A minimal Python implementation of a Persona IdP
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This is a small implementation of a Mozilla Persona Identity Provider (IdP). It's designed to be secure and easy to deploy, relying on a host of standards in web development and cryptography to handle your identity.

WARNING: while I've tried to make persona-totp secure, I have not had substantial training in either security or cryptography. Be careful.


  • Tested on Python 2.7 (2.6 might work, too)
  • PyCrypto
  • HTML5 localStorage in your browsers
  • A TOTP (RFC 6238) implementation for identification
  • simplejson is used for JSON operations if available

PyCrypto is currently used for cryptographic primitives. This could be swapped out for other implementations (such as M2Crypto) by writing a few stubs.

localStorage should be supported in most fairly recent browsers. I tried it with cookies first, but unfortunately that doesn't work if you disable third-party cookies, which I usually do. An alternative implementation using IndexedDB would probably be a good idea.

The easiest way of using TOTP is installing the Google Authenticator application on your mobile device (click link for app store links).

How to install

  • Generate an RSA key pair:

    $ openssl genrsa -out private.pem 2048

    persona.py currently looks for it in its own directory, as private.pem.

  • Generate a secret to sign the (localStorage) cookie

    >>> base64.b16encode(os.urandom(20))
  • For each user on your domain, generate a secret to use with TOTP

    >>> base64.b32encode(os.urandom(10))
  • Save the secrets in a JSON file, like this:


    "cookie": "7C6E15B8CDB3941A9117825E492FE1C713411B12", "me": {

    "totp": "2Q53Z3XJI7MJKNR7"



    persona.py currently looks for it in its own directory, as secrets.json. "me" is the local part of an email address (i.e. me@example.com).

    You should also install the TOTP key in the TOTP client at this point. In Google Authenticator, use "Set up account", then "Enter provided key". Use your email address as the account name (though this isn't actually used) and the generated secret as your key.

  • Create a support document:

    $ python persona.py support > browserid

    Save it in the .well-known directory on your email domain. Serving it correctly isn't trivial, so find some tips online.

  • Run the application() callable from persona.py as a WSGI application and make sure the URLs in the support document point at it. Make sure to keep your secrets.json and private.pem private!

Further information

persona-totp was created by Dirkjan Ochtman. It is hosted at Github; please report any issues there (or better yet, send me a pull request!).


Changes in 0.4 (xxxx-xx-xx)

  • Prevent script includes from prefix{persona.org,anosrep.org}
  • Prevent XSS by escaping email address before adding it to the DOM

Thanks for rhy-jot and Gervase Markham for pointing out these problems.

Changes in 0.3 (2014-04-23)

  • Make sure we don't include script from a random host
  • Only allow certificate to be built from a currently valid session
  • Implement slow comparison method to defend against timing attacks

Thanks to rhy-jot for pointing out security problems fixed in this version.

Changes in 0.2 (2012-10-20)

  • Add a test suite
  • Refactor WSGI application, for less code repetition and easier testing
  • Improved handling of Unicode strings
  • Support HS256 algorithm for JWS
  • Slightly improved documentation