a guide to ensure that behavior hasn't
+changed as a result of the refactor.
+Testing an web application is a complex task, as there are many
+components of a web application that must be validated and tested. To
+help you test your application, Django provides a test execution
+framework, and range of utilities that can be used to stimulate and
+inspect various facets of a web application.
-.. note::
This testing framework is currently under development, and may change
- slightly before the next official Django release.
+ slightly before the next official Django release.
(That's *no* excuse not to write tests, though!)
Writing tests
@@ -23,17 +31,20 @@ Writing doctests
Doctests use Python's standard doctest_ module, which searches for tests in
your docstrings. Django's test runner looks for doctests in your ````
-file, and executes any that it finds.
+file, and executes any that it finds. Django will also search for a file
+called ```` in the application directory (i.e., the directory that
+holds ````). If a ```` is found, it will also be searched
+for doctests.
.. admonition:: What's a **docstring**?
A good explanation of docstrings (and some guidlines for using them
effectively) can be found in :PEP:`257`:
- A docstring is a string literal that occurs as the first statement in
+ A docstring is a string literal that occurs as the first statement in
a module, function, class, or method definition. Such a docstring
becomes the ``__doc__`` special attribute of that object.
Since tests often make great documentation, doctest lets you put your
tests directly in your docstrings.
@@ -44,25 +55,25 @@ model-level doctests in the docstring for each model.
For example::
from django.db import model
class Animal(models.Model):
An animal that knows how to make noise
# Create some animals
>>> lion = Animal.objects.create(name="lion", sound="roar")
>>> cat = Animal.objects.create(name="cat", sound="meow")
# Make 'em speak
>>> lion.speak()
'The lion says "roar"'
>>> cat.speak()
'The cat says "meow"'
name = models.CharField(maxlength=20)
sound = models.CharField(maxlength=20)
def speak(self):
return 'The %s says "%s"' % (, self.sound)
@@ -80,24 +91,24 @@ Writing unittests
Like doctests, Django's unit tests use a standard library module: unittest_.
-Django's test runner looks for unit test cases in a ```` file in your
-app (i.e. in the same directory as your ```` file).
+As with doctests, Django's test runner looks for any unit test cases defined
+in ````, or in a ```` file in your application directory.
An equivalent unittest test case for the above example would look like::
import unittest
from myapp.models import Animal
class AnimalTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
self.lion = Animal.objects.create(name="lion", sound="roar") = Animal.objects.create(name="cat", sound="meow")
def testSpeaking(self):
self.assertEquals(self.lion.speak(), 'The lion says "roar"')
self.assertEquals(, 'The cat says "meow"')
When you `run your tests`_, the test utility will find all the test cases
(that is, subclasses of ``unittest.TestCase``) in ````, automatically
build a test suite out of those test cases, and run that suite.
@@ -119,7 +130,7 @@ system has different benefits, the best approach is probably to use both
together, picking the test system to match the type of tests you need to
-For developers new to testing, however, this choice can seem
+For developers new to testing, however, this choice can seem
confusing, so here are a few key differences to help you decide weather
doctests or unit tests are right for you.
@@ -136,28 +147,55 @@ get you started faster.
The ``unittest`` framework will probably feel very familiar to developers
coming from Java. Since ``unittest`` is inspired by Java's JUnit, if
you've used testing frameworks in other languages that similarly were
-inspired by JUnit, ``unittest`` should also feel pretty familiar.
+inspired by JUnit, ``unittest`` should also feel pretty familiar.
Since ``unittest`` is organized around classes and methods, if you need
to write a bunch of tests that all share similar code, you can easily use
-subclass to abstract common tasks; this makes test code shorter and cleaner.
+subclass to abstract common tasks; this makes test code shorter and cleaner.
There's also support for explicit setup and/or cleanup routines, which give
you a high level of control over the environment your test cases run in.
Again, remember that you can use both systems side-by-side (even in the same
app). In the end, most projects will eventually end up using both; each shines
in different circumstances.
+Testing utilities
+Test Client
+A dummy browser; instruments the template generation process...
+Feature still to come...
Running tests
Run your tests using your project's ```` utility::
$ ./ test
-You'll see a bunch of text flow by as the test database is created, models are
-initialized, and your tests are run. If everything goes well, at the end
-you'll see::
+If you only want to run tests for a particular application, add the
+application name to the command line. For example, if your
+``INSTALLED_APPS`` contains ``myproject.polls`` and ``myproject.animals``,
+but you only want to run the animals unit tests, run::
+ $ ./ test animals
+When you run your tests, you'll see a bunch of text flow by as the test
+database is created and models are initialized. This test database is
+created from scratch every time you run your tests. The test database
+gets its name by prepending ``test_`` to the database name specified by
+``settings.DATABASE_NAME``; all other database settings will the same as
+they would be for the project normally.
+Once the test database has been established, Django will run your tests.
+If everything goes well, at the end you'll see::
Ran 22 tests in 0.221s
@@ -189,4 +227,74 @@ failed::
Ran 2 tests in 0.048s
FAILED (failures=1)
+When the tests have all been executed, the test database is destroyed.
+Using a different testing framework
+Doctest and Unittest are not the only Python testing frameworks. While
+Django doesn't provide explicit support these alternative frameworks,
+it does provide a mechanism to allow you to invoke tests constructed for
+an alternative framework as if they were normal Django tests.
+When you run ``./ test``, Django looks at the ``TEST_RUNNER``
+setting to determine what to do. By default, ``TEST_RUNNER`` points to ``django.test.simple.run_tests``. This method defines the default Django
+testing behaviour. This behaviour involves:
+#. Creating the test database
+#. Running ``syncdb`` to install models and initial data into the test database
+#. Looking for Unit Tests and Doctests in ```` and ```` file for each installed application
+#. Running the Unit Tests and Doctests that are found
+#. Destroying the test database.
+If you define your own test runner method and point ``TEST_RUNNER``
+at that method, Django will execute your test runner whenever you run
+``./ test``. In this way, it is possible to use any test
+framework that can be executed from Python code.
+Defining a test runner
+By convention, a test runner should be called ``run_tests``; however, you
+can call it anything you want. The only requirement is that it accept two
+``run_tests(module_list, verbosity=1)``
+The module list is the list of Python modules that contain the models to be
+tested. This is the same format returned by ``django.db.models.get_apps()``
+Verbosity determines the amount of debug information that will be
+provided to the console; '0' is no output, '1' is normal output,
+and `2` is verbose output.
+Testing utilities
+To assist in the creation of your own test runner, Django provides
+a number of utility methods in the ``django.test.utils`` module.
+``create_test_db(verbosity=1, autoclobber=False)``:
+Creates a new test database, and run ``syncdb`` against it.
+``verbosity`` has the same behaviour as in the test runner.
+``Autoclobber`` describes the behavior that will occur if a database with
+the same name as the test database is discovered. If ``autoclobber`` is False,
+the user will be asked to approve destroying the existing database. ``sys.exit``
+is called if the user does not approve. If autoclobber is ``True``, the database
+will be destroyed without consulting the user.
+``create_test_db()`` has the side effect of modifying
+``settings.DATABASE_NAME`` to match the name of the test database.
+``destroy_test_db(old_database_name, verbosity=1)``:
+Destroys the database with the name ``settings.DATABASE_NAME`` matching,
+and restores the value of ``settings.DATABASE_NAME`` to the provided name.
+``verbosity`` has the same behaviour as in the test runner.

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